Home > Full text of "Moralia, in fifteen volumes, with an English translation by Frank Cole Babbitt"

Full text of "Moralia, in fifteen volumes, with an English translation by Frank Cole Babbitt"

M



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BT JAMSS LOKB, LL.D.
EDITID BT

E. H. WARMLXGTON. m^^ r.R.HiST^oc

PREVIOUS BDITOBS

, E. PAGE, O.K., LiTr.D. f E. CAPPS, phj)., lud.

t W. H. D. ROUSF:, LITT.D. L. A. POST, L.h.i>.



PLUTARCH'S
MORALIA

VIII



424



PLUTARCH'S

MOKALIA

IN SIXTEEN VOLUMES

VIII
612 b— 697 c

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

PAUL A. CLEMENT

UNIVBR8ITT or CALIFORNIA

HERBERT B. HOFFLEIT

UNIVKH8ITT OF OALIVOUfIA




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD

MCMLXIX



(g) The President and Fellows of Harvard College 1969




Printed in Oreat Britain



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VIII

PAO>

Prefatory Note . . . . , vii

The Traditional Order of the Books of the

MORALIA ix

Table-Talk : Books I-III

Introduction ...... 1

Text and Translation .... 4

Table-Talk : Books IV-VI

Introduction ...... 283

Text and Translation .... iiyo

Additional Note 516

Index ........ 517



PREFATORY NOTE

Books I-III of the Quaestiones Convivales are the work
of Paul A. Clement and Books IV- VI are the work of
Herbert B. Hoffleit. There is no joint responsibility.



vii



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of
the Moralia as they appear since the edition of
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes
in this edition.



rAOB

I. De liberis educandis (Ilcpt iraul^v dyctf/^) . 1a

Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat

(lYoii Set Tov viov notrjfidrtov aKOVttv) . . 17d

De recta ratione audiendi (llc/x tov ojcovtw) , S7b
Quomodo adulator ab aiinco intemoscatur

{llios av rt; hutxpivtu rov KoXaxa rou ^iXov) . 48k

Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus

(Ila); av Tis olaBoiTO iavroG itpoK&nruitrros cir*

opfT^) 75a

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (Ilcuff or m

VTT* €yBpwv <jj4>t\oXro) .... 86b

De amicoruin inultitudlne (Ilcpi voku^tXlas) . 9Sa
De fortuna (Ilcpt rvxrji) .... 97c

De virtute et vitio (Ilcpt d/xr^f iral icoiciaf) 100b

Consolatio ad ApoUonium (IIopofiv^Trur^ ir/xk

*A7roAAc6i'toi') . . . . . . lOlr

De tuenda sanitate praecepta (*T7Mwd va/>-

ayyO^iara) 129b

Coniugalia praecepta {TatuKO. napayyiXuarc) . 1S8a
Septem sapientium convivium (TcD�' iirra oo^oJ�

avfinoaiov) . . . . . . 146b

De superstitione (Ilcpt SfiaiBcufiovias) 164e

III. Regum et imperatonim apophthegmata (* Airo-

^^yfuxra ^aatXicav koX arparriywv) . . 172a

Apophthegmata Laconica ('Airo^^/xara Ao-

KtuviKo) ....... 908a

Instituta Laconica (TdfroAcud ruv XoKfSaifiovuAtv

f7TiTT)B€VfiaTa) ...... 236r

ix



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER



Lacaenarum apophthegmata {AaKaipu>v dno-
(f>9€yixaTa) ......

Mulieriim virtutes {TvvaiKwi> dperai)
IV. Quaestiones Romanae ( Ama 'Pco/LtcuK-a) .
Quaestiones Graecae (Aina 'EXXtjvikol) .
Parallela Graeca et Romana (Suvaywyr) iaro-
picjv rrapaXX-qXcov 'EiXXtjvikcov /cat 'Pojfia'CKCJv) .
De fortuna Romanorum (Ilepl ttjs 'PcofMatcjv

Tvxrjs)

De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute, li-
bri ii {Uepl Ti]s 'AAe^avSpoy rv^'^'i ■^ dpeTrjs,
XoyoL j3') •
Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses
{IloTipou ^Adqvaloi Kara ttoAc^ov v Kara ao(f)iav
evBo^OTepoi) ......

V. De I side et Osiride (ITept "ImSos /cat 'OaipiSo?).

De E apud Delphos (Ilepi toG EI tov ev AeA^cs)

De Pythiae oraculis (Ilcpt tov fi-q xpav l/i/xerpa

vvv Trjv YlvOiav) .....

De defectu oraculorum (Ilepi rtov iKXeXomoTcov
Xpr]GTT]pio)v) ......

VI. An virtus doceri possit (Et BibaKTov 17 dpeny) .
De virtute morali (Ilept rijs -qdiKrjs dpcTijs)
De cohibenda ira (Ilepi dopyrjaLas)
De tranquillitate animi {Uepl evdvpiias) .
De fraterno amore (Ilept ^tAaSeA^t'as)
De amore prolis (Ilepi t-^s eis to. cKyova ^iXo-
OTopyias) ......

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Ei
avrdpKTjs rj KaKia npos KaKohaipLOv lav) .
.nimine an corporis aifectiones sint peiores
{Yiorepov TO. rrjs ^vxijs t] rd rod acofxaTOS Trdd-q
Xeipova) .......

De garrulitate (Ilept dSoXcaxias) .
De curiositate (Ilept 7ToXv7Tpayp,oavv7]s) .
VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilept ^tAoTrAourta?) .
I De vitioso pudore (Ilepi SvacoTTias)

^' - - De invidia et odio (Ilept <f>d6i'ov koI fiiaovs)
I De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept roO

iavTOV eVatveiv dvcTTichOovcos)
De sera numinis vindicta (Ilept tcDv vtto tov
deiov ^paSecos TifMajpovficvajv)
X



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER

PAGE

De fato (Ilept elfiapfievrjs) .... 568b
De genio Socratis ( Ylepl rod "LcoKparovs Saifioviov) 575a
De exilio {Uepl <f)vyT]s) ..... o99a
Consolatio ad uxorem {napafivdTjriKos npos ttjv

yvvaiKa ) . . . . . . . 608a

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi {T-vfi-noaia-

Kwv TTpo^XT/jpLaTcov ^ifiXia s') • ■ • 612c

I, 612c; II, 629b; III, 644e; IV, 659f. ; V,

672d ; VI, 686a .....
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii CLvfiTToaia-

kCjv TTpo^XmiaTcov jSijSAta y') . . . 697c-

VII, 697c ; VIII, 716d ; IX. 736c
Amatorius CEpwriKos) .... 748e

X. Amatoriae narrationes {'KpojTiKoi Birjyqads) 77 1 e

Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis-

serendum (Ilepi tov 6ti pLoXiara lois "fiynioai

hf.1 TOV <f>iX6ao<f>ov 8iaX4Y€adai) . 776a

Ad principem ineruditum (FIpos ijyc/idi'a dnai-

SevTov) 779c

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Ei TTpta^vripiu

TToAiTcureov) ...... 783a

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae (IIoAtrtird

vapayyiXfiara) . . . . . 798a

De unius in republica dominatione, populari

.statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilept fiovapxias

Kol hrniOKpaTias kox oXiyapx^as) . . . 826a

De vitando aere alieno (Ilepi tov fiij bttv Sovei-

C€adai) 827d

Vitae decern oratorum (Ilept twv B^Ka pijTO-

pwv) ....... 832b

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com-
pendium (UtryKpiaicos * ApiaTcxfxivovs koI Mev-

dvSpov eViTo/117) ..... 853a

XI. De Herodoti malignitate (Ilepi rqs 'IlpoSorou

KaKo-qdfias) ...... 854e

♦De placitis philosophorum, libri v (Ilept rutv

dpiOKovTOiv Tols <f>iXoa6<f>ois, j3ij3Ato e') . . 874d

Quaestiones naturales (AtViat <^uai*cat) . . 911c

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilept tov

€fl<f>CUVOfl€VOV TrpoaCVTTOV TW KVkXo) TTJS otX-q-

vnrjs) . . . '. .* . 920a

* To be added to this edition later.

xi



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER

PAG

De primo frigido (Ilepi tov ttpcotojs ipvxpoO) 045i

Aquane an ignis sit utilior (Ile/Ji tov TTorepov

vhoip rj TTvp ;i^pT^CTi/xc6T€poj') .... 9o5d
Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint callidi-

ora (ndrepa tcov t,w<j)v (f>poi'ifjLWT€pa ra x^Pf^oXa

Tj TO. evvhpa) ...... 9o9a

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus (Ilept

TOV TO. aXoya Xoycp XPV^^�-'') • • ■ 98oD

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ilept aapKo<f>ayias

XoyoL^') 993a

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones (IIAaTwwica ^r^ny/xara). 999c
De animae procreatione in Timaeo (Ilepi Ti)s eV

TifjLaiw tlivxoyovias) . . . . .1012a

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in

Timaeo ('ETT-tTo/Lti) tov Trepi T-fjs iv tu> Tifiaiu)

tjivxoyovLas) ......

De Stoicorum repugnantiis(nepi "Ltcolkc^v evav-

TicofiaTiov) ......

Compendium argumenti Stoicos absurdiora

poetis dicere {Hvvotpcs tov 6tl TrapaSoforepa ol

STCOl/fOt TOJV TTOLTjTaJV AcyOUCTl)

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Ilept

Toiv KOCVWV €VVOLU)V TTpOS TOVS ^TCOlKOVs)

XIV. Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum

(*Oti ouSe l,7jv eoTLv lySeo)? /car' 'ETrtVoupov) .

Adversus Colotem (IIpos KcjXwT-qv imkp tcuv

dXXoiv <f)iXoa6(f)0)v) .....

An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum (Ei

KoXios etprjTaL to XdOe ^icoaas)
De musica (Ilepi p,ovoiKTJs) ....
XV. Fragments
XVI. General Index



xii



INTRODUCTION TO BOOKS I-III

The text for Books I-III is based on C. Hubert's
Teubner text of 1938. Notes to text and notes to
translation are in great part excerpted from Hubert's
critical apparatus and testimonia and, for Books I-II,
also from the commentary in H. Bolkestein's Adver-
saria critica et exegetica ad Pluiarchi Quaesiionum Con-
vivalium lihrum primum et secundum. In these works
there is information not to be found here ; conversely,
there is here matter not to be found there. The
archetype of all extant mss. of the Quaestiones Con-
vivales is Codex Vindobonensis Graecus 1 4^ (T) of the
10th or early 11th century, purchased in Constan-
tinople about 1562 (Hubert, Pluiarchi Moralia, IV,
pp. xi-xiv). I have worked with photostats of this
manuscript before me, and, where I have checked
Hubert's reports of its readings, I have generally
found them accurate. I have also had before me the
editions of Bernardakis (Teubner, 1892), Hutten
(Tubingen, 1798), and, more important, Wyttenbach
(Oxford, 1797). For emendations by other and older
scholars I have generally depended upon these
editors or upon Hubert or upon Bolkestein — to all
of whom my gratitude is due. Most that one may
wish to know either about Plutarch or about the
Quaestiones Convivales is now readily available in the
monograph printed by K. Ziegler as " Plutarchos "
VOL. VIII B 1



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie, xxi. 1 (1951),
cols. 636-962. To this work must be added, and not
alone for the De facie, Harold Cherniss's introduction
to that dialogue in Moralia, xii (LCL, 1957), pp. 2-33.

Paul A. Clement
University of California
Los Angeles



TABLE-TALK

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES)
BOOK I



(612) STMnOSIAKaN BIBAIA

BIBAION nPfiTONi

To " ixioreo) jjLvdjxova avjJLTTOTav," cS Soo-cjie
Seve/ctcuv, evioi TTpos rovs iTTLGrddfjLovs clprjaOai
XiyovoLVy ^opriKovs €7ti€ikco9 Kal dvaycoyovs iv
TO) TTLveiv ovras' ol yap iv Si/ccAta Acoptcts" cos
€OLK€ Tov €7TLGrad[jLov " fjLvdfjLova " TTpoorjyopevov.
D evLOL Se ttjv TrapOLfiLav olovrai tols Trapd ttotov
XeyofJidvoLS /cat TTparTOfievoLS dfxvrjarlav irrdyeiv
8l6 ttJv t€ X'qdrjv ol Trdrpioi Xoyoi Kal tov vdpOrjKa
Tcp deep ovyKadiepovGLV, ws rj fjLTjSevos Seov fjLvrjfjio-
V€V€LV Twv iv olvcx) TrXrjiJLfjieXrjdivTajv ^ rravreXcos

^ T begins : BijSAtov A • : • (line 1) UXovrdpxov avfjLTToaiaKcov
)3ij3Ata : €v TUi A (line 2), after which come the titles of the
ten essays which constitute Book I, arranged in tabular form
and each title numbered (lines 3-19). Line 20 is blank except
for a row of decorative sigla. Line 2 1 repeats the title of the
first essay : el Set ^iXoao^eiv vapa ttotov^ with A in the right
margin. Line 22 begins the preface To fiiaew fxvdfiova avfx-
TTorav, CO Sdaaie, the initial capital somewhat elaborated.

<� Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci^ Adespoton 141 ; Diehl,
Anthologia Lyrica Graeca^ ii (1942), p. 205. 6 ; H. Bolke-
stein. Adversaria Critica et Exegetica (Amsterdam, 1946), pp.
47-49, has a slightly different interpretation for emaradfios :
" magistratus cuiusdam esse appellationem conicio."

'' See below on 697 c (LCL Mor. ix, p. 4). His greatgrand-
daughter Sosia Flaconilla is known from two honorary inscrip-
tions, one from the Athenian Agora {Hesperia^ x [1941], pp.

4



NINE BOOKS OF TABLE-TALK
BOOK ONE

The saying '* I dislike a drinking-companion A\ith a
good memory " " some say, my dear Sossius Senecio,''
was meant by its author to refer to masters of cere-
monies who are rather tiresome men and wanting in
taste when the drinking is on. For it seems that the
Dorians in Sicily called a master of ceremonies
" remenibrancer." On the other hand, some think
that the proverb recommends amnesty for all that is
said and done during the drinking ; it is for this
reason that in our traditional legends forgetfulness •^
and the wand ** are together consecrated to the god,
the implication being that one should remember
either none of the improprieties committed over cups
or only those which call for an altogether light and

255-258, no. 61) and one from Cirta in Numidla (C.I.L. viii.
7066).

* For Mneia and Lethd in Bacchic Mysteries at Ephesus in
Hadrian's time see Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British
Museum, iii. 600. 28-29 {cf. Kroll, RE, s.v. " Lethe," col.
2142. 47-51).

" Cf. Mor. 462 b. The narthex (fennel-stalk) served the
Greeks for many purposes. Prometheus in its pithy stalk
brought fire to earth, schoolmasters used it for canes, doctors
for splints, and the religious and convivial for their ritual
wands or thyrsoi : RE, s.v., and Sir John Beazley, Am, Jour,
Arch, xxxvii (1933), pp. 400 ff. The " god " here is Dionysus.

5



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(612) iXa(f>pdg /cat TTaiSLKrjs vovdecrlas Seofjuevcov. inel
Se /cat crot So/cet rcov fjiev aroircov rj X'^dr) ro) ovtl
GO(f)r) /car' FiVpLTrlSrjv elvat, to S' oXcog dixvrjfjLoveZv
Tihv iv oLVcp jjurj fxovov tco ^iXoTTOLih Xeyofievo)
fidx^aOaL rrjs rpairilpris, dXXd /cat TCiiv ^LXoo6<f)(ji)v
Tovs iXXoyLfjuordrovs avriixaprvpovvras ^X^^^> 11 Aa-
Tcova /cat 'E€vocf)covTa /cat ^ApLGToreXr)^ /cat Sttcu-

GiTTTTOV ^FjTTLKOVpOV T€ KOL llpUTaVtV Kol 'lepCJVV

E fjLov /cat Atcova tov i^ ^AKaSrjfxias, co? d^iov twos
arrovSrjs TreTTOLrjfxevovs epyov dvaypdifjaadai Xoyovs
TTapd TTOTov yevofievovs, coijdrjs re Selv rjfJLds tCjv
UTTopdSrjv TToXXdKLS €V T€ *Pa)firj /xe^' VfJLcov /cat
Trap' rjp.LV iv ttj *EAAaSt Trapovarjs dp.a TpaTre^rjs
/cat kvXlkos ^iXoXoyiqOivTOJV avvayayelv to. cttl-
TT^Scta, Tvpog TOVTO y€v6pi€vos Tpia /xev 17817 crot
7r€7Top.<j)a Tcov pipXtajVy eKdoTOV Se/ca TrpojSATJftara

7T€pL€XOVT09, TTepujjCx) Sc /Cat TO, AotTTO- Ta)(€(x)S , CtV

TavTa So^rj p.r] rravTeXcos dpuovoa /XTyS' aTrpoo-Stdvucr'
cfvat.^

^ So T, which Bolkestein {Adv. Crit. p. 51) defends against
its copies and Hubert.

2 In T (folio 2 r, Hne 18) Trpwrov Se tto-vtcov reraKTai im-
mediately follows elvai. The style and location of the heading
here printed are an editorial convention which, with minor
variations, is of long standing.

� Orestes, 213.

^ Cato called the dining-table " highly friend-making " ;
so Plutarch, Life of Cato, xxv (351 f).

" The Symposium of Plato and that of Xenophon are pre-
served.

^ V. Rose, Aristotelis Fragmenta (Leipzig, 1886), pp. 97
ff., for the fragments of Aristotle's llvyiiToaiov rj irepl fiedrjs :
see also Sir David Ross, Select Fragments in The Works of
Aristotle Translated, xii (Oxford, 1952), pp. 8-15.

• Plato's successor as head of the Academy. His Sym-

6



TABLE-TALK I, 612

playful reproof. Since you too, Senecio, believe that
forgetfulness of folly is in truth " wise," as Euripides
says," yet to consign to utter obhvion all that occurs
at a drinking-party is not only opposed to what we
call the friend-making character of the dining-table,*
but also has the most famous of the philosophers to
bear ^\'itness against it, — Plato, Xenophon,*' Aris-
totle,** Speusippus,* Epicurus,^ Prytanis,^ Hierony-
mus,'^ and Dio of the Academy,* who all considered
the recording of conversations held at table a task
worth some effort, — and since, moreover, you thought
that I ought to collect such talk as suits our purpose
from among the learned discussions in which I have
often participated in various places both at Rome in
your company and among us in Greece, with table
and goblet before us, I have applied myself to the
task and now send you three of the books, each
containing ten questions which we have discussed,
and I mean to send you the rest very soon if these
seem to you not altogether lacking in charm nor yet
irrelevant to Dionysus.^

posium is known only from this passage ; cf. Lang, De Speu-
sippi Academici Scriptis (Bonn diss., 1911), pp. S4, 85.

' On the Symposium of Epicurus see Hirzel, Der Dialog ^ i,
p. 363. Usener, Epicurea^ pp. 115-119, gives the fragments
and testimonia.

� Peripatetic philosopher, bepfinning of third century b.c. :
cf. Athenaeus, xi, 477 e ; Hirzel, op. cit. i, p. 361 ; RE^ *.t>.,
no. 5.

* Also a Peripatetic philosopher of the beginning of the
third century b.c. : Diogrenes I^ertius, iv. 41 ; Hirzel, op.
cit. i, pp. 345, note 3, and 361 ; RE, s.v., no. 12, cols. 1561 ff.

* This Dio is quoted on the subject of wine and " beer '*
among the Egyptians in Athenaeus, i, 34 b ; RE^ �.v. " Dion,"
no. 14.

^ Cf. infra 615 a, 671 e ; Athenaeus, 494 b with Gulick's
note ; Pohlenz, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Osttingen, 1926, p. 302.

7



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(612) nPOBAHMA A

Et Set <l>i\oGO(f>€iv TTapa ttotov
CoUocuntur Aristo, Plutarchus, Crato, Sossius Senecio

1. UpojTOV 6e TrdvTOJV rlraKTai ro irepl rov
<J)lXogo(J)€lv TTapa ttotov. jxepLvrjaaL yap on,
^7]r'qo€a)g ^Adrjvqai fJLera SelTTVOv yevofxivqs et

F ')(p7]OTeov iv OLVCp ^i\oa6(f)ois XoyoLS kol rt fxerpov
can )(pajfJi€VOLS, ^Apiorcjv TTapcov, " elalv yap,"
€(f)riG€, " TTpos T(x)v decov ol (f)LXoo6<j)ois x^P^^ ^'"■'
OLVCp fjurj 8l86vt€9; "

JcLyco o ecTTOV, aAAa yap euoLV, oj eratpe, /cat
TTaw ye oefivihs KareipcvvevopievoL XeyovGi firj
Selv cjGTTep OLKoSeaTTOLvav iv otvco ^diyyeodai
613 (f)LXoGO(j)Lav , /cat rovs Hepaag opOcos <j)aoi (jlt] rat?
ya/xerats" dAAa rats TiaAAa/ctcrt crvfJLfjLedvoKeGdaL
/cat GWopx^LodaL' ravro 8r) /cat rapids d^toucrt
TTOielv els ra crupLTToaia rrjv p.ovaLKr)v /cat rrjv
VTTOKpiTiKTjv eTTeLodyovras (f)iXooo(f)iav Se pL7] /ct-
vovvraSy (hs ovre avpLTTait,€iv eKeivqv iTnrrjSeiov
ovaav ovd^ r)p.d9 rrjVLKavra GTTOvSaoTLKios e^ovras'
ovhe yap ^laoKpdrrj rov ao(j)LOTr]v VTrop^eXvai Seo-
pLevcov ctTTCtv TL TTap" OLVOV dAA' rj roaovTov ' iv
OLS /x€V iycj SeivoSy ovx o vvv /catpos" iv ots 8* 6
vvv Kaipos, ovK iycb Seivos.'

2. Kat o Kpdrojv dvaKpaywv, " cu y\" €ltt€v,

" Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 1; cf. Mor. 133 b.

'' This practice is attributed to Parthians by Macrobius,
Saturnalia, vii. 1. 3 ; however Bolkestein notes {Adv. Crit.
p. 53) that Macrobius is merely adapting Plutarch. In Hero-
dotus, V. 18, Persians claim the custom of dining with mis-
tresses and wives together.

8



TABLE-TALK I. 1, 612-613

QUESTION 1�

Whether philosophy is a fitting topic for conversation
at a drinking-party

Speakers : Ariston, Plutarch, Crato, and Sossius Senecio

1 . The question of philosophical talk over the cups I
have placed first of all, Senecio ; for surely you recall
that after a dinner at Athens, when the question
arose whether one should engage in philosophical
talk while drinking and what limit those who do so
should observe, Ariston, who was present, said :
" By the gods, are there really men who do not offer
philosophers a place at their parties ? "

And I replied, " Certainly there are, my friend,
and the pretext they very solemnly employ is that
philosophy should no more have a part in conversation
over wine than should the matron of the house. They
commend the Persians for doing their drinking and
dancing with their mistresses rather than with their
wives * ; this they think we ought to imitate by
introducing music and theatricals into our drinking-
parties, and not disturb philosophy. For they hold
that philosophy is not a suitable thing to make sport
with and that we are not on these occasions inclined
to seriousness. Indeed they claim that not even
Isocrates the sophist yielded to requests to speak at
a drinking-party, except only to say ; ' What I excel
in suits not the present occasion ; in what suits the
present occasion I do not excel.' "

2. Then Crato," raising his voice, " By Dionysus,"

� A relative of Plutarch {RE, s.v., col. 651. 26-43 [see below,
p. 48, note a], and col. 668. 55-68) ; though presumably a
physician (c/. 669 c), there is no reason to identify him with
the physician Crato of Gargettos whose tombstone is pre-
served {I.O. II*. 5395, end of second century a.d.). In the

VOL. VIII B* 9



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(613) (( \ \ \ f >> / ^ \ ' � '

T^ ^ '^^^ Atovucrov egcofxvuTo rov AoyoVy ei roiavras

€jLteAAe TTepaiveiv TrepcoSovs als €ijl€XX€V XaptVcuv

dvdorarov yeviadai GVfJLTTOGLOV. ovx ofjLOLOV S'

olfiai prjTopiKov e^aipelv gv/jlttooIov Xoyov /cat

(j)iX6oo(f>ov y aAA* erepov iun to Trjs^ <j)LXoao(f)Las ,

7]V T€-)(VriV 7T€pl ^LOV OVOaV OVT€ TLVOS TTaLSids OVT€

TLVos rjSovrjs Btayioyrjv ixovG7]s dTroGrarelv €lk6s
dXXd TTaoi Trapelvai to fieTpov /cat tov Kaipov iin-
(j)ipovoav' ri fxrjSe ocx)^poovv7]v ju,7y8e SiKaLocruvTjv
olcofjieda Selv els tov� ttotovs Sex^odai,, /carct-
pojvevofievoL to ae/jLvov avTCOv. et /xev ovv, (LoTrep
ol TOV ^OpeoTT^v eoTia)VT€s , iv 0ecr/xo^€T€ta) oiajTrfj
Tpcoyeuv /cat Trtveiv ipLeXXofxev, rjv rt tovto ttjs
C dfiadtas ovk dTv^^s TrapapLvdiov el 8e TrdvTCJV fiev
6 Alovvoos Avglos eoTL /cat Auatos", jLtaAtcrra 8c
TTJs yXcoTTYjs d<f)aipelTai ra ;)^aAtva /cat 7rXeLGT7]v
eXevdepiav ttj (ficovfj SlSojglv, dpeXTepov otfiaL /cat
dvoTjTOV ev XoyoLS TrXeovdl^ovTa Kaipov dTTOOTepelv
T(x)v dpLGTOJV XoycjVy /cat ^T^rctv fiev ev rats' Starpt-

jSatS" TTepl OVjJLTTOTlKCJV KadrjKOVTCOV /cat TLS dpeTTj

GVjJLTTOTOV /Cat TTCJS oLVCp ;)^p7ycrTeov, ef avTcDv 8e tojv
* rrjs added by Reiske; cf. Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 54.

conversation reported in Quaest. Conviv. ii. 6, Plutarch's
kinsman contributed to the talk on a problem of grafting.

*• Bolkestein, op. cit. pp. 53 f., and Bases, 'A^iyvd, xi (1889),
pp. 220 f. (which Bolkestein cites), understand " break up a
party of the Graces."

" Cf. Cicero, Acad. ii. 8. 23 with Reid's note ; O. Stahlin,
Clemens Alexandrinus, i, p. 171, on Paedagogus, ii. 25. 3;
P. Wendland, Quaestiones Musonianae (Berlin diss., 1866), p.
12 : a definition established among the early Stoics.

'' Cf. Mor. 643 a-b ; Athenaeus, x, 437 c-d. The legend of
Orestes' reception at Athens provided an aetiology for the
section of the Anthesteria called Choes (L. Deubner, Attische

10



TABLE-TALK L 1, 613

he said, " it's well he refused to speak if he meant to
finish off such periods as would cause the Graces to
abandon the company.* However, I think that ex-
cluding an orator's talk from a drinking-party is not
the same thing as excluding a philosopher's. No,
the nature of philosophy is different. It is the art of
hfe,^ and therefore it is not reasonably excluded from
any amusemjent or from any pleasure that diverts the
mind, but takes part in all, bringing to them the
qualities of proportion and fitness. Otherwise we
must consider it our duty to refuse even temperance
and justice admission to our drinking-parties, alleging
their solemnity as excuse. The matter comes to this :
if, like Orestes and his hosts, we were about to eat
and drink in silence at the Thesmotheteum,<= this
circumstance would be a rather happy remedy for
stupidity ; but if Dionysus is the Looser and the
Liberator of all things, and if especially he unbridles
the tongue and grants the utmost freedom to speech,
it is silly and foolish, I think, to deprive ourselves of
the best conversations at a time when talk abounds,
to debate in our schools about what is appropriate
for drinking-parties, what makes a good drinking-
companion, and how wine ought to be used, but to

Feste^ pp. 96 and 98 ; Jane E. Harrison, Prolegomena to the
Study of Greek Religion, p. 41). The Thesmotheteum was an
official building of the archons, or of the six specifically known
as thesmothetai (Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 3. 5). Form and loca-
tion of the building are uncertain. Pollux, iv. 122 (Hyperei-
des, frag. 139 Blass') does not explicitly equate arod with
Thesmotheteum, though scholars sometimes assume that he
does (K. Latte in RE, s.v. QeanoOfTtlov, col. 33. 18 ; Mar-
garet Crosby, Uesperia, vi [1937], p. 44.7). Against Judeich's
location on the northwest sloj)e of the Acropolis {Topographic
von Athen^, p. 303) see Miss Crosby's argument in Hesperia,
loc. cit.

11



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(613) avfJLTTOGLOJv avaLpelv ^iXooo^iav (Jj<s '^pyoj j^e^aLovv

3. Sou 8' eiTTovTos ovK d^LOV elvai KpdrcovL vepl
TOVTCov dvTiXiyeiVy opov Si riva /cat ')(apaKTrjpa
Tctjv TTapd TTOTOV (jiiXoao^ovixiviov ^r]r€LV iKcjyev-
yovra tovto St] to TratJojLtcvov ovk dyjSojg irpos
Tovs ipit^ovras /cat GotjyiaTLCJVTas

D vvv S' €p-)(€oB^ €771 SctTTVOV tva ^vvdyaj[jL€v "ApTja,

/cat TTapaKoXovvros "qpids iirl rov \6yov, €(f)r)v iych

TTpOJTOV OTt fJLOL 8oK€L GK€7TT€OV etvat TO TCOV

TTapovTOJV. " dv fjikv yap irXeiovas e^r) <jii\o\6yovs
TO oviXTTOGLOv, d)s TO ^ Ayddojvos TiOJKpdrag Oat-
8pov9 IlavcravLa? ^Fipv^ifJidxovs /cat to KaAAtou
Xa/9jLttSa? ^AvTiadevas 'KpiJLoyevag eTepovs tovtois
TrapaTTXrjGLovs, d(f)riaoixev avTOVs [(jlvOo)]^ (f>iXooo-
(f)€lv, ovx rJTTOv Tat? Moucrat? tov Alovvgov rj tols
^v[jb(f)aLS KepavvvvTas' €/c€tvat fxkv yap avTOV Totg
aaypLaaiv tXeoj /cat rrpdov, avTai Se Tat? ifruxous
E fieiXiXLOv ovTOJS /cat x^P''^^'^W i'^^iodyovai. /cat
yap dv oXiyoi TLvks tStcuTat TrapcjGLv, wanep
d^ojva ypajLtjLtaTa cf)OJvr]€VTOJV iv jxeacp ttoAAcDv tcjv
TTeTTaiSevfJievcov i[JL7T€pi,XaiJiPav6iJL€V0L <f)doyyT]s tlvos
ov TravTcXcos dvdpSpov /cat avveaecos KOLVcuvijaovGLV.
dv Se TrXrjdos fj tolovtcov dvOpconajv, ot rravTOS fi€V

^ fivdo) <f>i.Xoao(f)€Lv T ; fivdu) koL Xoyu) <f>. Hubert (Bolke-
stein approving, op. cit. pp. 55-56).

�� Iliad, ii. 381.

*• Tragic poet who, to celebrate his victory at the Lenaea in
February, 416 b.c, gave the dinner described in Plato's Sym-
posium.

" Wealthy Athenian who entertained the sophists in Plato's

12



TABLE-TALK L 1, 613

remove philosophy from the parties themselves, as
though it were unable to make good in practice what
it teaches in theory."

3. Then you, Senecio, said that, rather than argue
with Crato about this, it was worth while to make
some inquir}^ into the province and nature of philo-
sophical talk at parties in order that we might avoid
that pleasant jibe reserved for disputatious >^Tanglers

Now come ye in to dinner, battle must be joined.*

And when you invited us to discuss the matter, I
said that it seemed to me necessary to consider first
the character of the guests. " For if the majority of
the guests at a party are learned men, like Socrates,
Phaedrus, Pausanias, and Eryximachus at the dinner
of Agathon,** and Charmides, Antisthenes, Hermo-
genes, and others like them at the dinner of Callias,*'
we shall let them talk philosophy, blending Dionysus
not less with the Muses than with the Nymphs ; for,
while it is the Nymphs who introduce him as a kind
* and gentle god to our bodies, it is the Muses who
present him as one really gracious and a giver of joy
to our souls. ** In fact, if some few men viithout erudi-
tion are present, included in a large company of
learned men like mute consonants among sonant
vowels, they Mill take no wholly inarticulate part in
talk and ideas.* But if the company consists mainly of
the kind of men who pay more attention to the note of

Protagoras and the guests here mentioned at the party which
gave Xenophon the subject for his Symposium,

* In simpler terms: mix wine (Dionysus) with wit (the
Muses) as well as water (the Nymphs). Dionysus the Gra-
cious (Meilichios) reputedly gave the Naxians the fig : Athe-
naeus, 78 c ; Farnell, Cults of the Greek States^ v, p. 1 19.

• C/. ^for. 710 B ; Plato, Protagoras, 347 c, and Sj/m-
posium, 176 e.

18



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(613) opveov TTavTO'S Se vevpov /cat ^vXov /xaXXov rj
<J)lXou6^ov (j)OJvr]v VTTOixivovoiv y ro rov Yieiai-
orpdrov y^prioLfxov eKelvos ydp iv Sta^opa rivi
TTpos Tovg VLOV9 yevoixevos, cos TJcdero rovs ix^povs
Xalpovras, €KKXr]aiav ovvayaydjv €(j>r] povXeodai
fjLev avTOS Tretcrat rovs TralSas, iirel Se SvcTKoXajs

€XOVOLV, aVTOS €K€LVOLS 7T€iG€adaL Kal OLKoXoV-

F d-qo^LV. ovroj Sr] Kal <f>LX6(JO(f>og dvr]p iv avfJLTroraiS
fXT) hexopiivoLS rovs Xoyovg avrov pLeradep^evog
ei/jerat Kal dyanrjaeL rrjv e/cetVcuv hiarpi^riv, e^'
OGOV pLTj €K^aiv€i TO €ucr;^')7/xov, elhojs on piqro-
pevovGL /xev dvOpojiroL Sid Xoyov, ^iXooo(j)ovoi Se
/cat Gia)Tr(x)VT€s Kal Tratt^ovres Kal vrj Ata gkojttto-
[xevoL Kal GKcoTTTOvres. ov ydp pLovov ' aSt/ctas"
614 iaxdrr^s ioriv,' a)s (j)riOL YlXdrcov, ' pur) ovra
hiKaiov etvat So/cetv/ aAAa /cat ovvioecos aKpas
^iXoao(f)ovvra pir) So/cetv (J)lXooo<J)€Iv Kal irait.ovTa
SiaTTpdrreadaL rd tcDv aTTovSa^ovrcov . ws ydp at
77a/3* KvpLTTiSrj jLtatvaSe? dvoirXoi Kal daihiqpoi rols
OvpaapLOig Traiovoai rovs iTTiridepievovs rpavpLarl-
l,ovGLV, ovTOj rcov dXrjdivwv (f)LXou6(f)a>v Kal rd
GKcopLpLara Kal ol yeXcores rovs pfr] navreXajs
drpcorovs kivovglv dpLCDGyiircDS Kal GVveTriGrpe-

(jyOVGLV.

4. " OtjLtat Se /cat^ Sirjy'qGeajv etvat rt GvpvorLKOv
yevos, c5v rds ftev iGropia SlSojgl, rds 5' e/c rojv
B dvd X^^P^ TTpaypidrojv Aa/Setv ecrrt, TroAAa /xev ets"
^ Koi added by Reiske.

•* The same sort of story is told of Pisistratus and certain
14



TABLE-TALK L 1, 618-614

every bird, of every cithara-string and sounding-
board than to the voice of a philosopher, then it is
useful to recall the story and example of Pisistratus.
For when some quarrel arose between Pisistratus
and his sons, and he saw the pleasure it gave his
enemies, he summoned the assembly into session and
announced that, though he wished to persuade his
sons, since they were stubborn, he would be persuaded
by them and follow them.* In just such a manner a
philosopher too, when with drinking-companions who
are unwilling to listen to his homilies, will change his
role, fall in with their mood, and not object to their
activity so long as it does not transgress propriety.
For he knows that, while men practise oratory only
when they talk, they practise philosophy when they
are silent, when they jest, even, by Zeus, when they
are the butt of jokes and when they make fun of
others. Indeed, not only is it true that ' the worst
injustice is to seem just when one is not,' as Plato
says,^ but also the height of sagacity is to talk
philosophy without seeming to do so, and in jesting
to accomplish all that those in earnest could. Just as
the Maenads in Euripides," without shield and with-
out sword, strike their attackers and wound them
with their little thyrsoi, so true philosophers with their
jokes and laughter somehow arouse men who are not
altogether in\^lnerable and make them attentive.

4. " Then, too, there are, I think, topics of dis-
cussion that are particularly suitable for a drinking-
party. Some are supplied by history ; others it is 11
possible to take from current events ; some contain M

of his friends who had revolted against his rule and estab-
lished themselves in Phylfi: Mor. 189 b. Both are doubtless
apocryphal {RE^ s.v. "Peisistratos," col. 158).

" Republic, 361 A, freely quoted. � Bacchae, 734 flF.

15



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(614) (j)iXooo^iav Trapaheiy jxara ttoAAo, S' ctV evae^eiav
ixovaa^, dvSpiKcov t€ Trpd^ecov /cat fieyaXodv/jLcov
evias he ;^/D')7cttcov kol (j)LXavdpix)TTO)v t^rjXov inayov-
aas' als rjv ns dvvTTOTrrcDS xp^f^^^os SiaTTaLSayojyfj
Tovs TTLvovraSi ov rd iXaxLCFra rwv KaKCJv d<^at-
prioei rrjs p^edrjg.

01 fJLev ovv rd ^ovyXcoaoa KarapLiyvvvTes els
Tov olvov Koi TOLS dno^peyfJiaaL rcbv dpiore-
pecovwv^ /cat dSidyrcov rd ehd(f>r] palvovreg, W9
TOVTOJV TLvd Tols eaTicojJievoLS evdvpLLav /cat (J)l\o-
<j)poovvriv evSiSovTOjv, d7TO(JiL[JiovfievoL rrjv *0pL7]pi-
KTjv *KXevr]v viTO^apixdrrovoav rov aKparov, ov

C ovvopcjoiv OTL KaKelvos 6 fivdos eKTTepieXSdjv dir*
AlyvTTTOV puaKpdv ohov els Xoyovs eineiKeZs /cat
TTpeiTOvras ireXevrrjaev r) ydp ^EiXevrj ttlvovgiv
avTots SLTjyetraL irepl rod 'OSucrcrecDS', * olov epe^e
/cat erXrj Kaprepos dvqp, avrov fxiv TrXrjyfJGLv
deiKeXirjOL SafiaGoas '' tovto ydp rjv (Ls eoiKe to
* vqirevdes ' <j)dpfxaKov /cat avcuSuvov, Xoyos c^^cov
Kaipov dpiJiot^ovra rols vnoKeipLevoLS Trddeoi /cat
TTpdypiaoLV. ol Be ;^a/DtevTes", /cav aTr' evSeias
<f)iXoGO(f)(x)(jiv , TT^VLKavra Sta rod TriOavov fxaXXov iq
piaaTiKov Tcov aTToBei^eajv dyovai rov Xoyov. opas
ydp on /cat IIAaTCov ev rw Sv/XTrocto) Trepl reXovs

D BiaXeyofievos /cat rov TTpcIirov dyaOov /cat oXws

deoXoycjv ovk evreivei ttjv dirohei^iv ouS* vttoko-

^ apLGTefiecovcov {dpicrrepecov T) Bolkestein (Adv. Crit. p. 58 ;
cf. Chantraine, Rev. de Phil, xxii [1948], p. 97); irepiarfpeatviov
Junius.

* This property of alkanet and vervain is noted by the
medical writer Dioscorides Pedanius {De Materia Medica, iv.

16



TABLE-TALK I. 1, 614

many lessons bearing on philosophy, many on piety ;
some induce an emulous enthusiasm for courageous
and great-hearted deeds, and some for charitable and
humane deeds. If one makes unobtrusive use of
them to entertain and instruct his companions as
they drink, not the least of the evils of intemperance
will be taken away.

" Now those who mix alkanet in their \^ine and
sprinkle their floors with infusions of vervain and
maidenhair because, as they believe, these things to
some extent contribute to the cheerfulness and gaiety
of their guests," do so in imitation of Homer's Helen,
who secretly added a drug to the undiluted wine* ;
but they do not see that that legend too, having
fetched a long course from Egypt, has its end in the
telling of appropriate and suitable stories. For as
they drink, Helen tells her guests a tale about
Odysseus,

What deed he dared to do, that hero strong.
His body with unseemly stripes o'ercome."

This, I take it, was the * assuaging ' and pain-allaying
drug, a story with a timeliness appropriate to the
experiences and circumstances of the moment. Men
of breeding, then, even if they talk straightforward
philosophy, manage the conversation at such times
by the persuasiveness rather than the compulsion of
their arguments. Indeed, you see that Plato in his
Symposium, even when he talks about the final cause
and the primary good, — in short, when he discourses
upon divine matters, — does not labour his proof nor

60 and 127) and by his contemporary the elder Pliny {Nat.
Hist. XXV. 81 and 107).

* Odyssey, iv. 220.

<= Odyssey, iv. 242 and 244.

17



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(614) vUrat,, t7]v Xa^rjV ayoir^p elwdev evrovov ttolcov Kal
a<j)VKTOV, dAA' vyporepoLS XijfXfjLaGL Kal irapa-
Sety/xacrt /cat fivdoXoyiais TTpoadyeraL tovs dvSpas,
5. " Eilvai Se Set Kal avras rag t,7]r'qG€L? vypo-
ripas Kal yvcoptfjia ra irpo^XiqiJiaTa Kal ras Trevaeis
i7TL€iK€LS Kal /JLT) yXLoxpas , Iva fxr) irviywoi rovs
dvorjTorepovs ftT^S' drrorpiTTCooiv. uycnrep yap rd
GiOfJLara^ ttlvovtcjv St' opyrjoeajs Kal ^opetag V€v6-
pLiorai craXeveiv, dv S' 07rAojLta;^etv dvaGrdvras "q
8i(JK€V€LV dvayKa^ojfiev avrov?, ov fiovov drepires
E dAAa Kal ^Xa^epov ecrrat to orvfiTTOGLOv, ovtcj rdg
ipvxds at fxev iXa(f)pal ^T^rijaeLS c/x/xcAcD? /cat
cu^eAt/xcus" KivovoiVy * ipiSavrecov ' 8e Kara Aryjuo-
KpLTOv Kal ' IpLavreXiKTeajv ' Xoyovs dcfyerdov, ol av-
Tovs T€ Karareivovoiv ev Trpdypiaoi yXioxpois Kal
hvodeaiprjrois rovs re Traparvyxdvovras dviwaiv
Set yap d)s rov olvov kolvov etvai Kal rov Aoyov, ov
Trdvres fxeOe^ovGiv. ot Se rotavTa TTpo^Xruiara
Kadiivres ovSev dv rrjs KlocjTreiov yepdvov Kal
dXa)7T€Kos i7n€LK€GT€pOL TTpos KOLVCoviav <^avet€V
(Lv Tj jJLev ervos rt Xiirapov Kara XiOov rrXaretas
Karax^afjLevrj (rrjv yepavov elarlaaev, ovk evcjxov-

1 Meziriacus (c/. Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. pp. 59-60) ; avy,-
iToaia.

" The observation is copied by Macrobius, Saturnalia^ i.
1.3.
18



-



TABLE-TALK L 1, 614.

gird himself for a fight and get his customary tight
and unbreakable hold, but Mith simple and easy
premises, with examples, and with mythical legends
he brings the company into agreement \vith him �

5. " The matters of inquiry must be in themselves
rather simple and easy, the topics familiar, the
subjects for investigation suitably uncomplicated, so
that the less intellectual guests may neither be
stifled nor turned away. For just as the bodies of
men who are drinking are accustomed to sway in
time with pantomimic and choral dancing, but if we
compel them to get up and exercise in hea\y armour
or throw the discus, they will find the party not only
unpleasant but even harmful, just so their spirits are
harmoniously and profitably stirred by subjects of
inquiry that are easy to handle ; but one must banish
the talk of ' ^\Tanglers,' as Democritus calls them,*
and of ' phrase-twisting ' sophists, talk M^hich in-
volves them in strenuous argument about complex
and abstruse subjects and irritates those who happen
to be present. Indeed, just as the wine must be
common to all, so too the conversation must be one
in which all will share, and those who propose complex
and abstruse topics for discussion would manifestly
be no more fit for society than the crane and the fox
of Aesop.* The fox entertained the crane at dinner,
serving her a clear broth poured out upon a flat stone.
The crane not only went without her dinner, but in

* Diels and Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vor�okratiker^ ii*'
(1960), p. 172, frag. 150. On the trickster's game of i/tovr-
thyyLos-, literally " thong-twLsting," see Pollux, ix. 118.

' The fable is included in the Aesopic corpus on the testi-
mony of this passage ; it is also found in Phaedrus, i. 26 ; in
La Fontaine, i. 18 ; and in numerous Latin versions (see
AJ.P. Ixvi [1945], pp. 195 if.).

19



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(614) iiivq^v,^ aAAa yeXcora irdaxovGav,^ i^€(f)€vye yap
vyporrjTL to ervos rrjv XeTTTorrjTa rod arofiaro?
avrrjs' iv jLtepct roivvv r) yepavos avrrj Karay-

F yelXaaa SeliTVov iv XayvvlSi TrpovdrjKe Xenrov
ixovarj Kal fxaKpov rpd)(r]Xov, cocrr' avrrjv /xev
/ca^teVat to urofia paSlcos Kal dnoXaveiv, Tr)v 5*
dXa)7T€Ka pLT] 8vva[ji€V7]v Koiiit,€o6aL GVjJL^oXds TTpe-
TTOVcras. ovTio roivvv, orav ol (j)iX6ao(j)oi irapd
TTorov ets" AeTrra /cat StaAe/crt/ca Trpo^X-qfjuara
KaraSvvres ivoyXcjoi roZs ttoXXoIs encaOaL firj
615 SvvafievoLs, iKelvoi Se TvdXiv irr* (hSds rivas Kal
SLTjyqfjLara (fyXvapcoSr] Kal X6yov9 fiavavaovs Kal
dyopalovs ifJi^dXajcnv^ iavrovs, oLx^rat rrjs avfjirro-
TLKrjs KOLVOJvlas TO reXos Kal KadvppLcrTat 6
Aiovvdos. a)GTrep ovv, ^pvvLXOv Kal AlaxvXov ttjv
TpaycpSlav* els fivOovs Kal irddy] npoayovTcov,
iXex^r] TO ' rt Tavra TTpos tov Alovvgov; ' , ovtojs
epioiye iroXXdKis eiTretv TrapeaTrj irpos tovs eXKOVTas
els Tct ovpLTTOGia TOV }^vpL€vovTa ' (L dvdpojve, TL
TavTa TTpos TOV Alovvgov; ' aSeiv fiev yap Igcjs
rd KaXovfieva GKoXia, KpaTrjpos iv jxeGW irpo-

B KCLfJievov Kal GT€(/)dva)v SiavefiofJievcov, ovs 6 Oeos
(Ls iXevOepojv r^fxas iTnTidrjGiv, (evXoyov Xoyois

^ Karax^afxevT) . . . evojxovfievrjv Bolkestein, Mnemosyni^ iv
(1951), pp. 304-307, ovk eixoxoviievrjv from a glossator's note
in the margin of T ; see further A.J.P. Ixvi (1945), pp. 192-
196 : KaTaxeaixevrjv T, the final nu erased by a later hand.

2 The reading of T is defended by Bolkestein, he. cit. p.
307 ; TTap^xovaav Wyttenbach.

* Defended by Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 60 ; e/xjSaAAojaiv
Bernardakis. * So Stephanus : t^v before Opwixov.

20



TABLE-TALK L 1, 614-615

addition was made ridiculous because the broth, being
liquid, always slipped out of her bill, which was so
thin. In turn, then, the crane invited the fox and
served up the dinner in a jar with a long and narrow
neck ; into this she easily inserted her bill and
enjoyed the food, while the fox, unable to put his
mouth inside, got for himself the portion he deserved.
And so philosophers, whenever they plunge into
subtle and disputatious arguments at a drinking-
party, are always irksome to most of the guests,
who cannot follow ; and these in turn throw them-
selves into the singing of any kind of song, the
telling of foolish stories, and talk of shop and market-
place. Gone then is the aim and end of the good
fellowship of the party, and Dionysus is outraged.
Accordingly, just as people said when Phrynichus
and Aeschylus introduced old legends and tales of
suffering into tragedy, ' What has all this to do ^ith
Dionysus ? ',� just so it has often occurred to me to say
to those who drag * llie Master ' * into table-talk,
* Sir, what has this to do with Dionysus ? ' Indeed,
when the great bowl is placed in our midst and the
crowns are distributed which the god gives as token
of our freedom, I dare say it is a reasonable thing to
-sing those songs called scolia, but to engage in pedan-

� Cf. mpra, 619 e, with note^'; further, Pickard-Cam-
bridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy, and Comedy, pp. 117 and 166-
168 (=pp. 85 and 124-126 of the 2nd edition revised by
T. B. L. Webster). Phitarch's statement suggested to Grace
H. Macurdy, Class. Weekly, xxxvii (1943-44), pp. 239-240,
that Phrynichus was first to present women characters in
situations of terror.

*• A name given to a particular kind of syllogism (<•/. Mor.
1070 c and 133 c with Wyttenbach's note on the latter and
Babbitt's note 6, LCL Mor. ii, p. 270 ; Aulus Gellius, i. 2.
4 ; Epictetus, ii. 19).

21



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(615) Se yXiGXpois Trapa ttotov KexprjaOai GocfyioriKov
/LteV,)^ ov KaXov 8* ovSe gvplttotlkov .

ETTCt roL Koi ra, OKoXia cjyaoLV ov yevos
acTfidrcov elvau 7T€7Toir]^ivcx)v aaa^ios, aAA* on
TrpcoTOV fiev fjSov coSrjV rod deov kolvojs airavres
fiLa (fiojvfj 7Taiavil,ovr€s, Sevrepov S* i<f)€^rjs e/cacTTOJ
fivpacv-qg TrapaSLSofievrj?, rjv ataaKOv otfiai Sia
TO aSeLV TOP Se^dfievov eKaXovv, iirl 8e rovrw
Xvpas 7T€pi(j)€poixiv7]s 6 fiev TrenaLSevfievos iXafi-
j8ave Kal TySev dpfio^ofjievos, rcov S* djJLovacov ov
TTpooLefjLevojv oKoXiov (hvofjidadr] to {jltj kolvov av-
rov fiTjSe pdSiov. dXXoL Se <^acrt rrjv fxvpoivrjv ov
Kade^rjs jSa8t^€iv, dAAa /ca^' eKaorov dno kXlvt]? cttI
C kXlv7]v hia^epeodav rov yap irpaJTOv aaavra to)
TrpcjTcp rrjg Sevrepag KXlvrj? aTTOcrreXXeLV, €K€lvov
8e Tip TrpcoTCp rrjg rpirr]?, (Ira rov Sevrepov ofJLolcos
Tcp Sevrepw, Kal to ttoiklXov koi TToXvKapLires cos
€oiK€ rrjs rrepLoSov gkoXiov wvopLdodrj."

^ evXoyov . . . Kexprjadai added in the margin by the
glossator of 614 e (Hubert, Moral ia, iv, p. xiii) who also
deleted 8' after ov koXov ; ao^iarLKov fiev added by P. A. C.

<• As if oiaaKos were derived from aScti^, " to sing."

^ From the secondary meaning of okoXios, " puzzling,"

" obscure."

* Correctly, no doubt, from the primary meaning

" curved," " winding." On these etymological speculations



22



TABLE-TALK L 1, 615

tic argumentation over one's wine is a sophistical
thing to do, and it is not seemly nor is it suitable to
a party.

" As for the scolia, some say that they do not belong
to a type of obscurely constructed songs, but that
first the guests would sing the god's song together,
all raising their hymn with one voice, and next when
to each in turn was given the myrtle spray (which
they called aisakos, I think, because the man to
receive it sings) <* and too the lyre was passed around,
the guest who could play the instrument would take
it and tune it and sing, while the unmusical would
refuse, and thus the scolium owes its name to the
fact that it is not sung by all and is not easy.'' But
others say that the myrtle spray did not proceed
from each guest to his neighbour in orderly sequence,
but was passed across from couch to couch each
time, that the first man to sing sent it over to the
first man on the second couch, and the latter to the
first man on the third couch, then the second man to
the second on the neighbouring couch, and so on ; so,
they say, it seems the song was named scolium be-
cause of the intricate and t^^isted character of its
path." '^

cf. Dicaearchus, frags. 88-89 with Wehrli's commentary, 2)i�
Schule des Aristoteles^ i, pp. 69-71 ; see also Bolkestein, Adv,
Cr'U. p. 9 and particularly note 8.



23



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(615) nPOBAHMA Bi

Ylorepov avrov Sei /fara/cAivetv rovg iaTicofxevovs tov
VTTobexofJLevov rj in avrols iKeivoLS Troiciadai,

Collocuntur Timo, pater Plutarchi, Plutarchus, Lamprias, alii

1. TifJLcov 6 dS€X(f)6s icTTLCJV TrXeuovas eKaorov
iKeXeve rcjv elcnovrcov ottol ^ovXerai TrapejJL^dXXeiv

D /cat KaraKXiveadaiy Sta to Acat ^evovs /cat TroXlrag
/cat GVVijdeLg^ /cat oIk€lovs /cat oXws TravroSaTrovs
roijs K€KXr]fjL€vovs etvat. ttoXXcjv ovv tJSt] Trapovrojv
^evos TLS wG7T€p evTTapVi^os €/c /coj/xajStas", iaOi^rl
re 7T€piTrf\ /cat aKoXovdia Traihojv VTToaoXoLKorepos ,
rJKev dxpi' Tcov dvpcov rod dvSpojvos, /cat kvkXo)
rats oifjeoLV iireXdcbv rovs /cara/cet^eVous' ovk
'qdiXriaev elaeXOelv aAA' oi^^er' aTTLwv /cat ttoAAcDv
pLeradeovTcov ovk €^r] rov af toy iavrov tottov opdv
XeLTTOfxevov. eKelvov puev ovv ttoXXco ydXajrt,

■)(aipovras ev^-qpLovvras €K7TepL7T€iv BopLOJV

'El CKeXevov ol /cara/cct/xevof /cat yap rjaav vroAAot

fJL€TpLCxJ9 VTrOTTeTTCxJKOre? .

2. 'ETTet Se rd Trepl ro heiTTVov reXos ^*X^^> ^
irarrip ipL€ TToppojrepcxj /cara/cct/xevov TrpoaeLTrcov,
" TlpLOJv," ^<f>'q> " Kdydj KptTT^v oe rreTTOLTjixeda
hia(f)€p6pievoi' TvdXai yap d/covet /ca/ccos" vtt ipLOv

^ The heading in T omits irpo^Xtjixa^ and B stands in the
right margin, — the normal arrangement in T.

2 davvT^deis Reiske {cf. Chantraine, Rev. de Phil, xxii,
[1948], p. 97).

� The situation here described is used again by Plutarch in
Septem Sapientium Convivium where Alexidemus takes
offence and leaves the party of Periander (Mor. 148 e ff.).
The word here translated " grandee " {cf. also Mor. 57 a) is

24



TABLE-TALK I, 2, 615

QUESTION 2

Whether the host should arrange the placing of his guests or
leave it to the guests themselves

Speakers : Timon, Plutarch, the father of Plutarch, Lam-
prias, and others

1 . My brother Timon, upon an occasion when he was
host to a considerable number of guests, bade them
each as they entered take whatever place they wished
and there recline, for among those who had been
invited were foreigners as well as citizens, friends as
well as kinsmen, and, in a word, all sorts of people.
Now when many guests were already assembled, a
foreigner came up to the door of the banquet room,
like a grandee out of a comedy,** rather absurd with
his extravagant clothes and train of servants ; and,
when he had run his eyes round the guests who
had settled in their places, he refused to enter, but
withdrew and was on his way out when a number of
the guests ran to fetch him back, but he said that he
saw no place left worthy of him. Thereupon the
guests at table with much laughter urged them

With joy and blessings send him from the house, *

for the fact is there were many who had had a little
something to drink.

2. When the dinner had come to an end, my father,
whose place was rather far from mine, spoke to me
and said, " Timon and I have made you judge of our
dispute, for I have long been scolding him now on

used of a luxurious garment connected with New Comedy
(Pollux, vii. 46 ; c/. Kock, Com. Alt. Frag, ii, p. 222. 9) and
then of the men who wore them.

" Euripides, frag. 449, line 4 (Nauck, Trag. Or. Frag. p.
498).

25



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(615) Slol tov ^ivov el yap SteTaTTer' dir^ ^PXV^> cjoirep
eKeXevov iyco, rds" /cAtcrcts", ovk av evdvvas vireixo-
fjicv dra^las dvSpl Secvcp

KOGfirjcraL lttttovs t€ /cat dvipas daTTihiiLra? .

KoX yap 8rj IlavXov At/xtAtov OTparrjyov Xeyovcriv,
ore Hepaea KaraTroXefjL'qGas iv Ma/ceSovta ttotovs
ovveKporeiy Koajjicp re davpiauTcn irepl rravra /cat

F TTepirrff rd^ei ;^/)co/>t€vov etTrctv ort rod avrov
dvSpos icJTL /cat <j)dXayya ovorrjoai ^o^epcoraTqv
/cat ovjJLTTOCJLov rjSiGToVy dpi(f>6T€pa yap curafta?
efvat. /cat rovs dpiurovs /cat ^aoiXiKOjrdrov^ 6
TroLTjrrjg etcode ' Koafjui^ropas Aaojv ' TTpoaayopeveiv.
/cat rov fieyav deov Vfiels ttov <j)ar€ rrjv dKOGfilav
616 evra^ia /xerajSaAetv ct? Koaixov ovr dcfyeXovra rcov
ovrojv ovSev ovre TrpooBivra, rep 8' eKaarov inl
T7]v TTpoariKovaav ;^c6/)av KaraGrrjaai to /caAAtcrrov
ef dfiopcfyordrov crxyjp^a nepl rrjv <f)VGLV direpya-
cra/xevov.

*AAAa ravra fiev rd cre/xvdrepa /cat /xctjova
Trap' vficov fxavdavopiev avrol Se /cat tt7v Trcpt ra
SetTTva SaTfdvrjv opcjfjLev ovSev exovaav eiriTepTrks
owS' iXevdepLov, el fxr] rd^ecos fierdaxoi. 8l6 /cat
yeXoLov euTL rolg fxev oipOTroLoXs /cat rpawe^oKOpLois
a<f)68pa jxeXeLV ri TTpcjrov t) ri Sevrepov rj fxeaov 7]
reXevralov eird^ovGiv, /cat vr] Ata fjLvpov rivd /cat
urecfydvcov /cat i/jaXrpia?, dv rvxj] napovoa, ;^ajpav

B /cat rd^LV etvai, rovs S* CTrt ravra KaXovpLevovs

^ Hubert : rfj Xoiirrj (defended by Bolkestein).

� Iliad, ii. 554.

^ In 168 B.C. See Life of Aemilius Paulus, xxviii. 5 ; Mor.
198 B. � g.^'. //tod, i. 16.

26



TABLE-TALK L 2, 615-616

account of the foreigner. If he had arranged the
placing of his guests at the beginning, as I told him

I to do, we would not be under suspicion of disorderli-

I ness and liable to public audit under the rule of a man

j skilful

in marshalling horses and shield-bearing men."
Indeed, the story is told of the general AemiUus
Paullus that, when he had conquered Perseus in

* Macedonia,^ he gave drinking-parties which were
characterized by wonderfully good order and remark-
able organization in all their details, holding it to be
the same man's duty to organize infantry divisions to
be as terrifying and dinner-parties to be as agreeable
as possible, for he claimed that both were the result
of good organization. And the Poet is accustomed to
call the bravest and most kingly men

marshallers of the people. •

Moreover, you philosophers, I suppose, admit that it
was by good organization that the great god changed
chaos into order,** neither taking anything from what
existed nor adding anything, but working the fairest
form in nature out of the most shapeless by settling
each element into its fitting place.

However, in these very solemn and important
matters we are your pupils, but we see for ourselves
that extravagant dinners are not pleasant or munifi-
cent without organization. Thus it is ridiculous for
our cooks and waiters to be greatly concerned about
what they shall bring in first, or what second or middle
or last, — also, by Zeus, for some place to be found and
arrangement made for perfume and crowns and a
^ harp-girl, if there is a girl, — yet for those invited to

•* Plato, Timaeus^ 30 a ; in/ra^ 719 c-d.

27



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(616) eLKT] /cat ws ervx^v /cara/cAtVavra ;^o/3Ta^€tv, fx'qd*
rjXiKLa yirjT dpxfj ftTyr* dXXco rivl rdv ofiolcov ttjv
dpfJLOTTovaav aTroSiSovra rd^iv, iv fj TLfidrai [lev 6
TTpoexcov iOl^erai S' o Bevrepevojv yvfJLvd^eraL 8
6 rdrrcov vpos hidKpiaiv koL or 0^0.0 piov rov
TTp€7TOVTOS. ov ydp eSpa /xev eWt /cat ardais rov
KpeirrovoSy /cara/cAtcrts' S' ovk eonv ovSe vpo-
TrUrai fiev^ irepco irpo irepov fidXXov 6 ioricjVy
7T€pL Se rds /cara/cAtCTCts" Trapoiperai ra? hiatjyopds,
€vdvs iv dpxfj TTjv Xeyofxevrjv ' (xiav yivKovov '
d7ro(j)'qvas ro gvjxttogiov.'* tj jjiev ovv rod irarpos
�t/catoAoyta roiavrrj ris rjv.
C 3. *0 S' aSeA<^os" c?7rev on rod Biavrog ovk elrj
ao(j>a)r€pos cocrr' €K€lvov Svelv <f)iXo)v dTTenrafiivov
hiairav avros ofJLOv roaovrcov fikv OLKeiwv roaovrcov
S' iraipojv yiveoOai Kpir'^s, ov Trepl XRVH"^"^^^
dXXd 7T€pL TTpojreiwv diro^aivoiievos , woTzep ov
<l>LXo<f)povrj(ja(j6aL TrapaKeKXrjKcbs aAA' avtacrai rovs
CTTiTT^Sctovs". " droTTOS pikv ovv," e^T], " Kol Trap-
oifJLicxihris MeveAaos", €t ye ovfx^ovXos iyevero fir)
7TapaK€KXT]iJL€Vos' dro7T(x)r€pos 8' o TTOicjv iavrov
dvd^ iaridropos SLKaorrjv /cat Kpirrjv rcjv ovk
iinrpeTTOvrajv ovSe KpLVOfxevajv, ris ecrrt ^eXriojv
rivos Tj ;^et/3cov ov ydp els dywva KadciKaoLV^
D aAA' iirl SelTTVOv tJkovgiv. aAA' ouS' evx^prjs rj
1 Added by Benseler. ^ Aldine edition : KaOi^Kaaiv.

" Strabo explains (x. 5. 9, p. 487) that the proverb derives
from the myth that giants slain by Heracles were buried
under Myconos and " is applied to those who bring under
one title even those things which are by nature separate "

28



TABLE-TALK L 2, 616

this entertainment to be fed at places selected hap-
hazardly and by chance, which give neither to age nor \f
to rank nor to any other distinction the position that
suits it, one which does honour to the outstanding man,
leaves the next best at ease, and exercises the judge-
ment and sense of propriety of the host. For the
man of quality does not have his honour and his
station in the world, yet fail to receive recognition
in the place he occupies at dinner ; nor nill a host
� drink to one of his guests before another, yet overlook
their distinctions in placing them at table, and im-
mediately at the beginning declare the dinner subject
to the proverbial ' Myconos Equality.' " *� Some such
as this was my father's plea.

3. My brother, however, replied that he for his
part was not wiser than Bias that he should become a
judge over so many comrades and so many relatives
too when Bias had refused to arbitrate between two
of his friends, and should hand out decisions, not
about property indeed, but about precedence, as
though he had invited his friends not to entertain
them, but to annoy them. " Certainly," he con-
tinued, " it was inept of Menelaiis, proverbially so, to
become an adviser without being asked ^ ; more inept
is the man who, instead of playing the host, makes
himself a juryman and a judge over people who do
not call upon him to decide an issue and are not on
trial as to who is better than who, or worse ; for they
have not entered a contest, but have come for dinner.

(trans. H. L. Jones, LCL Strabo, v, p. 171) ; Strabo further
notes that bald men are called Myconians because baldness
is prevalent on the island. Further : Leutsch and Schneide-
win. Corpus Paroemiographorum Grcwrorum, i, p. 445 ; Kock,
Com. Alt. Frag, iii, Adespoton 515.
� Iliad, ii. 408.

29



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(616) hiaKpiois ioTTL, Tcjv fxev rfXiKua rwv Se SvvdfjLeL
rojv Se XP^^V '^^^ ^' olK€i6rr]TL hia^€p6vrojv , aXka
Set Kaddirep vTrodeaiv ixeXerojvra GvyKpLTLKr)v rovs
* ApLGToreXovs Tottovs ^ rovs SpaGVfJidxov ^Yirep-
pdXXovTas €X€LV TTpox^tpovg ovSev rcov xprjoLfiojv
SLaTrparrofxevov dXXd rrjv Kevrjv So^av ck rrjs
dyopds /cat roiv dedrpcov els rd GVfJLTTocna jjlct-
dyovra, /cat rd /x€v aAAa Trddrj 7r€Lp(x)pi€vov dviivai^
Gvvovaia, rov S' e/c ru^^?^ eiriGKevdl^ovra TV<f)ov
ov^ TToXv fJbdXXov otfxaL TTpoG-qKei TTJs ^vxrJ9 r)* TOV
TTTjXov dTrovupafJLdvQVS tojv ttoScov iXa(f)pa)s /cat
E ac^cAcSs" Trapd ttotov dAAo^Aots" Gvp.<f>€p€G6ai. vvv
hk To)y /xev e^ opyij? tlvos 'iq Trpayfidrajv e^Opav
TreipcofjLeda rcov /cc/cAi^jLteVcov d^aipeZv, rrj Se (f)LXo-
Tt/Ltta 77-aAtv VTTeKKdofiev /cat dval,aj7TVpovfX€v, rovs

pL€V Ta7T€lVOVVT€S TOVS S' 6yKOVVT€S. /catTOt y*,

€t fjiev aKoXovdriGOVGL rrj /cara/cAtVet irpOTTOGeis t€
GVV€X€GT€paL /Cat TTapadeGeis ert S' opuXiai /cat
7TpoGayop€VG€L? , TTavrdnaGL yevT^crcrat GarpaTTiKov
tjijlXv dvrl ^lXikov to GVfnroGLOv el Se Trept raAAa
TT^i' LGOTTjTa TOts" dvSpacjt <f>vXd^opi€v , ri ovk ivr€v-
Sev dp^d[jL€VOL TrpcoTov idL^ofiev dTV<f>cL>s /cat d^cAcDs"
/cara/cAtVcCT^at /Lter' dAA-j^Ao^v, evOvs dno rcov
F dvpchv opcovras, on S-qjjLOKpariKOV €gtl to SetTrvoy^

^ Schott : a (not d) before an erasure of 5-6 letters in which
a later hand has written <f>aip€iv rijs and then added s to
ai/vovaia.

2 8' €*f Tvxqs Hubert : 8e tvxt), the last changed by a later
hand to Tv<f>ov.

* rv<f>ov ov Turnebus : lac. 5 ov T, later corrected to 6v
presumably by the hand which changed rvyr} to rv4>ov,

30



TABLE-TALK L 2, 616

Moreover the decision is not easy, differing as the
guests do in age, in influence, in intimacy, and in kin-
ship ; on the contrary, one must have at hand, Uke the
student of a principle of comparison, the Methodology
of Aristotle " or the Dominants of Thrasymachus,*
even though he accomplishes nothing useful, but
rather transfers empty fame from market-place and
theatre to social gatherings, and, in his attempt to
relax by fellowship the other passions, accidentally
refurbishes a vanity which I think much more fitting
for men to have washed from their soul than the mud
from their feet, if they are to meet at drink with each
other easily and without affectation. As things are
now, we try to remove our guests' hostility, no matter
what angry passion or troubles it comes from ; but if
we humble some of them and exalt others, we shall
rekindle their hostility and set it aflame again through
ambitious rivalry. And indeed, if the continuous
toasts and the serving of food, and the conversation
and discourse as well, shall be in strict conformity
with the order of the guests' seating, our party will
\ become in all respects a completely viceregal affair
^instead of a friendly gathering. If in other matters we
are to preserve equality among men, why not begin
with this first and accustom them to take their places
with each other without vanity and ostentation, be-
cause they understand as soon as they enter the door

� Topics, 116 ff. The title Tottoi used by Plutarch is ap-
propriate for the content of this section of the Tottiko. ; it
also gives him a pun on tottoi, " places at table."

^ Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, ii^", p. 325, frag. 7.

* Added by presumably the same later hand in T.
^ SrjiMOTiKov {hrni.oKpaTi.K6v Pohlenz) cWi to hflirvov Kronen-
berg : SrjfiOKpiTOS cVi to Beirrvov.

31



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(616) Kal ovK €X€L roTTOV^ i^alperov wanep aKponoXiVy^
€(f)* ov KaraKXidels 6 irXovaios €vrpv<f>riG€i, toZs €v-
reXearepoLS ; "^

4. FiTrel Se /cat ravr ipp'qdr] /cat ttjv KpioLV oltt-
r^TOVV ol 7rap6vT€S, e^riv eyoj SLaiTrjTTjg fip-qfievo?
ov KpiTTjs ^aSieloOaL Sta fieaov. " veovg fiev
yap, etTTOV, " iaTicovras /cat TToXiras /cat ovvqdeis
617 idiareov, a>s (j>rjaL Tlfxajv, a(j>eXa)s /cat drv(f)Ojg
Karavepieiv avrovs ctV t^v av tvxojgl ^wpav, KaXov
els (jiiXiav i(f>68LOV rrjv evKoXiav Xafx^dvovras ' iv
Se ^evois T] dpxovGLV rj Trpea^vrepoig <^lXooo<J>ovvt€S
SeSia fiTj 8oKaj[jL€v rfj avXeico rov rv(f>ov drro-
KXeiovres elodyeiv rfj irapaBvpcp fxerd ttoAAtJ?
d8La(j)opias . iv cL /cat avvrjOeia ri /cat vopicp
horeov ri /cat TTpOTroaeis /cat TTpoGayopevGcis dv-
eXojfiev, atcnrep ou* tovs eTnrvyxdvovras ouS' dKpi-
TOis dXX ojs ivSexerai /xaAto-r* evXa^cos^ xpoipievoi

TLfJLOJjJLeV

B €8p27 T€ Kpeaoiv r rjBe TrXeiOLS SeTraeacjtv

COS" <f)r]aLV 6 Tii)v ^EAAtJj^ojv ^aatXevs, ttjv rd^iv iv
TrpcoTT] TLixfj Tidefjuevos. iTraLvovfiev Se /cat rov
^AXklvovv, otl rov ^ivov l8pv€L Trap* avrov

^ €x€L TOTTov addcd by Kronenberg : lac. 3-4.
2 coa lac. 5-6 TToAiv as restored by a later hand in T.
^ €VTpv<f>ija€L Tols €VT€X€aT€poi.s Hubcrt : cV TTJL KaraKXian
Tolg euTeAeararoiS'.

* aloTTip ov Bases : ah -npos.

32



TABLE-TALK I. 2, 616-617

that the dinner is a democratic affair and has no out-
standing place like an acropolis where the rich man is
to recline and lord it over meaner folk ?"

4. When these arguments had been delivered and
those present were demanding the decision, I said
that, since I had been chosen arbitrator, not judge, I
would take a middle course. " Now if," I said, ** we
are entertaining young men, fellow citizens and inti-
mates, we must accustom them, as Timon says, to
take for themselves without ostentation and vanity
whatever places they happen to find, taking good
humour as a fine viaticum to friendship ; but when
we are occupied with learned talk in the company of
foreigners or magistrates or older men, I am afraid
that, if we shut vanity out at the court-yard gate, we
may seem to be letting it in by the side gate, and
with plenty of non-distinctions. In this we must
yield something to custom and usage; otherwise, let
us do away with the drinking of toasts and with
familiar greetings, of which we make use when we

i are doing honour not just to anyone nor carelessly,

' but as carefully as possible

With place at table, meat, and many a cup,

as the king of the Greeks says,<� putting order in
highest honour. And we praise Alcinoiis too because
he seats the stranger beside himself :

* The verse stands in a speech of Hector's at Iliads viii.
162, in a speech of Sarpedon's at Iliads xii. 311. Like mis-
takes are made by Plutarch elsewhere (for example, 630 e and
741 f). As Hubert notes, the error at 617 a may indeed be
due to the confused recollection of Agamemnon's remarks
about dinners in honour of the Elders {Iliad, iv. 343 fF.).

^ /xoAiar* cuAajScDj Capps, fidXiara Tre^uAay/iei'tos Reiske :
/ioAiaTo.

VOL. VIII c SB



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(617) vlov avaarriaas , ayarrrivopa Aaojiehovra,

OS ol ttXtjctlov l^€y fxaXiGTa 84 [jllv (fyiXieoKev.

TO yap els rrjv rod <j)LXovixivov x<^P^^ KaOloai rov
LKerTjv imSe^Lov ifjLfjieXojs /cat (f>iXdvdpi07T0V. ccrrt
8e Koi Trapa rots deols hiaKpiois tcjv tolovtcov 6
pukv yap Yiooei^ibv Kaiirep voraros els rrjv €k-
KXrjalav Trapayevofievos ' lt>ev dp* iv ixeoooioivj
cos TavTr]s avTcp rrjs x^P^^ ttpogtjkovgt^S' rj 8'
*Adr]vd (jiaiverai rov ttXtjolov del rov Aios ronov
i^alperov exovua- /cat rovro Trape/i^atVet p,ev 6
7TOLr]rr]s St' wv iirl rrjs GertSos" ^'qoiv

Q 7] 8i* dpa Trap Att irarpl KaBet^ero, etfe 5'

Siapp'qSrjv S' o UivSapos Xeyei

TTvp TTvdovros d re Kepavvov
dyxtcTTa rjfjievrj.

Kairoi (jiTioei Tt/xo^v ov Setv d(f)aipela6ai rcov
dXXcjv evl TTpoGvepiovra rrjv rifjajv. oirep avros
eoLKe TTOielv fjLoiXXov' d(f)aipeirai yap 6 kolvov
TTOicjv ro Ihiov (t8tov �€ TO /cttT* d^Lav eKdGTov)
/cat TTOtet SpofJLov /cat gttovStjs ro npajrelov dperfj
/cat Gvyyeveiq} /cat dpxfj /cat rot? roiovrois o^eiXo-
fjLevov. /cat to Xv7T7]p6s elvai rols /ce/cAi^jLteVoi?
(fyevyeiv Sokcov jxdXXov e<^eXKerai Kad* avrov' XvTrel
yap dnoGrepajv rrjs Gvvqdovs ripLrjs eKaGrov.

^ evyevela Herwerden.

" Odyssey ^ vii. 170 f. Plutarch's Laomedon is a variant
(found also in some mss. of Homer) on Laodamas.
^ Iliad, XX. 15. " Iliad, xxiv. 100.

34



TABLE-TALK L 2, 617

His manly son Laomedon, who sat
Beside him, dearest of his sons, he caused
To rise and gave the guest his place."

For it is exquisitely courteous and considerate to seat
a suppliant in the place of a loved one. Furthermore,
among the gods too a distinction prevails in such
matters. Poseidon, for instance, even though he
came last into the assembly,

Took his seat in the middle,*

implying that this place belonged to him. And
Athena is always seen to occupy the place of honour
beside Zeus ; this the Poet shows incidentally by
what he says of Thetis,

She then sat down next Father Zeus,
Athena giving place to her ' ;

and Pindar expressly says of Athena,

She sat beside the thunderbolt
That breathes out fire.**

Nevertheless Timon will say that one ought not to
rob the other guests of the honour due to position by
granting the position of honour to one of them. Yet
this is j ust what he himself seems to do by preference ;
for the man who turns an individual's prerogative
(each man's according to his worth) into common
property is committing a theft, and the recognition
due to virtue, kinship, public service, and such things
he is giving to the foot-race and to speed. Though he
thinks that he avoids being offensive to his guests, he
draws it down all the more upon himself to be so, for
he offends each one of them by depriving him of his
accustomed honour.

** Frag. 146 (Snell) with omissions.

35



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(617) " 'E/xot S* ov Xiav ^^^aAeTTOV elvai 8ok€l to rrepl
D rrjv ^laKpiaiv TTpcorov fxev yap icfxifxiXXoL rots

d^LCOjJLaGL TToXXol TTpOS jJiiaV KXfJGLV OV /jaStcos"

dTTavTcoGLV eVctTa TrXeLovcov tottcxjv iv 86^r) yeyo-
vorojv di^dovia rrjs SiavofjLrjs eWtv, dv rts" €vgto)(€lv

8vV7]TaL, TOV [JL€V OTL TTpWTOS, TOV S' OTt fxioOS ,

TOP S* OTL Trap* avTov r^ [xerd ^iXov rivos 7^
ovvTjOovs Tj KadrjyrjTov, 8i8ov? eKaorco rcov d^LCo-
fiariKcov XeyofjLevojv, tols S* aAAots" Scopedg Kal
<l)iXo(j)poGVvr)v , dXvTTov^ dvaTravXav fidXXov rrjs

TLflT]?. aV O aKpLTOL jX€V ttC tt^tat OVOKOAOL o

ol dv8p€� ojGLVy opa riva ixr]x<^v'r]v iirdyoj- Kara-
kXlvoj yap els rov evho^ov fidXiora rorrov, dv fxev
fi Trarijp, rovrov dpafievoSy el 8e jjlt^, TraTnrov r^

E TTevdepov ri irarpos d8eX(f)6v rj nva rwv ofioXo-
yovjjiev7]V /cat tStav exovrcov Trapd rep 8exop>evtp rt-
p,rjs VTrepoxrjVy €K tcov ^Op^rjpov to decoprjfia rovro
XapLpdvojv Kadr^Kovrcov. Kal yap eKel 8ri7TOvdev 6
'A^iAAeu? TOV MeveAecov Kal rov ^ AvriXo^ov irepl
rcov 8evTepeiojv rrjs l7r7To8pop,ias opcjv 8La(f>epo-
fievovs Kal 8e8oLK(jJS fir] TTOppojrepa) TrpoeXdojGiv
opyrjs Kal (jyiXoveiKLas erepcp ^ovXerai ro eiraOXov
aTToStSovat, Xoycp [xev Eu/iTyAor olKrlpojv Kal tl-
fjLOJv, epycp 8e rrjs eKeivojv 8ia(j)opds rrjv alrlav
d(f)aLp6jv."

5. 'E/xou 8e Toiavra Xeyovros 6 Aafinplas €k
Trapapvarov Kadijiievos Kaddirep elcjdei fieya

F <j)dey^dp.evos rjpcora rovs irapovrag y el 8i86aoi,v



^ Wyttenbach : cAittov.
* 8' uKptToi Capps, Helmbold, Bolkestein : 8c lac. 3-4 rot.



36



TABLE-TALK L 2, 617

" To me, however, the matter of making distinc-
tions among one 's guests does not seem very hard. In
the first place it does not easily happen that many
men who are rivals in honour meet at one party.
Next, inasmuch as there are a number of places which
have come to be held in honour, their distribution
does not arouse jealousy if the host is able to guess
rightly and give to each of the so-called dignitaries the
place he likes, — because it is the first, or in the middle,
or beside the host himself, or some friend of the guest,
or intimate, or teacher, — and receive the other guests
with gifts and friendly courtesies, an undisturbed
tranquillity rather than honour of place. But if the
honours are hard to decide, and the guests are touchy,
then see what device I apply. If my father is present,
I do him the honour of putting him in the most dis-
tinguished place ; if he is not present, I honour my
grandfather, or my father-in-law, or my father's
brother, or any one among those guests who admit-
tedly have a particular claim to precedence at the
hands of the host, and it is from the poems of Homer
that I get this rule of propriety. There, you may re-
call, when Achilles sees Menelaiis and Antilochus dis-
puting about the second prize in a horse-race," he is
afraid that they may become too angry and quarrel-
some and so proposes to give the prize to another,
ostensibly because he feels sorry for Eumelus, whom
he thus honours, but actually in order to remove the
cause of the quarrel between Menelaiis and Anti-
lochus."

5. As I was speaking in this fashion, Lamprias
from a small couch which he occupied asked the
assembled company in his customary loud voice if

• Iliad, xxiu. 634 ff.

37



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(617) avro) vovderrjorai Xrjpovvra SiKaarijv' KeXevovrcjDv

Se TrdvTOJV ^^p-^cr^at 7Tapp7](jLa /cat firj (fyeiSeadaL,

ris S* avj' ^^'V* " ^^tcratro (J)iXog6^ov yeVecrt /cat

618 ttXovtois /cat dpxous (Lanep Oeav iv uviXTTooici)

KaravefjLovTos rj TTpoeSptas e/fT^^iCT/xarcov diJL(f)L-

KTVOVLKCOV BlSoVTOS, OTTOJS fjL7]8^ €V OLVOJ TOV TVcfiOV

d7T0(f)vy(x){JL€V ; ovre yap irpos to evSo^ov dXXd
TTpos TO r]hv Set TTOieiadaL rds KaraKXiGCLS, ovre
TTiv ivos eKaarov GKOTreiv d^iav dXXd Trjv irepov

TTpos €T€pOV GX^GLV /Cat dpfXOviaV , a>G7T€p dXXojv^

Tivcjv els jLitav KOLvwviav TrapaXapL^avofJievcov . ovSe
yap 6 oLKoSofMos rov 'Atti/cov At^ov ^ rov AaKOJvi-
Kov TTpo TOV ^ap^apiKov Sta^ rrjv evyeveiav ridrjOLv
ot5S' 6 i,cx)ypd(j)os TO) TToXvTeXcoTdra) ;)^pc6jLtaTt rrjv
rjyovfievTjv dTroStScoct ;^ctj/3av ouS' o vavTrrjyos
B TTpordrreL ttjv ^lodfjLLKrjv ttltvv t} rr^v KprjriKTjv
KVTrdpnTOV, dXX (hs dv dAATjAots" eKaara oruvre-
Bevra /cat GwapfioGOevra fjueXXr] to kolvov epyov
LGXvpov /cat KaXov /cat XPV^^H-^^ Trapex^iv, ovroj
Karave/JLOVGLV. /cat tov deov 6 pas, ov ' dpioro-
T^xyav ' rjiMV^ 6 HivSapos TTpoGeiTrev, ov Travraxov
TO TTvp dvoj TciTTOVTa /cat /caTCt) TrjV yrjvy dAA' cos
dv at ;^/)€tat tcov oco/xcitcov aTratTcDo-tv

TOVTO fJLev iv Koyxdicn daXaGGOvopLOLS ^apvvcj-

TOLSy

vat jLtT^v K-qpvKcov T€ Xidoppivwv ^eAuojv T€,

^r]Glv ^EtfJLTTeSoKXijs,

€vd* oj/f€t x^^va xp^'^os VTTepTaTa vaieTaovGav,

^ vAcDv Kronenberg.
2 Added by Vulcobius.

38



TABLE-TALK L 2, 617-618

they gave him leave to reprove a judge who was
talking nonsense. When all urged him to speak his
mind freely and show no mercy, " But who could," he
said, " show mercy to a philosopher who assigns places
at a dinner-party to family, wealth, and official posi-
tion as one would assign seats at a show, a philosopher
who grants honours of precedence after the fashion
of amphictyonic decrees, so that not even when we
sit over wine may we flee conceit ? For it is not
prestige, but pleasure which must determine the
placing of guests ; it is not the rank of each which
must be considered, but the affinity and suitability of
each to each, as is done when other things are associ-
ated for a common purpose. The builder does not
value Attic or Laconian stone more highly because
of its noble origin than he does foreign stone, nor does
the painter give foremost place to the most expensive
pigment, nor the shipwright prefer Isthmian pine or
Cretan cypress, but they select such materials as may
be likely, when combined and joined with each other,
to render the finished product strong, beautiful, and
useful. And you yourself see that god, whom Pindar
named the * master artisan,' <* does not in all cases
place fire above and earth below, but disposes them
as the needs of bodies require. Empedocles says :

In heavy-backed sea-mussels this is found
And turtles stony skinned and herald-fish,
Where you will see the earth-material
At rest upon the highest parts of flesh,*

" Frag. 57, line 2 (Snell). The god is Zeus of Dodona.
* Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, i^�, p. 339, frag. 76.
•' Herald-fish," the purple mollusc.

' Bolkestein : iJ/wDi', with a superfluous acute accent to the
left of the circumflex, but no separation between yi and w.

39



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(618) ovx Tjv Tj (j)VGLs SlSojcTL ;\;c6pav, dAA* rjv rj TTpos to
C KOLVOV epyov TrodeZ ovvra^is, ravTTjv exovaav.
Travraxov fjikv ovv ara^ia 7TOV7]p6v, iv S' dvOpcoTroi?,
/cat ravra ttlvovoiv, iyyivopLevr) (jLaXiara rrjv avrrjs
dvaSeLKVVGL pLoxOr^ptav v^pet /cat /ca/cots" aAAotS"
dfivdriTOLS, d TTpotSdadaL /cat (f>vXd^aadaL raKTiKOv
/cat dpfjLovLKov dv8p6s iariv.**

6. *Opdcos ovv €^a)Ltev Xeyeiv avrov rjfjLel?, /cat,
** Tt 8rj (f>6ov€LS rcov ra/cri/caiv Tjfiiv /cat dppLovL-
Kojv; " \_(x>vY iXeyofJLCv.

** OuSctV/' ^^'^y ' <t>^ovos, dv (JLeXXrjre ireideodai
fjLeraKLVovvTi pLoi /cat (jLeraKOGfiovvri ro avfiTTOGLOv,
a)G7T€p TO) ^KTra/JbeivcovSa rrjv (fydXayya." avve-

D X^/)OUjLt€V ovv OVTO) TTOLCtv dVaVTCJ. 6 Sc TOV9

TTotSas €/c fieoov KeXevaas yeveodai, KarapXeipas
eKaorov, " dKovaar ,' elirev, " (hs fxeXXoj avvrdr-
reiv vfjids dXX'qXois' jSouAo/xat yap TrpoetTietv.
So/cet yap fxoL /cat rov "OjJLTjpov ovk dhiKcos 6
Srj^aXos alridaaodai HafjLfxevrjs cos" rojv ipcDTiKCJV
direipov, on <j)vXa <f)vXoLS avvera^ev /cat <f)paTpias
^parptat? avvefiL^ev, Seov epaarrjv /iter* ipcofievov
TrapefipaXXeiv Iv* rj gvjjlttvovs r) <f)dXay^ St* oAt^?
efJLipvxov exovaa heopuov, tolovto Kdycb ^ovXofiai
TTOirjoai TO GVfiTTOcnov rjjjLcoVy ov ttXovglo) ttXovglov
ovSe vicp viov ouS' dpxovri GvyKaraKXivojv dpxovra
E /cat (f)LXcp <j)iXov' dKivTjTOS yap avrrj /cat dpyr) npog
evvoias iirlSoGLV ^ yiveoiv rj rd^is' dXXd tw

1 wv deleted by Xylander (translation) ; wv iXeyoiiev de-
leted by Bolkestein.

40



TABLE-TALK L 2, 618

that is, not occupying the position which nature allots,
but the position which the functional order of the
organism demands. Now disorder is everywhere a
mischievous thing, but when it occurs among men,
and that too when they are drinking, then especially
it reveals its viciousness by the insolence and other
unspeakable evils it engenders ; to foresee these and
guard against them is the duty of a man with any pre-
tension to being an organizer and an arranger."

6. "So why grudge us our organizers and arran-
gers ? " I said, admitting the truth of his statement.
" There is no grudging," he replied, " if you will
allow me to change and rearrange our party as Epa-
minondas changed infantry formations." We all
agreed to do so. He then ordered the servants to
leave the room and with a glance of appraisal at each
of us continued : " Hear, then, how I intend to array
you with each other, — for I want to tell you before-
hand. The fact is I think that Pammenes <� the
Theban was not unfair in accusing Homer of being a
man without skill in the ways of love because he
arrayed clans with clans and joined brotherhoods \%ith
brotherhoods,^ when he ought to have brigaded lover
with beloved in order that throughout its whole the
army might possess a living bond and be animated by
— one spirit. Such a company I wish to make our dinner-
I party, not seating rich men with rich man, nor young
man with young man, nor official with official and
\ friend with friend, for this arrangement is static and
'^. inefficient in the promotion and creation of good-
^ fellowship ; but I supply what suits him to the man

* Pelop Idas txy'ni; ^mo/orm*. 761 b. For Epaminondas*
revolutionary tactic at Leuctra see Kl. P, ii. 281.
" Iliad, ii. 363.
VOL. VIII c* 41



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(618) Seofiivo) ro oiKelov TrpoaapfjLorrwv KeXevo) ^lXo-
Xoyo) fxev viroKaraKXiveoB at (fyiXofxadrj SvgkoXo)
8e Trpdov a3oAeCT;^a> Se Trpea^VTr) <f)LX'qKOOV vea-
viuKov TO) S' aXat,6vi rov eipojva rw 8' opyiXco rov
Gioj7rr]X6v lav Se ttov KarlSoj ttXovglov {leya-
XoScopov, d^O) rrpos avrov e/c ycavias rtvos" dva-
cjTTioas 7T€vrjra ^prjarov, tv' woirep e/c TrXrjpovs
kvXlkos els KevTjv diroppori ns yevrjraL. oo<j)i,OTr]v
Se KioXvo) ovyKaraKXiveoOai (JO(j)LGTfj /cat ttoltjttjv

F 7TTO))(os yap tttojx^ <f>9ovi€i^ /cat dotSo? doiSoi*

/catrot SoxTt/cATjs" ovros /cat MdSecrros' ivravda
ovvepeihovres eiros rrap* erros^ dva^coTTupetv^ (jyXoya
fieydXrjv* KivSwevovcrtv rd KaXXtara. Sllctttjiii, Se
/cat orpayyaXLcovras /cat (f>LXoXoi86pov9 /cat d^u-
dvjjiovs rrpdov^ riva TrapevTidels fxioov woirep
619 fidXayixa rrjs dvTirvTrias , dXeiTTTLKOVs Se /cat
KVvr)y€riKovs /cat yecopyiKovs avvdycj' rchv ydp
opLOiorriTCjjv 7) jxev pidxip-os a)07r€p dXeKrpvovwv,
Tj S' eTTtet/cTys" (hoTTepel^ rwv koXolcjv. avvdyu) Se

/cat TTOTLKOVS €15 TaVTO /Cat ipOJTLKOVg, OV fJLOVOV

* oooLS epojTOS Srjyixa TraiSt/ccDv' TTpooeGTiVy (jjs
(f)7iai lLo(f)OKXrjSy dXXd /cat rovs iirl yvvai^l /cat
Tovs €7rt TTapdivoLS SaKVOfJLevovs' rep ydp avrio
daXTTOfxevoL TTvpl fiaXXov dXXi^Xojv dvTt,XrnJjovrai,

^ <f>dove€L added by Xylander.

2 Trap' €7Tos Stephanus : Trapa lac. 6-8.

^ Bernardakis : ^ajTrvpicov.

* Bernardakis : /xev oAAd.
� Bernardakis : lac. 3-4.

* Doehner : (La-nep ot, (sic).

' nathiKcov added by Bernardakis from Mor. 77 b, which

42



TABLE-TALK L 2, 618-619

who lacks it and imite him who is eager to learn to
sit with a learned man, the gentle Avith the peevish,
the young who like to listen with the old who like to
talk, the reticent with the braggart, the calm with the
irascible. And if by chance I see a guest who is rich
and munificent, I shall rout out from some corner an
honest poor man and introduce him, so that an out-
pouring from a full into an empty goblet may take
place. But sophist I shall forbid to sit with sophist
and poet with poet.

For beggar is jealous of beggar and bard of bard.*

Indeed, Sosicles and Modestus here, as they set verse
against verse, ^ run a very fair risk of kindhng a great
flame. My way is to separate contentious, abusive,
and quick-tempered men by placing between them
some easy-going man as a cushion to soften their
clashing ; and athletes, hunters, and farmers I intend
to bring together ; for the characteristic which unites
the former group is a contentiousness like that of
cocks, while the latter group have the gentleness of
daws. And I shall put together men who like to
drink, — and lovers too, not only those

Who feel the bite of love for lads,

as Sophocles says," but also those bitten by love for
women and for girls. For they will cleave to each
other all the more for being heated by the same fire,

" Hesiod, Works and Bays, 26.

'' Cf. Aristophanes, Clouds, 1375.

<= Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag^, p. 309, frag. 757 ; Pearson,
The Fragments of Sophocles, iii, p. 55, frag. 841. Quoted also
at Mor. 77 b.

Pearson misjudges (Sophocles, frag. 841) and Babbitt mis-
translates (LCL Mor. i, p. 413).

43



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(619) Kaddnep 6 koX\cjix€vos aiS-qpog, av fXTj vrj Ala rod

aVTOV TV^WOLV Tj TTJg aVTT]? €pa>VT€S."



nPOBAHMA r

B Aid Tl TWV TOTTCOV 6 KoXoVfieVOS VTTaTLKOS <^0)(€ TljLf^V

Collocuntur iidem qui in qu. II

E/c^ TO-UTOV Trepl rcov tottojv ivcTTecre ^njrrjGLg.
aAAot yap aAAots" €vtljjlol, IlepaaL? [xev 6 fieaaLTaros
€^' ov Acara/cAtVerat ^aaiXevs, "I^XXtjol S' o TTpcoros,
Pcu/xatots" S' o ttJs" pLiorjs kXlvtjs reXevralos ov
VTTariKov TrpoaayopevovuLV y rcov Se Tvepl rov Ylovrov
'EAAtJvcov iviois, a)G7T€p 'Hpa/cAeajrais", efiTraXiv 6
TTJs fJiearj? Trpcoros. dXXa Trepl rod y' VTrariKov
Xeyopiivov fxaXiGTa SLTjTTOpovpLev. ovros yap iirpo)-
T€V€ rfj TLfifj Kad^ rjpids, kol rrjv alriav ovd* (Ls
C o TTpcjTos ovd^ COS 6 fieaos efj^cv vevopLiGp,€vr]v
€Tt, /cat tcl>v GVjJL^e^rjKor ojv avrco rd fiev ovk rjv
tSta TOVTOv fJLOVov rd S' ov^epLids d^ia gttovStjs
icfyalvero. TrXrjv rpia ye rcov XexOevrcov €klv€L,
TTpaJTOV jjLev on rovs ^aoiXels KaraXvaavres ol
VTTaroL Kal irpos rd ^ruioTLKCjrepov aTravra /xera/co-
GfjLT^aavTes e/c rrjs piecrqs Kal paGLXiKrjs x^pas
VTTTJyov avrovs Karw avyxcopovvres , ws /xiySc
TOVTO rijs dpxyj? avrcov Kal e^ovoias eTraxdes etrj

^ €K added by Reiske, eV Se by Xylander (see Bolkestein,
Adv. Crit. p. 70).

" I accept Bolkestein's interpretation of K-a^' 17/iaj {Adv.
Crit. p. 70). For the imperfects of the Greek in this sentence
see Kuhner-Gerth, Ausfiih. Gr. Gram, i, p. 145. 5 ; Smyth,
Gr. Grmn. 1901.

44



TABLE-TALK I, 2-3, 619

like welded iron, — unless, by Zeus, they happen to be
in love with the same lad or the same girl."



QUESTION 3

Why the place at banquets called the consul's
acquired honour

The speakers are the same as in the preceding conversation

Next our inquiry fell upon the subject of the places
at a banquet. It did so because different peoples hold
different places in honour : the Persians the most
central place, occupied by the king ; the Greeks the
first place ; the Romans the last place on the middle
couch, called the consul's place ; and some of the
Greeks who dwell around the Pontus (the people of
Heraclea, for example) contrari\^ise the first place of
the middle couch. However, it was about the so-
called consul's place that we were particularly puzzled.
For in our time " this place is held first in honour, and
yet the reason is no longer recognized as it is in the
case of the first or the middle place ; and of the
characteristics of the consul's place some do not be-
long to it alone and the rest seem worthy of no serious
consideration. Yet three of the explanations ad-
vanced made an impression upon us.** The first was
that the consuls, when they had put down the
monarchy and rearranged everything in a more demo-
cratic fashion, by way of concession demoted them-
selves from the royal central place, in order that not
even this mark of their office and their power should

* For the interpretation of the following passage see
Becker and GOll, Oallus, iii (Berlin, 1882), pp. 380 flf. ; rf.
RE, s.v. " Triclinium," col. 95.

45



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(619) Tols Gvvovaiv Sevrepov 8' ort, rcov Svelv kXlvcov
aTroSeSo/xcVcDV rots' 7TapaK€KXr][jL€vois , rj Tplrr) Kal
D ravrrjs 6 Trpcoro? totto? fidXiGTa rov co-rtcovros"
€GTiv ivravda yap cocJTrep tjvloxos ^ Kvpepv^rr]?
iirl Sefta TTpog rrjv iTTLpXei/jiv e^iKvelrai rr]g
virripeGLas Kal rov <j)LXo<j)pov€io6aL /cat StaAeyccr^at
rots' Trapovoiv ovk aTrrjpTr^rai' rcov 8e^ Gvviyy lora
roTTOJV 6 jLtev^ vn avrov t) yvvaiKos -^ iraLhcjJv iorlv,
6 S' V7T€p avrov eiKorajs ro) fidXiGra rifjLcojJLeva)
rcov K€KXriix4vix)v dneSodr], tv' iyyvs fj rov eari-

COVrOS. TpLTOV S* €X€LV lSlOV 0VT09 6 TOTTOS eSo/CCt

TO Trpos TTjv irpd^LV €V(f)V€S' ov yap eoriv 6 rcov
^Pajfialajv vnaros olos ^Apx^oLS 6 Qrj^alcov noXe-
fjiapxos, a>GT€, ypafifidrcov rj Xoycov aura) fxera^v

E SctTTVOWrt (f)pOVTLSoS d^ioJV TTpOGTrCGOVrOJV, €77 L-

(fyOey^dpievos, " els eco rd OTTOvSala," rrjv fxev
iTTiGToXrjv irapcoGai Xapelv Be rrjv SrjpLKXeLOV,

dXXd fJidX* €iJijjL€(jLaa)S

Kal TTepieGKCfifjuevos iv rots tolovtols Kaipois. ov
yap jxovov

(hSlva rt/cret vuf Kvpepv^rrj ao^ch^

Kara tov Atox^'Aov/ aAAa /cat ttotov irdoa /cat
dvioecjs copa Grparrjya)^ Kal dpxovn cfypovrtSog
d^iov epyov.^ Iva roivvv' d/couoat 6^ a Set /cat

^ Added by Vulcobius.

2 yap after /Aev deleted by Vulcobius.

3 So Xylander from Aeschylus : tLktcl kv^ lac. 6-8.

* TOV AlaxvXov Emperius (so Bolkestein, op. cit. p. 71) : to
lac. 5-7.

^ dv€<,a€ios "qBovT] arpar-qy-ycp Stephanus, wpa for rjSoi'rj
Pohlenz : lac. 5-8.

46



TABLE-TALK I. S, 619

remain to offend their associates. The second explana-
tion was that, inasmuch as two of the couches are!
given over to the guests, the third couch and the first'
place on it certainly belongs to the host, — for here, like
a charioteer or a pilot, he is favourably placed to watch
over the service and is not prevented from entertain-
ing and conversing with those who are present, — and
of the places nearest him the one which is below him
belongs either to his wife or his children, while the one
above him was given properly enough to the guest of
honour in order that he might be near his host.
Thirdly, this place seemed to have peculiar advan-
tages for the transaction of business ; for the consul
of the Romans is not like the Theban polemarch
Archias,** and, when letters or messages deserving
notice are brought to his attention in the midst of a
dinner, does not push the letter aside with the remark
** serious things tomorrow ! " and take up his Theri-
clean goblet ^ ; on the contrary the consul " is very
stern " and prudent at such times. For not only does

Night bring a skilful pilot
The misery of fear,

as Aeschylus *' says, but also every hour spent in
drinking and in relaxation brings to a general or gov-
ernor some business worthy of close attention. In
order, then, that he may be able to hear about all

" See Mor. 596 e-f, and Life of Pelojpidas^ x, for more
details and some variants of this anecdote ; cf. Nepos, Pelo-
pidaSy 3.

* For the Thericlean cylix see Athenaeus, 470 e, and RE^
s.v. " Therikles," no. 2.

� Suppliants, 770 ; c/. Mor. 1090 a.

• ffyyov or rt {sc. tiktci) Pohlenz ; cWiv. ** Ita vero longius
a traditione aberrabimus" : Bolkestein, loc. cit,

' Added by Bernardakis : lac. 3-4.

47



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(619) TTpoorrd^aL Kai VTToypdipaL Svvrjrai, tovtov e^alpe-
Tov e^€t rov tottov iv w rij? hevrlpas kXlvt^s rfj
Tplrr]^ GVvaTTTOVGTjs , r) ycovia hidXeipLpia iroiovaa
rfj KafjiTrfj SlScjulv /cat ypafjipbarel /cat VTr-qperr) Kal
F (j)v\aKi GcofJLarog /cat dyydXo) rcbv oltto arparo-
ireSov TrpoacXdelv BiaXexdrjvaL irvSeodai, {jlt^tc tlvos
ivoxXovvTOS avTO) pLTjre rivog ivoxXovfidvov rcbv
GvpiTTOTCOv y dXXd /cat X^^P^ '^^^ <l)0)vrjv virephl^iov
exovTL /cat olkcoXvtov.

620 nPOBAHMA A

UoLov Tiva Set tov avfnToaiapxov elvai
Collocuntur Plutarchus, Crato, Theo

1. J^pdrcov 6 yapifipos rjpiojv /cat Qecov 6 iraXpos
€V Tivi TTOTO) TTapoivias dpx'^v Xa^ovGTjg etra
TTavaapbivqs Xoyov iiroirioavro irepl ttjs avpTTOuiap-
X^OLS, olopLevoL pe Setv GT€(/)avr](f)OpovvTa prj irepi-
iheiv TTaXaiov^ eSos e/cAct^^cv iravrdiraGLV, aAA'
dva/caAetv /cat KaraGrrJGaL irdXiv rrjs dpxrjs rrjv
vevopiGpivrfV iTTiGraGiav Trepl ra GvpuiTOGia /cat
SLaKOGprjGLV. iSoKei Se ravra /cat rots* aAAot?,
B a)GT€ dopv^ov €/c TrdvTCov /cat TrapdKXrjGiv yeveGOai.
" 'Evret roLVVV," e<j)7]V eyco, " 8o/c€t ravra TraGiv,

^ Meziriacus : Trpwrr).
2 Added by Bernardakis : lac. 5.

<• Presumably the husband of a niece (so Ziegler, after
Wilamowitz, RE, s.v. " Plutarchos," col. 651. 26-43). Fur-
ther, see above, p. 9, note c.

'' Cherniss (LCL Mor. xii, p. 7) believes that �eW o iralpos
here and in Be E, 386 d, is probably the Theon of De Pythiae
Oraculis, Non Posse Suaviter Vivi, and Quaest. Conviv. iv. 3
(667 a) and viii. 6 (726 a if.) ; further, that the Theon of De

48



TABLE-TALK L 3-4, 619-620

urgent matters, give orders, and sign instructions,
the consul occupies this special place at the banquet ;
there the space made at the corner where the line of
couches turns between the second and third enables
secretary, servant, bodyguard, or messenger reporting
conditions at camp to approach the consul, speak
with him, and learn his will without any of the guests
annoying the consul or being annoyed by him, — on
the contrary, the consul can write and speak under
favourable conditions and without hindrance.



QUESTION 4

What sort of man the symposiarch must be

Speakers : Plutarch, Crato, Theon

1. Crato, my relative by marriage," and my friend
Theon,'' at a drinking-party at which tipsy fun had
begun and then quieted down, got into a discussion
about the office of symposiarch, being of the opinion
that I ought to assume the chaplet and not allow an
old custom to be altogether abandoned, but should
revive and establish again the traditional authority of
the office in regard to drinking-parties and their regu-
lation. The other guests were of the same opinion, so
that a great clamour arose from all sides and insistence
that I should serve.

" Since, then," I said, "you are all of one opinion, I

Facie^ whose home was in Egypt (939 c-d), is probably the
�cW o ypafifiariKo^ of Quoest. Conviv. i. 9 (626 e) and viii. 8
(728 f) ; and finally, that certainly Q^tov 6 iroupos is not the
same as the Theon of /)� Facie. Others have other solutions
(Flaceli^re, Sur VE de Delphes^ p. 1 1 ; Ziegler, RE^ s.v.
" Plutarchos," col. 686, and s.r. ** Theon," no. 10), — much
less reasonable in my opinion.

♦9



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(620) efiavTov alpovfJLai avfjLTToaiapxov vfxcjv Kal /ceAeuco

rovg fiev dXXovs cos ^ovXovrai iriveiv iv rco

TTapovTL, Kpdrojva Se Kal Qecova, rovs elcrrjyrjrd?

Kal vofioderas rod Soy/xaro?, ev rtvt rviroi ppax^cos

SieXdetv, oTTOiov ovra Set rov avinroGiapxov alpeZ-

cr^at Kal tl TTOLOvjxevos reXos 6 alpedels dp^ei Kal

TTCog )(pi^(j€TaL^ TOLS KaTOL To^ avfJUTToaiov SieXeadai

Se^ rov Xoyov €<j)€^7J^*' avrols €7rtT/0€7ra>.'**

2. Mt/cpa /xev ovv rjKKLoavTO TrapaiTOVfJievoi'

KeXevovTCov Se iravrcxiv ireideodai rco dpxovri Kal

C TTOtetv TO TrpoaraTTOfxevov, €<f)r] Trporepog 6 J^pdrcov

on Set rov [lev (j)vXdKcov dp^ovra cfyvXaKLKwrarov ,

ws (l>r]aLV 6 TlXaTOJVj etvai, rov Se avpLTToroiv

avfJLTTOTLKCjorarov. " eon Se tolovtos dv pufire rco

fxedveiv evdXcoros fj fxiJTe irpos ro 7tlv€lv dirpo-

dvfxos, aAA' COS" o Kvpo? eXeyev Trpos Aa/ccSat-

[jiovLovs ypd(j>o)V on rd r dXXa rov dheXcfyov

^aoiXiKcxirepos elr] Kal ^ipoi KaX(x>s ttoXvv dKpa-

Tov 6 re yap rrapoivcov v^pLarrjs Kal daxrip^ojv, 6

r av TTavrdTTaai vqcfxxjv drjSrjg Kal TraiSayajyeiv

jxdXXov 7J ovixTTOGiapxelv^ eiTirriheios . 6 jxkv ovv

Y[€pLKXr\Sy ocrdKLS rjpTjfJLevos arparrjyos dvaXajx-

1 Amyot : xPl^^^*"
50



TABLE-TALK L 4, 620

appoint myself your symposiarch, and I bid the rest
of you drink as you like for the present, but Crato and
Theon, the instigators and authors of this resolution,
I order to sketch in brief outline the qualities a man
ought to have to be chosen symposiarch, the objec-
tives the man selected will keep in view in the ad-
ministration of his office, and the manner in which he
will make use of drinking-party customs. I leave to
their discretion to determine between themselves the
order of their speaking."

2. Thus summoned to speak, with some small
degree of affected diffidence they tried to beg off, but
when all commanded them to obey the leader and do
his bidding, Crato began by saying that the com-
mander of guardsmen must be the quintessence of a
guardsman, to use Plato's phrase,** and the leader of
a company of drinkers must be the quintessence of a
convivial man. " And he is such if he is neither easily
overcome by drunkenness nor reluctant to drink,* but
like Cyrus," who said in a letter to the Lacedaemo-
nians that he was in general more kingly than his
brother and besides found no difficulty in carrjing a
great deal of undiluted wine, — for the drunkard is
insolent and rude and, on the other hand, the com-
plete teetotaler is disagreeable and more fit for tend-
ing children than for presiding over a drinking-party.
Now Pericles, after he had been elected head of

�• Republic, 412 c.

� Cf. 645 A and 715 d.

" The Younger : cf. Mor. 173 e ; JAfe of Artaxtrx49t vi.

" Added by Wilaniowitz.

* Amyot : Sci.

* Hubert, €K€ivots Bolkestein : € lac. 3-5.

' Amyot : tTTiTp^Tnov.

• Basel edition : vx>atapxfiv.

51



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(620)

D jSavot rrjv ;^AajLtt;Sa, TTpcorov^ elcjOcL SiaXeyeadai
rrpos avrov ojorrep VTrofjLLjjLvqaKOJV, * opa, Hept-
kXcis' iXevOepojv dpx€LS, 'EAAt^i^ojv apxcLS, ^AOt)-
valcov apx^Ls'' 6 Se crvfJLTrocrLapxos tjjjlcov eKcXvos^
Xeyero) Trpo? avrov, ' ^iXojv dpx^iSy' tva /xt^t'
daxrjfJLOveiv iTnrpeTrrj ix'^re rds rjSovds d^aipfj.
Set Sc Kol (TTTOvSrjs rov dpxovra mvovrajv oiKetov
elvai Kal TraiSids fJirj dXXorpiov, dAA* €v ttcjs
GvyK€KpafJL€VOV TTpos dfJLcfyoTepa, opuKpcp Se fidXXov,
w(j7T€p olvov dareZoVy diTovevovra rfj <j>va€i irpos to
avoTr]p6v' 6 yap otvos afct to rjOos elg ro /xe-
rpiov jiaXaKCxirepov ttolojv /cat dvvypaivojv. wairep
yap 6 Z€vo(f)6jv eXeycv rov K.Xedpxov ro OKvOpcjirov
E Kal dypoiKov dXXojs iv Tats* ixdxais rjSv Kal
<f>aihp6v eTn^aiveodai hid ro OappaXiov, ovrcos 6
fjLr) <f)VG€i TTLKpog dXXd oepivos Kal avarrjpos iv rat
TTLveiv dvL€pL€V09 tjSlcov yiyv^rai Kal 7Tpoa<f)iXior€-
pos. €rL roivvv avrco Set Trpooelvai ro fidXicrra
fjLev eKaarov rcov GVfJLTTorwv ifiTreipo)? ^x^iv, riva
Aa/xj3av€t fieraPoXrjv iv olvco Kal irpos ri irdSos
dKpoGcjyaX'qg ion Kal rrws (jiipei rov dKparov (ov yap
olvov jjL€V eon irpog vhcjp erepov irepa pZ^i?, rjv
ol paoiXiKol yiyv(x}OKOvr€S olvoxooi vvv fjuev irXeov

^ Franke : vpioTos. ^ Hubert : eKelva.

<* The anecdote is repeated in Regum et Imperatorum
Apophthegmata (Mor. 186 c), where it is appHed to mihtary
command {cf. Babbitt, LCL 3Ior. iii, p. 97). It is also re-
peated in Praecepta Gerendae Reiptiblicae {Mor. 813 e).
Gomme conflates 186 c and 813 e and appHes both to miUtary
command {Commentary on Thucydides, i, pp. 23-24), but the
context at 813 E and here at 620 c suggests to me not so much

52



TABLE-TALK L 4, 620

state,** every time he took up his cloak, would first say
to himself, as though reminding himself, ' Keep in
mind, Pericles, you govern free men, you govern
Greeks, you govern Athenians ' ; so let that sym-
posiarch of ours say to himself, * You govern friends,'
in order that he may neither allow them to misbehave
nor deprive them of their pleasures. Further, one
who governs drinkers must be congenial to serious-
ness and no stranger to play, must have both qualities
properly blended, and yet, like a choice >\ine, incline
a little towards austerity, for the wine he drinks will
bring his character to a happy mean, making it softer
and more pliant. Clearchus's sullen and churlish
aspect, according to Xenophon,^ appeared in com-
bat paradoxically pleasant and cheerful because of
the man's courage ; just so one who is not naturally
bitter, but dignified and austere, becomes pleasanter
and more lovable when he is relaxed in drinking.
Moreover the symposiarch must have a very good
understanding of each of the drinkers, knowing what
change drinking produces in each, into what emotional
state he is apt to fall, and how he carries strong drink
— for just as mixtures of wine and water vary with
different waters, which the royal wine-stewards know
and so pour into the wine now more water and now

the specifically military as the general political aspect of the
strategia, an office to which Pericles was elected year after
year and which did in fact provide him the basis of his politi-
cal control of Athens {cf. Life of Pericles^ xvi. 3). I there-
fore paraphrase arpaTj]y6s^ literally '* general " (there were
ten such elected each year), with " head of state," though the
Athenian constitution made no provision for an office legally
so called. For the strategia see C. Hignett, A History of the
Athenian Constitution, pp. 244-251 and 347-336 ; A. H. M.
Jones, Athenian De7nocracy, pp. 124-127.
* Anabasis, ii. 6. 11 f.

58



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(620) vvv 8' eXarrov vttox^ovolv, dvOpwTTOV Se TTpos
otvov ovK €(7t' t8ta KpdoLS, TjV TO) crf/X77'oatap;)^a)

F yiyvix)GK€LV TTpoGrJKeL /cat yiyvwcjKovTL ^fAarretv,
tv' cjoirep dpfJLovLKos rov fiev eTmeivcjJv rfj TTOoei
rov S' dviels kol VTTO(f)€Lh6pL€vos el? ojJLaXoTTjra /cat
ovfJLcfxjjvLav €/c hia^opas KaraGrrjorj rds (f)VG€is),
OTTCog [jLT) KorvXrj /xT^Se Kvddois to taov, aAAd
Kaipov TLVL ixerpcp /cat ocofxaros hvvdfxeL to ot/c€tov
621 eKaarcp /cat irpoo^opov dTrovefjLrjraL. €t 6e tovto
ye SvGKoXov, eKelva Se^ irdvrojs efetSeVat to)
GVfJiO(JLdpx(i) TTpoGT^KeL, TO, /cotm TTCpt Tct? ^vcet?
/cat TO-? rjXLKias' olov TTpeu^vrai rdx^ov fxedvGKOv-
rai vecjv, GaXevofxevoL 8* rjpejjLovvrcov, eXXviroi^ he
/cat TrecfypovTLKOTes evdvpaov /cat IXapcov, ol 8e
ixrf dveSrjv /cat KaraKopcx)?^ Stdyovres^ rcov dacA-
yati^ovTo^v. /cdAAa roiavd^ d^ yiyvcoGKajv dv' ris
jjidXXov rod dyvoovvros evGX'm^oGvvr]v /cat d/xd-
voiav GVfJLTTOGLOV TTpVTavevGeiev. /cat /Lti^v oTt ye
Sel Tov GviJLTTOGtapxov ot/ceto)? exeiv /cat <f)iXiKcx)s
TTpos aTravras vttovXov he pnqhevl fJ-rjS^ direx^'i] tcov
iGTLWjjLevajv elvai Travri ttov SrjXov ovre yap
eTrLrdrrajv dveKTos ovr dirovefxajv lgos ovre irpoG-

B 7Tail,a)v opujjs dveyKXrjros eoTai. tolovtov," e(f)T],
GOLy Seojv, eyd) rov dp^ovra gv/jlttoglov irXdoas
ojGTTep €/c KTjpov TOV Xoyov TTapaStSco/xt."

3. Kat d Qeojv, " dAAd Sexofiai (xev," eiTreVy

^ 8r) Pohlenz.

^ Stephanus : aAiwoi lac. 4-6.

3 01 8e fiT] Hubert, ol fxr] Doehner : lac. 4-6.

* Stephanus : Kara lac. 6-8.

^ Doehner : andyovTes.

^ Hubert : kox Toiavra.

' Emperius : /xev partially erased.

54



TABLE-TALK L 4, 620-621

less, so does toleration for wine vary from person to
person, which it is the duty of the symposiarch to
know and, knowing, to watch over, that, like a musi-
cian, keying one up to drinking and relaxing another
and scanting him a little, he may bring the natural
dispositions of the guests from diversity into smooth
and harmonious accord, — the symposiarch, I say,
must know how each guest carries his wine so that he
may serve to each not an equal amount kotyle by
kotyle or kyathos by kyathos but the amount which is
a proper and suitable measure for each man's tem-
porary condition or permanent capacity. If this is
difficult, then it is the symposiarch 's business by all
means to know the characteristics common to men
of the same temperament or to men of the same age :
namely, that old men get drunk more quickly than
young men, tempestuous men more quickly than
calm men, gloomy and apprehensive men more
quickly than happy and cheerful men, and those who
are not immoderate and intemperate in their living
than those whose life is dissipated. With knowledge
of these and like characteristics he can regulate the
decorum and harmony of a party better than the man
who knows them not. And certainly it is obvious to
everyone, I imagine, that the symposiarch must be
intimate and friendly with all of the guests, and
cankerous and hateful to none, — for he MiW be un-
bearable when imposing his orders upon them,
inequitable when serving them, and, though he joke
with them, yet will he not avoid giving offence.
Such," Crato concluded, " is the leader of the dinner-
party that I turn over to you, Theon, fashioned out
of the wax of talk, as it were."

S. And Theon replied, " Well, I accept the man

55



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(621) " ovTws o/xaAov^ dTreipyaafievov rov dvSpa Kal
GVfJLTTOTLKOv' €t �6 ;^p7ycro/xat KarcL rpOTTOV^ avTw
Kal jjuT) KaTaiaxwco to epyov, ovk ol8a' evKparov^
0€ pioi 8oK€L TOLOVTOS* (x)V TO GVjJLTroaiov SiacfyvXa-
^€LV^ rjfjuv Kal jJLT) TTepLoipeadai^ vvv fiev iKKXrjaiav
SrjjjiOKpaTLKrjv vvv Be gxoXtjv GO(j)iGTOv yLyvofjL€V7]v
avdLS 8e KV^evrripLov elrd ttov GK'qvrjv Kal dvpLeXrjv.
rj^ yap ovx opdre rovg fiev SrjfjLayatyovvTas Kal
8t,Ka^o[jL€vov9 irapd Belrrvov, rovs Se fieXercjvrag
C Kal dvayiyvojGKOvras avrojv riva GvyypdpLpLaray
Tovs �€ jLtt/xot? Kal opxrjGTalg dyajvoOerovvrag ;
^AXKLpLd8r]s Se Kal QeoBwpos reXeGTi^piov eTTOLTjGav

TO IlovXvTLOJVOS^ GVfJLTTOGLOV dTTOpLipLOVfJieVOl hahoV-

X^CLS Kal l€po(j)avTias . Sv ovSev olpLai to) dp^ovTi
7T€pL07TTeov' dXXd Kal Aoyots" Kal dedfiaGL kol
TraiSials Bojoei tottov CKeivoLs piovois, oGa rrpos to

GVflTTOTLKOV TeXoS €^LKV€LTaL' TOVTO S' "^V <^tAtaS"

€TriTaGLV Tj yev€Giv St* rjSovrj? evepydGaodai toIs
irapovGiv hiayojyr] ydp €gtlv iv olvcp to gv[jl7t6-
GLov €L9 (f)iXiav VTTO xdpiTog TeXevTCiJGa.

'Evrct Se iravTaxov ttXiJgijllov Kal noXXaxov

D pXa^epov to aKpaTOV, rj Se fju^ig, ols dv iv Kaipcp

Kal jLtera fieTpov TrapayivrjTaL TrpdypuaGLVy d^aipel

Tayav, w^ Kal ^XdiTTei ra -i^^ea Kal XvireZ rd

^ ovTCDS ofxaXov Hubert : ovrco /xaAAov.

^ Kara rpoirov Hubert : Kara irdv.

3 Paton : lac. 6 rov.

* Stephanus : toi lac. 1-2 acov {sic).

^ Wyttenbach : lac. 5-7 d^eiv.

� Reiske : oi^ea^ai. ' P. A. C. : ^.

^ Bolkestein : HoXvtlcovos.

^6



TABLE-TALK L 4, 621

fashioned to be so equable and convi\'ial. But
whether I shall make fitting use of him and not bring
dishonour upon your work of art, I do not know ; yet
it seems to me that such a man \^'ill keep our party
temperate and will not allow it to become now a
rabble-ruled congress, now a sophist's school, and .
j again a gaming-establishment, and then perhaps a y
I stage and a dancing-floor. For do you not see men
who play the politician and harangue a jury at dinner,
others who declaim and read selections from their
own WTi tings, and others who put on shows with
mummers and dancers ? Alcibiades and Theodorus
made Poulytion's party a Telesterion with their
mimicry of the torch ceremony and the initiation
ritual." None of this, I think, must our leader allow ;
rather he will only give a place to that talk, that
spectacle, that amusement which accomplishes a
party's aim, and this aim is through pleasure to pro-
duce among those who are present the heightening
* of friendship or to bring it into existence ; for the
drinking-party is a passing of time over >\ine which,
guided by gracious behaviour, ends in friendship.

" What is undiluted is everywhere surfeiting and
often harmful, but dilution, on those occasions when
timely and measured use is made of it, takes away the
excess which makes pleasure harmful and profit dis-

" The notorious profanation of the Mysteries iust before
the Sicilian expedition of 415 b.c. : Plutarch, Alcihiadex^ xix ;
Andocides, i. 11 ff. ; [Plato], Eryxias^ 394 b. The record of
the sale of property confiscated by the Athenian state from
these two and from their friends is in part preserved : W. K.
Pritchett and D. A. Amyx, " The Attic Stelai," Ilesperia^
xxii (1953), pp. 225-299; xxv (1956), pp. 178-328; xxvii
(1958), pp. 163-310 ; xxx (1961), pp. 23-29.

• a<f>aip€i rayav w Bernardakis : d<f>aip€trai dv<o.

57



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(621) dxjyeXifJLa, SrjXov on Kal rols irivovaiv 6 iTTLaraTT]?
IJL€[XL'y[Ji€vr]v TLva 7Tap€^€L SLayojyqv. olkovcov ovv
TToXXcov XeyovTCOv, on nXovg fxev 6 irapa yfjv
TTepiiraros S' o irapa ddXarrav rjSLaros ecrriy,
ovTWS TTapa^aXel^ rfj G7rov8fj rrjv TratStav, ottcos"
OL T€ Tratfovres' a/xajcryeVcos" gttovStjs tlvos ^xcovrat,
Kal ttoXlv ol GTrovSoL^ovres dvadappcjoiv, cjoirep ol
vavncjvres iyyvdev el? yrjv^ ttjv TratStav dno-
pXeTTOvres. ean yap Kal yeXcon ;^p7jcr^at irpo?
TToXXd rojv (h^eXipiOJV Kal OTTOvSrjv rjSelav irapa-
E Gx^lv,

(1)9 dv^ ixivoTToSas Kal dvd rpj^xetav ovcoviv
(fyvovrai fxaXaKOJV dvdea XevKOtcov.

OGai S* dveV GTTOvStJS €7T€LGKa)lxdl^OVGl,V TOLS GVpLTTO-

GLOis TratStat, ravTas iTnpieXojs SiaKeXevGcraL rols
GVfiTTorais evXa^elGOaiy firj XddcoGiv v^piv rriKpav^
Kaddirep voGKvapLOV ifju^aXovres'^ olvco, (hs^ tols
XeyojJLevoLS TrpoordyixaGLV i^v^pL^ovGiv, vpoardr-
rovres aSeuv i/jeXXols rj KT€vit,€o9ai <^aXaKpols r^
doKioXLdl,€iv xioXols. wGTTep ^AyafJLrJGTopL^ to)
^AKa8r]fxaLKa) Xeirrov exovn Kal K€T€(j>dLV'qK6s to
F GKiXos eTT7]pedl,ovT€s ol ^vjXTrorai Trdvrag eKeXevoav

€7tI TOV Se^LOV TToSoS CCTTcDra? €K7n€LV TO TTOrrjpLOV

7] ^r)iJLiav KaTa^aXeiv rod 8e TTpoardooeLV TrepieX-

^ Stephanus : TrapajSoAAci. ^ Added by Doehner.

* Pohlenz : lac. 4-6. * Salmasius : Xa^ovre^.

^ (Ls Bernardakis, olov Hubert, Kal (which avoids hiatus) ...
e^v^pL^cjoLv (but i^v^pl^ovaiv T) Wyttenbach.
" Basel edition : 'AyaTn^aTopi.

� Diehl, Anth. Lyr. Gr. i, p. Ill, no. 1 ; quoted also at
58



TABLE-TALK I. 4, 621

tressful ; therefore, it is clear that the gentleman who
presides will provide for the drinkers a mixed pro-
gramme of entertainment. And so, giving heed to
the testimony of many that the pleasantest sailing is
along the coast, while the pleasantest walk is by the
sea, he will accordingly throw in something playful
alongside the serious in order that men of playful
dispositions may in some fashion make contact with
a certain degree of seriousness and again that serious
men, like seasick voyagers catching sight of land near
by, may cheer up as they catch sight of something
playful. For laughter serves for many useful pur-
poses and seriousness can be pleasant,

As flowering soft white violets grow
Mid urchin's-foot and rough restharrow.*

He \vi\\ take care to bid the drinkers beware of all
those games that, with no intent of seriousness, come
roistering into parties like a drunken crowd, lest un-
awares the members of the party introduce an inso-
lent violence bitter as henbane in their wine as they
run riot with their so-called commands, ordering
stammerers to sing, or bald men to comb their hair,
or the lame to dance on a greased wine-skin. Thus,
by way of rudely mocking Agamestor the Academi-
cian,^ who had a weak and withered leg, his fellow-
banqueters proposed that each man of them all drain
off his cup while standing on his right foot, or pay a
penalty. But when it came the turn of Agamestor

Mor. 44 E and 485 a and at Athenaeus, 97 d. In the Index
of Plants in vol. vii of Pliny, Nat. Hist, (LCL) ^xivottous is
identified as the broom Genista acanthoclada.

^ According to Apollodorus (frag. 47, Jacoby, Frag.
Griech. Historiker, ii, p. 1033) the philosopher Agamestor
died in the archonship of Xenocles, 168/7 b.c. (Meritt, Ath.
Year, p. 236.)

59



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(621) dovTos €t? avTOVy eKeXevae Trdvras ovrws tticiv,
COS" av avrov lSojglv kol Kepafjulov orevov^ KOfxi-
adivros els rovro tov aaOevrj TrdSa KaOels cf eVt€ to
TTOTqpioVy ol 8* aAAot Trdvres, (Ls €<f)aiv€ro rret,-
622 pojiiivois dhvvarov, aTrertaav tt^v tpr^iiLav. ;^aptei9
ovv ^AyaiiTjarcop,^ koI TToir^reov evKoXovs ovtcj
Kal IXapds rds dpivvas' rols Se' Trpoordypiaoiv
idiGreov ;^p7}or^at TTpos rjSovrjv Kal cu</)eAetav, rd
OLKela Kal Sward Kal KoapLovvra rov Spojvra
TTpoordoGOvras y (LSlkols aaat prjropLKOLS etVetv
(f)iXoG6^ois Xvoai Tt TcDv dTTOpovpuevcov Troirjrals
7Tpo€V€yKaadaL*' gtlxovs. rjSeajg ydp els tov6*
€KaGTOS dyerai Kal TrpodvpLcos,

Lv^ avTos avrov rvyxdvrf KpdriGros ojv.

" '0 /xev ovv rGiv *A(7ort�/3tcuv paGiXevs ddXov
VTTO KTipVKOS /caTT^yyctAcv rat KaLvrjv rjSovrjv i^-
evpovri' GVpLTTOGLOv Se ^aGiXevs aGretov dOXov
B dv Kal yepas rrpodeirf rep TratStdv dvuppiarov
€lGr]yr]GapL€Vcp Kal repijjiv <li<j)eXipLov Kal yeXa>ra pLT)
pLiopLov pLTjS* vPp€a>v dXXd p^aptros" Kal ^iXo(f)po-
Gvvr]s eralpov iv oh rd TrAetcrra vavayel GvpLiroGia
pLT) rvxdvra TTaihaywyias opdrjs. ccrrt 8e Gixi<j)povos
dvhpds e^dpav <f)vXdrr€Gdai Kal dpyqVy iv dyopa

^ Amyot : Kevou, defended by Paton, perhaps rightly.

2 Basel edition : * AyairqaTcop.

^ Tols 8e P. A. C, eira Capps, oAAd /cat Vulcobius : lac.
5-7. * Stephanus : npoaeveyKaadai..

^ Tvyxdvei Bernardakis : Tvyxavj] {sic). E. R. Dodds de-
nies that the generic subjunctive can properly omit av with
Iva (Plato, Gorgias^ note on 484 e 7).

� Vulcobius : rrpoadeir].

*� Euripides, frag. 183, line 3 (Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag.\ p.
413). C/. Moralia, 43 b, 514 a, 630 b.
60



TABLE-TALK L 4, 621-622

to give the order, he commanded them all to drink
as they saw him drink. Then he had a narrow jar
brought to him, put his defective foot inside it, and
drained off his cup ; but all the others, since it was
manifestly impossible for them to do so, though they
tried, paid the penalty. Thus Agamestor showed
himself an urbane gentleman ; and, following his
example, one should make his ripostes good-
natured and merry. As for the hazards, one must
accustom the banqueters to use those conducive to
pleasure and profit, setting commands that are suit-
able, possible, and such as display the talents of the
performer, as, for example, for the musical to sing,
orators to declaim, philosophers to resolve some crux,
poets to recite their verses. For gladly is each man
led, and willingly, to that activity

Where the best of his abilities
Chance to lie. . . . •

" The king of the Assyrians * proclaimed by herald
a prize for the man who discovered a new pleasure ;
and the king of a drinking-party could offer a charm-
ing prize and reward to the man introducing a game
free from offence, a delight that has usefulness in it,
and a laughter that is the companion not of ridicule
and insolence, but of goodwill and friendliness. It is
in these respects that most drinking-parties, without
proper guidance, suffer shipwreck. The sensible
man will guard against the hatred and anger which

* The extravagance is also credited to the Persians,
Cicero, Tusc. 5. 20, and Valerius Maximus, 9. 1, Ext. S
(Xerxes), testimonia to which Bolkestein {Adv. Crit. p. 81)
has added Athenaeus, 144 e (Theophrastus, frag. 125 Wim-
mer), 514 e (Clearchus of Soli, F.H.O. ii. 304). 529 d, and
539 b (the Darius who lost to Alexander).

61



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(622) TT^v €/c TrXeove^las, ev yvixvaaloig /cat TraXaiarpais

€K (piXoVLKLaS, €V 8* dp^OL^S Kal (fyiXoTLjJLLaL? €K

(fyiXoSo^Las, iv 8e heiTTVo) koX Trapa ttotov ck Trat-
Sids iTnrideiJievrjv."

C nPOBAHMA E

Ucos ctprjTai TO " TTOirjTrjv^ 8' apa 'Epcus SiSaa/cti "
Collocuntur Sossius Senecio et alii



.2 g,



1. IlcDs" etprjTai to

7roi7]Tr]V' o apa
"EipojS StSacr/cet, Koiv apLOVOOS fj to npiv

€^r]T€LTO Trapa ^oaoico SaTr^ifcoiv tlvojv aodivrcoVy
OTTOV Kal TOP Kv/cAco7ra " pLovoais exxfxLvois
Idodai " ^'qal '* rov epcora " OtAofevos". eXexdr]
pi€v ovv OTL TTpos TTOLvra ToXfiav 6 epojs Kal Katvo-
ropLiav avyxopr)yrJGaL^ Sctvos" iarLV, a)07r€p Kal
riAciTcov " LTTjv "* avTOV Kal " TTavTOS iTTLX^iprjrrjv"
J) (hvopLaoev Kal yap XdXov 7tol€l tov GLa)7n]X6v Kal
OepairevrLKOv rov alaxvvrrjXov, CTrt/xeA?^ Se /cat
(fiiXoTTOVov rov dp^eXr] Kal padvpLOV o S* dv ris
jLtaAtCTTa davpidGeiev, (J)€l8coX6s dvrjp re /cat puKpo-
Aoyos" €pLTT€od}v els epojra Kaddirep els irvp alSrjpos

^ TTOLTjTTjv T ill table of contents fol. 1 r, here ixovolk written
by a later hand above an erasure of 5 (?) letters before t]v.

2 Cobet from 405 f and 762 b : fiovatKrjv.

3 Madvig (c/. Helmbold, C.P. xxxvi, 1941, p. 85 ; Bolke-
stein, Adv. Crit. p. 82) : avyxuiprjaai.

* Wyttenbach : tov.

" Euripides, frag. 663 Nauck, quoted also at 405 f and at
762 B. The verse is borrowed by Aristophanes ( ]Vasps^ 1074),
by Plato (Symposium, 196 e), by Theocritus's friend the
physician Nicias of Miletus (in the scholia on Idyll xi : see

62



TABLE-TALK L 4-5, 622

in the market-place is imposed by covetousness, in
the gymnasia and the palaestrae by rivalry, in poHtics
and public munificences by eagerness for glory, at
dinner and in drinking by frivolity."



QUESTION 5

Why it is held that " love teaches a poet "
Speakers : Sossius Senecio and others

1. At one of Sossius's dinners, after the singing of
some Sapphic verses, a discussion arose on why it is
held that

Love instructs a p)oet then.
Though he before was songless,"

whereas Philoxenus claims that actually

Cyclops cured his love with fair-voiced song. *

It was said, then, that love is skilful at supplying
boldness and initiative for all situations ; Plato, for
example, called it " dashing " and ** ready for any
undertaking." ^ And in fact, love makes the silent
man talkative, the bashful man attentive, the careless
and easy-going man careful and industrious, and —
most amazing — the man who is penurious and penny-
pinching, when he falls in love, melted and softened

Gow, Theocritus, ii, p. 209), by Aristides (i, pp. 51 and 322),
and by the author of the Ikpl wftovs (39. 2). The passages
are conveniently collected by Nauck, loc. cit.

*• Philoxenus's poem on Cyclops and Galatea preceded
Theocritus's Idyll xi. For the extant fragments of the poem,
and an account of Philoxenus as good as it is convenient, see
Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy, pp.
61-64 ; cf. Gow, op. cit. ii, p. 210, note on line 7.

* Symposium, 203 d ; Timaeus^ 69 d.

63



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(622) aveOelg Kal fjuaXaxdels OLTraXos Kal vypos Kal
rjSLOJV, wcrre tovtl to TraL^ofjucvov ^7) Trdvv (f)aiv€-
odai yeXoZov on " Trpdaov (f>vXX(x) to tojv ipcovrcov^
SeSeTttt ^aXXdvTLOv."

KX€)(drj 8e Kal on rep puedveLv ro ipdv opoiov
ianv 7TOL€L yap depfjLovs Kal IXapov? Kal Sta/ce-
XVfJLevovs, y€v6p,€VOL Se tolovtol Trpos rds incpSov?

E Kal ipLiJierpovs^ pLaXiara (jycovds eK(f)�povrai' Kal
Tov AlaxvXov (j)aol rds rpaycpSuas irivovTa ttoiclv
Kal hiadeppiaivopievov . rjv Se AapLTTpias 6 rjp.erepos
TraTTTTOS iv rco TTiveiv evperiKOiraros avrog avrov
Kal XoyLCjraros' elwdei Se Xeyeiv on Tip Xi^avajrcp
TTapaTrXrioicDS vtto deppLorriros dvadvp^LaraL. Kal
p.Tjv T^StOTa Tous" €pa)fi€vov9 opajvres ov\ ^rrov
rjSecog iyKOjp.Ldt,ov(JLV ^ opajGLv, Kal Trpos Trdvra
XdXos wv €p(jjs XaXioTaros icrnv iv rots inalvois.
avToi re yap ovtojs TreireLapiivoi rvyxdvovoiv Kal

F PovXovrat TreTrelodai Trdvras ojs KaXoiv Kal dyadcov
ipcovres. rovro Kal rov AuSov eTTTJpev KavSavXrjv^
rrjg iavrov yvvaLKog CTrto-Tracj^at dearrjv ets" to
ScjpbdrLov rov OLKerrjv*' ^ovXovrai yap vtt* dXXuyv
pLaprvpeZadai' Sio Kal ypd<f)ovr€s iyKcjpua rcov
KaXu)V €TTiKoop.oxjGiv avTCL [xdXeoL Kal fierpoig Kal
(pSalSy wGTiep et/covas" XP^^^ KaXXa>7TL^ovr€S,
OTTCOS aKOVTjrai, t€ fjidXXov vtto ttoXXcjv Kal pLvrjp,o-
vevTjraf Kal yap av lttttov Kal dXeKrpvova Kav

* Turnebus : epcoTcov. * Reiske : crvfinhpovs.

* Stephanus : lac. 4-6.

* Xylander, oIk€T7]v ov /3ouAo/i€vov Capps : lac. 3 T17V • ov.

64



TABLE-TALK L 5, 622

like iron in fire, he is malleable, pliant, and more
agreeable, so that the proverb " the purse of lovers
is fastened with a leek's leaf," � though meant as a
jest, does not seem altogether a joke.

Furthermore, it was said that love is like drunken-
ness, for it makes men hot, gay, and distraught, and
when they get in that condition, they are carried
away into song-like and quite metrical speech :
Aeschylus allegedly wrote his tragedies while drink-
ing, indeed thoroughly heated with wine. My grand-
father Lamprias was his most ingenious and eloquent
self when drinking, and it was his habit to say that,
much as incense is volatilized by heat, so was he by
wine. Furthermore, men find their greatest pleasure
in seeing those whom they love and are not less
glad to sing their praises than to see them ; it is in
praise that love, loquacious in everything, is most
loquacious. For inasmuch as lovers have persuaded
themselves that the objects of their affections are fair
and noble, they want everybody to be persuaded.
This desire incited the Lydian Candaules ^ to drag
his servant into his own wife's bedroom to gaze upon
her : for lovers want others to bear them witness.
Thus, when they write eulogies of their fair beloved,
they adorn their eulogies with melody and rhythm
and song, as men beautify statues with gold, so that
the praise of their beloved may be more likely to
come to the ears of many people and be remembered.
And indeed, if they give their beloved a horse, a cock,

" Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiogr. Oraec. i, p. 447,
and ii, p. 47. By transposing the first two words and expand-
ing the verb to its compound orwSeScTot Cobet obtained an
incomplete and a complete iambic trimeter (Kock, Com. Att.
Frag, iii, p. 446, no. 197).

* Herodotus, i. 8 f .

VOL. VIII D (i5



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

623 aAAo Tt TOLS ipcofievoLS SiScogl, /caAov etvai /cat
KeKOGjX'qiievov iKTrpeiTcog ^ovXovrai koX irepiTTcJJS
TO Scopov, [xaXiGra 8e Xoyov KoXaKa 7TpoG<f)epovT€S
r]8vv ideXovoL ^aiveodai kol yavpov /cat TrepirroVy

oloS 6 7TOLr]TlK6s ioTTLV.

2. '0 fievTOL Socrcrio? iiraivioas cKetvovs etTTCv
COS" ov x^^pov av TLS^ emx^Lprjoeiev opfJLrjdels a(f)'
(Lv Q€6(j)paGTOS eLpr)K€V 7T€pl fjLOVGLKTJs' " Kal yap
evayxos," €<f)7}, " to Pl^Xlov aviyvcjv. Xeyeu Se
fjLovGiKTJs apx^s rpeZs elvat, Xvtttjv, tjSov^v, ivdov-
oiaopLOV, cos iKOLGTov Tojv 7Tada>v TOVTOJv^ TTaparpd-
TTOVTOS^ €K rod ovviqdovs /cat TrapeyKXivovros* t7]v
(f)Cx)vrjv. at T€ yap Xvirai^ ro yoepov /cat OpT^vrj-
B TLKov oXioBripov els coSrjv exovaiv, Slo /cat rovs
p'qropas €v Tols €7nX6yois /cat rovs viroKpiras iv
ToZs oSvpfJLols drpefxa rep [xeXajSelv rrpoadyovras
opcofiev /cat irapevreivovras rrjv (fxjovqv. at re
G(f>o8pal TTepLxdpeiai rrjs ^vx'rjs rdv {lev iXacfypo-
repcov rep TJdei Kal ro ocop.a ovveiraipovGiv^ /cat
TTapaKaXovGiv els evpvdpiov KLvrjoiv, e^aXXojxevajv
/cat Kporovvrcov elirep opx^Zodai pLJ] Svvavrai''

jLtavtat t' dAaAat^ t* opLvofJievcov piipavx^vi^ ovv
kXovco

Kara HlvSapov ol 8e ^^aptevTes" ev rep irddei rovrcp
yevofxevoL rrjv (fywvrjv piovrjv els ro aSetv /cat (f>dey-
yeodai piirpa^^ Kal p.eXrj irpotevrai. p,dXiora S' o

^ Xeipov av ris Xylander : ;^ei/3o/nai'Tij with the beginning of
an erasure at fx.

^ iradcov TovTcov Bernardakis : lac. 3-4 avrajv.

3 Xylander : rraparpe lac. 4.

* Kal napeyKXlvovTog Bernardakis : lac. 4-5 eyKXivavrog.

^ So a later hand in T and the Basel edition : Xvaaai.

66



TABLE-TALK I. 5, 623

or anything else, they want the gift to be beautiful
and splendidly, exquisitely groomed ; if it is a flatter-
ing address they offer, they particularly want it to
appear agreeable, elegant, and exquisite, qualities
which are characteristic of poetry.

2. Sossius, however, after praising them, said that
one would not make a bad attempt at a solution by
beginning >nth what Theophrastus has to say about
music. " For I have recently read the book," he
continued, " and Theophrastus ^ holds that music has
three sources, sorrow, joy, and religious ecstasy ; for
each of these emotions diverts and deflects the voice
from its cutomary range. Sorrows, as we know,
involve weeping and wailing that naturally slips into
song ; this is why we find that our orators in their
perorations and our actors in their laments by degrees
raise the pitch of their speaking voice and approach
song. And the soul's intense joys stir men of light
character to bodily activity and invite them to
rhythmic movement, — they jump up and clap their
hands if they can't dance,

The madness and shrieking of men
Excited by neck-breaking clash
Of the fight,

as Pindar ^ has it, — but men of wit and taste who ex-
perience these emotions raise their voice alone to
sing and recite verses and lyrics. Ecstasy, especially,

" Frag. 90 Wimmer.

" Frag. 208 Dithyramb ii, lines 13 f. (Snell), quoted also
with slight variation at 417 c, 706 e.

• Reiske : irdv f-naipovaiv. ' Bernardakis : Bwuivrai.

� Xylander (r/. 706 e) : oAAat.

• Turnebus (c/. 706 e, 417 c) : fpiavx^vi.

" Faehse (c/. Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 77) : fiiya.

67



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

^ ^ dovaLaa/xos e^iorrjoi /cat TrapaTpencL ro t€ cra�ju,a
Acat rrjv (jxjovrjv rod avvqdovs /cat Kadcarr^Koro?.
66 €v at re j8a/c;)^etat pvOfiols ■)(pa}VTaL /cat to xP1~
GjJLcpSeiv ipLfxerpcos Trapexcrai rols ivdea^opidvoi?,
TCJV re jJLaLVOfjidvctJV oXlyovs tSetv ecrrtv ai^eu /xe-
rpov /cat (LSrjs Xrjpovvras. ovrco Se toutojv i)(6v-
Twv €t ^ovXoLO KaOopdv VTT* avyo.'S StaTrrufas' roy
epojra /cat KarafxavdaveLV , ovk av aXXo Tvados €v-
pois ovT€ XvTras Spifivrepas ^xov ovt€ o^o^poripas
Tr€pixap€ia� ovre jLtct^ovas" CKordcjeis /cat Trapa^po-
cjwa?, dAA' oiGTTep rrjV Ho(J)6kX€iov^ ttoXlv dvSpos

ipOJTlKOV l/jVX'TjV

ofiov fiev dvixLapLarajv
ye/jLOVGav,

D ojJLov 8e TTaidvojv re /cat OT^vaypLarcov.

ovhev ovv droTTOV ovhk BavpiaoTOV, el Trdaag, ocrai

pLOVGLKTJS etCTtV dpXOLh 7T€pL€X0JV 6 €pCJS €V aVTO)

/cat GVV€iX7](jid)S , Xv7T7]v TjSovTjv evdovoiaopLOv , rd T
dXXa <J)lX6(J)U)v6s^ €otl /cat XdXos ets" t€ TTolrjaLv
jLteAcov /cat pbirpoiv cog ovSev dXXo irddos i7TL(f>opos
/cat KardvTT]?."

nPOBAHMA ^

TLepL TTJs 'AAefavSpoy TToXunoaias

Collocuntur Philiniis, Plutarchus, alii

1. Aoyos rjv irepl ^AXe^dvSpov tov paaiXicjJS (hs

OV TToXv TtLvOVTOS dXXd TToXvV XpOVOV €V TO) 7TiV€LV

E /cat' SiaXeyeadai rot? ^t'Aots" eA/covros". dne-

^ Bolkestein, citing Life of Antony^ xxiv. 3, 17 So^d/fActoj
cKelvT] TToXis ; rfjv 'Lo<f>oK\€ovs Xylander : tov Eo^oKAc'a.

68



TABLE-TALK L 5-6, 623

changes and diverts both body and voice from their
usual habits. Hence the Bacchic celebrations make
use of rhythmic movements, to the god-inspired it is
given to chant oracles in metre, and few madmen can
one find whose ravings are not in verse and song. In
\aew of these facts, if you should care to spread love
out beneath the rays of the sun, to examine it and
understand it, you would find that there is no other
emotion which contains more bitter sorrows, more
violent joy, or greater ecstasy and delirium ; the soul
of a man in love, like Sophocles' city, is full

Of incense-smoke and simultaneously

Of hymns triumphant and of lamentation.*

It is neither strange nor remarkable, then, if love,
containing and comprehending within itself all the
sources of music, — namely, sorrow, joy, and ecstasy, —
is itself a noisy and talkative emotion in general and
also one more conducive and inclined to the making
of songs and verses than any other."



QUESTION 6

Concerning Alexander's excessive drinking *

Speakers : Philinus, Plutarch, others

1. The conversation was about Alexander the king,
and the consensus was that he did not drink exces-
sively, but did spend much time in drinking and con-

" Oedipus TyrannuSy 4 ; cited also at Mor. 95 c, 169 d,
445 D, and Life of Antony, xxiv. 3. Here Plutarch adapts the
y4yi€i of Sophocles.

* The title is only partially descriptive of the content.

' Faehse (c/. Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 77) : OiAottovo?.
• Added by Stephanus.



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(623) 8€LKvv€v 3' avrovs <f)XvapovvTas OtAtvo? €k tcov
^acnXiKcov i(l)r] fjiep 1,8 cjv, iv at? avvex^orara yeypa-
TTTaL /cat TrAetcrraActs" ort " ttJvSc tt^v rjfJLepav gk rod
TTorov Kauevocov ecrrt o ore /cat rrjv €(f>€^r]? • oio
/cat TTpos ras avvovoias dpyorepos rjv, o^vs 3e /cat
dvfio€L8rjg dnep iarl acopLarLKrjs depfiorrjros. Aeye-
rat Se /cat rou ;)^pa>T6s' rjdLorov diroTTvelv cjore
KaranifJiTrXdvaL rovs x^'T'^^to'/cous' cuoiSta? dpojfiari-
^ovarj^j o SoAcet /cat ai5ro depfiorrjTog elvaf 8l6
/cat ttJs" OLKovfJievrjg ol ^iqporaroi /cat depfioraroL

TOTTOl TTjV T€ KaOiaV Kol TOV Xi^aVOJTOV €K(f)epoVGLV

F TTeifieL ydp tlvl tcov vypcov 6 �co^pao-ros' <f>7}GLV
€7nyiyv€GBai rrjv €vo}8iav, orav i^aipeOfj ro
pXa^epov 7T€piGo6v^ VTTO depfiorrjTOS. So/C€t 8e
/cat KaAAtcr^eVT^S"^ iv 8LapoXfj yeveadai irpos avrov,^
(1)S 8vax€paLva)v* to ovv8€L7tv€lv^ Sta rov aKparov^'
€7r€L /cat /cuAt/ca Xeyopiiviqv 'AAe^avSpou ixeydXrjv
624 iXOovGav eir* avrov direcjoaTO cfy'qaag ovk ideXeiv
^AXe^dv8pov TTicbv 'Acr/cAT^TTtou Sctcr^at. ravra fiev
ovv Trepl rrjg *AX€^dv8pov TToXviroaias .

^ Hubert : piaaov.
^ Turnebus : lac. 4.

^ yeveadai, vpos avrov Turnebus : ye lac. 3-5 t6v.

* Turnebus : Svax^paL lac. 3 SetTrveiv.

^ TO cryvSeiTTverv Bolkestein, avvScnrvelv Faehse.

^ Bolkestein from Athenaeus, 434 d : lac. 3-4.

" See Life of Alexander ^ xxiii ; Athenaeus, 434 b, f.

^ A friend and fellow townsman of Plutarch {RE^ s.v.
" Plutarchos," col. 681). J. H. Oliver offers to identify an
Athenian branch of the family in an ephebe inscription of the
latter part of the 3rd century after Christ {Hesperia^ ii [1933],
p. 510, and, for a more complete text, xi [1942], p. 71, no. 37).

'^ See note a and cf. RE, s.v. " Ephemerides."

70



TABLE-TALK I. 6, 623-624

versing with his friends.** Philinus,^ however, showed
their talk nonsense, taking his proof from the royal
Journal'^ where, with repetitious frequency, it is writ-
ten, " after a bout of drinking Alexander slept this day
through," sometimes with the addition of " and the i
following day also." <* Accordingly he was very lazy ,
about love-making, though his bold and choleric ;
temperament indicated a hot-natured body. Further- |
more a very pleasant odour is said to have emanated
from his skjn ; and his clothing, as a result, was filled
with a fragrant aroma, — which too seems indicative
of heat. Thus cassia and frankincense are produced
in the driest and hottest parts of our world, for frag-
rance, according to Theophrastus, comes from a sort
of distillation oi moistures when their harmful excess
is removed by heat.* It seems, moreover, that Cal- ,
listhenes ^ incurred the enmity of Alexander because,
so the story goes, he could not endure to dine with
the king on account of the strong drink. Indeed, even
the great loving-cup called Alexander's, when once it
was passed to him, he thrust aside with the remark
that he did not wish to drink from Alexander's cup
and so stand in need of Asclepius's.' This, then,
was the conversation about Alexander's excessive
drinking.

<* Cf. Aelian. Varia Hist. iii. 23.

• The characteristics of Alexander are also reported in the
Life (ch. iv), there on the authority of Aristoxenus, and their
explanation is again found in Theophrastus's hypothesis con-
cerning fragrance : cf. Wehrli, Aristoxenus^ frag. 132 with
commentary {Die Schule des Aristoteles, ii, pp. 40 and 87-88).

^ An Olynthian, Aristotle's nephew, and an Alexander
historian executed for participation in the Pages' Conspiracy
(Jacoby, Frag. Griech. Historiker, no. 124).

' This anecdote is found again at 454 d and at Athenaeus,
434 d.

71



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(624) 2. M^LdpiSoLTrjv Se rov TToXe^jLTjoavra ^Vwfiaiois iv
roLS dycocnv, ovs CTicreAct TroXvcfyayla? dOXa delvai
Koi TToXvTTOGLas <j)aoiv, vLKTJGai S' avrov a/^^orcpa,
/cat 6Xo)9 TTLelv ttXclutov rwv^ Kad^ avrov dvdpwTrojv,
8l6 Kol Alovvgov i7TLKX7]6rjvai. TovB^ r]jX€is et7ro/Lt€V

eV Tt TCUV €tAC7^ TTCTTtCTTCf jLteVoJV €LVai, TO TTCpl TrjV

air Lav rrjg iiTiKXriGecos' vqiriov yap ovros avrov
K€pavv6s €7re^Aefe rd oirdpyava, rod Sc ocopiaros
ov)( rji/jaro, ttXtjv ooov Ixvos ri rov TTVpog iv rep
B fJL€ra)7Ta) KpvTrrofxevov^ vtto rrjs KopLrjg (hiapi€v)€iv^
avrcp TTaihi' yeyovoros 8'* dvhpos 1)87] TrdXiv irrl
ro Sajfjidriov ifiTreocov Kcpavvos avrov fxev Trapi-
TTcaev^ KadevSovros, rijs Se <f)ap€rpas virepKpe-
fiafjidvrjs^ SLe^rjXde rd ^eXr) rrvpaKrcoaas. ol fxev
ovv pidvreLS dTrecf^t^vavro rrXelorov avrov lox^^^^^
drro rrjg ro^LKrjg /cat Kov^rfs orparids, ol he
TToXXol Aiovvcjov avrov dird rcov Kepavvo^oXiojv
6pioi6r7]ri rov irdSovs tt poorly 6 pevoav .

3. 'E/c rovrov rrdXiv^ rrepl rcjv ttoXv niovrcov tJv
Xoyos' iv ots /cat rov TTVKrrjv 'H/aa/cActSi^v irWeaav,

^ Added by Turnebus.

^ Bernardakis, Kparov^evov Bolkestein : KpaTovfievo).

' Bernardakis, fxevcLv exemplum Tiirnebi : lac. 5-6 €iv.

* 77-ai8i- yeyovoTos B' ZiegleT ; Traihi- Kai exemplum Turnebi,
Amyot {cf. Wyttenbach ad loc.) : irai lac. 4-6.

^ Emperius : Kareireaev.

* Reiske : vTTOKp€fxafj,€VT]s.
' Added by Hubert.

<� Mithridates the Great of Pontus, who fought Sulla, Lu-
cullus, and Pompey. For the anecdote cf. Athenaeus, 415 e,

72



TABLE-TALK L 6, 624

2. According to report, the Mithridates <* who made
war against the Romans put up prizes for the greatest
eater and the greatest drinker in the contests he
sponsored, himself won the prizes for both, was by
far the greatest drinker among his contemporaries,
and so was nicknamed Dionysus.^ In my opinion
that account of the reason for his nickname was one
of those stories that gain credence without good
grounds. Actually, when he was a baby, a bolt of
lightning burned his swaddling-clothes, but did not
touch his body, except for a trace of the fire which
remained upon his forehead as a youth and was con-
cealed by his hair. When he became a man, a bolt of
lightning again fell near him, striking his house as he
slept, passing through the quiver which hung above
his head, and charring the arrows in it." His prophets
thereupon declared that he would derive his greatest
strength from archers and light-armed troops, but
the multitude called him Dionysus because of the
similarity of his experience with bolts of lightning.**

3. From this the conversation returned to the sub-
ject of those who drink excessively. Among them was
placed the boxer Heraclides,* who lived in the time

from Nicolaus of Damascus, frag. 73 (Jacoby, Frag. Oriech,
Ilistoriker^ ii, p. 377).

" Cf. Poseidonius, frag. 36 (Jacoby) in Athenaeus, v,
212 d. " Cf. in/ray 665 b-e.

** An allusion to the story that Dionysus's mother Semelfi
was struck and killed by Zeus's lightning when she was
pregnant with the god to be {cf. H. J. Rose in O.C.D.^ s.v,
" Semel^ ") ; the lightning that killed Semel6 made Diony-
sus immortal and the implication is not without flattery to
Mithridates.

* Included in a short list of heavy drinkers by Aelian,
Varia Hist. xii. 26. The nickname, as Bolkestein notes
{Adv. Crit. p. 90), apparently occurs as an ordinary name in
I.O. xii. 3. 21 (SymS).

VOL. VIII D* 78



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(624) ov 'H/oa/cAow ^AXc^avSpets vrreKopl^ovTo, Kara

rov9 TTarepas '^fxcov yevofxevov. ovros aTropiov

C ovpLTTOTOV 7rapajJi€Vovros 6/caAet tovs /i-ev cttl irpo-

TTOfXa TOVS S' €77* dpLGTOV dXXoVS S' €7tI BeLTTVOV,

iG)(dTOVs Se Tivas inl Kajfjiov' dTTaXXarropilvajv
Se TcDv TTpcjJTOJV ol^ SevrepoL GVvrJTrrov elr i(f)€^7Js
ol rpiroi /cat reraproL' KOLKelvos ovBkv SidXeLjjLfjLa
TTOLcbv diraoLV i^'qpKei /cat rovs reooapas ttotovs
ovvhii^epev .

4. TcDv he ApovGO) ra> Ti^epiov Kalaapos via)
GVfJi^LovvTCov 6 Trdvras ev rep rriveLv TrporpeTTOfjievos^
larpos idXoj rcov mKpdjv dfJivySaXcov irivr t} If
iKaarore TrpoXajji^dvcov eVe/ca rov fir) fxed-uoKead ai'
KcoXvdels 3e /cat 'napa(f)vXa-)(d€ls ou5' cTrt puKpov
D dvT€G-)(^v. evLOL fJLev ovv a>ovro rds dfjivySaXtSas
SrjKTLKOv Tt /cat pVTTTLKov ^x^iv TTJg oapKos , wore
/cat Tcov TTpoGWTrajv rag c^T^AtSas" e^aipelv orav
ovv 7rpoXrj(f)da)OL, rfj mKporrjrc rovs TTopovs djjivo-
oeiv /cat Srjy/jLov epiTroLelv, v<j)* ov ro vypov /cara-
OTTCxiOLV diTO rrjs Ke^aXr\s Star/xtjd/xevov. ripiZv Se
fjidXXov Tj rrjs mKporrjros eSo/cet SvvapiLS dva-
^rjpavrtKrj /cat Sdrravog vypcov elvai' 8i6 rfj re
yevoet Trdvrojv eorl rcov ^''jXdjv 6 rriKpos drjSeoraros
(to, yap (f)Xe^ia rrjs yXcxyrrr^s, ojs 6 IlAarajv ^r^oiv^
jLtaAa/ca /cat fiavorep* ovra ovvreiveraC^ rrapd <f)v-

^ Added by Franke.

2 TTpoTpexofxevos Xylander (citing Athenaeus, 52 d) ; irap-
epxoyievos Bemardakis (which Gulick prefers, also citing inr^p-
^dvra at Athenaeus, 52 d : A J. P. Ix [1939], p. 493).

^ Hubert : ffuvreiVet.

** Athenaeus at 52 d quotes this passage from Plutarch,
whom he names (c/. Gulick, A.J. P. Ix [1939], p. 493). Pliny

74



TABLE-TALK L 6, 624

of our fathers and was affectionately called Heraclous
by the Alexandrians. Unable to find a drinking-
companion to stay with him, he was in the habit of
inviting people in for a round of drinks before
luncheon, others for luncheon itself, still others for
dinner, and finally new people again for an after-
dinner bout of drinking. As the first group departed,
the second arrived, then the third in their turn, and
the fourth. Heraclides, without any let-up, was a
match for them all and fully carried his part of the
four sessions of drinking.

4. Among the companions of Drusus, the son of
Tiberius Caesar, a doctor outstripped them all in
drinking, and it was proved on him that before each
party he took five or six bitter almonds to avoid
getting drunk.** When he was stopped from doing
so and closely watched, he did not hold out against
the power of the wine even for a short time. Some
were of the opinion that the almonds had an irritant,
cathartic property affecting the flesh, so that they
even removed pimples ^ from the face ; thus, when
taken before drinking, they were thought by reason
of their bitterness to excite and irritate the pores
and by this action to draw moisture from the head in
the form of vapour. To me, however, the action of
bitterness seemed to be desiccant and moisture-
dissipating ; for this reason a bitter flavour is the
most unple.isant of all to the taste (for, as Plato says,*
the small veins of the tongue, which are soft and
widely spaced, are unnaturally contracted by dryness

{Nat. Hist, xxiii. 145) claims the same property for almonds
(V/. Dioscorides, i. 123. 2).

'' Perhaps " freckles."

" The allusion rather garbles Timaeus^ 65 c if., on which
see A. E. Taylor, Commentary^ pp. 465 f.

75



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(624) GLV VTTO rrjs ^rjporrjro?, iKrrjKOfJLevcuv tojv vypcuv)
/cat ra eXKT) rots TriKpols dTnaxvalvovcn ^a/a/xa/cot?,
COS" o TTOLTjT'qs <l>r](nv

E €7TL Be pit^av jSaAe TTLKprjv

;YepCTt SiarpLi/jas 6Svv}^<f)aTov, rj ol airdoas
eox ohvvas' to pikv eXKOs irepaero,^ rravGaro
S' alfia.

TO yap TTJ y€VG€L TTLKpov ttJ Swcx/xet ^-qpaVTLKOV
6pda)s npoGrjyopevaev. ^atVerat 5e /cat ra 8ta-
TrctCT/xara rcDv yvvaiKOJVy ols dvapirdt^ovGi rovs
ihpcjras, TTiKpd rfj yevaec^ /cat orvTniKd ovra,

G<f)o8p6Tr]TL TOV CTTpV(j)VOV ^7]paiV€LV.^ " OVTOJS

ovVy' €(f)y}v, " roTJTCOv exovratv, et/cdro)? "f] rcov
dfivySaXojv TTLKporrjg ^orjOel irpog rov aKparov,
dva^ripaivovaa rod adofxaros rd ivrog /cat ovk
F ecocra TripLTrXaoBai rds (j)Xe^as, Sv Staracrct ^aat /cat
Tapa)(fj ovfJi^alveL ro fiedveLV. reKjjLrjpLOv 8e rov
625 Xoyov jxeya to avfji^dlvov 7T€pl rds aAcoTTC/cas" • dv
ydp dfivySdXas TTLKpds (^ayovoaL firj'^ eTrtTTtcucrtv,
dTTodvqcjKOvaL^ Tcbv vypwv ddpoojs iKXeiTTOvrajv."^

nPOBAHMA Z

Aia Tt /xoAAov aKpdrto ;faipouaiv ol yepovre^
CoUocuntur Plutarchus et alii

'E^T^TCtro 7T€pl rojv yepovTOJV, 8id ri fxaXXov
dKparorepo) ra) ttoto) ■)(aipovoLV. ol jxev ovv
KareifjvyfJLevrjv tt^v e^tv avrcov /cat SvacKdepfiavrov

^ airdaas . . . irepaero added by Xylander from Iliads xi.
847-848.

2 Hubert : ^yaet.

76



TABLE-TALK L 6-7, 624-625

as moisture is dissipated), and this is why festering
wounds are dried up by the use of bitter drugs, as
the Poet says,^

Thereon he placed a bitter drug.
One crushed by hand, a killer of pain,
Which checked that warrior's suffering ;
It dried the wound and staunched the blood.

He rightly called desiccant in action what is bitter in
taste. Moreover, the dusting-powders which women
use to dry perspiration have a bitter, puckery taste
and seem to act as desiccants because of their vigor-
ous astringency. " Since this is so," I concluded, " the
bitterness of almonds is naturally helpful against
v^ine, for it dries up the inside of the body and does
not let the veins become full ; and drunkenness, in
common opinion, is due to the dilation and distur-
bance of the veins. A great proof of this opinion is
what happens to foxes : if they eat bitter almonds
and drink nothing afterwards, they die of complete
desiccation."



QUESTION 7

Why old men are very fond of strong wine

Speakers : Plutarch and others

Under discussion was the question why old men are
very fond of drink that is rather strong. Some thought
the constitution of old men, being chill and hard to

• Iliad, xi. 846 ff.

' ^palveiv Reiske : to niKpov.

* Exemplum Turnebi : lac. 3.

' firnricoaiKv arrodvrjaKovaO exemplum Turnebi : lac. 5-7.

• a9p6<o)s €KX€i>iT6vT<ov cxeinpium Turnebi : lac. 9.

77



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(625) ovorav olofievoL 8ia tovto rfj o(f)o8p6rr]rL rify?
Kpd(T€W9 ivapfJiOTTCLV €<l)aivovro kolvov ri /cat
TTpo^eLpov ovx iKavov 8e 77/309 Tr]v alriav ouS'
akrjdes Xeyovres' Kal yap IttI tcov dXXcov aladrjaeajv
TO avro avfJL^e^rjKev hvoKivr^roi yap eloi Kal

B SvarfierdpXrjTOL TTpos rds avriXTJi/jeLS tcov TroLor-qrcov,
dv fJLTj KardKopoL Kal O(f)o8pal^ TTpouirioajGLV.
air la 8* r) rrjs efeoj? avecrts" iKXvofjLevr) yap Kal
drovovGa TrAT^rrecr^at (fyiXel. Slo rfj re yevaei
pidXiora rovg SrjKriKovg irpooievrai ^vfjiovs, 17 r*
do<j>priuiS avrcjv opLoia Treirovde Trpos rds ocr/xas",
KiveZrai yap vtto rwv aKpdrcov Kal o<f)o8p(x)v^
rjSiov 7) S' dcfyr) Trpos^ rd eXKT) hvoTTad-qs ,*^ rpavpLara
yap iviore^ XapL^dvovre? ov fxdXa^ ttovovolv
ofjiOLorarov^ Se yiyverai ro^ rrjg aKOTJSy ol yap
[jLovaiKol yrjpojvres o^vrepov dpfxol^ovrai Kal okXt]-
porepov otov vtto rrXrjyrjs^ rijs ovvrovov <l)a>vfj�

iyelpovreg ro alodrjrripLov . 6 ri yap ocS-qpo) irpos

dKpLTjv cTTO/xcojLia, rovro ocofiarL TTvevfia Trapex^t

TTpos aloOrjOLV evhovros he rovrov Kal xaXdaavros,

dpyov dnoXeLTTeraL Kal yecoSes ro alodrjr'qpiov Kal

G(f)oSpov rod vurrovros, otov 6 aKparos ion

Seofievov.

^ Reiske : a<f>68pa.

^ Koi a(f)o8pcov exemplum Turnebi : lac. 4-6.

^ Exemplum Turnebi : lac. 5-7.

* Exemplum Turnebi : Sva-na lac. 4-6.



78



TABLE-TALK L 7, 625

warm, was on this account compatible with a strong
mixture of wine and water ; obviously their argu-
ment was platitudinous and facile, and neither an
adequate nor an accurate analysis of the causation.
For the same thing occurs in regard to an old man's
perception of other stimuli ; in apprehending sensa-
tions he is hard to stir and hard to rouse, unless they
strike him with excessive strength. The cause is the
decline of his physical vigour ; enfeebled and ex-
hausted, his system likes shock. Thus an old man
likes flavours very pungent to his taste ; and odours
affect in like manner his sense of smell, for it is
pleasantly stimulated by scents which are un-
adulterate and strong. His tactile sense is dulled to
wounds, for, though he is sometimes hurt, he does
not feel much pain. And his sense of hearing is much
the same, for a musician, as he grows old, tunes
more sharply and harshly, as though to waken his
hearing by the whip-lashes of high-pitched sound.
What tempering gives the steel's edge, is given the
body's perception by the breath of life " ; when this
gives in and grows weak, the senses are left blunted
and clod-like and in need of a vigorous stimulant,
which strong wine is.

" Cf. 666 A, below.

* Exemplum Turnebi : lac. 6-8.

* OX) yuoXa exemplum Turnebi : lac. 4-6 a.

' Exemplum Turnebi : c lac. 3-5 rarov.

' Added by Bernardakis.

• Kox after Trkqyri's deleted by Reiske.



79



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(625) nPOBAHMA H

Aid Ti TO. ypafifiara noppatdev ol vpco^vrcpoi fcaiXXov
a.vayiyv(x)aKOvaiv

Collocuntur Lamprias, Plutarchus, alii

1. Taura 8' rjixcov elg to TTpoKcifievov evprjGi-

XoyovvTOJV iSoKei to rrjg otpecog avTiTTLTrreiv. ol

D yap TTpeo^vrepoi Troppco ra ypafifxara rcbv opLpLarajv

OLTrdyovres avayiyvcjOKOvoiv , iyyvOev 8* ov SvvavraL'

/cat TOVTO TTapaSrjXiov 6 Aict^^uAos" (f>'rjGLV'

Gv o €$• aTTOTTTOv avTov, OV yap �yyvo€v
hvvaio y dv^' yipcov he ypapLfxarevs yevov
cra^T^S".

ivSrjXorepov 8e So^o/cAt^? to auTO TTcpl rcov ye-

pOVTCOV

^paSeia /xev yap iv Aoyotot Trpoo^oXrj
jLtoAt? St* cuTos" epx^rai pvTrajfjLevov^'
Trpoaoj^ 8e Xevoaojv, iyyvdev Se nds TV<j>X6s.

eiirep ovv irpos rr)v eiriraoiv /cat G(f)oSp6rr]ra
[xdXXov VTTaKovei rd^ tcov ycpovrcov alodriTrjpia,
E TTibs €v Tip dvayiyvoiGK€iv rdv iyyvOev dvri<f)a)Ti-
GfJLOv ov <j)€povGiVy dXXd 7TpodyovT€S^ drrwripcD to
jStjSAtov iKXvovGL TTjv XafX7Tp6T7]Ta Tcp depL KaOdvep
olvov vSaTL KaTaKepavvvfjidvrjv ;

^ ai) 8* c'l airotrrov Headlam {Journal of Philology ^ xxiii,
1895, p. 271 ; for the hiatus cf. Sophocles, Philoctetes, 446,
and Oedipus Tyrannus, 332 : ouSe otto lac. 3.

2 Bvvato y dv P. A. C. : lac. 6.

* Meineke : rpimconevov.

* Dindorf: Troppu).
80



TABLE-TALK L 8, 625

QUESTION 8

Why old men hold writing at a greater distance for reading

Speakers : Lamprias, Plutarch, others

1. The phenomena of sight seemed to oppose the
solution I devised for the preceding problem, for old
men place writing far from their eyes to read it, and
when the writing is near, they are unable to decipher
it. Aeschylus intimates this when he says ** :

But you must read it far away.
For close up you could surely not.
And you must be a lucid scribe.
Though old.

And Sophocles more clearly says the same thing
about old men ^ :

The sound of talking falls with slow impress.
And hardly penetrates the stopped-up ear ;
But each man sees afar, is blind when close.

If, then, the senses of old men respond better to
intensity and strength, why is it that in reading they
do not endure the impact of Hght from near by, but
destroy its brightness by moving the book farther
away and so diluting that brightness with air as wine
is diluted with water?

� Frag. 358 Nauck {Trag. Gr. Frag. p. 107), 196 Smyth
(LCL Aeschylus^ ii, p. 493).

" Frag. 774 Nauck {op. cit. pp. 312 f.), 858 Pearson {Frag-
ments of Sophocles, iii, p. 64). The translation here printed
for lines 1-2 is Headlam's except for one word {cf. Pearson's
note, loc. cit.).

^ Added by Meziriacus.
' Hubert : Trapdyovres.

81



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(625) 2. ^Ho-av fxev ovv ol irpos tovto Xeyovreg,^ ojs
airdyovGi tojv oipeajv to ^l^Xlov ov jJuaXaKcorepov
TO (j)a)9 TTOLOVvreg, aAA' olov iTnhparrojxevoL /cat
7T€piXa}i^avovT€s avyrjv TrXeiova /cat TrXrjpovvres
aepos XafjLTrpov t7]v fiera^v rcov ofifidrajv /cat rcDv
ypafJufioLTCUv ;^c6/)av. erepot Se rots' avpL^aXXovoi
rds avyds jLteTet;^ov evret yap diroreiverai rwv
o^daXpichv eKarepov /ccDvos", TTpog rep opLpLari rrjv
Y Kopv^y]V excoy, eSpav 8e /cat ^olglv rj TrepiXa/jL^dvei
TO 6pcL)pi€Vov, oixpi' jLteV Ttvos" et/cos" iariv 18 la rajv
Kcovcov eKarepov <j>ip€o6aL' yevofievoL S* aTrajrepo)
/cat ovfJi7Tea6vT€9 dAAT^AotS" ev to ^cD? ttolovgl' 8l6
/cat Tcov opcofxevcov eKaurov ev ov 8vo <^atVeTat,
/catVcp dfJL(f)or€poL9 dfia tols opLfiaaL Kara(f>aiv6-
pL€Vov' alrta yap rj rojv kcovcjv avvaifjLS els ravro
/cat ovXXapLijjis €/c Suetv /xtav oe/ftv aTreLpyaafievrj .
Tovrcov 6' ovrois cxovtcjjv ol fxkv iyyvs Trpoo-
626 ayovTC? Ta ypdfjifiara TTpeG^vrat, /XT^SeVct) rcov
avycjv^ crvyKexvfJievojv dAA' e/carepa' x^P^^ iiridiy-
ydvovres, duSeviorepov €7rtAa/xj8dvovTai • ot 8'
aTTCOTepo)^ TTpodifievoLy [xepLiyfievov rov <J)0)t6s 1)87)
/cat TToAAoi; yeyovoros , jxdXXov i^aKpL^ovcriv, wancp
ol rals 8v(JLV ofiov X^P^^ Karexovres o rfj irepa jxr]
8vvavTaL.

S. AafjiTTplas S* o dSeAc/jos"^ ttjv ^lepcovufiov 86^av^
ovK dveyvcjOKcb? piiv,^ avros 8e St'* €v<j>vtav ipLTreacov
eiTrev^ on rots ttpoottItttovoiv dTTO rcbv opardjv

^ ol . . . XeyovTcs Hubert : ol . . . Xeyovaiv.

^ Stephanus : avrcov.

Xylander (translation) : eKarepa (sic).

* Stephanus : dvcoTcpo).

^ Stephanus : lac. 5-6.

^ Pohlenz : lac. 4-5.

82



TABLE-TALK L 8, 625-626

2. Now there were some who replied to this that
old men hold the book away from their eyes not
to soften the light, but, as it were, to lay hold of and
encompass more light and fill with bright air the
space between their eyes and the writing. And others
agreed with the joined-rays school of thought** : in-
asmuch as a cone of rays extends from each of the
eyes, its apex at the eye, its base and foundation
encompassing the object viewed, it is probable that
each of the cones proceeds separately up to a certain
point, but when they have attained a greater distance
and merged with each other, they unite their light,
and consequently each object viewed appears as one,
not two, even though it appears to both eyes at the
same time ; the reason for this is the simultaneous
eontact of the cones on the same object, and a union
of light which produces single rather than dual vision.
Since this is so, the elderly gentlemen who bring
writing near their eyes, the rays of vision being not
yet fused, contact the writing ^ith each cone separ-
ately and lay weaker hold upon it ; but those who
jilace the writing farther away, the light now fused
and intensified, apprehend the writing i^lth greater
exactness, like men who master with both hands
together what they can not with either alone.

3. My brother Lamprias expressed the opinion
that we see by means of the forms which fall upon
the vision from the objects viewed, the hypothesis of

" This concept is attributed to Hipparchus in D� Placitis^
901 B. Further, see Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. pp. 93-94, and
Jhibert, ad loc.

' dvtyvwKws fi€v Pohlenz : dvtyvwKtv.

• avTos 8c 8i* Pohlenz : lac. 4-5.

• flirtv Paton : lac. 2.

83



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(626) etScaiv^ TTpos ttjv oipiv opoj/jiev, a Trpcorov fiev
d7Tepx€raL [JLeydXa /cat TraxvfJieprj, 8l6 rovs yepov-
rag iyyvdev eTrirapdrrei ^paSwopov Kal gkXtjpclv
B exovrag rTjv opaoiv dvevexOevrwv 8* elg rov dipa
Kal Xa^ovTOJV SidGrrjfJia, rd /xev yecoS-q vepiOpav-
crat Kal aTTOTrtWet, rd Se XeTrrd TrpodTreXd^ovra
rats' dijjeoLV dAuTTCUS" /cat o/xaAco? iuapfxarreL rots'
TTOpoiSy wgO^ rJTTOv raparrofjievovs fidXXov dvrt,-
Aa/xj8dvecr^at. /cat yap at rcov dvdcov oafxal Trdp-
pcodev evoj^eorepai ttpogttltttovglv, dv S* iyyvSev
dyav TTpoudyrjg, ovx ovroj Kadapov ou3* aKparov
dScuSacrtv atrtov 8' ort ttoAAo, roiv yecxjhchv Kal
OoXepojv ovvaTTO^e per ai rfj oajjifj Kal 8ia(f)d€Lp€L
rrjv evcoSiav iyyvdev Xapb^avopLevrj? ,^ dv S' aTTCodev,
rd fiev^ BoXepd Kal yewSrj Trepippel Kal UTroTrtVret,
TO S' elXtKpiveg Kal deppuov avrrjg^ vtto XeTrroTqros
C Siacrojjerat TTpos rrjv aludiqoiv.

4. *H/xets' 8e Trjv Y{XaTCx)VLK7]v <f)vXdrrovr€s dpx'^v
iXeyofiev on TTvevpia rcov d/Xjitdrcov aTjyoetSes'
iKTTiTTTov dvaKLpvarat rco irepl rd GcjfjLara cfxjjTl
Kal XapL^dvei ovfjuTrrj^LV, wod^ ev i^ diJi(f)OLV acD/xa
8t' dXov crufMTradeg yeveodai. Kepavvvrai 8' erepov
irepcp ovpLpierpias Xoycp re /cat TrooorrjTog • ov ydp
dvaipedijvai Set Odrepov vtto darepov KpanqOev,
dXX diT* djJi(j)olv e'is tl fxeaov dpixovia Kal Koivcuvta
crL'va;^^^'^'^^^ jLttav SvvajjiLV diroTeXeodrjvai. ovtos
ovv rod rcjv TTaprjXiKcov, etre pevfjua xP'h '^poorayo-

^ Stephanus : lac. 2-3 aiv.

^ Hubert : XayL^avo^ievT^v.

' aTTCodev, ra fiev Stephanus : drro fxev.

* Hubert : avrov.

<• The peripatetic from Rhodes mentioned svpra, 612 d;
84



TABLE-TALK I. 8, 626

Hieronymus,'* which Lamprias had not read, but had
hit upon by his own cleverness. These forms, when
they first come off, are large and coarse, and so at
close quarters they disturb old men whose vision is
slow and stiff ; but where they rise into the air and
gain distance, their earthy parts are broken and fall
away, while the light parts, as they approach the eyes,
painlessly and evenly fit into the passageways, and
thus old men are less disturbed and more readily
apprehend the forms. The scent of flowers, too, is
sweeter when it reaches you from a distance, but if
you bring them too close, their odour is not so pure
and unadulterated. The reason is that much that is
earthy and coarse accompanies the scent and destroys
its pleasant odour when received near by, but if from
a distance, the coarse and earthy parts slip off all
round and fall, while the pure and fresh part of the
scent by its lightness is brought intact to the sense
of smell.

4. But I took my stand on the Platonic principle *
and argued that a bright emanation which flows out
from the eyes mixes with the light which surrounds
objects and undergoes a fusion with it, so that from
the two one body is formed compatible through its
entirety. Each mingles with the other in proportion
to their commensurability and quantity ; for one
must not be overwhelmed and destroyed by the
other, but a single power must be created from both
brought together on common ground in concord and
partnership. Now inasmuch as the stream — ^whether

cf. RE^ s.v. no. 12, where (col. 1562) it is suggested that the
present theory was put forward in the On Suspension of
Judgement.

*> Timaeus, 45 b f. ; cf. Republic^ 507 d-e, 508 d, and Mor.
390 B, 433 D, 436 d, 921 d-e.

85



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(626) peveiv to Slol rrjs Koprjs (l)€p6ix€Vov €lt€ irvevfia
D (jxjiJToeiSes etV avyi^v, doOevovs Kal dSpavovs, ovk^
iyyiyverai Kpdois Trpog to <f)cJos^ ro CKTog ovSe
pZ^LS aXXd (j)dopd Kal ovy)(yais,^ dv p.'t) puaKpav ret
ypdpLpbara rcov op^pLarajv dndyovres €kXvcool ttjv
dyav XapLTrporiqra rod (jycxiros, cjore p.r] ttoXXtjv
/X7^8* aKparov dAA* 6p,0L07ra6rj* /cat ovp.pL€rpov dir-
avrrjaai vpos rrjv oi/jlv. o Stj Kal rod Tvepl rd vv-
KTLVopia Tcov ^cpcov TTa^T^/xaros" aiTLOV €gtlv' 7) yap
oijjis avrcjjv vrro rod p^edrjp^epLVOv ^coros" d8pavr)s
ovoa KaraKXv^erai Kal KpareiraL, pir] SuvapLevrj irpds
TToXv Kal Idxvpov cxtt'^ dadevovs Kal oXlyrjg dpx^js
Kepdvwadai- irpos Se to dpiavpov Kal XeiTTov olov
E darepog <j)a)s avyrjv hiapKrj Kal crupLpberpov i^lrjOLV,
wore KOLvajvelv Kal ovvepyeXaOai ttjv atody^aiv.

nPOBAHMA

Ata Ti TU) TTOTifio) fxaXXov rj rw OaXaTTLO) TrAuverat to. lyLaTia

Collocuntur Theo, Themistocles, Plutarchus

1. 0e6ov o ypapLpiaTLKOS ioncopiivcov rjpLcov irapd
MearpLcp 0Ac6pa> Trpos QepnoroKXia rov Xtojikov

^ Added by Xylander.

2 TTpos TO <f)a)s p. A. C. (T. C, " with the Light about the
Object " : Morals, Translated ... by Several Hands, vol. ii,
London [1691], p. 442), cf. Mor. 433 d and Plato, T! warns,
45 c ; TTpoaTTLTrrovTL TTpos Hubert : Trpoa lac. 5-6.

3 Meziriacus : avyKpims.

* Bernardakis {cf. Cherniss, De Facie, 921 e [LCL Mor.
xii, p. 44, note 6]) : oixoiradrj.
^ Added by Reiske.

86



TABLE-TALK L 8-9, 626

one ought to apply this term to what passes through
the pupil of the eye, or call it "luminous emanation,"
or " ray " — is weak and powerless in men past their
prime, no mixing and mingling is effected with the
light outside, but only the extinction and disintegra-
tion of vision, unless by removing the WTiting to a
distance from their eyes old men destroy the exces-
sive brilliance of the outside light, so that a sym-
pathetic and commensurate rather than a large and
unadulterate amount of it meets the vision. It is
this phenomenon too which is responsible for the
behaviour of night-ranging animals ; for their vision,
without strength, is overwhelmed and mastered by
the mid-day light because it is unable, by reason of
its M'eak and small beginning, to mix with the great,
strong light of mid-day ; but yviih light that is dim
and faint, such as that of a star, their vision sends
forth a ray that is sufficient and commensurate, so
that ray and outside light join and produce sight.



QUESTION 9

Why fresh water instead of sea water is used to wash clothes •

Speakers : Theon, Themistocles, Plutarch

1. When we were being entertained at the house of
Mestrius Florus,^ Theon the critic '^ raised the ques-

*� Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia^ vii. 13, 17-27.

" RE, 8.V. " Plutarchos," col. 687 : prominent Roman,
consul under Vespasian, later proconsul of Asia, close friend
of Plutarch, his puide to the battle-field of Betriacum, where
Florus had fought (Life of Ot?io, xiv), participant in no less
than ten of the Dinner Conversations, e.g. iii. 3 ff., v. 7, vii. 1
(where see note on 698 e).

� See p. 48, note 6 above.

87



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(626) 8L7]7r6prja€Vf ri hrjirore ^pvannros €v ttoWols tcDv
TrapaXoyojv kol aroirojv iTnpLvqodeis, olov ion to
" rdpLxos, av dXfij] ^pex^jrai, yXvKvrepov ylve-
odai " /cat TO " Tcjv ipicxjv rovs ttokovs tjttov
VTTaKoveiv rocs jSta SLaoTrojoLV t] tols drpefia
F SloXvovolv " Kal to " vrjoTevoavTas dpyoTepov
iodUiv 'q 7TpO(f)ay6vTas," ovSevos avTCJV aiTLav
oLTTeSajKev. 6 8e QefjLLOTOKXrjs cIttwv otl raura
yipvoLTTTTOS dXXojs €V TTapaSetyfjiaTos Xoyo) irpov-
deTOy paSicos yj/jlwv kol dXoycos vtto tov clkotos
dXiOKOfjLevojv Kal TrdXtv dTTiOTOVVTCov tco irapd to
ct/cos", €TnoTpe<j)OJV, " ool 8\" €(j)r], " jSeArto-rc, rt
627 Trpdyfia irepl tovtojv hiaTropelv ; el yap r^pLiv aiTiajv
LpqTiqTLKOs Kal OecoprjTLKog yiyovas, (jlt) pLOKpdv

OVTCDS dlTOOKTIVOV TCJV lSlCQV, dAA' €1776 8t' TjV
alTiaV "O/JLTJpOS €V TCp TTOTapLO) TrXvVOVOaV OVK €V

TTJ OaXaTTT], Kaiirep iyyvg ovorj, t7]V Natxjt/caav
TTeTTOLTjKev . KaiTOL depfiOTepav ye Kal 8ia(f>av€OTe-
pav elKos Kal pVTTTLKCxJTepav etvai."

2. Kat o Geojv, " dXXd tovto y*," eiVrc, " Std^
Tcov yeojSojv ^ApLOTOTdXrjs rrdXai StaXdXvKev, o
7Tpop€pX7]Kag^ rjpLLV. TToXv ydp^ TTJ daXdTTT) TO
Tpa^v Kal y6d)8f<^ evStecTTraprat Kal tovto 7TOL€l
B TTjv dXvKOTTjTa pLepLiyfjievov fj Kal fiaXXov rj 6d-
Aarra tovs t€ vrjxojjievovs €^ava(f)epeL Kal OTeyei
rd ^dpr], tov yXvKCOs €v8l86vtos 8id KOV(f>6TT]Ta

^ Added by Hubert. ^ o irpo^e^X-qKas Xylander : ^d^XrjKas.
^ TToXi) yap Hubert : lac. 6-8.

" The great Themistocles's descendant, whom Plutarch
knew as a fellow student under Ammonius {Life of Themi-
stoclesy xxxii. 6).

" Head of the Stoics from 23:2 b.c. to his death in 207

88



TABLE-TALK I. 9, 626-627

tion with Themistocles the Stoic " why Chrysippus ^
never gave an explanation for any of the strange and
extraordinary things he frequently mentions : for
example, " salted fish are fresher '^ if wetted with
brine " ; " fleeces of wool yield less easily if one
tears them apart violently than if one parts them
gently"; and "people who have fasted eat more
deliberately than those who have taken food before-
hand." Themistocles answered that Chrysippus men-
tioned such things incidentally, by way of example,
because we are easily and irrationally trapped by
what appears likely, and contrariwise disbelieve what
appears unlikely, and turning to Theon, he con-
tinued : " But what business have you, sir, to raise
a question about these matters ? For if you have
become inquisitive and speculative in the matter of
explanations, do not camp so far away from your own
province, but tell us for what reason Homer has made
Nausicaa do her washing in the river instead of the
sea,^ though the latter was near by and quite likely
was warmer, clearer, and more cleansing."

2. " But," said Theon, " this problem you propose
to us Aristotle * long ago solved by considering the
earthy matter in sea-water. Much coarse, earthy
matter is scattered in the sea ; being mixed ^vith the
water, this matter is responsible for the saltness, and
because of it sea-w^ater also supports swimmers better
and floats heavy objects, while fresh water lets them

(fragments : von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag, ii and iii [p. 146,
frag. 546 for this passage]).

" The Greek says " sweeter " ; the meaning is *' less
salty " ; cf. infra^ 627 b, where " sweet water " is non-salt
water.

** Odyssey, vi. 59.

� Frag. 217 Rose.

89



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(627) Kal dadeveiav eari yap afxiKrov koI Kadapov 6-
dev ivSverai Slo. XeTTTorr^ra Kal 8l€^l6v tov ^aAar-

TLOV fldXXoV iKTrjK€L TOLS KrjXlSag . ^ OV 8oK€L GOL

TOVTO TTiOavcjs Xiyeiv ^ ApLGToreXrjs ; "

S. " Hidavojs," €(j)r]v iyo), " ov fjirjv dXrjOcjs'
opcx) yap OTL Kal Ti(j)pa Kal Atrpo;/ kov firj rrapfj
Se ravra, KovLoprw ttoXXolkls naxvvovaL to v8a>p,
ws fJidXXov TOJv yewScov rfj Tpaxvrr]TL KarairXyveiv
hwapiivcov tov pVTTOV, avrov Se tov vSaTos Sid

C XeTTTOTTjTa Kal dadeveiav ovx opioiws tovto Spcov-
Tos". TO fxev ovv TTaxvpiepeg ttJs" daXaTTTjs ovSev
KcoXvei ye tovto TTOieiv ov8' '^ttov npos ty]V
KadapGiv ovvepyel Std^ Tr]v SpifivTTjTa' Kal yap
avTTj Tovs TTopovs^ dvaoTopLovoa Kal dvoiyovaa*
KaTaovpei tov pvirov. eirel he rrdv to Xnrapov
SvaeKvXvTov eoTi Kal KrjXiSa TTOiei, Xnrapd S' oj
OdXauua, tovt* dv aiTiov elf] fidXiGTa tov jjlt]
KaXojg TrXvveiv. oti S' €GtI Xnrapd, Kal avTO?
eiprjKev ^KpioTOTeXr^s' ol tc yap dXes Xittos e^ovGiv
Kal TOVS Xvxyovs jScAtiov irapexovGi Kaofxevovs ,
avTTi 6* 7) ddXaTTa Trpoopaivofjievr] TatS" (f>Xo^l avv-
eKXdfjLTTei, Kal KaeTai fidXiGTa TOiv vSdTOJV to da-

D ActTTtov ws S' eycofiai, 8id tovto Kal depfxoTaTov

CGTIV.

Ov fJLTjv dXXd Kal KaT aAAov TpoTTOV inel ttjs
irXvGeojs TeXos rj pvipis^ cgtIv Kal fxaXiGTa (jyaiveTai
Kadapov TO Ta;^tcrTa* ^r]p6v yiyvofxevov, Set S17 to
ttXvvov vypov tco pviroji' GVve^eXdeiv, coGirep to)

^ Doehner : Ai'^oi.

2 ovhkv . . . Sta Bernardakis from Macrobius, Saturnalia^
vii. 13. 22 : ov lac. 5-Q 7T€tovt6ttot€ lac. 5-6 npos rriv Ka lac.
6 hk.

' Stephanus : lac. 3-4. * Stephanus : lac. 4-5.

90



TABLE-TALK L 9, 627

sink since it is light and unsubstantial. For the latter
is unmixed and pure, and so because of its light con-
sistency it soaks into cloth and, as it passes through,
dissolves out stains more readily than sea-water.<*
Don't you think what Aristotle says is plausible ? "

3. " Plausible," I said, " but not true. For I
observe that people frequently thicken their water
with ash, or soda, or, if these are not at hand, with a
powdery solid ; the earthy matter, it would seem, is
more easily able by its roughness to wash out dirt,
while the water alone because of its lightness and
weakness does not do this with equal facility. It is
not, therefore, the coarseness of sea- water that pre-
vents this action, nor is sea-water a less efficient
cleanser because of its acridness, for this quality
cleans out and opens up the mesh of the cloth and
sweeps away the dirt.^ But since everything oily is
hard to wash and makes a stain, and the sea is oily,
this would surely be the reason for its not cleaning
efficiently. That the sea is oily Aristotle himself has
said.*' For salt contains fat, so making lamps burn
better ; and sea-water itself, when it is sprinkled into
flames, flashes up with them. Indeed among waters
it is particularly sea-water that is flammable, and, in
my view, this is the reason why it is also the warmest.

" What is more, the phenomenon can also be ex-
plained in another manner. Since cleansing is the
aim of washing, and what dries quickest appears
cleanest, the washing liquid must depart with the

� Cf. 696 D, below.

^ Cf. 684 B-c, below.

'' [Aristotle], Problems, 933 a 18 ff. ; cf. Mor. 911 e.

^ pvijji^ P. Maas : �/�i;^is. * Doehner : /LtaAtora.

' Stephanus : lac. 4-5 (L.

91



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(627) voarjfjLaTL rov iXXe^opov. ro fiev ovv yXvKV paSicos"
o rjXios i^dyeL Slol Kov(f)6Tr]Ta, ro 8' aXfivpov cV-
Loy^oixevov rols iropoLs Sta Tpa)(VTr]Ta Sva^'^pavrov
iuTLV."

4. Kat o Qeojv viroXa^cjv, " O'uSev," €(f)rjf " Xe-
yets' ^ApiGToreXrjs yap iv rep avrco j9uj3Atoj (f)r}-
alv rovg iv daXdrrrj Xovoap^ivovs rd)(Lov dno-
^rjpaLveaOat rcov yXvK^l xpr](Tap.€VOJV, dv iv rjXLcp
araJGLV."
-E " Aeyet ydp," elirov " aAA* (pfjLrjv ae fidXXov
^OfjLTjpcp rdvavria Xeyovri TTiorevueiv. 6 yap
'OSfcrcreus" /xera ro vavdyiov ivrvyxdvei rfj Naw-
GiKda ' apiepSaXiog ' ocjydrjvai ' KeKaKOJfJiivos dXfir),'
/cat Trpos rd? depaTraiviSag cf)rj(jLV'

dpL(j)LTroXoL, orrjd^ ovrco^ dTTOTrpoOev, 6(j)p^ V^^Y

iyoj avrdg
dXfJLrjv wpiouv aTToAoucro/zat,'

Kara^ds S' cts" rdv vrora/xov * c/c KetjyaXris €(7fxr)X€v
dXo? yydov^' virep^vGis rov TTOirjrov ro yiyvofxevov
avveojpaKoros- orav yap iK rrJ9 daXdrrrjs dva-
Svvreg iv rw rjXicp arcjOLV, ro XeTrrorarov Kal
F Kov(j)6rarov rrjg vypaoia? tj Oeppiorrj? 8i€(f)6p7]0€v,
ro S' dXpbvpdv avrd Kal rpa-)(v KaraX€L(f)6ev i<f)Lara-
rai Kal irapap^evei rois ocjfiacnv dXcjSrjs CTT-tVayos",
fiixpi dv avrd TTorlfio) Kal yXvK€L KaraKXvGoxnv."

^ Xylander from Homer : ovtojs.

2 Deleted by Xylander, omitted in text of Homer and at
Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 13. 26.

* Xylander from Homer (aor. subj.) : avoXovacDfiat.



92



TABLE-TALK L 9, 627

dirt, as hellebore does with the sickness it purges.
The sun easily evaporates fresh water because of its
lightness, but salt water dries up with difficulty since
its coarseness holds it in the mesh of the cloth."

4. Theon interrupted and said, " You are talking
nonsense, for Aristotle in the same book says � that
those who wash themselves in the sea, if they stand
in the sun, dry off faster than those who use fresh
water."

" He does say so," I replied, " but I thought you
would put your confidence rather in Homer, who im-
plies the opposite. For it chanced that Odysseus,
after his shipwreck, was seen by NausicaU

terribly dirtied with brine. *

And to her maidservants he says,

Girls, stay away, while I wash from my shoulders the brine
of the sea. <=

And going down to the river, he

washed from his head all the foam of the sea,*

the poet understanding very well what happens. For
when men come out of the sea and stand in the sun,
the heat evaporates the finest and lightest part of the
moisture,* and the salty, coarse residue itself remains
coated upon their bodies, a briny scum, until they
wash it away with fresh drinking water."

� [Aristotlel, Problems, 932 b 25.

" Odyssey, vi. 137.

" Odyssey, vi. 218 f.

** Odyssey, vi. 226.

• Cf. infra, 697 b.



93



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA



628 nPOBAHMA I

Aia Ti TTJs AlavTiSos <f>v\rjs ^Adijvrjcnv ouScttotc tov ^opov
€Kpivov vararov

Collocuntur Marcus, Milo, Philopappus, Glaucias,
Plutarchus, alii

1 . Ev 8e rots' ^apaTTLcovos imviKLoi's, ore rfj
AeovrtSi (j)vXfj TOV ^opov Siard^as €VLKr]<7€V, iori-
cojueVots" rjixlv are 8rj Kal ^vXirais ovoi SrjfJLOTTOLi^-
roLS OLKeloL Xoyoi rrjs iv X^^P^ ^tAort/xtas" naprjaav.
€GX€ yap 6 dyojv evroviordnqv afxiXXav, dycovo-
BerovvTOS ivSo^cog Kal fieyaXoTrpeTTCos OtAoTraTTTTOi;

" To Sarapion is dedicated De E apud Deljjhos (384 d)
and he is a member of the company in Be Pythiae Oraculis
(396 d), where it appears that he is both a poet and a Stoic
philosopher (c/. BE, s.v. " Plutarchos," cols. 683-684). Two
rather bitter iambic trimeters perhaps by this Sarapion are
preserved in Stobaeus (iii. 10. 2 Hense). Presumably also
by this Sarapion are the dactylic hexameters on the duties of
a physician published on the " Sarapion Monument " appar-
ently erected in the Asclepieum on the south slope of the
Athenian Acropolis by Q. Statins Sarapion, who would then
be the grandson of Plutarch's friend Sarapion ; several
generations later a paean of Sophocles and the names of the
paeanistae who recited it were added to the monument (see
Paul Maas and James H. Oliver, " An Ancient Poem on the
Duties of a Physician," Bulletin of the History of Medicine^
vii [1939], pp. 315-323, particularly pp. 321-323 ; cf. also R.
Flaceliere, Rev. �t. Grec. Ixiv [1951], pp. 323-327 ; and fur-
ther, James H. Oliver, Hesperia, Suppl. viii [1949], pp. 243-
248, where, too, necessary references to the earlier literature
can be found).

* Syrian prince, Roman consul, Athenian archon, and
demesman of Besa. His grave monument (a.d. 1 14-116) still
stands, in part, on the summit of the hill Mouseion across
from the south-west corner of the Acropolis (Judeich, Topo-
graphie von Athen^, pp. 100 and 388-389 ; the inscriptions,
I.G. ii2, 3451 ; cf. Kirchner, RE, s.v. " Philopappos "). To him

94



TABLE-TALK L 10, 628



QUESTION 10

Why the chorus of the phyle Aiantis at Athens is never
judged last

Speakers : Marcus, Mile, Philopappus, Glaucias,
Plutarch, and others

1 . When Sarapion <* won the prize with the chorus he
directed for the phyle Leontis, he entertained at a
victory celebration at which I was present, — for I was
an adopted member of the phyle, — and suitably
enough our talk was concerned with the recent com-
petition. For the contest had produced intense
rivalry since King Philopappus * had presided in a

Plutarch dedicated the Be Adulatore et Amico. In I.O. ii".
3112 (a.d. 75/6-87/8) the phylfe Oenels, which had contes-
ted with a dithyramb, honoured Philopappus as a^ono-
thetes of the Dionysia in the year of his arcnonship. Pickard-
Cambridge's text of this document reads 17 Olvmg if^vXi] Sta
Twv €u dywvLaafievwv . . ., and ". . . the inscription, ' he writes,
" suggests that the OeneTd tribe had just won a victory . . ."
{Dramatic Festivals of Athens^ p. 74 and note 6). But
actually the cu, though cut on the stone, was erased and so
must be deleted from the text (see P. Graindor, Album d' ins-
criptions attiques^ p. 23, no. 26, and pi. XIX). Presumably
OeneTs honoured Philopappus for his munificence rather
than for their victory, a victory which, if indeed the document
of Oenels and Plutarch's essay both refer to the same occasion,
had actually been won by Leontis. Boulon, the choregus for
Oeneis, and Sarapion, presumably the like for Leontis, would
be only nominally so, for Philopappus was, as well as agono-
thetes, the de facto choregus who defrayed the expenses of
choruses for all the phylae together. The inscription of
OeneTs would also be evidence that the subject matter of the
Quaestiones Convivales ranged through some twenty to
thirty years, more or less, of Plutarch's life, if the Favorinus
of viii. 10 is indeed Favorinus of Aries (the same, Ziegler,
RE^ s.v. " Plutarchos," col. 713 ; " probably the same . . ."
Sandbach on 734 f [LCL Mor. ix, p. 205, note c] infra),

95



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

'^'^^^ -ft >' ' J.^' ' - '

g Tov paGLAecDS rais (pvAats ofiov Traaais )(opT]yovv-

Tos. irvyxave 8c (JVveaTiayfxevos rjfitv /cat rajp

TToKaicbv TO. fiev Xeyojv ra S* aKOVOJV 8ia (jyiXav-

dpcoTTiav ovx rjTTov 7) (/iiXofiddeiav.

2. Ilpo€pXi]d7] Se TL roiovTOV vtto Map/cot; rod

ypajjLfxaTLKov. J^edvdr] tov Kv^lktjvov €(f)r) Xiyeiv

iv Tols KOTO. TToXlV pLvdlKols, OTL Tjj AlaVTiSl (f)vXfj

yipas vTTrjpx^v ro firj Kpiveodai tov TavT7]s^ x^P^^
eoxoTov " evx^prjg^ fxev ovv," €(j)7jy " TTpos oltto-
Setftv' laTopias 6 dvaypdipas,* €t Se tovto y ot5*
vodevety TTpoKeioOo) ttjs ama? iv kolvco irdoiv rj
L,i]Tr](jis .

EtTTovros" he tov iTaipov MtAcuvos", " dv ovv
i/j€v8o^ fi TO Xeyofievov;" , " ov8ev," €<f)r), " 8€iv6v/'
6 OtAoTraTTTros", " et TavTO TreiaopieOa ^'qpLOKpLTco
C ra>^ GO(f)a) Sta ^iXoXoyiav. koI yap eKelvog d)g
€oiK€ Tpwyojv GLKvov, d)S €(j)dvrj [jLeXiTa)8r]g 6
XVflO?, r]pCx)T7]0€ T'Y]V 8iaKovovoaVy OTTodev TTpiaiTo-
TTJs 8e KTJTTov TLva ^pal,ovo7]s , cKeXevoev i^avaoTOLS
rjyeladai /cat Set/cvwat tov tottov davixdl,ovTO� 8k
TOV yvvaiov /cat rruvdavofjievov tl jSovAerat, ' t^v
atrtW,' €(f)r], ' Set /xe ttjs yXvKVTrjTos evpelv, evprjoco
8e TOV x^P^ov yevoficvos deaT'^s.'

1 Hubert :^ lac. 3-4. 2 Pohlenz : lac. 5-7.

' TTpos (XTroSet^tv Wyttenbach : irpo lac. 5-6 ^iv.

* Mueller : dva lac. 4-6.

* y* ov Vulcobius : yovv. * Added by Stephanus.

" Who is a member of the company also at ix. 5 (740 e).

* There are two writers of Cyzicus so named. One
flourished at the beginning of the third century, the other at

96



TABLE-TALK I. 10, 628

notable manner and, with great munificence, had
furnished choruses for ail the phylae together. It
happened that he was one of the guests with us and
spoke of antiquarian matters and Ustened to anti-
quarian talk because of his courtesy not less than his
eagerness to learn.

2. One such subject was introduced by the critic
Marcus." He remarked that Neanthes of Cyzicus *
said in his Legends of the States that the phyle Aiantis
had the honour of not having its chorus judged last.
" So," he continued, " in spite of the fact that this
writer is reckless in the history he publishes, if in this
matter at least he does not falsify, let us all join in
seeking out the reason."

His companion Milo '^ said, " What if actually the
information is false ? "

" No matter ! " said Philopappus. " It's not bad if
the same thing does happen to us that happened to
the wise Democritus because of love for learning.**
It seems that the juice of a cucumber he was eating
appeared to have a honeylike taste, and he questioned
his serving-woman about where she had bought it.
When she indicated a certain garden, he got up and
told her to take him and show him the place. The
woman was astonished and asked what he had in
mind. ' I must find,' he replied, ' the explanation
for the sweetness, and I shall find it if I see the place.'

the end ; and most references cannot with certainty be
assigned to one or to the other : Jacoby, Frag. Griech.
Historiker, no. 84 (Neanthes) with Commentary H C, pp.
144 ff. (who assigns this passage to the earlier man, as indeed
he does all but one) ; cf. Richard Laqueur, RE^ s.v. " Nean-
thes."

" Milo appears only here {RE^ s.v. " Plutarchos," col. 668).

<* Diels-Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratikery ii^�, p. 87, 17 a.

VOL. VIII E 97



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(628) ' ' KaroLKeiao 87J/ ro yvvaiov eiTre fieLSicoVy ' iyoj
yap dyvo'qaaaa ro olkvov els dyyelov idcfJLrjv /x6/xe-
XiTOJfievov.'

" *0 �* a)G7r€p dxQ^oBeis, ' diriKvaLoas ,* etrrev,
D ' /cat ovSev rjrrov imdrjooixai tco Xoyco /cat tpr^rrjoo}
T7^]/ atrtav, <l)s av olk€lov /cat avyyevovs ovorjs to)
oiKvw rrjs yXvKvrrjros.'

" OvKovv fx-qS^ rjiJL€LS rrjv ^edvOovs iv iviois et5;^e-
petav dTTohpdoeojs TrotrjGCjfjieda^ 7rp6(f)aGiv' iyyv-
fjivdaaadai ydp, el fjirjSev dXXo xp'fl^^^l^ov, 6 Xoyos
7rap€^€L."

3. Hdvres ovv ofiaXajs ippviqoav TTpos ro rr)v
cj)vXrjv €yKCjpLidt,€LV, €t rt KaXov TTpos ho^av avrfj
VTTTJpx^v dvaXey6iJL€voL. /cat ydp 6 MapaOcbv els
fJLeaov elXKero, 8rjiJLOS cjv eKelvrjs rrjs ^Xijs' /cat
rovs TTepl 'ApixoSiov AlavrlSas direcfyaivov, 'A0i-
Si^atous ye 8rj rchv SijfJLcov yeyovoras. TXavKLas
E S' d p'^rojp^ /cat ro Se^iov Kepas AlavrlSais rrjs
€V MapadaJvL Trapard^ecos drroSodTJvat, rats Aloxv-

^ Bernardakis : TToirjaofieda.

2 etTre added by Bernardakis (c/. 698 d where €<f>T] was
added by Turnebus).

^ Presumably an empty honey-jar not yet cleaned. Bolke-
stein suggested a jar the interior of which had been smeared
with honey to preserve the food stored in it, and he cited three
passages {Adv. Crit. p. 97) ; of these one refers to the em-
balmer's art (Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxii. 108) and the other two
have nothing to do with the case (Columella, ix. xvi. 13 ;
Horace, Epodes^ ii. 15).

" RE, s.v. " Marathon," col. 1427.

" The younger of the " Tyrannicides " who paradoxically
became " Heroes of the Revolution " in the literature con-
cerned with the fall of the Pisistratids towards the end of the
6th century b.c. (c/. REf s.v. " Aristogeiton " and *.i'.
" Harmodios ").

98



TABLE-TALK L 10, 628

" ' Sit down,' said the woman with a smile, ' the fact
is I accidentally put the cucumber in a honey-jar.' **

" * That was very annoying of you,' said Demo-
critus \^1th pretended anger, * and I shall apply my-
self not the less to the problem and seek the explana-
tion as if sweetness were proper and natural to this
cucumber.*

" Let us not, then, make Neanthes's recklessness in
some items a pretext for running away, for this dis-
cussion will be a good exercise, if nothing else useful."

3. Thereupon all together proceeded to praise the
phyle, taking for their theme any claim to distinction
it possessed. Marathon was drawn into the talk, it
being a deme of that phyle ** ; and Harmodius '^ and
his coterie, it was pointed out, belonged to Aiantis,
for they were from Aphidna, also a deme of the phyle.
The orator Glaucias ** said that the right flank of the
battle line at Marathon was given to men of Aiantis ;
this he based on the elegiac poem of Aeschylus * . . .

** A member of the company at vii. 9 and 10 (714 a ff.) and
at ix. 12 and 13 (741 c ff.).

* This passage may be added to the convenient collection
of testimonia and elegiac fragments in the second edition of
Professor Gilbert Murray's Aeschyli . . . Tragoediae (Oxford,
1955), p. 371 (lines 2-4, 15-18) and pp. 373-374. The present
passage "... attests an elegiac poem precisely about the
battle of Marathon, though the corruption of its title is not
healed and seems to be incurable " (Jacoby, Hesperia^ xiv
[1945], p. 182, note 101). But the Marathon epigram, Murray,
op. cit. p. 374, no. 5 should be deleted from the collection (c/.
Jacoby, ibid. pp. 179-185). For the Marathon epigrams see
now (in addition to Jacoby, ibid. pp. 161-185) B. D. Meritt,
The Aegean and the Near East : Studies Presented to Hetty
Goldman (1956), pp. 268-280 ; A.J.P. Ixxxiii (1962), pp. 294-
298, and Ixxxv (1964), p. 417 ; and cf. W. K. Pritchett, Uni-
versity of California Publications in Classical Archaeology^
iv. 2 (1960), pp. 160-168, and A.J.P. bcxxv (1964), pp. 50-55.

99



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(628) Xov "frrju fieOoplav'f^ iXeyeiais TTLGTOVfievos, rjyojvL-
G[jL€Vov rrjv fJi'OLXW ^/cetvT^v €TTi(j>avcJJS' ert Se /cat
KaAAt/>ta;^ov aTreSct/cwev rov TToXefiapxov cf eKeivqs
ovra rrjs (j>vXrjs, os avrov t€ Trapiax^v apiorov dv-
8pa Kal ttJs" l^o-XV^ fierd ye MtArtaST^v alriayrarog
Karearr] (jvfnfjr](f)0� c/cetVo) yevo/xevos". cyco Se to)
FAau/cta 7rpoo€Tidr]v, on Kal ro ipij(f}LGfia, /ca^' o
Tov� ^A6r]vaiovs i^ijyayev, rijs AlavrtSos (l>vXrjs
TTpvravevovGTjg ypa^eiiq, /cat on rrepl Tr]V €V 11 Aa-
ratats" l^dx^iv evSoKLfX'qareLev rj (f)vX'r] fxaXiGra' 8i6
/cat rat? Yicfypayinai NujLt^ats" tt^v iinviKiov /cat
IT TTvdoxpyjcyTov dirijyov AtavrtSat Ovaiav els Kt^ai-
pcova, rrjs TToXecus to lepelov /cat ra aAAa Trapexov-
oris avTOLS. aAA opag, ecprjv, on TroAAa /cat
rat? aAAat? ^uAatS" VTrapx^i, /cat TTpojTiqv y€ tt^v
629 e/XT^v tcrre 897 T17V AcovrtSa pnqhepLia 86^7]9^ vcf)-
lepLevTjv. OKOTTelre 817, jLt-)) TndaviOTepov Aeyerat ro^
TTapafJLvdLOV rod €Tra)vvfjL0V rrjs (fyvXrjg /cat TrapaiTrj-
Giv etvat TO ytyvojLtevov 01) yap evKoXos iveyKeiv

^ TTjv ixedopiav presumably an " incurable " corruption of
the title of Aeschylus's poem on Marathon (Jacoby).
2 Turnebus : 80^7^1.
* Ti Bolkestein.

" The reference is to Herodotus, vi. 109-1 10. Callimachus,
who perished in the battle {id. vi. 114), was by virtue of his
office commander-in-chief at Marathon ; Miltiades was one
of the commander-in-chief's ten generals {id. vi. 103). For
the problem of the relationship between polemarch and
generals see C. Hignett, A History of the Athenian Constitu-
tion, pp. 166-173. For fragments of the dedication made by
Callimachus before the battle and a supplement added after

100



TABLE-TALK L 10, 628-629

who had fought brilliantly in that battle. Further-
more, Glaucias pointed out that the polemarch Calli-
machus was of that phyle, a man who proved himself
very brave and by casting his vote with Miltiades
was most responsible, at least next to Miltiades, for
the decision to commit the Athenians to battle." I
added to the remarks of Glaucias the fact that the
decree by the stipulations of which the polemarch
led the Athenians out to battle was passed during the
prytany of the phyle Aiantis, furthermore that the
phyle distinguished itself in the highest degree at
the battle of Plataea. It was because of this that
men of Aiantis conducted to Cithaeron the victory
sacrifice ordained by the Pythian oracle in honour of
the Sphragitid Nymphs, and the state supplied them
the sacrificial victim and other things needful.'' " How-
ever," I continued, " you are to take cognizance
of the fact that the other phylae, too, possess many
honours, and you all know well enough that my own
phyle Leontis is among the foremost and inferior to
none in distinction. Now consider, is it not more
plausible to say that the preference shown Aiantis in
never judging its chorus last is for the purpose of
appeasing and mollifying the eponym of the phyle ?
For the son of Telamon is not good natured about en-

the battle see LO. i>. 609 =Tod, Gr. Hist. Inscr. no. 13, with
Jacoby's interpretation in Hesperia^ xiv (1945), p. 158, note
8 ; and cf. Shefton, B.S.A. xlv (1950), pp. 140-164.

'' This account of the role of Aiantis at Plataea is repeated
with greater detail in the Life of Aristeides, xix. 6, where
Kleidemos is cited for " an enlargement " of the record of
Herodotus, ix. 70. The Sphragitid Nymphs reappear at
Arist. xi. 3-4, and at Pausanias, ix. 3. 9. The evidence is
collected and discussed by Jacoby, Frag. Griech. Historiker^
no. 323 (Kleidemos), frag. 22, and 3 b Suppl., vol. i, pp. 82-83,
with notes in vol. ii, p. 76.

101



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(629) rJTTav 6 TcAa/xcovtos", aAA* olog d^ciSetv rravrajv
VTT opyrjs Kal <^tAovet/<:tas" tv' ovv firj ^^aAcTros" fj
fJLTjS* dirapafjivdrjros , eSofc rrj? '^ttt]? a^eXeZv ro
Svax^pearaTOV, els ttjv iaxoLTTjv ^^pav (jb-qSeTTore
TTjv <j)vX'r]v avrov KarapaXovras."^

^ In T Kara^aXovras ends line 14, fol. 35 r ; line 15,
UXovTapxov cry/xTTOCTta/fcDv a ; line 16, a decorative row of
sigla ; line 17, the heading for Book II.

" W. K. Pritchett noted that the discussion reaches no
satisfactory conclusion {U.C. Pub. Class. Arch. iv. 2 [1960],
p. 148, note 76). W. S. Ferguson suggested the possibility of
finding other " privileges " for Aiantis in the operation of the



102



TABLE-TALK L 10, 629

during a position of inferiority ; on the contrary,
when driven by passion and envy, he is the sort who
is reckless of everything. Therefore, to keep him
from being harsh and implacable, it was decided to
remove the worst feature of inferiority by never put-
ting his phyle down in last place." **

tribal cycles {Athenian Tribal Cycles [19321, pp. 78-80). It
may be that Plutarch's own solution and indeed the subject
of the problem are ajeu de litterature based on the fact that
Aiantis in the official order for listing the Athenian phylae
(A. G. Woodhead, The Study of Greek Inscriptions^ pp. 1 12-
114) occupied the penultimate or at times the antepenultimate
position in the order — always close to last, but never last.



103



TABLE-TALK

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES)
BOOK II



VOL. VIII



(629) SYMnOSIAKQN

BIBAIOX AEYTEPONi

C Tcjjv €19 TOL SeuTTva Kal ra ovixTTOGia 7TapaoKevat,o-
fxevcov, (L Soc7crt€ HeveKicjJV, ra [xev avayKaicjv^
€X€L rd^iv, a)(J7T€p olvos Kal oiria Kal orpajfival
8r]XaS'rj Kal rpaTre^ai" ra S' CTretcroSta yeyovev
TjSovrjg €veK€v, ;\;petaj jxr) GwayofievT]?,^ (Larrep
aKpodixara Kal deafxara Kal y€\a)roTTOL6s tls €u
KaAAtov OiAtTTTTos", ols TTapovai fxev 'qSovrai, firj
rrapovra S* ov Trdvv TToOovcnv ouS' alrLCovraL Tr]v
ovvovoiav (hs ivheiorepov exovoav. ovtoj Srj Kal
Tojv Xoyojv Tovs fjL€V irrl XP^^^ '^V T^^pl to- crujJLTroGia
TrapaXa/jL^dvovcnv ol pbirpioi, rovs S' dXXovs Sexov-

D rat decjjpiav 7n6avr]v Kal rw Kaipco p.dXXov avXov
Kal pap^LTov TTpcTTOVoav ixovras. c5v /cat ro
TTpcoTOV ruiZv ^i^Xiov €LX€ ixefjuyixiva Selyfiara,
rod jjiev Trporipov yevovs ro rrepl rod (f>iXoGO^€lv
Trapa vorov Kal Trepl rod Stave/xetv avrov rj rols
heiTTVOvuiv €(f}ievaL rds KXioeis Kal ra roiavra*'
rod Se Sevrepov irepl rod rovs ipcovras TTOi-qriKOVS

^ In T, folio 35 r, the heading avfiTToaiaKcov j8' is followed by
a tabulation of the " questions " as in Book I. On folio 35 v,
after a row of decorative sigla, the proem of Book II begins at
line 15.

2 Kronenberg : dvay/catav.

3 Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. pp. 101 f., defends the text.

106



TABLE-TALK

BOOK TWO

Some of the preparations which are made for dinners
and drinking-parties rank as necessities, my dear Sos-
sius Senecio ; such are the wine, the food, the cuisine, ,
and of course the couches and tables. Others are
diversions introduced for pleasure's sake, and no es-
sential function attaches to them ; such are music,
spectacles, and any buffooning Philip-at-Callias's."
With these latter, if they are present, the guests are
pleased, but if they are absent, the guests do not very
much desire them or criticize the party as being very
deficient. So it is with the conversation ; some topics
are accepted by the average run of men as the proper
business of drinking-parties, while other topics are
entertained because they possess an attractive theme
more suitable to the moment than pipe and lyre.
Examples of these were mixed together in my first
book. To the first category belong the conversation ^^
on philosophical talk at drinking-parties, that on the
subject whether the host himself assigns places or
allows the guests to take their own, and such matters ;
to the second category belong the conversation on the

Philip is the buffoon at Callias's party in Xenophon's
ium, i. 11 ff.



' KoX ra rotaOra Salmasius : lac. 4-6 avra.

107



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(629) etvai /cat irepl rrjs AtavrtSo? <l)vXrjg. cLv ra ^ikv^
KaXco Srjra /cat avros^ IBla^ ovfjiTroTLKd' ra he

GVVafl(f)6T€pa^ KOLVcbs aVflTTOdLaKOL.

^TTopdSrjv 8* dvayeypaTTTai /cat ov Sta/ce/cptjueVajs"
aAA' COS" eKaarov els jJLVijfjL'qv rjXdev. ov Set 8e
Oavfidi^eLV rovs dvayiyvwGKOVTag , el aol Trpoa-
E (l)a)vovvres riva rcov irore p7]Bevriov^ /cat" vtto gov
Gvvrjydyofiev /cat yap dv at piadrjueLS dvap.VT]GeL?
p,ri TTOLCOGLV, TToAAcL/ctS' €t? TauTO TO) piavOdveiv TO
dvajjLLp.vi^GKeadai KadLGTrjGLV.



nPOBAHMA A'

TiV iarlv d Hevo^cuv rrapa ttotov rjBiov epcoTdadai ^"qai koX
OKCOTTTeadaL rj jxrj

Collocimtiir Sossius Senecio et Plutarchus

1 . Ae/ca he Trpo^Xr^iidriov el? eKaGTOv veveprj-
[xevcDV ^L^XloVy ev totjtco Trpchrov eGnv o rpoirov
TLvd 'Eevo(f)a)V 6 HcoKpariKos rjpLLV irpo^e^Xr^Kev.^
Tov yap Toj^pvav (f>rjGL GvvheLTrvovvra ro) Kvpco
Tct T* aAAa davp.di^€LV ra>v WepGCJv /cat on roiavra

^ utv TO. fi€v Hubert : lac. 2.

2 avTos Stephanus : lac. 4.

3 iSi'a Bernardakis : ra.

* be awafKJyoTepa Bolkestein : 8 lac. 3-4 rcpa.

* TTore prjdevTwv Wilaniowitz : TrpopprjdevTujv.

* Koi Bolkestein : •^.

' The text of Question 1 follows the proem without caption
or break, but with a in the margin. The title comes from the
index prefixed to the proem in T.

^ irpo^e^XrjKev Meziriacus : irapa^d^XrjKev.

108



TABLE-TALK H. 1, 629

poetical disposition of lovers and the one concerned
with the phyle Aiantis. The first group indeed I also
call specifically drinking-party topics, but both to-
gether generally suitable table-talk.

The conversations which follow have been written
in a haphazard manner, not systematically but as each
came to mind. Nor must my readers be surprised if,
though addressing myself to you, I have introduced
some of your own past conversation also ; for indeed,
if the getting of knowledge does not insure that one
remembers it,� frequently the same end is attained
by recollection as by learning.



QUESTION 1

What the subjects are about which Xenophon says people,
when they are drinking, are more pleased to be questioned
and teased than not *

Speakers : Sossius Senecio and Plutarch

1. The first of the ten questions allocated to each
book is here one which Xenophon the Socratic has in
a manner of speaking placed before us. He tells us
that Gobryas,*' when dining with Cyrus, admired the
qualities of the Persians, in particular the fact that

� Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. pp. 103 f., follows Vollgraff in
transposing at to ava^viqaeis and translating " etsi enim re-
cordationes nullas efficiunt novarum rerumcognitiones," etc. :
" if memory does not actually produce new knowledge, yet
to be reminded of certain things often amounts to the same
thing as learning." Cf. infra, 686 b.

" Imitated in Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 2 f. ; cf. Aris-
totle, Eth. Nic. iv. 8.

" Friend and relative by marriage to Cyrus the Elder.
The present anecdote is from Xenophon, Cyropaedia, v. 2.
18.

109



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(629) fjL€V dXXT]Xovs rjpcoTOJV a tJSlov tJv ipojrrjdrjvai rj jjlt)^
eaKCOTTTov 5' a^ oKCjclidrjvaL tJSlov t) fJii]^' €t yap

€7TaiVOVVT€S €T€pOL TToAAa/CtS" XvTTOVOL^ Kal TTpOG-

F LGTavrai, ttojs ovk a^iov rjv dyaodai rrjv evrpa-
ireXiav €K€lvojv /cat ttjv GvveoiVy (Lv /cat rd aKWjjL-
fiara rots' GKOJirrofJievoLS rjSovrjv /cat X^P'-^ Trapelx^v;
SexofjLevog ovv rjfJids iv Hdrpats rjSewg dv €(f)r)9*
TTvOeadaL rd roiavr ipcoT^ixara ttolov yivovs c'lt)
/cat Tts" avrcjv tuttos' " ov ydp tl puKpov," €<f>rjg,^
" rrjs ofjLLXrjTLKTJg fiopLov rj irepl rds ipcortjaeis /cat
rds 77-atSta? rod ifxpieXovs iTnarrip.'q /cat r^qprjuL^."
630 2. " Meya fiev ovv," €<j)riv iyo), " aAA' dpa fxr]
/cat avTos 6 a€VO(j)cbv ev re rco YiCOKpariK& /cat
rot? YiepoLKOis imSeiKwaL crvpLTroGiois to yivos.
€t Se 8o/cet /cat oJjLta? CTTideodai ra>^ Xoyco, TrpwTOV
•qhiiDS ip(x)rdodai jjlol Sokovglv d paSlojs dnoKpi-
vaodai Svvavrat' ravra 8' icrrlv wv ifjLTreLpiav
exovoLV. d ydp dyvoovoiv , rj' fir) Xeyovreg d^Qovrai
Kaddirep alrrjdevres o SovvaL [xrj SvvavraL -^ Ae-
yovres diro 86^r]s /cat et/cao-tas" ov jScjSatou Sia-
rapdauovrai /cat Kiv^vvevovaiv. dv Se fxri fxovov
exj] rd pdSiov dXXd Kal rt* Trepirrdv rj drrroKpiGLS ,

B rjSicov earl rco diroKpivofieva) • Trepirral 8* elolv at
Tcov eTnarafxevcov d (jltj ttoXXol yLyvcDOKovGi firj8^
aKf^KoaGLVy olov dGrpoXoyiKcov, SiaXeKTiKCoVf dvirep

^ fOKcoiTTov 8' a Bernardakis, koI cos iaKcoTrrov ola Xy la ri-
der ; lac. 8.

^ 17810^ •^ /XT7 Xylander : aKuxftdijvcu icat lac. 4.

3 Bernardakis : lac. 6.

* Wyttenbach : €<f>'q E, €<f>v T. ^ Wyttenbach : €<f)rja€.

110



I



TABLE-TALK H. 1, 629-630

they asked each other such questions as it is more
agreeable to be asked than not and joked each other
on matters about which it was more agreeable to be
teased than not ; for if other men often vex and
annoy by their praise, as they do, surely it was right
for Gobryas to admire the urbanity and understand-
ing of men whose very jokes offered pleasure and
gratification to those who were the butts ? And so,
when you were entertaining me at Patras, you said
you would be glad to learn what kind such questions
were and what their general character. " For no
small portion of the art of conversation," you said,
" is the knowledge and observance of good taste in
question-posing and fun-making."

2. " Certainly, a great portion," I replied ; " but
surely Xenophon himself, in the Socratic Symposium
as well as in his writing about Persian drinking-parties,
shows what kind such questions are. And yet if it is
decided that we too apply ourselves to the problem,
it seems to me, in the first place, that men are glad to
be asked what they are able to answer easily, that is,
questions about matters in which they have experi-
ence ; for about what they do not know, either they
say nothing and are chagrined as though asked for
what they cannot give or they reply with a guess and
an uncertain conjecture and so find themselves in a
distressing and dangerous situation. However, if the
answer is not only easy but somehow striking, it is
more agreeable to the answerer. Striking are the
answers of those who have knowledge of matters
which many neither understand nor have heard about:
for example, astronomy or dialectics, if it is in these

• Hubert : tivI. ' Jannot : ol.

• Tt added by Hubert, to Reiske.

Ill



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(630) e^LV iv avrois e^ojaLV. ov yap TTpdrrcov (jlovov €/ca-
C7TOS" ovSe 8L7]iJL€p€VCjov, (Ls ^vpi7rl8rjs (jyrjaiv, dAAd
/cat SiaXeyofjievos

?v' avTos" avTOv rvyx^vrj Kpdrioros (x)v

rjSeojs StaTLderaL.

" Kat "xaipovai rots ipcurcoGiv d yiyvcjcrKovres dy-
voetodai Koi Xavddveiv ov OeXovcnv. 8l6 /cat Trcpl
X(x)pas aTTOLKov /cat ^€vr]9 daXdrrrfs iOojv re jSap-
^apLKCJV /cat voficov ol TTeTrXavrjjjievoL /cat ireTrXev-
Kores 'qSiov ipajrcovraL /cat TrpodvfjLOJS SirjyovvraL
/cat Siaypd^ovdL koXttovs /cat tottovs, olofievoi

C /cat xctpiv Tim tcuv ttovwv ravrrjv /cat vapa/jLvdiav
KOfjLi^€G6aL. KadoXov S' oca fjLTjSevos ipcorwvTos
avrol dLTjyeladaL /cat Aeyetv d�/>' iavrcjv elwdafxev,
tJSlov ipajTcofxeday x^piZ^eaBai tovtols SoKovvres,
c5v €pyov rjv €vo')(XovpLevojv dTroaxeadai. /cat rovro
fxev iv TotS" TrAojTt/cots' [JidXiora (f)V€TaL ro yevos rod
vocnfiiiaros' ol he KOfupoTepoL ravr ipcjrdoOai
diXovaiv d PovXofievoL Xeyeiv alSovvrai /cat <^€t-
Sovrai Tcjjv Trapovrcov olov ooa rvyxdvovaiv avrol
8ia7r€7Tpay[JL€VOL /cat KarcopdcoKorcs. opdcos yovv
6 NcVro)/) rrjv ^iXorniiav rov ^Ohvoolws eiriard-
fievos

€177* dye fi , cS TToXvaLV* *OBvg€v, — <j)rjGL, — jjLeya
Kv8o9 'A^ctidiv,

D oTTTTws^ rovoS* LTTTTovs Xd^erov.

^ OTT7TCOS Xylander from Homer : ottws St).
112



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 630

subjects that the answerers have skill. For not only
in the activity in which he passes his days but also in
his conversation each man is agreeably occupied

Where the best of his abilities
Chance to lie,

as Euripides has it.<*

" People are pleased ^vnth those who ask them ques- f
tions on subjects which, because they themselves have :
knowledge of them, they are un^^'iUing to let go un-
known and lie hidden. Thus travellers and sailors are )
very glad to be questioned about a far-away place
and a foreign sea and about the customs and laws of
alien men, and they willingly describe and delineate
gulfs and localities with the notion that thus they
obtain for themselves a kind of reward and a consola-
tion for their labours. In general we are glad to be
questioned on matters M'hich we are in the habit of
describing and talking about of our own accord even
when no one asks us, for so we think we give pleasure
to those whose business it was to refrain from putting
questions to us if our conversation annoyed them.
This kind of disease is rampant among seafaring men,
and the more courteous prefer to be questioned about
what, in spite of their desire, they hesitate to speak
because of modesty and their consideration for the
company, as, for example, all that they themselves
have accomplished and achieved. And so it was right
for Nestor, knowing Odysseus's love for fame, to say

Come tell me, famed Odysseus, glorious
And great Achaean, how you both did take
These horses. ''

� Frag. 183 Nauck, line 3. Cf. Moralia, 622 a, 514 a,
43 B. * Iliad, X. 544 f.

113



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(630) dxdovrai yap rolg avrovs eiraivovGiv koI ras iav-
Tcov evTVXi'GLS Sie^LovGiVy av fir) KcXevar] aAAos" rt?
Tojv TTapovTOJV Kal olov jStaJo/xcvot^ Xlywoiv.

'HSeco?^ yovv ipwrcjvrai Trepl^ TTpea^eicov /cat
'iT€pV' 7toXlt€lcov oooi^ [X€ya Tt Kal XapLTTpov elpya-
GfjL€VOL Tvyxoivovoiv. oOev 'qKiara irepl tovtcov ol^
<f)dov€pol Kal KaKO'qOets ipcjrojGLy Kav aXXos tls
ep-qrai^ ra rotaura, hiaKpovovrai Kal iraparpe-
TTOVGiVy x^P^^ 'ni StT^yi^cret jxr] StSovreg [irjSe jSou-
XofievoL Xoyov rov Xeyovra koojiovvtos d(f)opfj.a9
TTpoead ai. Kal ravr ovv ipojrajvres xaptjovrat�
rots' diTOKpivopLevois y a rovs ixOpovs Kal Bvafxevelg
aloOdvovrai [xtj ^ovXofjLevovs aKovcLV.
E S. " Kat [JLTjv 6 y ^08v(JG€VS rat ^AXkivoo)

(Tol S' ifjid K'qSea Ovfjbos CTrerpaTrero CTOvoevra
€Lp€ad^ y 6(f)p' eVi /xaAAov oSvpofxevos arevaxi^^o).

Kal TTpos rov xopov 6 OlSlttovs

Seivov fxev to TrdXai KeipL€Vov 'qSrj KaKov, c5
^€tv*, cTreyetpetv'*

o S' FiVpiTTiSrjs Tovvavriov

d)s ri^'o TOL (jwdivra [xejJLvrjadai, ttovojv,^^

{/catrot Kal avros SrjXcov (hs rj8v fxovois roZs rjSrj

^ Kal olov jSta^d/xevoi Bemardakis : lac. 6-9 ^ofievoi.
2 rjBecos Turnebus : lac. 5-7.
^ TTcpl Turnebus : lac. 4-5.
* TTcpl Turnebus : lac. 3-5.
^ oaoL Hubert : el Turnebus : lac. 4.
' ol Stephanus : a)s.

' dXXos Tis €pr]TaL Cobet, dXXos avrovs epajra. Bollaan (Helm-
bold, Cla^s. Phil, xxxvi [1911], p. 87) : oAAo lac. 6-7 rat.

114



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 630

For people are irritated by those who praise them-
selves and recount at length their ow-n successes, un-
less some other member of the company bid them do
so, and they are, as it were, compelled to speak.

" At any rate everybody who happens to have
achieved some great and brilliant success on foreign
mission or in political office at home is glad to be
asked about it. That is why spiteful and malicious
people are in the habit of asking about such matters
least of all and resist and turn aside such questions
if asked by some one else, granting the story no place,
nor willing to countenance the first words of a tale
reflecting credit upon the teller. Accordingly, those
who ask about matters they know the disaffected
enemies of the questioned do not wish to hear, are
the men who please their interlocutors.

3. "To proceed : Odysseus said to Alcinoiis,

Thy heart inclined to ask about my mournful
fate, that I might cry and moan still more.*

And Oedipus said to the chorus,

It is dreadful, O Stranger, to stir
Such an evil, long dormant till now.*

But the opposite we find in Euripides,

To remember toil, how sweet — when one is safe. "

Yet he himself makes plain how sweet to those alone

� Odyssey^ ix. 12 f.

'' Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus^ 510; see svpra^ p. 33,
note a. � Frag. 133 Nauck.

• Xapi^ovrat Meziriacus : x^P^C^^^'^'-

" iflv', eireyeipeip Xylander from Sophocles : fcu'c lac. 4-
5 yeipev.

^� Toi aoiOivra pLCfivijadai. added by Turnebus from Macro-
bius. Saturnalia^ vii. 2. 9 : lac. 4-5.

115



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(630) GcodeiGLvY ov rols en TrXavcofxevoi? /cat KaKor
^Ipovaiv. ra)v ovv KaKOJV (f>vXaKT€ov iarl ras"
€pa)TrjG€L�' avLCOvrai yap hiiqyovixevoi KaraSuKas;
F avTCJV 7] ra(f)a� TratSojv jj rivas Kara yijv ovk
evTVX^Z? rj Kara ddXarrav ipLTTopias. ro Se ttcos
€vr)iJL€p7)Gav €7tI ^T]fxaT09 rj 7TpOGr)yop€v6rjGav vtto
rod ^aoiXeoJS r] rwv dXXojv TrepiTTeaovrcjv x^ljicoglv
1^ XrjoraZs avroi 8i€(f)vyov rov klvSvvov, rjSecJS
ipajTCOvrai ttoXXolkls Kal rporrov rivd rco Xoyco rod
TTpdyfxaros diroXavovTes dTrXrjorajg exovGi rov 8l-
631 rjyelaOai Kal pLvrjfjbovevetv. x^ipovoi hk Kal irepl
^lAcuv evrvxovvrcov ipcorcofievoL Kal Trepl TratScov
TTpOKOTTrovrojv iv fjLad'qfjLaaiv ^ ovviqyopiaLS r]
^tAtatS" paaiXewv.

" *Ej)(dpa>v Be Kal SvajJLcvcjv ovelSr) Kal ^Xd^as
Kal KaraSiKas i^eXeyxd^vrcov Kal acfyaXevrwv "qSLOv
ipojrwfxevoL Kal TTpoOvfJLorepov i^ayyiXXovoiv av-
roi S' a^' avrojv okvovgl (jyvXarropLevoi 86^av
€771X0.1 pe KaK ias . rfBiov 8k Kal Trepl kvvcov dv8pa
diqpevrLKOv ipcordv Kal (fnXaOXrjrrjv Trepl yvpLviKcjv
dyoivcjv Kal Trepl KaXcjv epojriKov. 6 S' evGe^rfs
Kal cf>LXo6vr7]9 , BLTjyrjiJLarLKOs oveipojv Kal ocra
Xpy}(ydiievos rj (^rjfjLai? ^ Lepolg* dewv evfieveLO.
B KarcjpdojGev, rj8ecjO� dv Kal Trepl rovrcov epconoro.^
rots 8e TTpeG^vrais, Kav fir]8ev rj 8i'^yrjGL� rj

1 Text in brackets added by Hubert : lac. 25-28 -ot?
ovKeTL for ov Tois €Ti IleliTibold, loc. cit.

116



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 630-631

who have now been saved, not to those who still en-
dure misfortunes in their wanderings. It is therefore
necessary to keep one's questions away from the sub-
ject of misfortunes, for it distresses people to speak
of lawsuits lost, of children buried, of any unsuccessful
business-deals on land or sea. But they are glad to be
asked over and over how they met with success in the
Assembly, or were addressed by the king, or, when
others fell in with storms or pirates, they themselves
avoided the danger ; and they are insatiable in re-
calling and relating their experience because their
talk in a sense enables them to continue their pleasure
in it. And they are happy to be asked about friends
who are successful and about children who are making
progress in studies or in lawsuits or in the friendship
of kings.

" They are even more delighted to be asked about
the disgraces, the injuries, and the unsuccessful law-
suits of enemies and adversaries who have been con-
victed and ruined ; about such matters they are very
willing to report in detail, but of their own accord
they hesitate to do so, bewaring of a reputation for
spite. It is also very agreeable to ask a huntsman
questions about dogs, a keen athlete about games,
and an amorist about his handsome loves. The pious
ritualist, fond of recounting dreams and all that he
by the gods' goodwill has brought to success through
use of omens or of sacrifices, would very gladly be
asked about these matters. Those who address
questions to elderly men please them very much and

^ Kai KaKo. Stephanus, Kavias Bernardakis : icatvds.

^ ^ added by Bernardakis.

* rj after UpoZs deleted by Hubert.

' Duebner : epcoTwvrai.

117



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(631) npoarjKovaay Trdvrajs ol ipcjTCJvres ;^apt^ovTat Kal

KlVOVOl pOvXofJi€VOV9.

<L NeWo/o NrjXrjLaSr], gv 5* aXrjOes eviaireSy

TTibs Wav* ^ArpetSr^g;

7TOV MeveAaos" €17^;

"^ ovK "Apyeos" "^ev 'Axctit/cow;

TToAA' ipcjTCJV dfia /cat ttoXXcov Xoycxjv d<f)op[jLas

7TpOL€lJL€V09,^ OV^ a)(J7T€p €VLOL GVGTeXXoVTeS €19 TO

dvayKatov avro /cat avveXavvovre? rag OLTTOKpLaeis
d^aipovvTai rijs yepovriKrjs hiarpi^ris to '^Slgtov.
oXcos 8' ol 6iXovT€s €V(f)patv€LV jLtaAAov rj XvTrelv
ToiavTas epoJTrjoeis 7Tpo(f)epovTaL, wv rats' dvoKpL-
C crecrtv ov ipoyos dAA' eiraivos, ovhe filaos rj vifxecns
aAA' evvoia /cat x^pis eTTcrat irapd rcov a/cou-
cravTCOv. raura jLtev ow rd Trept rd? ipaJTrjacLS.

4. " S/ccajLt/xaros" Se toj /xt^ hwapbivo) per' €t)Aa-
jSeta? /cat T€xvr]s /card Kacpov diTTeadai TravTarra-

OLV d(f)€KT€OV a)(77T€p ydp TOVS^ iv oXiodripcp TOTTCp,

Kav OiycooLV €/c TrapaSpopLrjs piovov, dvaTpiTTOvaiv,
ovTCos iv OLVO) TT/Dos" TTaoav d<f)oppLrjv Xoyov pLr)
/card G^rjpia yLyvopLevrjv €7nG<j>aX(x)s e^opLev. rot?
�€ GKcopupLaGiv €GTiv oT€ jLtaAAov "^ Tat? AoiSoptatS"
eKKLVovpLeda, to pLev vtt* opyrjg TroAAd/cts" d^ov-
AtJtcos" dpcovre? ytyi^opevov, rd S* cus" ovk dvayKatov
dAA' epyov v^pecos /cat KaKorjOelas Trpo^aXXoptevof
D /cat KadoXov Tcp^ StaAeyecr^at rots' dcrrctfo/xeVoij*
pidXXov "5 rots' €t/c^^ ^XvapovGf, ;(aA€7ratVo)Lt€v

^ Anonymous note in the margin of a copy of the Basel
edition preserved at Leyden, Reiske : Trpoaufiewos {Trpoa-
ic/xeVous wrongly Hubert).

2 yap Tous- added by Stephanus. yap Xylander.

^ TO) added by Paton.
118



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 631

stir up willing talkers, even if the subject matter in
no way relates to the speaker :

O Nestor, son of Neleus, speak the truth.
How perished the son of Atreus . . . ?
And where was Menelaiis . . . ?
In Achaean Argos was he not, for sure ? "

Many were the questions he [Telemachus] put at one
and the same time and many were the stories for
which he offered the occasion, not like some men, who
take away the most pleasant pastime of old age by
causing the answers they receive to be contracted
and compressed to bare essentials. To sum up : those
who wish to give happiness rather than distress put
questions of such sort that the answers are attended
not by blame from the audience but by praise, not by
hatred and anger but friendliness and goodwill. This,
then, is what I have to say upon the subject of
questions.

4. " The man who cannot engage in joking at a
suitable time, discreetly and skilfully,** must avoid
jokes altogether ; for just as men in a slippery place
are upset however lightly brushed, so in drinking we
are apt to be overthrown at every unseemly outburst
of talk that arises. And there are times when we are
more roused by jokes than by insults, for we may
frequently see that insults are the unintended result
of anger, while we may suppose that jokes are the
gratuitous result of insolence and bad character.
Further, we are generally more offended when the
talk is with clever men than when it is with heedless

� Odyssey, iii. 247 ff.
^ Cf. Precepts of Statecraft, vii, 803 b ff.

* Paton : lac. 6-7 vois. ' Pohlenz : lac. 4.

119



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(631) elSores^ on hoXos rco^ v^piGfiaTL^ TTpoGeoTLv.*
8oK€L yap^ TO GKajfjifjia AotSopTy/xa SeSoy/Jievov^
€Lvai Kat 7r€7TOLrjiJL€vov €K TTapaGKevrjs. 6 yap
eLTTcbv rapLxoTTcoXrjv avrodev eXoiSoprjGev, 6 Se
(jiijaas, " jjLepLvijiJLedd o€ rep ^pa^iovL airop^vr-
t6[jl€vov/* eaKOJipev. koL Kt/cepcuv TTpos 'O/cra-
ovLOVy €K Al^vtjs elvat SoKovvra Xiyovros 3* avTov
^doKovra jjLrj oiKoveLV, " /cat jjltjv rerpvTTiqixivov,*'
€(f)rj, " €X€L9^ TO ovs/' /cat MeXavdio? vtto rod
Kcop.cp8io7TOLOv KarayeXcofievos €(f)7], " ovk o(^etAo-
[JL€v6v pLOL aTroStScus" epavov."

MaAAov ovv rd (j/cco/x/xara SoLKvet, KadaTrep rd
E 7TaprjyKLGTpcopL€va ^eXr] TrXelova xpovov ipLpLevovra.
/cat XvTTet TOV� GKOJ^devras rj repi/jLS rfj kopi/j6t7]tl
Kad^ ooov^ rj8vv€L rous" irapovras' rj86pL€voL ydp
€TTi Tip AeyojLteVoj, incTTeveiv Sokovgl /cat gvv-
8Laovp€LV^ Tcp XiyovTL. oi^etStcr/xos"^" ydp iariv
rrjs^^ dpiapTLas 7Tap€GX'r]poiTL(jpi€vos t6^^ a/ccojLt/xa
/caret Tov QeocfypaoTov 66 €v i^ avTov ttj VTTOvoia
TTpoaTidrjOLV 6 dKovoas to iXXelvov cus" etSco? /cat
TTLGTevcDV. 6 ydp yeXdGas /cat rjodeis, tov QeoKpl-

rOV TTpO^ TOV 80K0VVTa XoJ7To8vT€LV ipOJTOJVTa 8'

1 Paton : lac. 2-3.

^ SoAo? Tu) Paton : 8' oXws to.

^ v^pLOfiaTL Paton : lac. 2-4 /xart.

^ TtpoaeaTL Reiske : TrpoaiaTai.

^ hoKel yap Paton : lac. 4-5.

' SeSoy/xeVoi' Paton : 8e lac. 4-5.

' Xylander : l^et. � xad^ oaov Post : koi.

^ boKovcn KOL aw- Duebner : lac. 3-4.

^^ Turnebus : lac. 2 ofios.
^^ Turnebus, tlvos Bolkestein : lac. 2.
^^ 7Tap€axr)fj,aTi,afjL€vos to Turnebus : Trape lac. 5.



I



" Literally, " on your arm." Bion of Borysthenes attri-
120



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 631

fools, for in the case of the clever man we know that
cunning is compounded x^ith his ofFensiveness, — in-
deed his joke seems to be deliberate abuse purposely
delivered. The man who calls you * fishmonger ' is
obviously being insulting, but it's joking when some-
one says, * I remember when you used to Mi.pe your
nose on your sleeve.' " And when a man named
Octavius, who was supposed to be from Libya, said
to Cicero that he did not hear what Cicero was saying,
the latter 's answer was, * And yet you have holes in
your ears ! ' ^ Again, when Melanthius '^ was ridiculed
by the comic poet, he said, ' It's not the coin you owe
me that you pay me back.'

" Thus jokes are more biting, for like barbed arrows
they lie longer embedded. The delight in their clever-
ness distresses the victims in the degree it gives
pleasure to the company, for by taking pleasure in
what is said the company seem to believe the speaker
and join in \vith his ridicule. The joke, as Theo-
phrastus has it, is a disguised reproach for error" ;
accordingly the listener of his own accord supplies in
thought what is missing as though he knew it and
believed it. For example, Theocritus,* in reply to
the question of a man reputed to be a robber, who

butes both the habit and the occupation to his father :
Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Philosphers^ iv. 46.

" Life of Cicero^ xxvi. 4 ; Mor. 205 b. In Xenophon, Ana-
basis, iii. 1. 31, pierced ears are given as proof of non-Hellenic
origin, as here of non-Roman ; see further John E. B. Mayor,
Juvenal, i. 104, with note ; Macrobius's version of this
passage is explicit in citing this as a Libyan practice.

" Aristophanes, Peace, 804, Birds, 151 ; a tragic poet
ridiculed also by Eupolis, Plato comicus, Pherecrates, etc.

<* Cf. Tract. Coisl. 4 f. in Kaibel, Com. Gr. Frag. I. i, p.
50 ; Lane Cooper, Aristotelian Theory of Comedy, pp. 259 ff.

� Of Chios, F.H.G. ii. 87, cf. infra, 633 c ; RE, s.v., no. 2.

121



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(631) avrov el iirl SelTTVov jSaSt^ct ^Tjoravros" paSl^eiv,
eKei fjievTOL KaOevSeiv, Pe^aiovvri rrjv Sia^oXr^v
F ofxoLos iariv. 8l6 /cat TrpoaavaTTLjjLTTXrjcri rovs
Trapovras 6 gkcotttojv irapa [leXog KaKorjOetas, ws
€(l)7]8oiX€Vov� /cat GVW^pit,ovras } ev 8e rfj KaXij
Aa/ce8atjLtovt rojv ixadrjfjLdrcov eSo/cet to a/ccuTrretv
dXvTTCxJS /cat (JKajTrrofievov <f>€peLV et 8e ris aTietTrot

GKWTTTOfJieVOg, €V6V9 6 OKO)TTTOJV iTTeTTaVTO. TTCOg

ovv ov ;\;aA€7rov evpetv GKCjjjLfJLa rcn GKOJTTTopLivco

632 K€-)(0^plGpiivOVy 07T0V /cat TO fXTj XvTTOVV^ TOV CT/CCtJ/X-

pbaros ov rrjs tvxovg7]s epiTreipias /cat Sc^iott^to?

€GTIV;

5. " Ol5 jLtT^V dAAa TTpaJTOL fXOL So/Cet TCt AuTTOUVTa

Tous" ivoxovs GKWfJLfJLara rois fiaKpav ovgl ttJ?
Sia^oXrjs rjSovqv riva /cat X^P''^ TTOieZv. otov 6
Sevo^ojv TOV viripaiGXpov /cat vnepSaGW €K€lvov
d)S TratSi/ca tou Hafi^avXa GKajTrrofxevov eto-ayet
jU-CTCt TratStas*. /cat Kut^tou tov rj[JL€T€pov, jjLejxvrjGai
yap, €V OLGdeveia ras x^tpa? e;i^€tv ipvxpo.? Xeyovros,
Kv(f>i8ios MoSecTTos", ' dAAa /xtJv/ c^'^?, * 6€pp,a9
OLTTO Trj� iirapxiCLs KeKopuKas avrds '' rovro yap
€K€iva) pikv ydXcjra /cat Slolxvglv Trapeox^v, kXIttttj
B S' dvdvTrdrcx) XoLSoprjfxa /cat oveiBos rjv. 8i6 /cat
KptTOjSouAov o la(x)Kpdrr]s cvTrpoGcoTTorarov ovra
TTpOKaXovfJievos els GvyKpioiv evpLOp(f>ias enai^ev

^ Reiske : avw^pi^onevous.
^ Stephanus, Xunelv 8ia Ziegler : Aiweii'.

" In Xenophon, Cyropaedia, ii. 2. 28 f.

^ To whom, if the emendation at these places is correct, are

122



TABLE-TALK H. 1, 631-632

was asking whether Theocritus was going out to
dinner, said that he was indeed going out to dinner,
but was passing the night there ; whoever laughs at
the remark and takes pleasure in it is in the position
of one who confirms the slander. Thus the ill-bred
joker infects the company with his bad manners,
since they too are delighted and join in his malice.
In fair Lacedaemon it was thought that one of the
things a man must learn was to tease without giving
offence and to endure being teased ; and if anyone
should ever succumb under teasing, the teaser always
stopped at once. How then can it fail to be hard to
find a joke agreeable to the man at whom it is
directed when joking without offending is a matter
of no ordinary skill and cleverness ?

5. " Nevertheless, it seems to me that jokes which
distress the guilty are foremost in causing a certain
pleasure and mirth in men of unimpeachable reputa-
tion. An example is Xenophon's playful introduction
of that exceedingly ugly and shaggy individual who
is teased as the ' darling ' of Sambaulas." When our
own Quietus ^ during his illness remarked that his
hands were cold, — surely you remember, — Aufidius
Modestus " said, ' But you have brought them back
hot from your province.' This made Quietus laugh
merrily, though for a thieving proconsul it would
have been an insulting rebuke. So too Socrates,
when he challenged the very handsome Critobulus **
to a beauty-contest, was teasing him amiably, not

dedicated De Fratemo Amore {vfiih Nigrinus; see 478 b with
note [LCL]) and Be Sera Numinis Vindicta (548 a).

" RE, s.v. " Aufidius," no. 30 ; above, 618 f.

** Xenophon, Symposium, iv. 19 ; rather, it is Critobulus
who is ironic at Socrates's expense, but Socrates lightly
returns the irony.

123



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(632) ovK €X^€va^€V. Kal 'EcoKpdrrjv ttolXlv 'AA/ct/StaSTys"
kaKCJTTrev el? lpr]Xorv7Tiav rrjv nepl ^Ayddojvog.

" "HSovrai 8e /cat jSaatAetS" rot? Xeyojiivois cos et?
7Tev7)ras avrovs Kal tStcoras", warrep vtto ^lXlttttov
(jKW^Oels 6 irapduLTOs eLTrev ' ovk iycxi ae rp€(f)cx);
rd yap ov irpooovra (f)avXa Xeyovres epicjyaivovGL
rd TrpoGOvra -x^piqard. Set S' ofjLoXoyovpievojs /cat
jScjSatojs" TTpooelvai tl xP'^^'^^^' ^^ ^^ f^V* '^o
C Xeyofievov rovvavriov^ dfi<f)La^iqTr]OLp.ov €;^€t rr)v
VTTovoiav. 6 ydp rw Trdvu ttXovolco rovs Savetards

€7Td^€LV XeyOJV t) TOV vSpOTTOTTjV Kal Gcx)(/)pova

TTapoLvelv Kal jjLedveiv ^ rov evBdiravov Kal fieya-
Xo7Tp€7rrj Kal ;^aptcrTt/cov /ctjLtj8t/ca /cat KvpuvoTrpi-
GTr]v^ TTpocrayopevcov tj tov iv (jw-qyopiais Kal
TToXireiais fxeyav drreiXajv iv dyopa X-^ipeGOai
SidxvGLV Kal pL€ihiapLa irapeGx^v . ovrcos 6 Ysjjpos
iv ots" eAetVero rcov iraipcxiv els ravra vpoKa-
XovfJievos eyiyvero 7TpoG7]vrjs Kal KexapiGfjievos. Kal

TOV ^lGp,7]VL0V Tjj OvGLO. TTpOGavXoVVTOS , COS OVK

e/caAAte/5€t, rrapeXofJievos rovs avXovs 6 pllgOcotos
rjvXrjGe yeXoicos' alrLCOjJidvojv^ Se tojv Trapovrojv,
D ' €GTiv/ ^(f>'^> '^o /c€;^aptcr/x€Va)S" auAetv deodev''
6 S' ^iGpurjVias yeXaGas, ' aAA' ifjiov fiev avXovvros
r)86iJievoL hiirpi^ov ol Oeoi, gov S' (ZTraAAayrJi^at
G7rev8ovT€s ihe^avro rrjv OvGiav.'

6. " "Ert roivvv ol rd xp'^^'^d tojv rrpayfidrajv

^ Pohlenz deletes to before Xeyofievov, Hartnian deletes to
from ivavTLOv.

2 Xylander : Kvfiivov.

' avia>/AeVa>vNaber(Helmbold, Class. Phil, xxxvi |1941], p.
87).
124



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 632

mocking him. And it was again Socrates whom
Alcibiades teased for his jealousy over Agathon.**

" Kings are pleased to be addressed like mere
labourers and conamon men : for example, the para-
site's reply to Philip's teasing, ' Do I not feed you ? '
For by referring to a disability which does not exist
one emphasizes the merit which does. The presence
of merit of some sort, certain and generally re-
cognized, is essential ; otherwise the real meaning of
the statement of the contrary is ambiguous. Mirth
and laughter are the result when someone says that
he will introduce money-lenders to the very wealthy
so-and-so, or asserts that a sober water-drinker gets
riotously drunk, or calls the free-spending, magnifi-
cent, bounteous man a niggardly skinflint, or threatens
the man prominent at the bar and in government
that he will catch him in the Agora.* So it was a kind
and agreeable act for Cyrus * to challenge his com-
])anions to contests in which his skill was inferior to
theirs. And when Ismenias '^ was playing the pipe
at a sacrifice, was not obtaining favourable omens,
and the professional took the pipe, played in a
ridiculous manner, and answered the reproaches of
tlie bystanders with * To play the pipe agreeably is
a gift of the god,' Ismenias laughed and said, ' With
my playing the gods were pleased and protracted the
ceremony ; but in their eagerness to get rid of you
they accepted the sacrifice.'

6. " Furthermore, those who jokingly apply abusive

" Plato, Symposium, 213 c.

* The implication is that the Agora is the centre of judicial
and political activity, as indeed it was at Athens.

* Xenophon, Cyropaedia, i. 4. 4; cf. Mor. 514 b.

^ Presumably a member of the Theban family : RE, s.v,,
no. 6 ; cf. Life of Pericles, i. 5.

1S5



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(632) rots' XoiSopovfJidvois ovofxaai /xera TratSta? KaXovv-
T€Sy av efjLficXaJs TroLCoaiv, avrcjv fxaXXov eix^pai-
vovGL TCiiv aiT* evdeias iTraivovvrcjv . /cat yap
SaKvovcn fjLoiXXov ol 8ia rcov evcfy'qiJLajv ovetSt^oi/Tes",
COS" ol rovs TTOv-qpovs ^Kpioreihas /cat tovs SclXovs
'AxtAAetS" KaXovvres /cat d^ tov So^o/cAeous'
OlSlttovs . . .

ravT7]s J^peojv 6 Tnoros ov^ ^PXV^ ^tAos".'
avriuTpo^ov ovv €olk€ yivos elpojvelas cfvat' to
E 7T€pl rovs eiraivovs ' (S /cat HcvKpdrr]? ixp'qcraro, rod
KvTLodevovs TO <j)LXo7roi6v /cat ovvaycoyov avdpoj-
TTCov els evvoiav fiaaTpoTrelav /cat* Trpoayioyelav^
ovopidaas . . .* KpaTTjTa Se tov (fyiXooocffOV , els
TTaaav ot/ctav elcnovTa pLeTO. TLprjs /cat <f>LXo(j)po-
avv7]s Sexopievcov, ' 6vp€7TavolKT7]v ' eKaXovv.

7. " Iloict S' evxoLpL GKcopipLa /cat pLepLipLS epcfyai-
vovoa ^dpiv (Ls Aioyevrjs irepl ^ AvTiadivovs eXe-
yev

OS pie pdKrf t TJpLTnax^ Ka^rjvdyKaoev
TTTOJXov yeveodai /cd/c Sopiwv avdoTaTOV

ov yap dv opiolcvs TTidavos "r^v Xeycuv ' 6s pie oo-

<j)6v KoX avTdpKT] /cat piaKdpLov eTTOirjaev.' /cat 6

F Aa/ccov aKavva ^vXa Tcp yvpLvaaidp^co TrapaoxovTL

TrpooTTOLOvpLevos eyKaXelv eXeyev, * St* ov oz)S*

^ KOX 6 Stephanus : o /col.

2 ravTTjs and dpxfjs Xylander from Sophocles : lac. 6 rrjs
and a lac. 5-6 xv^ '■> aiFter OlShovs perhaps no omission except
Tttu, Hubert.

3 Bernardakis : e'vai elpcoveias.

* /ecu awayoryiav deleted by Wyttenbach before /cot.
126



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 632

words to anything praiseworthy, if they do so with
tact, give more pleasure than even men straightfor-
ward in their praise. And those who are fairspoken
in their censure are actually more bitingly effective,
like one who calls a rascal an Aristides and a coward
an Achilles, and like Sophocles 's Oedipus,**

For this the trusted Creon, long my friend . . . [sc. desires
to cast me out, has caught me with his tricks].

Now it seems that for praise there is a corresponding
kind of irony. Socrates ^ used it when he applied
the terms 'pandering' and 'pimping' to Antisthenes's
habit of bringing men together in fellowship and good-
will ... a lacuna of c. 46 letters . . . And Crates the
philosopher,'' who had entry to every house and the
friendly esteem of his hosts, was called ' Gate-
crasher.'

7. " Censure too, provided it shows gratification,
makes an agreeable pleasantry. As Diogenes said of
Antisthenes :

In rags he clothed me and compelled that I
Be poor and from my home outcast.'*

He would not be equally effective if he said, ' He
made me wise, independent, and happy.' And there
is the Laconian who pretended to bring suit against
the gymnasium-master who furnished smokeless
faggots : ' Because of him,' said the Laconian, ' even

• Oedipus Tyrannust 385; "For this "= to obtain my
position for himself, sc. rrjabf a o^X^s ovv€Ka from two lines
before. ' Xenophon, Symposium^ iv. 61 fF.

*= Diogenes Laertius, vi. 86.

^ Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag.^ Adespoton 394.

' irpoayoiyiiav Wjltenbach from Xenophon : aywyiav,
• Lac. 45. ' Stephanus : ko/m^.

127



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(632) aTTohaKpvoai yiyovev^ rjfjLLV.' /cat d^ tov Sclttvl-
t^ovra Kad^ rjfjiepav dvSpaTToSiarrjv KaXcjv Kal
Tvpawov, St' 6V ircjv togovtojv ovx icopaKev rrjv
iavTOv rpdiret^av. /cat d Xiycov vtto tov jSacrtAecos"
iiri^e^ovXevpievos d(f>r]prJG6aL t7]V gxoXtjv /cat tov
VTTVOV, ttXovoios y€.yov(l>s e/c TrevrjTOS. /cat et rt?
dvTiaTpeipas atrtairo rous^ Atcr;)^i;Aou KajSctpous"
633 ' o^ovs 07Tavit^€LV Scofia ' TrotT^cravras", axjTrep avTol
Trat^ovres" rj7T€LXrjGav. aTrrcrat yap raura /xaAAov
exovTa SpLjjLVTepav x^P^^> coctt€ jLt-)) TTpooioTaudai
jLtr^Se AuTretv rous" eTratvou/xeVovs".

8. " Act 5e TOV ifJifjieXa)? (j/cctjjLt/xaTt xprjaofxevov
elSevai /cat vouiqixaTO'S hia^opdv irpos iTTLTrjSevfia,
Xeyoj 8e ^iXapyvpias /cat (jyiXoLvlag TTpos <j)iXoiJLOv-
oiav Kal (jyiXodr^plav €7t* €K€LVOiS fxev yap axOovTai
cr/ccuTTrd/xevot, 77/)ds' raura S* rj^ecos exovGiv, ovk
dr]8a)? yovv ATjiioadevr]? 6 MiTvXi^valog , ^tAojSou
Ttvo9 /cat ^iXoKidapiaTov Ovpav Koipag, viraKovaav-
Tos avTov Kal KeXevaavTog elaeXdelv, ' dv irpu)-

B TOV,' €(j)r], ' T'r]v Kiddpav STJar)?.' di^ScDs" 3' d tou
Ai;crtjLta;^oi;^ rrapdoiTOS , ifJL^aXovTO? avTov GKopirlov
^vXlvov els TO IfjidTiov eKTapaxdels Kal dvaTnjSiJGas,
(hs TJadeTO TTjv TraiStav, ' /caycu ae/ (f>7jaLVy * €K<f)o-
prjaai /SouAo/xat, d) ^aoiXev' 86s fJiOL TdXavTov.'

9. " Etcjt Se Kal irepl ra acu/xart/cd Totaurai

^la^Opal TCJJV TTOLOT'qTOJV.^ oloV €LS ypVTTOTTJTa

^ eV after yeyovev deleted by Stephanus.
^ o added by Franke.

3 Basel edition, cf. Athenaeus, vi, 246 e : Xvmov.

4 Helmbold {Class. Phil, xxxvi [1941], p. 87), Bolkestein,
ru>v TTOLcov Madvig (Bolkestein) : tuiv ttoXXwv.

128



TABLE-TALK H. 1, 632-633

tears are denied us.' A dinner-guest called the
host who dined him day after day ' slave-dealer '
and ' tyrant ' on whose account he had not seen his
own table these many years. And the man who rose
from poverty to riches complained that he was now
being deprived of leisure and sleep by the plotting of
the king. Again, one might reverse the roles and
scold the Cabiri in Aeschylus " for ' emptying the
house of vinegar,' as they themselves playfully
threatened to do. The gratification these remarks
express is the more telling because they are a bit tart
and accordingly do not vex and annoy those who are
praised.

8. " The man who would make tactful use of joking
must know the difference between a diseased and a
normal habit (for example, between miserliness or
drunkenness and love of music or hunting). Teased
about the former, men are annoyed ; about the latter,
they are pleased. At any rate, when Demosthenes of
Mitylene ^ knocked on the door of a man who was
devoted to song and the cithara, and his friend
answered and invited him to enter, it was not offensive
for Demosthenes to reply, ' If first you will lock up
your cithara.' But when Lysimachus tossed a wooden
scorpion into the cloak of his parasite,*' and the para-
site jumped up in terror, it was offensive for the
parasite to say, after he saw it was a joke, * Now I
will frighten you. Sire : Give me a talent ! '

9. " Many such differences exist, too, where
physical characteristics are concerned. For example,

** Frag. 97 Nauck, 49 Smyth (LCL). By guaranteeing
abundant good wine the divinities will drive out the sour
stuff. " REt �.v., no. 8 ; only here.

" Athenaeus, vi, 246 e, gives his name as Bithys ; RE,
8.V. " Bithys," no. 6.

VOL. VIII F 129



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(633) Kal oLjjiorrjTa GKOJirroixevoi yeXcjoiv, cos 6 Kacav-
Spov cfylXos ovK rj)(6€adrj rod Q€0(f)pdoTov Trpos
avTOV €L7t6vtos, ' Oavfjidl^oj gov tovs o(f)daX[jLovs
OTL OVK aSovGLVy Tov fxvKTTJpos avTols ivSeSojKO-
C Tos" '• Kal 6 K.vpos CKeXevoe rov ypvirov gljjlov
dyayeGdat yvvaiov,^ ovro) yap €(f>apfi6G€LV' els Se
SvowSiav fJLVKTTJpos ^ GTOfxaros axdovrai gkojttto-
fjLevoL. Kal TrdXiv els (l>aXaKp6rrjra rrpdajs (f>€pov-
GLV, els 8e TTTipcoGiv 6<f)daXpicov drjScbs. Kal yap
A-vriyovos avros /xev eavrov els tov 6(f)6aXp.6v
eGKOJTTTev, Kal TTore Xa^ojv d^iiopia peydXois
ypct/x/xacjt yeypapup^evov, ' ravrl piev,' €<l>r], ' Kal
'TV(j)Xip hrjXa '• SeoKpirov Se rov Xtoy dneKreLvev,
on (f)r)GavT6s tlvos, ' els^ o^daXpovs dv ^aGiXecxJS
TTapayevrj,^ GCjodiJGr]/* ' dXXd poi,'^ elirev, ' dhvva-
rov Ttv' v7TO(f)aiveis rrjv GCDrrjpiav.'^

" Accuv' d Bv^dvTLos, elTTOVTOS TLaGidhov npos
D avTOV 6(f)daXpLGdrjvaL 8t* avrov rovs d<f>6aXpovs,
' dGdiveiaVy e(/)T7, ' Gcoparos oveiSll^eLS, vepeGLV
ovx dpcov €7tI tcjv a)p,a>v ^aGrdt^ovrd gov tov
vlov ' ' €LX€ 8e KvpTOV 6 YiaGidh'qs vlov. rjyavdKTJjGe
8e Kal " Apx^'^'^os 6 Srjpiayojyos twv ^Adr^valcov

^ oLfiov dyaydadaL yvvaiov added by Bernardakis ; aifirjv dya-
yeadaL yvvaiKa Tumebus ; cf. Xenophon, Cyropaedia, viii.
4. 21.

2 TLVOS els Turnebus (adding rovs from the Aldine edition) :

^ ^aoiXecos TTapayevqTai Turnebus, Trapayevr] Bernardakis :
lac. 5-6 payevT).

* ooidriarj Bernardakis, acodi]vai Turnebus : acodij.

^ dXXd piOL Bernardakis, oAA' e/iot Turnebus, oAAd /xa Ai*
Castiglioni : dAA' dp.a.

^ Pohlenz : dhwdrov to. vtto ttjv a.

130



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 633

men laugh when they are teased about a hooked nose
or a snub nose. Cassander's friend was not angry
with Theophrastus who said to him, ' I am amazed
that your eyes don't sing, for your nose gives them
the pitch.' <* Cyrus ^ advised a hooked-nose officer of
his to marry a snub-nosed woman, for thus they would
fit each other. But men get angry when they are
teased about a bad-smelling nose or mouth. Again,
people support with equanimity being teased about
baldness, but with asperity about impairment of sight.
Indeed, Antigonus,*' though it was his habit to make
fun of himself about his one eye and once, when he
received a petition "WTitten in big letters, he said,
' This is clear even to a blind man,' — the same Anti-
gonus nevertheless put to death Theocritus of Chios **
because, when someone said, ' Stand before the eyes
of the king, and you will be saved,' Theocritus repHed,
* The salvation you recommend me is impossible.'

" Leon of Byzantium * said to Pasiades, when that
gentleman remarked that the very sight of Leon
sickened his eyes, ' You reproach me for a bodily in-
firmity and you do not see that your son carries
heaven's wrath upon his shoulders.' Pasiades had a
hunchback son. Archippus,' the Athenian politician,

*• Apparently a far-fetched pun, the Greek verb having
various meanings, from *' set in " to " set the tune."

* Xenophon, Cyropafdia^ viii. 4. 21.

* Anti^onus I, called the One-eyed or the Cyclops, RE^
H.V., no. 3 ; Mor. 11 u-c. * See above, p. 121, note e.

* Defender of his city against Philip of Macedon ; for the
anecdote, which is found slightly altered in Mor. 88 f, see
RE, xii. 2010 f., xviii. 2057.

* Unknown otherwise. On Melanthius, if the same one,
see above, p. 121, note r.

' K4u)v added by the Basel edition ; cf. Mor. 88 f.

131



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(633) VTTO MeAav^tov OKoxjydels els to KVprov €(f)r] yap
avrov 6 MeActv^tos" ov TTpoeardvat rrjs iroXecos
aAAa 7TpoK€KV<f)€vaL.^ TLves 8e ravra Trpdojs Kal

pi€TpioJS (j)€pOVGLV, 0)(77T€p 6 ^iXoS TOV ^AvTLyOVOV

rdXavTov alr'^aas Kal [jltj Aaj8a>v rJTrjae irpoTTopLTTOVS
Kal <j)vXaKa?, ' ottcos"/ ^'<^^i ' j^t? iTTL^ovXevOcj/
TTpooTTai^avTos^ Kar a)fxov to TaAavTov <f)ep€iv.

E ovTOj fjLev rrepl rd Iktos exovGL Sta rrjv dvcjofiaXiav'
dXXoL yap €77* aAAots" axBovrai.^ [*E7raju.€tvci>vSas"
/xcTct TcDs" orvvapx6vra>v ioTioipievos eTriinvev o^os,
Kal TTVvOavopiivojv el irpos vyieiav dyadov, ' ovk
otS',' elirev, ' on pbevroi TTpos to fxefivfjoOai rrjs
OLKOL Siairrjs dyadov, eTriorapiai.'Y' Sto Set /cat
TTpos rds (j)VGeLS Kal rd rjOr] oKoirovvra rats
TratSiats" XPV^^^^> ireipojiievov aXvircxis Kal kcxol-
pLGfjievajs eKdoTOLS ofjuXelv.

10. "'OS' epojs rd r aAAa TToiKiXwraros eanv
Kal TOLS GKcofjifjiaGLV ol fjLev dxOovrai Kal dyava-
KTOVGLV ol he xo-lpovGLV . Set 8' elhevai rov Kaipov
OJS ya.p TO TTvp iv dpxfj jJ^^v diroG^ewvoL ro

F TrvevjjLa Sta ttjv dodeveiav, av^rjOevn 8e rpocfyrjv
Trapex^L /cat pcofirjv, ovrws <l>v6ixevos 6 epoJS en
Kal XavddvcDv hvcrKoXaivei Kal dyavaKreZ TTpos
Tovs dTTOKaXvTTTovras ,^ eKXd/jupas Se Kal Sta(^avet?
rpe<f)eTaL Kal TTpoo-yeXa rots aKa)fjL[jLaaL (f)voa)pLevos.
rjSLGTa Se GKiOTTTovrai Trapovrajv rcov ipcopLevwv

^ Basel edition : K€Kv<f>€vai.

2 Kronenberg : irpoard^as.

^ dxOovTai added by Stephanus.

* This sentence is deleted by Hubert as wrongly inserted
here, perhaps from Plutarch's notes.

^ diToaKWTTTovTas Blumner, Helmbold {Class. Phil, xxxvi
[1941], p. 87).

132



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 633

got mad at Melanthius for teasing him about the
hump on his back, for Melanthius said that Arehippus
did not stand as leader over the city, but stooped
before it. Some men endure this affliction with gentle
equanimity, as did the friend of Antigonus who asked
for a talent and did not get it and then, in reply to
the teasing of Antigonus that he was carrying the
talent upon his shoulders,** asked for an escort and
guards, ' in order that no one,' he said, ' A^ill waylay
me.' This is the way men, in their diversity, are
about physical appearance : some get mad at one
thing, others at another. [Epaminondas, when dining
with his fellow officers, was in the habit of drinking
a vinegary ^ine ; when they inquired if it was good
for the health, he replied, * I don't know, but I am
certain that it is good for keeping me in mind of the
fare at home.'] Accordingly the man who would in-
dulge in teasing must have an eye to the natures and
dispositions of the company, trying to converse ^^ith
all in a pleasant and agreeable manner.

10. " Love is a very complex emotion, in regard to
jokes as to everything else ; some lovers are dis-
tressed and annoyed by jokes ; others are pleased.
One must know the right time. For just as a fire ^ in
its early stages is extinguished, weak as it is, by a
breath of air, but when it has grown larger, it is
nourished and strengthened ; so love, while still
nascent and hidden, is irritated and distressed by
detection, but when it has blazed out and become
visible, it smiles upon the wind of ridicule that
nourishes it. In the presence of those they love, men

" Or " shoulder," if we may perhaps assume that the
deformity of Antigonus's friend resembled a money-box (or
the like) carried on one shoulder.

" C/. Ennius in Cicero, De Oratore, ii. 54. 222.

133



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(633) els avTO ro ipdv elg dXXo S' ovSev. iav Se /cat
yvvaiKCJV ipcovres ISlojv tvxojoiv tj veavioKOJv
634 <f)i\oKaXcx)V epcara yevvatov, iravrdTraai ydvuvrai
Kal KaXXcoTT it^ovr ai tco GKcoTrreudaL rrpos avrovs.
8i6 Kal 'Ap/cecrtAaos', iv rfj crxoXrj roiavrrjg fxera-
SoaecDS avTip yevofxevrjs vtto tlvos rchv ipwriKcov

' 8oK€L [JLOL fJL7]8€V dlTTeodaL fJLTjSeVOS ,' ' Ov8e^ GV

TOLVVv,' €<f)r), ' Tov8^ dTTTT] ; ' Bellas nvd tcjv
KoXctJV Kal (lipaicov irapaKadrjixevov .

11. " "HSyy Se Kal to tcov irapovTOJV gk€7tt€ov
a yap iv ^tAots" Kal GvvqdeaLV OLKovovres yeXcoGiv,
ravra 8vGX€palvovGLV, dv Aey^yrat TTpog avrovs ri]s
yajjierrjs TrapovGrjs -^ rov irarpos i^ rod Kadrjyr]-
TOVy ttXtjv dv fji'q rt KeyapiGpievov fj tojv Xeyofievcov

€K€LVOL9' oloV dv TIS^ GKWTTTrjTai TOV <J>iXog6(J)OV

7rap6vro9 els dvv7ro8rjGLav ^ wKroypa^iav rj rov
B TTarpos aKovovros els^ fxiKpoXoyiav j] rrjs yvvaiKos
els ro dvepaGrov iripojv eKeivqs 8k 8ovXov Kal
deparrevriKov y (hs 6 Tiypdvrjs vtto rov K^vpov, 'rl S',
dv G* Tj yvvT) GKevo(f)opovvr^ aKovGT]; ' , ' dAA* ovk
aKovGerat,' etveVy ' oiperat 8' avrrj TrapovGa.'

12. " Ilotet S' dXvTTorepa rd GKcofifJiara Kal ro
KOLvajvelv dpaxyGyiirajs rovs Xeyovras' olov dv^ els
rreviav Xeyr] Trevrjs ^ 8vGyevrjS els 8vGyeveLav t]

^ ouSe Turnebus : o 8e.

2 Added by Xylander : erasure in T.

^ Added by Stephanus.

* otov av Hubert, olov orav Reiske : 6 r av {sic) T.

" Of the Middle Academy. Hubert discovers the geo-
metrical problem here proposed in Sextus Empiricus, Ad-
versus Mathematicos, iii. 79 : it is not things themselves that
are contiguous, but their peripheries.
134



TABLE-TALK IL'l, 63$-634>

find it very agreeable to be teased about love itself,
but about nothing else. And if they happen to be in
love with their own wives or to have a generous love
for elegant young men, they are perfectly delighted
and proud to be teased about them. Accordingly,
when at one of the lectures of Arcesilaiis <* an auditor
at the moment engaged in a love-affair advanced the
following proposition, * In my opinion nothing touches
anything else,' Arcesilaiis pointed to a youth who was
sitting beside the gentleman — a fine handsome young
man — and said, * Am I to infer that you in particular
are not touching this lad ? '

11. " Now we must turn to consideration of the
type of guest present at the party. Among friends
and comrades men laugh at remarks they take amiss
if made to them in the presence of wife, father, or
teacher unless what is said is in some way pleasing
to these latter. I mean if one, when a philosopher is
among the company, is teased about going barefoot
or writing into the late hours of the night ; or about
his thriftiness, when his father is listening to the con-
versation ; or, in the hearing of his wife, how he is no
lover of other women, but her slave and servant — like
Tigranes,^ who, asked by Cyrus, * But what if your
wife hears that you are carrying baggage ? ', replied,
' She will not hear about it ; she will be there to see
it herself.'

12. " It makes teasing less distressing, too, for
those who tease to share in some way or other the
condition ridiculed : for example, if a pauper speaks
of poverty, or a low-born man of mean birth, or a

'* Tigranes in Xenophon, Cyropaedia^ iii. 1. 36 and 41, says
in the hearing of his wife that he would give his life to prevent
her enslavement, and ibid. 43 utters in different words the
sentiment quoted here at the end of the sentence.

135



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(634) ipcov els epojra}- SoKel S' ovx v^pei Traihia hi rivi
yiyveodai [JLaXXov vtto tcov ofjLOiOJV' el 8e ixtj, irap-
o^vvei Kal Xv7T€L. rov yovv aireXevdepov rod jSacrt-
C Xeojs veoirXovTov ovra (f)opriKcos Se /cat oo^apcbs
eTTtTToAa^ovra rots gvv8€L7Tvovgl <^LXoa6<j)OLS Kal
reXos ipcoTOJVTa ttojs €k t€ tcov Xcvkcov /cat rcov
fxeXdvojv KvdfJLCov opuoiois ;\;Aajpov yiyverai to €tvo?,
dvTepcxiTTjoas 6 'A/otSt/CT^s" ttojs €k tcjv XevKijjv /cat
fjieXdvojv IpidvTOJV <^olvikoZ yiyvovTai fjLcoXcoTres ,
€7roLr]a€v dvacrTrjvai TrepiXvTTov yevopevov. 6 Se
TapG€VS 'AjLt^ta? €/c Kr]7rovpov Sokcov yeyovivaiy
GKOjxjjas he Tov <^iXov tov r^yepovos eis hvGyeveiav,
et^' VTToXa^cbv evOvg, ' dXXd /cat repels €/c Tchv
auTCtJV GTTeppaTCOv yeyovapev/ yeAcur' €7ToiiqG€v.
Kopupojs he /cat tov ^lXlttttov t7]v oipLpadlav dpa
/cat TTepiepyiav 6 i/jdXTrjg eTreG^ev' olopevov yap
avTov e^eXeyxeiv tov ^lXlttttov irepl KpovpdTUiv
D /cat dppLOVLCoVy ' prj yevoiTO crot/ etnev, * at ^aotXev,
/ca/ccos" ovTCjJSy tv' epov gv raur* elhfis jSeArtov.'
GKcoTTTeiv yap eavTov hoKcbv, eKeivov dXviTCJS evov-
deT7]Gev. hio /cat tcov KCopuKOiV evioi Tr)v ttl-
Kpiav d^aipelv hoKovGi tco GKcoTTTetv eavTovs� cos*
^ApLGTO<j)dvrjs els Tr)v ^aAa/cpoTT^ra /cat TTyt' 'Aya-
dcovos drroXen/jLV^' KpaTLVOS he ttjv UvTivqv . . .'
ihiha^ev.

13. " Ovx yJKLGTa he Set* irpoGexetv /cat (f>vXdT-
TeiVy 07TC0S €K TOV TTapaTVxovTOS ecrrat to GKcbppa

^ Reiske, Xylander : ipcovra.
^ Bernardakis : lac. 5 Ai</(iv.

' avTos (f)iXo7TOTa>v added by Hubert, ws ipaarris avr'^s Poh-
lenz, els avrov Bolkestein : lac. 4-5.
* Added by Stephanus.

136



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 634

lover of love. For, if it is done by similar people, the
teasing seems to spring not from insolence but rather
from a kind of playfulness ; otherwise it is irritating
and distressful. Take the case of the king's new-rich
freedman : he was behaving in a vulgar and pompous
manner towards the philosophers who were his com-
panions at dinner and ended by asking how it is that
white beans and black alike make yellow soup, and
Aridices " caused him to get up and leave the party
mortally offended by asking in turn how it is that
white and black lashes make red stripes. But when
Amphias of Tarsus was teasing the governor's friend
about his mean birth and immediately interrupted
himself to say, ' But I too have sprung from the same
seed,' he got a laugh, for he himself was reputed to
be a gardener's son. And a harper delightfully re-
buked Philip's late-won knowledge and officiousness :
when Philip thought to dispute with him on a question
of notes and scales, the harper said, ' May you never
fare so ill. Sire, that you have better knowledge of
these matters than L' '^ By seeming to ridicule him-
self he reproved Philip without offence. So some of
the comic poets seem to take away bitterness by
ridiculing themselves, as Aristophanes " on the sub-
ject of baldness and Agathon's departure,** and
Cratinus brought out the Wine-Flask. . . .

13. " Not least is it necessary to watch out and see
to it that a joke occasioned by any question or amuse-

" Pupil of Arcesilaiis, Athenaeus, x, 420 d ; cf. RE^ *.r.,
no. 2 ; Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 114: Bull. Corr. Hell, xxvi
(1912), pp. 230 ff.

" Cf. Mor. 67 F, 179 b, 334 c— of Philip II, the father of
Alexander.

* Aristophanes, Peace, 767, 771.

^ Frogs, 83 : Agathon had gone to Macedon.
VOL. VIII F* 137



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(634) TTpos rivas ipWT'qoeLS avroOev 'q TratSia? yiyvofxcvov,
dXXa jJiTj TToppcodev otov €K TrapaaKevrjg €7T€Lo6hiov .
E (hs yap opya? /cat fxd-)(as rds €k tojv GVjJLTroolajv
irpaorepov ^ipovoiv, idv 8' eTTcXdcjv tls e^wdev
XoiSopijraL Kal rapoLTrrj tovtov ixOpov rjyovvraL
Kal jJLLGOvaiV, ovrcjjs jiereoTL cruyyvayjjLrjs GKWfJLjJLari,
Kal TrappTjGLag, dv €k rojv Trapovrcov exj) ttjv
yeveoiv d(f)eXco^ Kal dTrXdarcos (jivofievov, dv 8'
•^ fir) TTpos Xoyov dAA' e^wOev,^ €TTi^ovXfj /cat ujSpet
TTpoaeoLKev olov to Tipiayevovs irpos rov dvSpa

TTJS ifJLeTLKTJg^

KaKcov yap dpx^i'9 ri^vSe p,ovoav elodycov^'

Kal irpos ^AdrjvoSojpov rov (J)lX6oo(J)ov y ' et (f>vuLKrj^
7} npos rd €Kyova^ (j)LXooTopyia.' r) yap a/caipta
/cat TO fjurj TTpos Xoyov v^pLv epL(f>aiveL Kal hva-
F pLeveiav. ovroi [lev ovv Kara IlAarajva KOV(f)ord-
rov TTpdyfjLarog, Xoyojv, ^apvrdrTjv I^T]fjilav erio-av

^ c^codev Bernardakis, e^co Stephanus : e^ <Lv.

2 ifxeriKrjs Jannot : ya^jLeTiKijs T, the first two letters ac-
cording to Hubert in a later hand.

3 Athenaeus, xiv, 616 c, quotes this line with a different
text : KaKcJv Kardpx^t-S Trjvh' efiovaav etadywv.

* <f)vaiKr) Amyot : hovcikt].

^ cKyova added by Turnebus, reVva Franke ; cf. Diogenes
Laertius, vii. 120.

<� According to Athenaeus, xiv, 616 c, Telesphorus {RE^
S.V., no. 2) misquoted this line (Nauck, Trap. Gr. Frag.^
Adespoton 395 ; Miiller, F.II.G. iii, p. 319) with the slight
change of rrjvhe Mouaav to TTjvh* €/iouaa�' = " this retching
woman " for " this Muse " in allusion to Arsinog, wife of his
king, Lysimachus. Telesphorus's punishment is described

138



TABLE-TALK IL 1, 634

ment be casual and spontaneous, not brought in from
a distance like previously prepared entertainment.
For just as we easily endure the flarings of temper
and the discord which arise within the circle of a
drinking-party, but if anyone comes in from outside
with insults and disturbance, he is considered an
enemy and hateful ; so do we pardon and Ucense a
joke that springs simply and unfeignedly from the
immediate circumstances, while it seems a planned
insult if it is foreign to the context of the talk.
Examples are the remark of Timagenes � to the
husband of the women given to vomiting,

The first of wrongs you sure commit
When you this retching muse admit
Into your house

and his question to the philosopher Athenodorus ^ * Is
love for one's children a natural thing ? ' " For in-
opportuneness and irrelevancy to the conversation
emphasize an ill-natured insult. Men who joke thus
pay the heaviest penalty for their words, the lightest

in Mor. 606 b. Timagenes, if the historian {RE^ s.v., no. 2),
is later, his name here presumably the result of confusion :
cf. Bolkestein, u4di\ Crit.y ad loc.

^ RE^ S.V., no. 18 and 19 : either Athenodorus Cordylion,
friend of the younger Cato, or the son of Sandon, one of the
teachers of Augustus in philosophy; Miiller, F.H.G. iii, p.
486.

* A question affirmatively answered by the Stoics (von
Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag. iii. 731 from Diog. Laert. vii. 120).
Note the possibility of a pun like the preceding, €Kyov
d(f>i.XoaTopyia = ^^ absence of love for one's children." The
meaning of the passage is not clear. Bolkestein, loc. cit.^
suggests that it may refer to Athenodorus Cordylion and his
practice, while librarian at Pergamon, of cutting from Stoic
books passages objectionable to him (Diog. Laert. vii. 34 ;
rf. REf s.v. " Athenodorus," no. 18).

139



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(634) ol 8e Tov Kaipov elSoreg Kal ^vXdrrovre? avrqj
TO) nAarojvt ixaprvpovGLV, on rod TreiraiSevixdvov
KaXcJS epyov iorl to 7Tait,eLV e/x/xeAcos" /cat K€\apL-
afJLevoJS."

635 nPOBAHMA B

Ata Ti ^p(xiTiKU)T€poi yiyvovTai Trepl to fxeTonwpov
CoUocuntur Xenocles, Plutarchus, Glaucias, Lamprias

'Ev 'EAeuo-tvt [JL€Ta ra jjLVorrjpia ttJs" Travrj-
yvpecos aKfiaJ^ovGr]^ eLGnwfJLeda irapa TXavKta rco
priTopL. TreTTavpievcov Se SeLTTveXv rojv aXXcov, "Revo-
kXtjs 6 AeA<^os'^ oiGirep elcodei tov dSeA^ov rjfjLcov
AafiTTpuav els dSrjcfyayLav Botcortov €7T€GKa)7TT€v.
iyoj S* dfJivvofjLevos vnep^ avTOv tov Sei^o/cAea rots'
^KTTLKovpov XoyoiS XP^H'^^^^* ' �^ y^P diravTeSy"
eiTTOV, " a) jSeArtcjTe, Trotowrat tt^v tov dXyovvTOS
VTT€^aip€GLV opov TjSovTJg Kal rrepas' Aajxirpia Se
B Acat dvdyKT], rrpo tov k'^ttov KvhaivovTi tov 7T€pL7Ta-
Tov Kal TO AvK€LOV, cpyo) [xapTVpelv ^ApLGTOTeXec

<1)7]gI yap 6 dvTJp ^pCOTLKCOTaTOV €KaGTOV aVTOV

avTOV 7T€pl TO (jydiVOTTOjpov €LvaL, Kal TTjv atrtav

€7r€Lp7]K€V' iyOJ S' OV jJiV7]fJL0Veva)."

" BeArtov," €L7T€V 6 TXavKLas' " avTol yap €77t-

■)(€ip'qGOfM€V l^rjT€LV, OTaV TTaVGCOfMeda 8€L7rVOVVT€� ."

'Qs ovv d(j)rjpi6r)Gav at Tpdiret^aiy FAai^/ctas- /xev

Kal BievoKXrjs fjTLaGavTO ttjv OTTwpav 8La(f)6pcog,

6 IJL€V (I)S^ TTjV KoiXiav V7T€^dyovGav Kal TW K€V0V-

^ Wyttenbach : dSeA^o?. ^ Added by Stephanus.

^ Leonicus : ek.

� Laws, 717 c-D, 935 a. " Cf. Laws, 654 b.

'^ RE, s.v. " Plutarchos," col. 668. Glaucias appears infra,
vii. 9 and ix. 12, 13. Xenocles only here.

140



TABLE-TALK H. 1-2, 634>-635

of things, as Plato <* says ; but those who understand
what is appropriate and observe it bear ^\itness to
Plato himself that to joke with grace and good taste
is a task for the well-educated man." ^



QUESTION 2

Why men become hungrier in autumn

Speakers : Xenocles, Plutarch, Glaucias, and Lamprias

At Eleusis after the mysteries, the chmax of the
festival, we were dining at the house of Glaucias *= the
professor of Public-Speaking. After the others had
finished dinner, Xenocles of Delphi, as usual, began
to tease my brother Lamprias about his " Boeotian
gluttony." In defence of my brother I launched an
attack upon Xenocles, follower of the teachings of
Epicurus, by saying, " Not all men, Sir, make the
removal of the painful the limit and perfection of
pleasure .'* Lamprias honours The Walk and The
Lyceum before The Garden and so must bear active
x^ltness to Aristotle, for this gentleman says that
each man is hungriest in the fall of the year.* And
he has given the reason, but I do not remember it."

" It is better so," said Glaucias, " for we ourselves
shall undertake the search for it when we finish
dining."

After the tables were taken away, then, Glaucias
and Xenocles both attributed the cause to the
autumn's fruit, but each for a different reason. The
former held that it cleaned out the bowels and by

** Epicurus, Kyriai Doxai^ 3 ; cf. Cicero, De Finihus^ i. 11
37, etc., in Usener, Epicurea^ p. 397.

* Frag. 222 in the Prussian Academy's edition of Aristotle,
vol. v.

141



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(635) o-^at TO (TcoiJLa veapas ope^eis ael 7TapaoKevat,ovuav
6 �€ "RevoKXrjs eXeyev evarofiov rt /cat Stjktlkov
C exovra rojv ojpaiiov ra TrXelora rov GTOfiaxov inl
rrjv ppcoGLV iKKaXeiadaL iravros [xaXXov oi/jov Kal
o^Sucr/xaros" /cat yap tols aTToairois t(x)v appcjGTwv
OTTO) pas TL TTpocrevexdev avaXafi^dvei rrjv ope^iv.
6 Se AafjiTTpiag eiTrev, on to oIk€lov /cat^ (jvfjL(f>VTOv
depfJLOv rjfjbojv, (L TpecfyeaOai 7r€^i;/ca/xev, iv (jlcv tco
depei hiioTTapTai /cat yeyovev dadeviaTepov /cat
[xavov, iv Se tw ^divovTL Kaipco crwayetpcrat
ttoXlv /cat laxv^i', /cara/cpVTrro^evov ivTos Sta ttjv
rrepiijjv^iv /cat tt^v ttvkvcoglv tov GcofiaTos.

'Eyco 8* virep tov fxr) SoKelv OLGVfM^oXos tov

Xoyov pbeTaGx^lv eiTrov, otl tov Bepovs hufj-qTi-

K(x)T€poL ytyvofieda /cat TrXelovi ;^p6tj/xe^a ra� vypco

D Sia TO Kavfia' vvv ovv rj <j)VGis iv ttj fieTa^oXfj

^rjTOVGa TOVvavTLOVy wGirep eicoOev, Trctvr^Tt/ccore-

pOVS 7TOL€L, /cat TTJV ^Tjpdv TpO^V TTJ KpaGCL TOV

crcujLtaro? avTaTToSuSajGiv. ov fJLrjv ovSe to, crtTta
<^7]CTat Tts" av atrtas" dfJLoipelv TravTanaGLV, dAA* €/c
veojv /cat TTpoGc/xxTajv yevofieva KapTTcov, ov fxovov
jLtaJa? /cat OGirpia /cat dpTovs Kal irvpovs aAAd^
/cat /c/)ea t^chojv evcoxovfJLevwv to. CTreVeta, rot? t€
XVjJLots hia(f)ep€iv^ tcov TraAatcuv /cat fidXXov in-
dycGdai TOV9 ;Y/>a>/>tevot;s" /cat aTToAauovra?.

1 TO after /cal deleted by Hubert.
142



TABLE-TALK IL 2, 635

emptying the body was always re-creating appetite.
And Xenocles said that the pleasant, piquant quality
of most fruits invited hunger in the belly more
efficiently than any dainty dish and sauce. Indeed a
bit of fruit offered the sick who have lost their taste
for food, restores their appetite. It was the opinion
of Lamprias that our owti innate heat, by the activity
of which we are naturally nourished, is dispersed,
rather weak, and of little consequence in summer, but
in autumn collects again and grows strong, hidden
within us by the cooling and solidification of our
bodies.*

And I, to avoid the appearance of sharing in the
conversation without paying my contribution,^ said
that in summer we become thirstier and because of
the heat use more liquid "^ ; so now nature, in the
process of change seeking the other extreme, as her
custom is, makes us hungrier and replenishes the
solid food in the body's mixture. Yet one cannot say
that food itself has absolutely nothing to do with the
causation ; on the contrary, food prepared from new
or freshly slaughtered produce — not only barley-
cakes, legumes, bread, and wheat but also flesh of
animals fattened on this year's fodder does differ in
flavour from the old and is more inviting to those who
experience it and partake of it.

" Cf. supra, 623 e f„ infra, vi. i, 686 e ff., Mor. 123 a. For
strange theories as to " heat " or " innate heat " in animals,
plants, or substances, cf. 642 c, 647 c, e, 648 a, c-e, 649 b.,
650 F ff., 652 A fF., 676 a, 681 a, 685 a f., 695 d, 697 a, and
Bury, Philebus of Plato, p. 190, with Aristotle, De Partibus
Animal, there cited. ^ Cf. iv. 3. 2, 666 f.

" Bolkestein makes the rest of the section a direct quota-
tion.

' Added by Xylander. * Basel edition : Bia<f>€p€i.

143



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(^^^^ nPOBAHMA r

Tiorepov -fj opvLS TTporepov^ rj to chov iyivi.ro

Collocuntur Alexander, Plutarchus, Sulla, Firmus, Sossius
Senecio

E 1. 'E^ ivvTTVLOV^ TLVos OLTTeLXOfJirjv^ coajv TToXvv
TJSrj xpoyov* TTapa rovro TTOLovfievog,^ iv (hco Kad-
oLTTep €v Ka/3t hidTTeipav^ AajSctv ttJ? oi/jeojs ivapycjs
fioL TToXXaKLS yevofidvrjs' vTTOVoiav fxevroL irapioxov,
ioTiojVTOS rjp-ds Hoooiov HeveKLOJVos, ivex^crOai
Soyfiaaiv ^Op(j)iKols ri TlvBayopiKois /cat to (Lov,
ayoirep eViot Kaphiav /cat ey/ce^aAov, o-pxh^ rjyov-

fjLCVOS y€V€G€COS a(f)OOLOVod ai' /cat 7TpOV(f)€p€V 'AAc^-

av^pos 6 'ETTt/coupeto? cm yeXwri to

laov TOL KvdpLOVS iodeiv' KecfyaXds re tokt^cxjv,

(x)S St) KvdpLOVs rd o)d hid rrjv KvrjGLV alvirrojxevojv
F Tc5v dvhpcjVy hia^ipeiv Se firjSev olojievcxiv ro
iadieiv cod rod ;)^p7ycr^at rot? tlktovol ra (hd t^cnois.
iylyvero 8r) to rrj? alrias dTroXoyrjfia ttJ? atTta?
auT-^S" dXoycorepoVy 'ETrt/cofpetoj Xeyeiv ivvTTViov.
odev ov TrapTjToviJLrjv rr^v ho^av dfia TrpodTrali^ojv Tt
Ta> ^AXe^dvSpo)' /cat ydp -^v ;^aptet? /cat ^tAoAoyos"
€7rt€t/cais".

^ irpoTcpov omitted here in T, but included in the index to
Book II, folio 35 r.

^ i^ ivxmviov Xylander : i^wivlov.

' Turnebus : drre lac. 4-5 fjbrjv.

* 17817 xpovov Turnebus : 1780 lac. 2-3.

^ Reiske : ttolov^cvol.

� Kapt 8iaTreipav Wyttenbach, Kapl velpav Reiske : Kapbiai
v€ipav. ' Xylander : iadUiv.

" Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia^ vii. 16. 1-14.
144



TABLE-TALK IL 3, 635

QUESTION 3

Whether the hen or the egg came first "

Speakers : Alexander, Plutarch, Sulla, Firmus, Sossius
Senecio

1 . Because of a dream, I had for a long time now been
avoiding eggs, and I was acting so for this reason,
that I might test by an egg, as by a Carian,^ the vision
which came to me clearly and frequently. But my
companions at one of Sossius Senecio's dinners sus-
pected me of being committed to beliefs of the
Orphics or the Pythagoreans and holding the egg
taboo, as some hold the heart and brain, because I
thought it to be the first principle of creation. And
Alexander the Epicurean '^ teasingly recited :

Now eating beans is much like eating parents' heads.**

For these people call eggs " beans " (kuamot), pun-
ning on the word conception {kuesis), and they think
that eating eggs in no way differs from using the
creatures which produce the eggs. To explain to an
Epicurean with talk of dreams the reason for my
avoidance was surely more unreasonable than the
reason itself. So I said nothing to deny their opinion,
though I did tease Alexander a little, for he was a
man of parts and considerable learning.

* In corpore vili^ cf. Cratinus, Herdsmen^ frag. 16 (Ed-
monds or Kock with Edmonds's note), Leutsch and Schneide-
win, Paroemiogr. Graec. i, pp. 70 f. Slaves were often from
Caria, so that the ethnic was used to refer to any slave.

" An Epicurean Alexander appears in I.G. ii^. 3793 and
3819, discussed by A. E. Raubitschek in Hesperia, xviii
(1949), pp. 99 f.

** Kern, Orph. 291. See Athenaeus, ii, 65 f, with rpwyiiv
for ca^eii/, and Gulick's note, LCL Athen. i, p. 286.

145



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

636 2. 'E/c Se tovtov to airopov koI ttoWo. irpdy-
fjLara rolg t,7]rr]TLKoZs Trapexov els ixeoov etA/cero^
TTpo^Xrjfjia 7T€pl rod (hod koL rrjs opviOos, OTTorepov
yivoiro Trporepov avrojv. /cat SuAAas" jJiev 6 i-
TOipos eliTcbv on fiLKpco irpo^Xiqiiari Kaddnep opyd-
vo) fJLeya /cat ^apv oaXevofJiev to Trepl rod Koofiov
TTJs y€V€(J€Oj� d7T7]y6p€VG€V' Tov 8' ^AXe^dvSpov
rrJ9 l,y]TrjO€Cx}s (Ls fM7]8ev irpoo^ves (j)€povo7]s Kara-
yeXdaavros 6 yapu^pos rjficov ^Ipfjiog, " ifiol roi-
wv," €<f>r), " ■)(pri(jov iv ra> irapovTi rds dropLovs.
€1 yap rd puKpd Set crroLX^ia tcjv pLeydXcxjv Kal^
dpxd? VTTorideoOai, TTpatTOV* euKos ioTtv ro (hov
B yeyovivai rrjs opviOos' eon yap /cat dirXovv, c5?
€V aladrjTOLSy ttolklXov Se /cat pLepaypLevov p,dXXov
7) 6pVL9. KaBoXov S' "q pL€V dpx^ TTpojTov dpxf) Se
TO unippLa, ro S' wov aneppbaros puev rrXeov t,cpov
Se piiKporepov cos yap rj TrpoKoirrj pueoov €V(f)vtas
etvai 8oK€L /cat dperrjg, ovro) ro cpov TTpOKOTTTj ris
ion rrjs ^voeojs iirl ro epupvxov dno rov anep-
puaros 7Top€vopL€vr]s. en S', woirep iv ra> ^cpo)
rrpcora yiyveoBai Xiyovaiv dprrjpias /cat ^Xe^as,
ovro) Xoyov ^x^l /cat rov t,(i}ov ro cpov yeyovevat
TTpaJroVy (1)9 irepiixov epLirepiexopiivov.^ /cat yap
at rexvai irpcorov drviTCjra /cat dpuop^a irXdr-
C TOUCTtv, eW^ vorepov eKaara rols etSeat hiapdpov-

^ Hubert : oXk^v.

^ Reiske : rot? dro/i-ot?.

' Added by Hubert.

* Trporepov Reiske.

^ Turnebus : ev Trepicxo/xcVto.

146



TABLE-TALK IL 3, 636

2. From this context the problem about the egg
and the hen, which of them came first, was dragged
into our talk, a difficult problem which gives in-
vestigators much trouble. And Sulla � my comrade
said that with a small problem, as with a tool, we were
rocking loose a great and heavy one, that of the
creation of the world, and he declined to take part.
And after Alexander had ridiculed the inquiry on the
ground that it yielded no firm solution, my relative
Firmus ^ said : " Well then lend me your atoms for
the moment, for if small things must be assumed to
be the elements and the beginnings of large, it is
likely that the egg existed first before the hen, for
among sensible things the egg is indeed simple while
the hen is a more intricate and complex organism.
And, speaking generally, the initial cause comes first,
and the seed is an initial cause ; the egg is greater
than the seed on the one hand, on the other less than
the creature. Indeed, as development admittedly
exists between innate merit and perfected virtue, so
the intermediate development in nature's passage
from the seed to the living creature is the egg.
Furthermore, just as in the creature the first parts to
be formed, they say, are the arteries and veins, so too,
it stands to reason, the egg is formed before the hen
just as that which contains is formed before that
which is contained. And in the arts, formless and
shapeless parts are first fashioned, then afterwards
all details in the figures are correctly articulated ;

" On Sulla see Cherniss in LCL Mor. xii, p. 3.

•• RE^ g.v. " Plutarchos," col. 651 : since Plutarch's
daughter died in infancy and Plutarch speaks of at least three
ya^^poi, Wilamowitz sugrg'ested (Comment, grammat. iii, GOt-
tingen, 1889, p. 23) that the term refers to the husbands of
nieces. F'irmus only here.

147



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(636) crtv fj UoXvKXeLTOS 6 TrXdorrjs elrrev x^XencoTarov
etvai TO epyoVy orav iv ovvx'' 6 TrrjXos yivr^rai.

Aio Kal Tjj <f)va€L ro rrpcorov et/co? icrriv
arpifxa klvovotj ttjv vXr]v dpyorepav vnaKoveiv^
rvTTOVs^ dfi6p(f>ovs Kal dopiarovs €K<f)ipovoav wcnrep
rd cod, fjLop(l)ovfJi€VOJV 8e rovrcvv Kal SiaxoLpacr-
oopiivcov varepov iv^r^pnovpyeloOai ro t,cpov. (hs
he KafJUTTTj ylyveraL ro TrpwroVy elr iKirayelaa Sid
^7]p6Tr]Ta Kal TrepippayeZo* erepov^ TrrepcjOev 8t'
avTTJs TTjv KaXovp.€vr]v ipyx^jv fjuedlrjaLV, rov avrov
rporrov ivravOa 7Tpov<j)LOTaTai rd <h6v olov vXt) ttjs
D y6V€G€co?. dvdyKT] ydp iv Trdar) pLera^oXfj Trpore-
pov elvai rod fierapdXXovros ro^ ef ov fiere^aXe.
OKOTTei S* on OKVLTTes iv SevSpo) Kal r€pr]86v€9
ilJicf>vovraL ^vXw Kard arjipiv vyporrjros ^ TreipLV
Sv ovSelg dv d^iaxreiev [jltj TTpovTroKeiodai /LtTySe
TTpeapvrepov elvai cf)VG€i ro yewojv. rj ydp vXt]
Xoyov €X€L TTpos rd yiyvofieva firjrpos a)S (j)r]ai
IlXdrcov Kal ridi^vTjs' vXrj Se Trdv i$ ov avorauiv
€X€i ro yewwpievov.

lo em rovroLS, ecprj yeAaaas, aeiaaj

^vverolai ' rov 'Op^t/cov /cat lepov Xoyov, o? ovk

dpviBos fJLovov ro (hdv d7TO<j)aivei TTpea^vrepov,

dXXd Kal GvXXapwv diraaav avrcp rrjv dirdvrcjv

E o/Ltou TT peo^vy eveiav dvarid-qoiv. Kal rdXXa fiev

^ TVTTovs corrected from rorrovs E, tottovs T.
2 €T€p6v Tt Doehner, epnerov Damste in Bolkestein, Adv.
Crit. p. 121, evToixov or evrepov Wyttenbach.

148



TABLE-TALK IL 3, 636

it is for this reason that the sculptor Polyclitus said
that the work is hardest when the clay is at the nail.**

" And so it is likely that matter at first yields
slowly to the gentle stirring of nature and produces
forms that are shapeless and undefined, like eggs ;
later, when these forms receive shape and configura-
tion, the living creature is produced. And just as the
caterpillar exists first, then, made brittle by dryness,
it bursts asunder and itself releases another creature,
winged, the so-called psyche (butterfly) ; so in like
manner the e^gg here exists first, as material of
generation. For, in every process of change, the form
from which a change is made necessarily precedes
the form which results from change. Consider bark-
beetles in a tree and woodworms how they grow
in the wood in proportion to the decay and dis-
integration which moisture causes. No one could
rightly claim that the thing which produced them did
not exist before them and was not naturally older
than they. For matter has the relation of mother or
nurse to things which exist, as Plato says ^ ; and
matter is all from which whatever is created has its
substance.

*' What is more," he added with a laugh, " * I shall
recite for men of understanding ' the sacred Orphic
tenet which not only declares the egg older than the
hen, but also attributes to it the absolute primordi-
ality over all things together without exception.*^ As

" i.e.^ close to the finishing touches : Polyclitus in Diels,
Frag. d. Vorsokratiker^ frag. 1 (Diels-Kranz* 40 B 1) ; cf.
Pint. Mor. 86 A with Babbitt's note (LCL).

" Timaeus, 49 a, 50 d, 52 d.

� Mor. 391 D, O. Kern, Orph., p. 143 and p. 334, no. 334.

* Added by Meziriacus.

149



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(636) ' evarofjia Keiadoj ' Kad^ *Y{p6hoTOV, eon yap
fjiVGTLKcorepa- t^axjjv he TToAAas" <f)vaeLS rod kogjjlov
7Tepie')(ovTO? y ovhev cos elrreZv yevos apboipov eon
rrjs e^ (hod yeveoeojs, dXXa kol Trrr^va yevva koX
V7]KTa fjivpia kol x^poaXa, oavpas, koX a/X(^tjSia/
KpoKoSeiXovg, /cat StVoSa, rov opviv, /cat avoSa,

TOP 6(f)LV, /cat TToAuTToSa, TOV OLTTeXe^OV odeV OVK

aiTo rpoTTOV rots Trepl rov Alovuoov opyiaoixols cos
IJiLfjL7]jjLa TOV ra Trdvra yevvcovros /cat irepLexovros
ev iavTcp ovyKadojOLwrai."

3. Tavra rod ^ipfxov Sie^Lovros, 6 HeveKLcov
e(j)7] rrjv reXevraiav rcov ecKovajv avrco Trpcjrrjv
F dvTLTTLTTreLV. " lAa^c? ydpy' elireVy " w ^LpjjLe,
TOV KoopLov dvTL ttJs" TTapoLpLLaKTJs dvpas ' inl
aeavTov dvoi^as.' 6 yap KoopLos 7Tpov^eoT7]Ke
TTOLVTCov TeXetoTOTos (hv /cat Xoyov e;^€t tov aTeXovs
^vaei TTpoTepov elvai to TeXeLov, (Ls tov TTeTTrjpoj-
puevov TO oXokXtjpov /cat tov pLepovs to oXov ov8e^
yap e;^€t Xoyov etvac pLepos ov piepos ecrrt pur]
yeyovoTos. o6ev ovhels Xeyei tov oireppiaTos
elvai TOV dvOpcoTTOV ov8e tov coov ttjv dXeKTOplSa,
637 "TT]? 5' dXeKToplSos to coov etvai /cat to oneppLa tov
dvdpcjTTOv XeyopLev, ojs tovtojv eTTLyiyvopLevajv eKei-
voLS /cat TTJV yeveoLV ev eKeivois XapL^avovTOJv eW*
oioirep o^Xr]p,a Tjj ^voei ttjv yeveoiv drrohihovTajv.
ivSed ydp eoTL tov oiKeiov Sto /cat ^ovXeadai

^ Kol after afi<f>L^ia deleted in Basel edition.
^ Stephanus, ojJSeW Hubert : ovBcv.

** ii. 171 on the Egyptian mysteries at Sals and the Greek
Thesmophoria in honour of Demeter.

^ Mor. 1108 d; Paroemiogr. Graec. i, p. 114 (Zenobius,

150



TABLE-TALK IL 3, 636-637

for the rest of the doctrine, * let reverent silence
prevail,' as Herodotus " says ; for it is very much of
a mystical secret. Though the world contains many
kinds of creatures, there is no race, one might say, in
which birth from the egg is absent. On the contrary,
the egg produces countless creatures of air and sea ;
and land creatures, as lizards ; amphibious creatures,
as crocodiles ; two-legged creatures, as the bird ;
legless, as the snake ; many-legged, as the locust. It
is therefore not inappropriate that in the rites of
Dionysus the egg is consecrated as a symbol of that
which produces everything and contains everything
within itself."

3. When Firmus finished what he had to say,
Senecio pointed out that the last item of his imagery
was first to tell against him. " For you fail to notice,
Firmus," he continued, " that instead of the pro-
verbial door ^ you have opened up the world, to your
own despite. The world in fact pre-exists everything,
for it is the most complete of all things, and it stands
to reason that the complete is naturally earlier than
the incomplete, as the perfect pre-exists the defective
and the whole the part. For it is not reasonable to
hold that the part exists if that of which it is a part
does not. Thus nobody says that the man is a part
of the seed or that the hen is a part of the egg ; rather
we say that the egg is a part of the hen and the seed
a part of the man, for egg and seed come into being
after hen and man respectively and have their birth
in them, then pay back their genesis as a debt to
nature. For things are in need of their own kind,
and therefore it is natural for them to wish to make

Century, iv. 98) has Lydus (the Lydian ?) closing, not open-
ing, the door as a proverb applied to a stupid thief.

151



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(637) TTOieZv 7Te(f>VK€v dXXo toiovtov, olov rjv i^ ov
aTT€Kpi9iq} Kol TOP GTTepfjLaTLKov Xoyov opi^ovrai
yovov ivSed yeveaecos' ivSees S' ovSev eon rod
fjLTj yevojjievov jjlyjS^ ovtos.

" Ta S* (ha /cat TTavrdiraoi jSAeVerat Tr]v cfyvaiv
e^ovra rrjg eV tlvl ^(hcx) Trnq^eajs koX avardcreoj?
opydvojv T€ TOLOVTOJV /cat dyyelajv SeojjLevrjv oOev
B ouS* larop-qrai yrjyeveg cooVy dXXd /cat ro TwSa-
p€iov ol TTOLr^ral XiyovGiv ovpavoirerks dva(j)avrivai }
l,cpa S* avroreXrj /cat oXoKXrjpa {J^dxP^ ^^^ dvaSl-
Sojcriv 7] yij, puds iv Alyvirrco TvoXXaxov S' 6^€ls /cat
^arpdxovs /cat rerriyag, dpx^j? efoj^cv irepas /cat
hwdpiews €yy€VopL€vr]S' iv Se St/ccAta Trepl rov
SovXlkov TToXepLOVy alpLaros ttoXXov /cat ve/cpcDv drd-
(f)0)v inl^ rfj yrj KaraaaTrivToyv , TrXrjdog drreXe^cov
i^'^vdrjcrev /cat rov aXrov ecfyOeipov iravraxov CKeSa-
odevres €7tI ttjv vtjgov. ravra roiwv €/c y/ys" (f>v€ra{,
/cat Tp€(f>€TaL /cat Tpo(f>rJ9 Tre/Dt(Tcra>/xa* TTOiel yovipLov,
w Ka6* rjSovdg irpos aAA-ryAa rpeTreraL, /cat avv-
C 8val,6pL€va rfj pLL^eu rd puev (LoroKelv rd Se l,a>oTO-

K€LV 7Ti(f>VK€. KoL TOVTO) jLtaAtCTTa 8rjX6v CCTTtV,

oTt rrjv 7rpa)T7]v yiveoiv €/c y^? Xapovra KaO

^ ain>€Kpldr) Bolkestein.

2 Vulcobius : dvacfyfjvat.

' Hubert : eV. * Basel edition : nepl acD^a.

� A Stoic term, see von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag. ii. 717 and
739.

" The Dioscuri ; Helen's birth from an egg is earlier
attested: cf. RE, s.v. " Dioskuren," col. 1113. Cf. also
Athenaeus, ii, 57 f: " the egg from which Helen sprang fell
from the moon " (Gulick, LCL).
152



TABLE-TALK IL 3, 637

such another as was that from which they have been
separated. Indeed, the seminal principle <* is defined
as product in need of production of its own kind, and
nothing is in need of what has not come into being
and is not.

"It is undoubtedly to be seen that eggs have a
natural constitution which lacks the frame and struc-
ture possessed by animals, as well as such organs and
vessels as these possess. Hence an earth-born egg is
not on record, but the poets say even of the egg
whence came the sons of Tyndareiis ^ that it ap-
peared as fallen from heaven. Yet the earth in our
own time produces creatures complete in themselves
and perfect, — mice in Egypt * and everywhere snakes
and frogs and cicadas, — as the result of the presence
of a foreign and extrinsic initial cause and power. In
Sicily in the time of the Slave War,** when a quantity
of blood and unburied corpses had rotted on the
ground, a multitude of locusts burst forth, scattered
abroad everywhere on the island, and destroyed the
grain. These creatures, then, grow from the earth,
and take their nourishment, and from nourishment
create a seminal residue * which causes them to turn
to each other for pleasure, and coupled in intercourse
some, in producing offspring, are naturally oWparous,
some naturally ilvi parous. And in this it is very
clear that, though they take their own first origin

" Diodorus Siculus, i. 10. 2 ; Ovid, Metamorph. i. 422 fF. ;
further, Diodorus Siculus, i. 6. 2 ff., and Lucretius, v. 772-
877, with Cyril Bailey's commentary (vol. Ill, pp. 1430 ff.).

'^ Either 135-132 b.c. or 104-100. In 125 Africa suffered a
plague of locusts before they vanished in the sea : RE^ s.v.
" Heuschrecke," cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. xi. 105 and Julius
Obsequens, Prodiglesy 30 (in LCL Livy xiv, p. 264).

• See infra^ d and note a on 641 a, p. 173.

153



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(637) ^Tcpov rpoTTOV rjSr] /cat 8t* dXX'qXojv TTOielrai ras

T€KVa)(J€LS.

Ka^oAou 3* ofjLOLOv iuTL TO) Xeyeiv, ' rrpo rrj?
yvvaiKOS rj jjL'qrpa yiyovev ' • (hs yap tj fjL'qrpa Trpog

TOV dvdpCOTTOV,^ OVTOJ TTOlXlV TO CpOV TTpOS TOV V€00-

uov 7r€<l)VK€, Kvofievov iv avTCp kol Xox^vofjuevov
a)(jTe fiTjSev hLa(j)ip€iv rov SLanopovvra, ttcos opvi-
$€5 eyivovTO fir) yevopilvcov wwv, rod Trvvdavofxevov ,
TTOJS dvSpes iyevovro kol yvvaiKes Trplv alSola yeve-
odai Kol pLTirpas. KairoL rcov fxepcjv rd TrXelara
avvv^iuTarai rots 0X019, al Se hwdjieis €Tnyiyvov-
D rat Tots" pLepeaiv at 8' ivepyeiai rat? Swdijueaiv
rd 8* dTroTeXeGfxara rals ivepyeiais' aTroreAccj/xa
he rrjg yevvqrLKTJ? rcov fJLopLCOv Svvdfiecog to OTrepfia
Kal TO (hov wore rrjs rwv oXcov Kadvorepelv
yevioeios. OKOTrei he fX'q, Kaddirep ov Svvarov
ioTL TTeipLV rpo(l)rJ9 etvai TTplv ri yeveodai ^coov,
ovTOJS ou8' (hov ov8e oireppia' kol yap ravra
Triijjeoi tlgl Kal [xera^oXals eoLKev iTTiyeveadaL^'
Kal ovx olov re, Trplv r) yeveodat l,cpov, €;\;ctv t,ci)OV

rpO(f)'fJ� TTepLTTCJOfia T7]V <f)VOLV. ov fJLTjV dXXd TO

GTTepfia fjiev dpiCjayeTroJs:^ ^PXV^ tlvos dvTiTrotctTai,
TO S' (hov ovT dpx^s exec Adyov, ov ydp u^tWaTai
TTpcoTov, ovd^ 6X0V (f)VGLV, aTcAes" ydp ioTLV.
E " "Odev dpxrjs ju-^v dvev yeyovevat fojov ov
Xdyofjiev, dpx'rjv 8' etvau t^cooyovias v<f>* rj? vpdjTov
Tj vXt] fjuerepaXe Swdfjuecos, Kpdoiv Ttva Kal pZ^iv
evepyaoafxeviqs yovL/xov to S' wov einyevvT)^,
elvai, Kaddirep to atfxa Kal to ydXa, tov l^coov
jLtCTO. Tpocjyrjv Kal neipLV. ov ydp ojirTai ovvioTa-

^ rov dvdpcjTTOv Hubert : to wov.
154



TABLE-TALK IL 3, 637

from the earth, they then perform their own acts of
procreation in a different manner and wdth each other.

" In general it is like saying ' the womb existed
before the woman.' For as womb to child so in turn
is the egg to the chick that is conceived in it and
brought to birth. Accordingly he who raises the ques-
tion how fowl came into being when the egg did not
exist is in no way different from him who asks how
men and women came into being before genitals and
womb existed. Indeed most parts co-exist with
wholes, and powers follow upon the existence of parts,
activities upon powers, results upon activities. The
seed and the egg are the result of the generative
power of parts ; accordingly they are subsequent to
the creation of wholes. And consider this : just as it
is impossible to have digestion of food before an animal
exists, so it is impossible to have either seed or egg ;
for these, I suppose, are incident to certain processes
of digestion and transformation, and nature cannot
possess a residue of an animal's food before the animal
itself exists. Nevertheless the seed has a sort of
claim to be a first principle, but the egg does not
satisfy the definition of a first principle (for it does
not exist first) nor does it possess the nature of a
whole (for it is incomplete).

" Thus we do not say that there is no elementary
principle connected with the birth of a creature, but
we do say the principle of generation is that power
which caused the first change in matter, the power
which made union and intercourse fruitful. And we
say that the eggy like blood and milk, is a product
of the animal's digestion of its nourishment, for no

' Hubert : €Tny€v4a0at. €oik€v.
' Xylander : oAAcus y4 itcjs.

155



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(637) fxevov d)6v €k rrjg^ IXvog, aAA' iv fJLOvcp l>4>co rovro
TTjV ovaraaiv e)(€L /cat yevccnv ^wa 8e Kad^ avra
fivpta GvviGTarai. /cat rt Set Xeyeiv rdXXa; ttoX-
Xcov yap iyx^Xccov aXiGKOfjievajv ovSelg icopaKcv
ovre dopov ovt* cLov ey^eXw e^ovoav^ dAAa Kav
TO vSwp TiS" i^apvarj /cat ttjv IXvv dva^var] Tracrav,
F €LS Tov TOTTOV vSaTo? GvppvivTOS ey^lXets t,cooyo-
vovvrai. Set ovv varepov dvdyKr} yeyovevai to
darepov Seofievov irpos yeVecriv, a) 3e /cat vvv
darepov ;(co/)ts' dXXcog VTrdpx^i avviaraodaiy rovro
7rpoT€p€LV rfj dpxjj rijs yeviaews. Trepl €K€Lvr}g
yap eon rrjg Trpcjrrjg 6 Xoyos' €7T€l vvv ye /cat
veoTTta? ovvridrjOL rd Trrrjvd irpo rrjs tooroKcag
/cat andpyava TrapaoKevdl^ovGLv at yvvaiKes' dXX
o*jo ovK av eiTTOis /cat veorriav coov yeyovevai Trporepov
/cat GTrdpyava TratScov. * ov yap yrj,' (J)7]gIv 6
UXdrcDVy ' yvvaiKa, yrjv Se yvvr^ /xt/xctrat ' /cat
Tchv dXXijjv drjXecov eKaorov. Sto 7Tpa)T7]v yeveaiv
ct/cos" ecTTtv €/c yrjs reXeLorrjTL /cat pcx)pirj rod yev-
vcovTO? avToreXTJ /cat dnpooSerj yeveoOai, tolovtojv
opydvojv /cat areyaojjidrojv /cat dyyetcov /at) Seo-
fxevTjv, a vvv rj <j)vois ev roZs tlktovglv epydl,eTai
/cat fjLrjxoLvdraL St' dGdeveiav."

* T779 E, and according to Hubert the other Planudcan
Mss. : yfjs T. Bolkestein approves Hubert's suggestion yfjs

rq IXvos.



156



TABLE-TALK IL 3, 637-638

egg has ever been seen to form out of mud, but its
formation and production take place in a living
creature alone. Yet countless are the living creatures
which are self-produced. One need cite only the eel.
For many eels have been caught, yet nobody has ever
seen one with either seed or egg ^ ; but even if one
draws off the water in a place and scrapes up all the
mud, eels are produced alive when water collects
again.^ Whatever, then, is in need of another for
birth, must necessarily have come into being later ;
and what even now can be formed otherwise apart
from another, this must have priority in the origin of
creation. For our discussion is concerned with that
first creation. Birds now prepare nests before they
lay their eggs and women make ready baby-garments
before the birth of their children, but you would not
say that nest existed before egg and garments before
children. ' For earth does not imitate woman,' says
Plato,*' ' but woman earth,' as indeed does each of the
other females. So it is likely that the first creature
was born from earth, fully grown and self-sufficient in
the perfection and strength of its parent, the process
of birth requiring no such organs, sheaths, and vessels
as nature because of weakness now contrives and de-
vises in the parent."

* Aristotle, Historia Animal, vi. 14. 14 ; 16. 1.

" Aristotle, ibid. vi. 16. 2.

* Menexenus. 238 a.



157



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

^ ' nPOBAHMA A

El TTpea^vrarov i) ttoXtj rwv ayajviafidTcov
Collocuntur Lysimachus, Plutarchus, Sosicles, Philinus

B Soiort/cAea rov J^opojvrjdcv, HvOlols^ vevLKTjKora
TTOLrjrdsy elarLOjfjLev ra eTTiviKia. rod he yvfiviKov
aycjvog eyyvs ovros, 6 TrXeloros rjv Xoyog Trepl rcov
TraXaiaraJv ttoXXoI yap iTvy)(avov a(l)iyp,€VOL Kal
euSo^oL. Trapojv ovv AvoipLa')(o? , els rcov ^Api(j)L-
KTVOviDV iTTLpLeXrjT'qg , evay)(os €(j)r) ypapLfiarLKOv
TLVos aKovoai rrjv irdXr^v dp^o^^orarov^ ddXr^ixdrojv
TrdvTCuv d7TO(f)aivovTos , cLs Kal rovvojxa pLaprvpelv
€7TL€LKa)s ydp aTToXaveiv rd veiorepa TTpdyfiara k€l-
fjL€VU)v €V roZs TTaXaiorepoLS ovofiarcov a)S ttov Kal

C TOP avXov " rjpfioodaL " Xiyovoiv Kal " Kpovfxara "
rd^ avXrjjxara KaXovaiv, diro rij? Xvpag Xajx^dvov-
r€s rds 7Tpoo7]yopias. rdv ovv tottov, iv w yv{xvd-
^ovrai Trdvres ol ddXrjrai, iraXaiorpav KaXovoL, rrjs
TrdXrjs* KTrjGafjLevqs to Trpcorov, etra /cat rots' avdis

€<j)€Vp€d€lOLV ifJLTrapaGXOVGTJS .^

Tour' €(j)r]v iyd) to fiaprvpLov ovk lo-xypdv
etvac K€KXrjodai ydp dird rrjs TrdXr)^ ttjv TraXai-
OTpav^ ovx OTL TTpea^VTaTov €gtl tcjv dXXojv, dAA*
OTi fxovov Tcov TT^s dyojvias elScov 7T7]Xov Kal
KovioTpas Kal Kr]p(x)fiaTOS TvyxdvcL Seofievov ovt€
D ydp SpojjLov ovT€ TTuyfiTjv €V TraXaioTpais Siano-

^ €v UvOioLs Faehse, Bolkestein.

2 Bollaan : apxaLorepav T, defended by Bolkestein.

^ Added by Wyttenbach.

* TovvofjLa after ttoXtjs deleted by Bases, Paton ; Bolkestein
transposes to next phrase as object of ipLTrapaax^lv.

^ Anonymous : epLvapaax^iv, defended by Bolkestein.

" Basel edition : t^s iraXaiarpas.
158



TABLE-TALK II. 4, 638

QUESTION 4

Whether wrestling is the oldest of the sports "
Speakers : Lysimachus, Plutarch, Sosicles, Philinus

We were celebrating the victor}'^ of Sosicles of Co-
rone,^ who had Mon the prize over all the poets at the
Pythia. The gymnastic contests being near, most
of the conversation concerned the wrestlers, for it so
happened that many famous ones had come. And
Lysimachus,'' an epimeletes of the Amphictyons who
was present, said that he had recently heard a gram-
marian show that wrestling, on the evidence even of
the word, was the oldest of all sports, for it is reason-
able to assume (he said) that the more recent insti-
tutions make use of terms established for the older.
For example, one says that the pipe is " tuned ' and
the notes of the pipe one calls by the term signifying
" strokes," these locutions being taken from the lyre.
And so one calls " palaestra " the place in which all
athletes exercise, the inference being that wrestling
(pale) occupied it first before sharing it with sports
subsequently invented.

I said that this was not strong evidence ; for the
palaestra (I continued) is not named for wrestling
because this is the oldest of the sports, but because
it alone of the forms of gymnastic contests happens
to require clay, dusting-pit, and ring ; for it is not at
running nor at boxing that one toils away in the

" Cf. 67 5 c infra. On the order of institution of the various
games see W. Jaeger, Paedeia (Engl, ed.), i, pp. 206 ff., p. 464,
note 71 ; r/. H. A. Harris, Greek Athletes and Athletics^
particularly p. 24 with note 2.

" See i. 2, 618 f supra, and infra, v. 4, 677 d.

* Lysimachus only here and in the next Question .

159



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(638) vovGLV, dXXa TrdXrjv^ /cat TrayKpariov ro rrepl ras"
kvXlg€ls' on yap /xcju-t/crat to TrayKpariov €k re
TTvyjJLrjs /cat TraArys", SrjXov ioriv. " dXXojg Se
TTCJsJ' e^'^v, " Xoyov €X€L T€xviKa)Tarov /cat
TTavovpyorarov rtov ddXrjfjLarajv Tr)v irdXr^v ovaav
dfia /cat Trpeo^vrarov elvai; to yap dirXovv /cat
drexyov /cat jSta pidXXov r^ fiedoSo) TrepaLVOfievov
at xpelaL Trpcnrov €K<^€povGiv." ijJLOv 8e raur'
etTrovTOS", o Sojcrt/cATjs", " opOcog," €(f>r), " Aeyets",
/cat CTU/x^aAAojLtat crot ttlgtlv dno rov ovo/jLaro?'
rj yap TrdXr] fioi SoKel ro) TraXeveiv,^ ovep iorl
SoXovv^ /cat Kara^dXXeiv 3t* dTrdrr]?, KeKXrjadai."

E Kat o OtAtvos", " ifJiol 8\" €L7T€V, " dno ttJ? 7ra-
AatcTTT}?*' Tovrcx) yap fxaXiara rco ^xipei roZv x^polv
ivepyovGLV ol TraXaLOvreg , cjOTrep ol TTVKrevovreg
av TrdXiv rfj Trvypufj' 8l6 /cd/cetvo Trvyiir) /cat rovro
TTaXf] TTpoGTjyopevraL ro epyov. ov firiv dXXd /cat ro
GVfjLTraGaL rcov TToirjrdjv /cat /caraTrao-at ' TraAwat '
XeyovTOJVy S fxaXiGra ;)^paj/i,e vows' rous" TraAaio-ra?
6pajfJL€Vy eGTC /cat ravrrj TrpoGayeiv Trjv IrvpLorriTa
rov ovoixaros. gkottcl 8' ert," etnev, " fJirj rot?
jLtev SpofxevGLV epyov €gtIv otl TrXeZorov dTToXiTrelv
Kal TToppojraTOJ SiaGTrjvai, rovs 8e rrrvKras ov8e Trdvv
^ovXofJievovg eojGLV ol ^pa^evral GvpLTrXeKeGdai' fjLO-

^ vovs 8e Toifs TraAaioras" opaypiev dXXriXovs ay/caAi^o-
fievovs /cat rrepiXafji^dvovTas' /cat rd TrXelGra rcjv
dycDViGfidrcov, epLpoXai, TTapefx^oXal, GVGraGeL?,
TrapaSeGeis, GVvdyovGLV avrovg /cat dvafiiyvvovGiv

^ Wyttenbach : irdXrjs, defended by Juthner, Bolkestein.
2 Basel edition : TraXoUeiv. * Bernardakis: BoXov,

160



TABLE-TALK IL 4, 638

palaestra, but at wrestling and at the roll-and-tumble
of the pancratium, which is indeed a clear mixture of
boxing and wrestling. " And besides," I said, " how
does it make sense that wrestUng, which is the most
skilful and cunning of sports, is at the same time the
oldest too ? For necessity produces first what is
simple, artless, and accompHshed by force rather than
systematic skill." When I had spoken, Sosicles said,
" You are right, and I'll offer you confirmation with
an etymology, for * wrestling ' (pale) seems to me to
be derived from paleuein, which means * to trick,' * to
overthrow by deceit.' "

And Philinus said, " It seems to me to be derived
from palaiste, ' palm,' for it is principally with this part
of the hand that wrestlers operate, as, on the con-
trary, boxers do with the fist (pugme) ; so the one
activity is called * boxing' (pugme), the other * wrest-
ling ' (pale). And there is another possibility : since
the poets say ' besprinkle ' (palunai) for ' dusting '
and ' powdering,* of which we see wrestlers (palaistai)
make much use, it is possible also in this way to de-
rive the true meaning of the word. Consider again,"
he said, "is it not the task of runners to distance
each other as much as possible, to put the maximum
amount of space between each other ? And boxers "
are not allowed by referees to chnch, however eager
they may be ; it is only the wrestlers we see laying
hold of each other and embracing each other, — most
parts of the contest, frontal and lateral attacks, frontal
and lateral stances, bring them together and mix
them up with each other. Clearly the inference is that

� Cf. Harris, op. cit. pp. 97 f. and p. 103 with note 59.

* Turnebus : roO TTaXaiaTov.
VOL. VIII G 161



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(638) dAATJAotS". Sl6 rep TrAi^crtaJetv /jbdXLGra /cat yiyveoBai
neXas ovk clStjXov ion rrjv TrdXrjv ajvofidadai."



639 nPOBAHMA E

Ata Tt Ta)v dOXTjixaTcov 'Ofi.r)pos Trpcorov del raTTCt tt)v TTvyfJirjV
elra rrjv TrdXrjv /cat TeXevroLov tov Spofiov

Collocuntur Lysimachus, Timo, Menecrates, Plutarchus,
alii

1. *V7]6ivT(JJV Se TOVTOJV Kol TOV OtAtVOV TjfJLOJV
€7TaLV€odvT(X)V, avOlS 6 AvolfXaXOS €(f)7j, " 7TOIOV ovv

<j)ai7] TLS OLV rcov dyajvLOfidrcov yeyovevai irpcoTov;
rj TO ordSLOV, woTrep 'OAu/xmacrtv; . . ."^ " . . .
ivravda Se Trap^ rjfjuv Kad^ eKaorov ddXrjfjia rovg
dycL>vLt,ofi€vov9 elodyovoiv, errl ttoloI TraXaioralg
dvSpas vaXaiords /cat TTVKras €7rl TTVKrais ofiolcDS
/cat Tray K par laords' €/cet S', orav ol TratSes" 3i-
B ayojvioojvraiy rore rovs dvSpas KaXovoiv. okottcl
Se fiT] fiaXXov," €(1)7), " rr]v Kara xpovov rd^iv
*^0fi7]pos aTToSeLKWOLV TTpcjrov yap del TTiryiirj
Trap' avrcp, hevrepov rrdXr), /cat reXevralov 6 8p6-
pLos rcbv yvpLVLKcov del Tera/crat." Oavpidoas ovv
MeveKpdrrjs 6 SeooaXog, " c3 'Hpa/cAets"," ctTrev,
" ooa Xavddvei rjpLas' el Se riva roiv iirajv iori
ooL TTpox^Lpa, pLT] (I)dovrj07]s dvapLvfjoaL."

at o ItjLtcuv, aAA on p,€V, enreVy at 11a-
rpoKXov ra(f>al ravrrjv exovoL rwv dyajviopidrcov
rr)v rd^LVy aTraoiv ws eiros elirelv evavXov iariv
hiarripwv he rrjv rd^LV 6p,aX<jj� 6 voirjrTjg rov ptev

^ Xylander detected a lacuna here ; Reiske places it before
•^ TO ardSiov.

162



TABLE TALK IL 4r-5, 638-639

wrestling (pale) got its name from ' draw near
(plesiazein) and ' be close ' {pelas)." "



QUESTION 5

Why Homer always arranges a series of athletic sports with
boxing first, then wrestling, and last racing

Speakers : Lysimachus, Timon, Menecrates,
Plutarch, others

1. When these words had been spoken and we had
praised Philinus, Lysimachus again said, " What
could one say was the first athletic contest, then ?

Was it the foot-race, as at Olympia ? " [a

lacuna of uncertain length] "... here among us
they introduce the contestants sport by sport, men
wrestlers after boy wrestlers, and likewise for boxers
and pancratiasts ; but there the men are called in
only when the boys are through. But consider
whether it is not rather Homer who displays the tem-
poral order ; for always in his works boxing is listed
first among the gymnastic sports, wrestling second,
and racing last." Then Menecrates * of Thessaly
said in astonishment, " Heracles, how much escapes
us ! If you have any of his verses at hand, do not
grudge us the recollection of them."

" Well," said Timon, " it rings in everyone's ears,
if I may say so, that the athletic contests at the
funeral games of Patroclus follow this order. The
Poet has made Achilles say to Nestor, consistently

** The true etymology is unknown ; see Boisacq, s.v. na-
Xaico.

" Otherwise unknown.

163



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(639) 'A;)^tAAea Xeyovra rw NeWopt 7T€7TOLrjK€v

C SlScofjLL 84 ooL t68^ dedXov

avTCjJS' ov yap ttv^ ye fiax'qGeaL ovSe TraXaioeiSy
ovSe T aKovriGTVV ivSvaeai ovSe TToSeGat
devoeai •
rov he TTpeo^vriqv ev rco aTTOKpiveodai napaSoXe-
G)(ovvTa yepovTLKCos on

TTV^ fiev evLKTiua KAuro/LtT^Sea, OIvottos vloVy
^AyKOLOV 8e^ TToXri YlXevpayviov,
*'1(J>lkXov 8e TToheoGi TrapeSpapLov

avdis he rov /xev ^Ohvaoea rovs Oata/ca? TrpoKa-
Xovpbevov

•^ TTV^ rje ttolXtj t) /cat ttoglv,

rov S' ^AXkLVOVV VTTOTLfJLCOpLeVOV

D ov yap TTvypLaxoi elpiev dpivpLoves ovhe TraXaioraiy

dXXd TTOGL KpaiTTVoXs deopLev
COS" ov Kara rvxr)v €k rov Trapiorapievov rfj rd^ei
Xpcopievos aAAor' dXXco^, dXXd rols eldiopLevoLS rore
/cat SpojpLevoLS Kara vopiov eiraKoXovdajv ihpdro
5* ovrojs rr)v iraXaidv en rd^LV avrcjv hia^vXar-
rovrojv."

2. UavGapuevov 8e rov d8eX(f>oVy rdXXa puev e(f>T]v
dXr)ddjs Xeyeodai, rrjv 8* air lav rrjs rd^ews ovk
eirrivovv. ehoKei 8e /cat ratv aAAcov rtat /xt) indavov
elvai yeyovevai^ ro TrvKreveiv /cat TraXaieiv irporepov
ev dycovL /cat a/xtAAi^ rov rpoxdi^eiv, /cat Trape/ca-
Xovv e^dyeiv els ro dvcjrepov. e^i^v 8* e/c rov

^ Added by Xylander.

2 yeyov€vai, added by Bernardakis here, but after dywvi by
Wyttenbach. Faehse (and Wilamowitz) proposed npoTepeiv
for rrpoTepov, omitting yeyoveVai.
164



TABLE TALK IL 5, 639

preserving the order,

And so I give this prize to you, for not
At boxing will you fight, nor will you wrestle.
Nor enter for the javelin throw, nor run
A foot-race.*

And he made the old gentleman answer garrulously,
as old gentlemen will,

I knocked out Clytomedeus, Oenops's son " ; and in wrest-
ling I worsted Ancaeus, son of Pleuron, and Iphicles
I outran in the foot-race.

Again, he has Odysseus challenge the Phaeacians

To box, to wrestle, or to race, "

and Alcinoiis propose the lesser trial.

For we are not good boxers, wrestlers we
Are not, but races swift we run.**

He does not make haphazard use of any chance order,
now one way and now another, but he follows the
customs of that time and the things habitually done.
And so it was done, so long as they still preserved the
old order."

2. When my brother had finished, I said that the
rest of his remarks were true, but I could not com-
mend his explanation of the order. Furthermore, it
seemed improbable to some of the others that boxing
and wrestling existed earlier than racing in com-
petitive sports, and they invited me to explore the
matter further. And I said, extemporizing, that all

� Iliad, xxiii. 620 if.

* Ibid. 634 (here and at Odyssey, xxi. 144, mss. of Homer
vary between OIvottos and 'Hvoiros). ' Odyssey, viii. 20.

" Ibid. 246 f.

165



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(639) TTapaardvTOS i on ravrd fiOL Trdvra ixiixruxara
E hoKeZ Kol yvfJLvdajjLara rajv TToXeixiKwv elvai- koL
yap OTrXiTrjg iirl Trdaiv eladyer at, fJLaprvpovjjLevos
OTL rovTO TO reXog earl rr\s (TOj/JLaoKLas Kal^ rrjg
dfjiiXXr]?' Kal TO rots' VLKiqcjyopois eloeXavvovoLV^ rcov
reixcJov €(f)L€GdaL fxipos SteAetv koL KarapaXelv tol-
avTTjv €X€L SidvoLav, (Ls ov /xeya ttoXcl t€lx^^
6(f)€Xo9 dvSpas ixovarj pid-)(€odaL Svvafievovs Kal
VLKav. iv Se AaKeBatjjLovL roZs v€vlk7]k6gi ore^a-
viras dycova? i^alperos rjv iv rat? Trapard^eoL
X^ipa, 7T€pl avrov rov ^auiXia reraypbevovs P'dx^-
adai' Kal rwv l^cpojv p,6voj rep lttttco pierovoia
aTe(j)dvov Kal dycjvos euriv, on piovos Kal 7T€(f)VK€
Kal 7](JK7]Tai pLaxopL€voi9 TTapelvai Kal ovpiTToXepbelv .
F " Et Se S*)) ravra Xiyerai pLrj KaKcog, jjSrj oko-
TTcS/xev," €(j)riVy " on raJv piaxopidvojv Trpcbrov epyov
ion TO TTard^ai Kal (jivXd^aoSaL, hevrepov Se
(jvpLTTeoovrag rj8r] Kal yevopievovs iv ;!^€pCTty <J)di-

OpLoZs T€ XPV^^^^ '^^^ 7T€pirp07Tai� (xAAtJAcDV, (X) St)

pidXiord (j)aGiv iv AevKTpois rovs ^Trapndras vtto

640 Tcov rjpL€T€pojv, TTaXaiGTpiKOJV ovTOJV, Kara^Laodrj-

vat^' 8i6 Kal Trap* AIgxvXo) n? rcov TToXepuKOJV

ovopud^erai ' PpiOvg oTrXiroTrdXas ' Kal So^o/cA-^s'

€Lpr]K€ 7TOV 7T€pl TCOV TpOXjOV d)�

' (jiiXiTTTTOi Kal KepovXKoly

ovv odKei ' Se ' KcoScovoKporcp TTaXaiorai ' •

^ TO after koX deleted by Stephanus.
^ Salmasius : eXavvovaiv. ^ Wyttenbach : KaTa^i^aadrjvax.

" See Jiithner in RE, s.v. " Hoplites," 3.

** Cf. Life of Lycurgus, xxii. 4.

" As the Spartans, deliberately, were not ; cf. Mor. 233 e,
no. 27.
166



TABLE-TALK II. 5, 639-640

these sports seemed to me to mimic warfare and to
train for battle ; indeed, the race in armour is pre-
sented after all the rest," so testifying that military-
fitness is the aim of athletics and competition. Also
the fact that victorious athletes, as they enter the
city, are permitted to destroy and throw down a part
of the walls, has some such meaning : a city which
possesses men able to fight and conquer has no great
need of walls. In Lacedaemon there was a specially
chosen place in the battle-line for those who had won
the victor's wreath in the Games, namely, to fight
stationed beside the king himself ^ ; and among
animals the horse alone participates in crown and
contest because it alone is fitted by nature and train-
ing to accompany fighters and to go to war together
with them.

" If my statement of the analogy is right so far,"
I continued, " let us consider the matter further.
The first task of fighters is to strike out and to defend
themselves. And their next task, when they are now
met in hand-to-hand conflict, is to strain body against
body and overthrow each other. By this especially,
it is reported, the Spartans at Leuctra were over-
powered by our men who were practised wrestlers " ;
and so it is that in Aeschylus one of the men-of-
arms is called * a weighty ^v^estler-in-armour ' <* and
Sophocles somewhere said of the Trojans that they
are ' lovers of the horse, drawers of the bow,' and
* wrestlers with a clanging shield.' * And finally the

^ Aeschylus in Hiller-Crusius, Anth. Lyr. p. 124, no. 4 ;
Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii, p. 242, frag. 5 ; Diehl^ i, p. 79,
no. 4 ; LCL Aeschylus, frag. 270, more fully quoted at Mor,
317 E, 334 D, and Compar. of Demosth. and Cicero.

� Frag. 775 Nauck, 859 Pearson.

167



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(640) Kal fjLTjv €ttI irdai ye to rpirov iarlv VLKcofxevov?
(f>€vy€iv ri hi(x)K€LV VLKcovras. cIkotcos ovv t) Trvyfirj
7Tpo€LG7Jy€,^ SevTEpav 8* ^*X^^ V TrdXr) rd^iv, Kal
TcXevracav 6 Spofjios' on TTvyfir] puev cotl pLipL-qpia
7rXr)yrjs /cat <j)v\aKr\s, ttoXt] Sc ovpi7r\oKr\s /cat cZ>^t-
GfioVy hpojxcp Se /xcAcTcDCTt ^evyeiv /cat StaS/cetv."



nPOBAHMA S*

Aia rl TT€VK7] /cat ttltvs kol to. ofioia tovtols ovk
ivo(f)da\fJii^€TaL^

CoUocuntur Crato, Philo, Soclarus

B !• Saj/cAa^os" ccrrtcov rjfjidg iv k'^ttols vtto rov
K^r]<l)iGOV TTorafjiov rrepippeofievoLS iireheLKwro hiv-
8pa TTavToSaTTOJS 7re7rot/ctA/xeVa rot? Xeyofievois
€VO(l>daXpiiGpLOis^' Kal yap e/c o^ivojv eXaias dva-
pXaoravovorag icDpaj/JLev Kal /oota? €/c fxvpplvrjg'
rjoav he Kal hpves diriovs dyaOds eK(j)epovoaL Kal
TrXdravoL fJLTjXcojv SeSeyfJLevaL Kal ovkol fiopecov
ifiPoXdSas, dXXai re fxi^eis (f)vrcbv KeKparrjfjLevojv
dxpL KapTToyovias . ol puev ovv dXXoL Tvpos rov

C Sco/cAapov eVaiJov, cos" rchv 7roi7^Ti/ca>v o^iyycov
Kal ■x^ip.aipcjjv reparcDSearepa yevr] Kal Opepfxara
pdaKovra' Kpdrcov Se Trpov^aXev rjpXv hiaTroprjaai
7T€pl rrjs atrtas", St* rjv p.6va rcov <j)vro)v rd iXa-
twSt]^ Sex^adai rd? roiavras impn^ias ov TT€<f)VK€v'

^ Hubert, Trporjyc VVyttenbach : irpoeLoi ye.

^ Bernardakis : ivo^6aKyLLdl,€TaL.
^ Stephanus : €v6(f)daXfiis T, ev 6(f>6aXfiols E.
168



TABLE-TALK IL 5-6, 640

soldier's third task is to run away when beaten and
to pursue when winning. It is reasonable, therefore,
for boxing to lead off the list, for wrestling to have
second place, and for racing the last, because boxing
mimics attack and defence, wrestling the twisting
and struggling of close-quarter combat, and in the
foot-race one practises the art of fleeing the battle-
field and of pursuing those who do so."



QUESTION 6

Why the fir and the pine and trees like them are not
grafted "

Speakers : Crato, Philo, Soclarus

1. Soclarus,^ while entertaining us in his gardens
bordered by the Cephissus River, showed us trees
which had been fancified in all sorts of ways by what
is called grafting ; we saw olives growing upon mastic
trees and pomegranates upon the myrtle ; and there
were oaks which bore good pears, plane trees which
had received grafts of apples, and figs grafts of mul-
berries, and other mixtures of trees mastered to the
point of producing fruit. Then the rest of the com-
pany began to tease Soclarus for raising, as they said,
classes and specimens more marvellous than the
sphinxes and chimaeras of the poets ; but Crato '^
proposed that we discuss the question of the cause
why the evergreens alone of plants do not naturally

■ On grafting see A. S. Pease in Trans. Amer, Philol.
Assoc. Ixiv (1933), pp. 66 ff., esp. pp. 69 f.

" For Soclarus see Bolkestein, Adv. Crit, p. 128.
" See note c, p. 9 , above.

* Pohlenz : eXaiatSTj.
VOL. VIII Q* 169



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(640) ovT€ yap kojvov ovre KVTrdpLTTOv t) ttltuv t] 7T€vk7]v
eKTpecjiovGdv rt rcov irepoyevojv opdodai.

2. 'YTToAajScuv 8e OiAcov €<f)7], " Xoyos tls eoriv,
60 Kparcov, TTapa rots aocfyolg, ^e^aiovpLcvos vtto
rcijv yecopyiKcov. to yap eXatov elvai <j)aoL rots
(j)VToZs TToXefiLov /cat rdxior av aTToXeodai (f)vr6v
o povXoLo -xpiofxevov iXalo), Kaddirep rds ficXlrras.
ra S' €ip7]iJL€va 8ev8pa Triova /cat TriireLpav €\€l

D TT^V (j)VGLVy CQOre TTLOOaV d7To8aKpV€LV /cat p7]rLV7]V'

orav Se TrXrjyfj, rats 8ta/co7rat? o'lKodev ojOTrep^
Ixcopas ovvdyev 7] re 8as avrajv iXaLTjpdv d(j)L'r]GLV
lKpid8a /cat TTepiGrlXpeL ro XiTrapov avrfj- Sto /cat
irpos ra dXXa yevr) 8vopLiKT<x)s ^X^^> Kaddirep avro
TO e'Aatov." TTavoajxevov 8e rod ^iXojvoSy 6 fxev
J^pdrojv a>€TO /cat ttjv tov <j)Xoiov (f)voLv irpos rovro
avvepyelv' Actttov yap ovra /cat ir)p6v ov 7rap€X€iv
€8pav ov8^ ifJi^LCDcnv TOt? ivridepiivois, ouS'/ coo--
7T€p TO, <j)XoLO}8'r] /cat vorepd /cat^ /xaAa/ca, Tots" vtto
TOV </)Xol6v* pbipeai 7rpoaS€;^o/x€vots' 7r€pL7TTVOO€adai
KoXXwfievov.

3. AvTOS 3e HwKXapos €<l)r] /cat toi^' ravra
E AcyovTa fir] KaKcos vpoaevvoeiv, on Set to Se;^o-

fievov eTepav (f)voLV evTpeTTTOV efvai, tva KpaTrjdev
i^ofjLOLwdfj /cat iJL€Ta^dXr) ttjv iv iavTio Tpocfyrjv
TTpos TO ipi<f)VT€v6pL€vov . " /cat ydp TTfv yrjv

^ Wilamowitz : wairep oiKodev.
^ ov8', ojoTTep P. A. C, ou;^ cSaTrep Hubert : wairtp,
^ Ttt after /cat omitted by Reiske, Hubert.
* wra after <f>Xot,6v omitted by Reiske.
^ TOV added by Reiske ; Bolkestein prefers either to omit
TOV or to insert it after ravra.

" The conifer (presumably) that Plutarch meant by k6no$
170



TABLE-TALK IL 6, 640

accept such mixtures, for (he said) neither konos "
nor cypress, pine or fir, does one see supporting a
scion of another species.

2. Philo said in answer, " The learned have an ac-
count of the matter, Crato, and farmers confirm it.
For they say that oil is inimical to plants, and what
plant you like, touched with oil, would very quickly
perish ^ — ^just like bees. The trees mentioned are
naturally fat and full of sap, so that they ooze pitch
and resin ; when they are struck, they collect in the
cuts a juice, as it were from within themselves ; the
kindling-wood split from them emits an oily liquid,
and the fatty substance in it glitters ; and so it is
that they are bad mixers with other woods, like oil
itself." When Philo finished, Crato advanced his
notion that the nature of the bark also contributed
to this end ; for (he said) since the bark is thin and
dry, it does not offer the scion an environment main-
taining life, nor does it cleave to the scion, as do moist
and soft bark-like substances, bedding it in the parts
beneath the bark that receive it."

3. Soclarus himself said that one who spoke thus
possessed no mediocre power of observation, seeing
that it is necessary for the plant used as stock for
another kind to be easily changed so that it may be
dominated " and assimilated and transform for the
scion the nourishment in itself. " Indeed, we first

is obscure. In elegiacs attributed to Plato the tree is part of
an idyllic setting (if Scaliger rightly emended kc3/xov to kwvov)-.
Anth. Plan. 13 = Diehl, Anth. Lyr. Graec. i� (1949), p. 108.
27 (Bergk 25), with notes. See Hort's Theophrastus,
Enquiry into Plants (LCL), ii, Index s.vv. mrvs, nevioj.

^ Cf. Plato, Protagoras^ 334 b : olive oil is highly injurious
to all plants and to the hair of animals.

" Cf. the theory of digestion at iii. 6. 2, 654 b, and iv. 1. 2,
661 B infra.

171



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(640) 77/)oStaAuo/xey Kal ixaXdaaoiiev , Iva KOTreloa fiera-
^dXr] St' evTTadeLav Kal dipr]TaL rcjv iijL(f)vr€vo-
ixivcov T) yap drevrjs Kal aKXr]pd SvGfJLerd^XrjTOS.
ravra 8e rd SevSpa Kov(f)a^ rols ^'uXois ovra
Kpdoiv ov TTOiel Sid to firj Kparelodai /xTySe jxera-
^aXXeiV. €TL S'/' ctTrev, " ovk dSrjXov otl Set

TTpOS TO €lJLcf)VT€v6fX€VOV ')(a)pas AoyOV €;^etV TO

8€$6fjL€Vov' r7]v Se x^P^^ ^^^ ^TyAetav ex^LV Kal
yovLfjiov' 66 ev rd TToXvKapTTorara rcbv ^vrcov . . .^
F iKXeyofievoL TrapaTrrjyvvovGLV, wGrrep yvvai^lv ttoXv-
yaXaKTOvaais^ erepa pp€(f)r]* TTpoo^dXXovres . 7T€v-
KTjV he Kal KVTrdpLTTov Kal rd rotavra Trdvra
641 yXlaxpoi f<al dyevvrj rols Kapirois 6piop.€v. ojovep
ydp ol TToXvaapKLa Kexp'rjfJievoL Kal oyKco (hs inl
TO TrXeLGTOv dreKVOL (tt7V ydp rpocfyrjv els to crco/xa
KaravaXioKovres ov ttoiovgiv e^ avrrjs TrepLTrajfxa
GTTepixarLKov), ovrcu rd roiavra 8ev8pa rijs rpocfyfjs
dTToXavovra, Trdorjs els avrd 8a7ravo) fJLevrjs, evGOi-
jjiareZ rols fieyedeoL Kal av^dverai, Kapirov 8e rd
fxev ov (f)epeL rd 8e ^epei puKpov Kal avvreXovfievov
^pa8ecDS' OJGT ov 8ei davfid^eiVy el jjltj (jiverai
TaXXorpiov, ev cL KaKcos Tpe^eTat /cat ro olKeZov."

^ Koij>a. Herwerden, Hubert, " insensitive."
2 Lac. 4-7 T: e^i^oXdaiv Hubert, "for grafts," or the like,
TTpoaeKXeyofjievoi Bernardakis.



172



TABLE-TALK IL 6, 640-641

break up the earth and soften it so that, having been
tilled, it may undergo a transformation by reason
of its adaptability and cling to what we plant, for
tight, hard earth undergoes transformation with
difficulty. But these trees, their wood being light, do
not make combinations because they are not domin-
ated nor do they undergo transformation. Further,"
he continued, " it is quite clear that the stock to be
grafted fulfils the function of soil for the scion ; soil
and stock must be fertile and productive, and so they
select the most fruitful of plants and insert the scions
in them, much like putting infants out to nurse with
women who have abundant milk. But fir and cypress
and all such trees are niggardly and ungenerous with
their fruit, as we see. For just as those who are fleshy
and heavy are for the most part childless (because
they use up their nourishment on their bodies and do
not create from it a surplus for seed),** so such trees,
having the enjoyment of their nourishment all spent
on themselves, thrive and increase in size, but some
bear no fruit and others bear fruit that is small and
slow to ripen. Accordingly, one must not be amazed
if another's does not grow in what nourishes poorly
even its o\vn."

<* Supra, 637 b, d ; infra, 724 e ; Mor. 919 c ; Aristotle,
De Gen. Animal, i. 18. 57-59.

' Cobet : lac. 5-6 yaXaia-ovcrais.
* Xylander : lac. 7-8.



173



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(6tl) nPOBAHMA Z

Collocuntur Chaeremonianus, Plutarchus, alii

B 1. ^aipriixoviavos^ 6 TpaWiavos lx0v^i'O)V Trore
TTavToSaTTcbv TrapareOePTOJV ev einhei^ag rjfjuv o^v
ra> K€<f)a\iip kol TrpofjuqKeg e'Aeye rovrco rrpoueoi-
Kevai rrjv ix^vqtSa' Bedoaodai yap TrXecov iv tco
l^iLKeXiKcp Kal BavpLdaai rrjv Svvafiiv, ovk oXlyrjv
^paSvTTJra Kal SiarpL^rjv Trapa rov ttXovv dnep-
yaaafievrjg rijs €X^V7]ihos, ecu? vtto rod Trpcopicos
idXoj 7rpoG€XOfJL€vr} rep roixcp rrj^ V€d>s e^cjOev.
^aav fxev ovv ol KarayeXcovres rov Y^aLprjfjLovLavov
COS" rrXdopLa jjivdojSes TrapaSeSey/xeVou Kal aTncrrov,
Tjoav he Kal ol rds avnTradeias dpvXovvreSy Kal
dXXa TToXXd {/cat St) kol ravra nepl tcjv dvrt-)
TTadovTCov^ rjv a/couetv, on puaLVopievov cAe^avra

C Karairavei Kpios dcf^deis, e^^hvav Se (fyrjyov kXwvlov
idv TTpooaydyrjs Kal diyrjs tcm^crtv dypios �€
ravpos drpefJieZ Kal Trpavverat cruKfj TrpooheOeis'
TO S' rjXcKTpov Trdvra Kivel Kal TTpoodyerat rd
Kovcfya ttXtjv wKifiov Kal rcbv iXalcp ^pexofxevajv
7) Se GiSrjpLTLS Xido� OVK dy€L rov otSrjpov, dv
(jKopScp xP''^^fi' TOVTCOV ydp cjLt^aWJ r7]v netpav
ixdvrojv, ;^aA€7r6v elvai ty)v alriav, el firj Kal
TTavreXcjs dSvvarov, KarapiaOelv.

^ XaLp-qfxojv Reiske ; cf. RE, s.v. " Plutarchos," col. 671.
2 Added by Diels.

" A sucking-fish (remora), Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 79 ; D'Arcy
Thompson, Glossary of Greek Fishes, pp. 68-70, where the
evidence is summarized.

" Only here, but the commoner name Chaeremon {cf.

174



I



TABLE-TALK IL 7, 641

QUESTION 7

Concerning the echeneis "

Speakers : Chaeremonianus, Plutarch, others

1 . Once, when small fish of all sorts were served to us,
Chaeremonianus ^ of Tralles pointed out one >vith a
sharp, elongated head and said that the echeneis
resembled it ; he had seen (he said) the echeneis
while sailing off Sicily and had been amazed at its
power, for during the course of the voyage it had
been responsible for no little loss of speed and delay
until the look-out had caught it sticking to the outer
face of the vessel's hull. At this, some laughed at
Chaeremonianus for accepting a mythical and un-
believable fabrication ; others chatted about the
" antipathies " " ; and one could hear much else and
also the following about things antipathetic : the
sight of a ram stops a mad elephant ; if you point an
oak twig at a viper and touch it, the viper is brought
to a standstill ; a wild bull is quieted and made gentle
if bound to a fig-tree ^ ; amber moves and attracts all
light things, except basil and whatever is wet with
oil ; the loadstone does not attract iron rubbed with
garlic. Indeed these things are subject to a clear
test, but it is hard (they said) to determine the cause,
if not altogether impossible.

critical note) may be the right reading ; a man of this name
is honoured for restoring (wpdcuae) Tralles after an earthquake
(Appendix to Palatine Anthology^ Tauchnitz, 1829, no. 222,
p. 381).

* Bolus of Mendes, the forger of Democritus exposed by
Callimachus, wrote a Sympathies and Antipathies (in nature) ;
see Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, Demokritos 300. 1-5 ; cf.
infra^ iv. 2, 664 c.

•* Cf. infray 696 f, where the theory is different.

175



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(641) 2. 'Eyo; 8e tovto [xev €<f>r]v dnoSpaGLV etvat, rrj?

€pCOTl^G€Cl)S fldXXoV Tj TTJ? atTta? OLTToSoGLV. " OKO-

TTCOfjiev 8\" eliTOV, " on ttoXXcl crufJiTTTCjfxaTo?^
exovra (f>v(7iv^ alriwv XafJL^dveL 86^av ovk opdcbg-
D ofxoiov 0)9 €1 Tt? oiOLTO TTj avdi^GeL Tov dyvov
7T€7raiv€GBai rov rrjs dfJLTreXov Kapnov, on S-q,^
TOVTO TO XeyofxevoVy

7] T* dyvos dvdeZ x<^^ ^oTpvs TrcTratVerai,

ri Tols €7rt TCJV Xvyywv <j>aivopievois plvktjgl Gvy-

X^LGdaL Kal GVVV€<j)€lV TO 7r€pL€)(OVy tJ^ TTjV ypV-
TTOTflTa Tcbv OVVXOJV aLTlOV dXXd fJLT) GVpL^e^rjKOS

etvai TOV 7T€pl GTrXdyx^ov cXkovs. cjGirep ovv
TOVTWV €KaGTOV iTTaKoXovdrjjjLa TOV Trddovs €GtIv
€K Twv avTcov ycvvw/jLevov oItlcjv, ovtcos ecfyrfv iyd)
filav acTLav elvat St' 7]v ^paSeojs t€ ttAci /cat
7T poody €Tai ttiv ix^vrjtSa to ttXoIov $7] pas fiev
yap ovGrjs Kal pL7f G^ohpa ^apeias vypoTJjTi ttjs
vews, et/cos" iiroXiGOdvovGav^ vrro kov<I)6t7)tos ttj da-
E XdTTT) T7]v TpoTTLV StaXa^eLV^ TO KVfxa ^vXa)^� KaOapcp
Siaipovfjievov Kal^^ d(j)iGTdii€vov evireTcos' oTav hk
voT€pd G(j)68pa /cat Sta^pop^os" ovGa (j)VKia re ttoAAo,
/cat ^pvcoSeLS eTrnrdyovs TrpoGdyqTaL, tov t€ ^vXov

TOV TOflOV dpL^XvTCpOV tCT^^Ct TO T€ KVfXa Tjj yAt-
GXpOTrjTL TTpOGTrtTTTOV OV paSiCOS dTToXveTGL. 8l6

/cat TrapaijjrixovGL tovs tolxovs, Ta ^pva /cat ra
(jyvKia TCJV ^vXojv aTTOKadaipovTes , ols et/co? €gti

^ Wilamowitz, crvfnTTWfiaTOJv Madvig, Paton : ox'/xTrrcu/xaTa.

2 (f^vaiv ^^'ilamowitz, Paton, ra^tv Madvig : lac. 4 aiv.

^ Basel edition : Set.

* Added by Emperius.

^ Xylander : Kal 6.

• Added by the Basel edition.

176



i



TABLE-TALK IL 7, 641

2. I remarked that all this avoided the question
rather than explained the cause. " Let us reflect,"
I continued, " that many things essentially accidental
wrongly get the reputation of being causes, — as if,
for example, one should think that the vine's crop is
ripened by the flowering of the chaste tree [Agnus
castus] because, as they say.

The chaste tree flowers and the grapes get ripe,"

or that the snufl" which appears on lamps makes the
atmosphere muggy and cloudy, or that crookedness
of the nails is the cause rather than a symptom of
internal ulcer. As each of these, then, accompanies
the condition and is produced by the same causes, so
there is one cause, I said, both for the ship's sailing
slowly and for attracting to itself the echeneis ; for
when a ship is sound and not exceedingly water-
logged, its keel naturally glides lightly through the
sea, cleaving the wave which easily parts and makes
way for the clean wood ; but when a ship is thoroughly
soaked with water and accumulates much seaweed
and encrustation of laver, its hull offers greater
resistance, and the sea, meeting the impediment of
the encrustation, does not let the ship pass easily.
And so it is that hulls are scraped to clean laver
and seaweed off the wood, and it is likely enough

" Trag. Graec. Frag. Nauck, Adespoton 396 ; T>\eh\,Anth.
Lyr, Graec. i, fasc. 3, p. 69. no. 7.

' Added by Stephanus.

� Reiske : xyno\i.adaivovaav {sic).

' KoX after SioAajSciv deleted by Wyttenbach, SiajSoAAetv kcI
axll,€iv Reiske, biaXa^ilv koI axtcrat Bolkestein.
^" Stephanus : lac. 4-5 Aa>.
^* 8iaipovfX€vov Kol Stephanus : 8iat lac. 7.

177



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(641) TTjv ix^vqlSa TTpooLGXofJLevrjv vtto ttjs yXLGXporrjTos
alriov rrjs ^paSvrrJTo? dAA' ovk €TTaKoXovdrj}xa rod
TTjv ^paSvTTJra ttoiovvtos alriov vopLiadrjvaL."



nPOBAHMA H
-P Ata Ti Toiis XvKoarrdSas tirnovs dvfweiSels elvai Xdyovaiv

Collocuntur Plutarchi pater, Plutarchus, alii

^'Ittttov? XvKOGTrdSag ol fxev (xtto rcov ;^aAiva)v
TcSv XvKOJV e(j)aaav ajvopidadai, Sta to ^v/xoetSes-
/cat SvcTKadeKTOv ovroj ocD(f)povil,opiivovs' 6 Se 7ra-
642 rr^p rjfjicov rJKLGra Trepl ra? €vpr]GL\oylas^ avro-
cr;\;eStos' cov Kal Kexp-qpiivos aet KpariGrevovGLv
tiTTTOis eXeye rovg vtto Xvkojv iirix^ip-qdivTag iv
TTOjAotS", avirep €K(f>vyajGLV, dyadovs fiev dnopalveiv
Kal 7To8a)K€L9, KaXeladaL Se XvKOGTrdSag. ravra
8e TrXeLOVOJV avrcp /jiaprvpovvTCOV diroplav alrlas
TTapelx^v, St' T]v TO avpLTTToypLa tovto dvpLiKOJTipovs
KOI yopyoTepovg iroieZ tovs Ittttovs- Kal 6 pLev
TrXeiGTos -^v Xoyos tcov TrapovTOJVy otl (f>6^ov to
Trddos ov OvpLov ivepydi^erai rot? imrois, Kal
yiyvopbevoi ifjocfyoSeeis Kal irpos dirav evTTTorjroi ra?
oppids o^vppoTTovs Kal Tax^las laxovoLV, wairep
rd XivoTTXrjKTa^ tcov drjplojv. iycj Se gkottclv
B ecfyrjv XPV^^^> ^^V Tovvavrlov €(jtI tov Sokovvtos'
ov ydp^ ylyveodai hpopuKOJTepovs tov? ttcjjXovs,
OTav iK<f)vyajaL ra? ^Xd^a? tcov drjplojv €7rt;^€t/>7^-

divT€S, oAA' OVK dv €K(/>Vy€LV, €t pLTj <f)VG€l dvpLiKol

^ evprjaiXoyias Paton (also a reviewer in Class. Rev. xxxii
[1918], pp. 150-153) : lajiyoplas.
178



TABLE-TALK H. 7-8, 641-642

that the echeneis, attached to this sticky material,
has come to be considered the cause of the vessel's
slowness rather than a consequence of the actual
factor responsible for the slowness."



QUESTION 8

Why horses bitten by wolves are said to be mettlesome

Speakers : Plutarch's father, Plutarch, others

Several gentlemen said that the term lycospades
applied to horses is derived from " wolf-bit," for this
is the type of bit used to control horses that are
mettlesome and hard to hold ; but father, a skilful
man indeed at finding an argument and one who
always possessed the very best horses, said that
colts attacked by wolves, if they escape, turn out
to be fine, swift horses and are called lycospades
(** wolf-bitten "). When many of the company
testified to the truth of his statement of the matter,
he proposed the question of the reason why this
mischance makes horses more mettlesome and
spirited. Most of the talk of the company was to the
effect that the experience engenders in the horses
fear, not spirit ; they become timid and skittish at
everything, and so are sudden and quick in their
movements, like net-shy wild animals. For my part,
I said that one must consider whether the fact is
not the opposite of what is thought to be the case.
Actually colts do not become faster runners by escap-
ing harm when attacked by wild animals, but they
would not have escaped unless they had been

2 AivdATjTTTa Naber (Helmbold, Class. Phil, xxxvi [1941],
p. 87). * ov yap Stephaniis : on.

179



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(612) Koi Tax€L? '^Gav ov8e^ yap rov 'OSucrcrca y€V€Gdai
(f)p6vLfJiov vneKSpavra rod KvkXcottos, dAA' on

TOLOVTOS rfv V7T€K8pdvai.



nPOBAHMA

Aia Ti TO. XvKoPpwra tu)V ■npo^droiv to Kpeas pikv yXvKvrepov
TO S' epiov <f>d€ipo7roi6v tax^i

CoUocuntur Patrocleas, Plutarchus, alii

Mera rovro Trepl rwv XvKo^pcorcov €^7]T€lto*

TTpo^drojv, d Aeyerat to fxev Kpeas yXvKvrarov

C 7rap€X€LV TO 8' epLov ^deipoiroLov. ov ^avXcx)? ovv

iSoKei UaTpoKXeas 6 yafx^pos imx^ipeiv irepl

TTJS yXvKVTTjTOS, COS" TOV drjpLOV TO) S'qyfJiaTL TTjV

GOLpKa TaKepav ttoiovvtos' koL yap ctvai to TrvcvfjLa
TOV XvKov Treptdcpfiov ovtoj /cat TTvpojSes, wgtc tol
GKXrjpoTaTa tcov ogtojv iv ttj KoiXia tiJk€iv /cat
Kadvypalveiv 8to /cat G'qTTeGdai to, XvKoppcDTa tcjv
dXXojv Taxiov. 7T€pl Se tcjv iplcov Si-qTropov/JLCV,
fxriTTOT ov yewa tovs (f)6€lpas dXX c/c/caActrat,
TpaxvTTjTos TLVos dfJLVKTiKrj? 7) depfjLOTTjTog lSlottjti
SiaKpLVovTa TTjv GapKa' TavTrjv Se rots" epiois Trjv
D SvvafJLLv iyylyveGdaL^ irpos to tov Xvkov STJyfia /cat
TO TTvevfia fji€TapdXXovT09 dxpi tG)v TpLxojv tov
G^aTTopiivov.

Kat Gvve^dXXeTO tw Xoyco ttlgtlv tj iGTOpla'
TU)v yap Kvvrjycjv /cat tojv fiayeipojv iiriGTdpieda

^ Stegmann : ovre. ^ Xylander : i^rjyflTo.

' Stcphanus : ov yiveaOai.

180



TABLE-TALK IL 8-9, 642

naturally spirited and fast. It was not his escape
from Cyclops that made Odysseus clever, but because
he was so, he did escape.



QUESTION 9

Why sheep bitten by wolves have a sweeter
flesh, but a wool which breeds lice

Speakers : Patrocleas, Plutarch, others

After the preceding conversation, our inquiry
turned to sheep which have been bitten by wolves ;
these are said to supply the sweetest flesh, but a
wool which breeds lice. And Patrocleas, a relative of
mine, offered what seemed a not bad explanation of
the sweetness, namely, that the bite of the animal
makes the flesh tender. The fact is (he continued)
the wolf's temper is so very hot and fiery that the
hardest of bones melt and dissolve in its belly and
so the flesh of sheep bitten by wolves decomposes
more quickly than that of others. About the wool we
were in doubt : perhaps the wool does not breed the
lice but evokes them out of the animal, separating
the flesh by means of a kind of lacerating roughness
or characteristic heat ; and this power is generated
in the wool (we reasoned) because even the hair of
the slaughtered sheep is changed by the bite and
temper " of the wolf.

And observation supported theory ; for we know
that some hunters and cooks fell animals with one

<* According to the Stoics, see G. Soury in Rev. J^t. Anc.
xUi (1949), pp. 322 f. ; cf. infra, iv. 1. 3, 663 a on " heat in the
vital spirit" and De Tuenda Sanitate, 130 b, on the relation of
breath to body heat.

181



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(642) rov9 /xev fiia TrXrjyfj /cara^aAAovra?, cuctt' airvevorl
ra TrXriyevra^ KeZodai, rovg Se TroAAat? fJioyis /cat
Xo}<€TTCx)s dvaipovvras' o Se rovrov davfiaaLcorepov
ion, Tovs /xev Toiavrrjv iviivras fxera rod oib'qpov
TO) TLTpcoGKOiJieva) SvvapLLV, cocrre ra^v ai]7T€Gdai
Kal jJLTjSe TTpos pilav r^fxepav dvrex^iv, tovs S'
d7TOKT€LVOVTas [X€V ov ^pdhiov €K€iva)Vy ovhev 8e
roLOVTO yLyvofxevov Trepl rrjv odpKa rajv ocjyayivrojv
E dAA' €m ;;^/oovov Siafxevovoav. on S' at Kara rd?
a<j)ayds /cat rovs davdrovs ruiv ^(pwv jLterajSoAat
pL^xpf' Sepfidrojv /cat rpLxc^v Kal 6vvxo)v hiareivov-
OLV, v7To8t]Xovv^ /cat "OpLTjpov elcodora Xiyeiv^ iirl
Tcov SepfJidrcov /cat rcov IfiavrcoVy* " t/xas"^ jSoos"
t^t KTafjidvoLO " ' Tojv yap [jltj vooco fxrjSe yqpa
SiaXvoixevcov aAA* vtto o(/)ay7Js evrovov to Bepixa
/cat on(f)p6v^ yiyveodai' ra 5' vtto 6r]pLOJV Srjxdevra
/cat Toys' 6Vi�;)^a? /xeAatVeo^at /cat rpLxoppoeXv /cat
Tot? SepfxaoL (fyXiBdv /cat paKovodai.



nPOBAHMA I

ndrepov ot TraAaioi jSeAriov iiroiovv vpos fxeplSas ^ ol vvv eV

Collocuntur Hagias, Lamprias, alii

F 1. "Ore rrjv iTTCJVUjjLov dpx^v VPX^^ olkol, rd
irXeloTa tcov Beirrvcjjv halres rjoav, iv Tat? dvoiais

^ So g, Stephanus : TTviyivra.

^ Stephanus : avohriXovv.

^ KoX "OfXTjpov elcoOoTa Xdyeiv Wilamowitz : elwdora Ae'yciv kqI

'OfXTJpOS.

* oTi <f>r)alv after tp.dvro}v deleted by Bernardakis.

^ i/Ltcts deleted by Bernardakis. Homer : prj^iv Iftavra.

^ aTi(f>p6v Anonymous, Turnebus : arpi^vov.

182



TABLE TALK IL 9-10, 64.2

blow, so that the victims lie lifeless, while others
scarcely succeed in killing them with many blows ;
and some, more amazingly still, with their knife inject
into their victim the quality of quick decomposition,
so that the meat is not preserved even for one day " ;
but others kill not less quickly than these, yet no
such thing happens to the flesh of the slaughtered
animals, which continues for a time in a good state
of preservation. And we know that Homer implies
that changes conditioned by the manner of the killing
and death of animals extend to their skins, their hair,
and their claws or hooves, for in regard to skins and
hides he has the habit of saying

hide of an ox who was felled with a powerful blow * ;

for strong and hard is the skin of those who die not
of disease or age but by slaughter ; and when they
are bitten by wild beasts, their hooves turn black,
their hair falls out, and their skin becomes swollen
with moisture and wrinkled.



QUESTION 10

Whether people of old did better with portions served to
each, or people of to-day, who dine from a common
supply

Speakers : Hagias, Lamprias, others

1. When I was holding the eponymous archonship "
at home, most of the dinners were portion-banquets,

� Cf. infra, vi. 10.

^ Iliad, iii. 375. Cf. the Proclan scholium on Hesiod,
Works and Days, 541-542 (Pertusi, p. 178).

"= Volkmann i, p. 53 ; RE, s.v. " Plutarchos," col. 657 ;
infra, vi. 8. 1, 693 f.

183



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(642) iKOLGTCp fJieplSos aTTOKXrjpovfjLevrjg- 6 tlol fiev -qpeoKe
davixaoTOJs, ol 8' cos" aKOLVcjvrjrov /cat dveXevdepov
ifjiyovres cpovro Seiv dfjua rep KaraOiodaL rov
ar€(f)avov inl Tr)v (ruvrjdr] Siairav avdis pieOappLo-
oaoOai ras rpaTrit^ag. " ov yap rod ^ayeZvJ' 6
643 'Ayta? ^^f^y], " X^P^^ ovhk rov Tnelv, dXXa rov
GvpLTnelv /cat Gvpi(f>ay€Lv ojs iycLpLaL KoXovpev
aXXrjXovs, rj 8* els /xeptSa? avrr) /cpeojSatcrta rrjv
Koivojviav dvaipovoa ttoXXol SeiTTva TTOieZ /cat ttoX-
Xovs heiTTVovvras , ovhiva he ovvhenrvov ovhevos,
orav (x)G7T€p diTo KpecoTTCoXiKrjs TpaTrilprjs oraOpicp
Xa^cov eKaaros pLolpav iavrcp Trpodr^rai. /catVot
Ttv e;^et 8La(f)opdv^ /cvAt/ca Karadivra rcov kckXtj-
pievojv €KdoTCp /cat xow, ipLirXriadpievov^ otvov,
/cat rpdiret^av Ihiav, cooirep ol ArjpocfxjovTLSaL rw
^Opearrj Xiyovrai, Triveiv KeXevaai pLTj Trpooexovra
B rots' aAAot?, ^ rovd^ onep vvv ytyveraL, Kpeas Trpo-
depievov /cat dprov ayoirep €k (f)drvr]s IStas eKaorov
evojxelordai, TrXrjv on pLT] rrpoGKCiraL GLOJTrrjs^ ripuv
dvdyKTjy Kaddrrep rotg rov ^0p€GT7]v ^€vlI,ovglv ;

*AAAa /cat rovr^ Igcds avro Trpos ttjv diravriDv
KOLVOJviav c/c/caAetrat tovs Gvvovras, on koX Xoyco
KOLVcp irpos dXXrjXov� ■)(pcx)peBa /cat <J)hfj ijjaXrpias
T€ repiTOVG-qs /cat avXrjrplSos opLOLCos pLerexopLev
/cat d Kparrip oSros opov ovk ex^ov iv pLCGco
Trpd/cetrat, TT-qyr] (j)iXo(f>poGVV7]s d(f)dovo'S /cat perpov

^ rj after 8La(f)opav deleted by Reiske.
^ Stephanus : iTTLKXrjadfievov. ' Meziriacus : aicovij.

" Hagias, not otherwise identified, takes part also in iii. 7.
184.



TABLE-TALK IL 10, 642-643

and each man at the sacrifices was allotted his share
of the meal. This was wonderfully pleasing to some,
but others blamed the practice as unsociable and
vulgar and thought the dinners ought to be restored
again to the customary style when my term as
archon was over. " For in my opinion," said Hagias,**
" we invite each other not for the sake of eating and
drinking, but for drinking together and eating to-
gether, and this division of meat into shares kills
sociability and makes many dinners and many diners
with nobody anybody's dinner-companion when each
takes his share by weight as from a butcher's counter
and puts it before himself. Again how does placing a
cup before each guest and a pitcher full of wine and
his own table (as the Demophontidae ^ are said to
have done for Orestes) and bidding him drink with-
out heed to the others, differ from entertaining him
in the manner which now prevails, ser\-ing him meat
and bread as though from his individual manger,
except that no compulsion to silence lies upon us as
upon those who entertained Orestes ?

** Now the fact that we do engage in conversation
with each other and enjoy alike the song of a delight-
ful harp-girl or pipe-girl is perhaps the very thing
that invites the company to general fellowship ;
and the mixing-bowl here, limitless, is set in our
midst an ever-flowing spring of delight, and its

^ Demophon was the son of Celeus whom Demeter would
have immortalized by fire ; either he (Athenaeus, x, 437 c-d)
or his sons wished to keep Orestes before his trial from par-
ticipating with others in the rites and libations of the Choes
at the Anthesteria; thus was explained the custom of all
drinking from separate vessels at this festival. See Euripides,
Iphigenia in Tauris, 947 if. and cf. Schmid-Stahlin, Gesch. Gr.
Lit., Ill, p. 527, note 4 ; see also above, p. 10, note c.

185



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(643) exovaa rrj? oLTToXavaeajg rrjv ope^iv ovx worncp
r) rod Kpeojs /cat rod dprov fJLcpl^ aSi KOjrdTcp^
fjL€Tpcp KaXX(jt)iTit,€Tai rep loco TTpOS dvLGOVS' TO
C yap avTO rep puKpov^ Seo/xeVoj TrXeov iarlv rep 8e
IJL€L^ovo9 eXarrov. axjTrep ovv, at iralp* , o' fca/x-
vovaL TToXXoLS taa <f)dpp.aKa /xerpois" d/cpt^ecrt /cat
aradpioZs hiavepaov rrayyeXoLos , ovroj roiovros
iaridrojp otos dvOpoiirovs ovre hiijjojvras djoavrojs
ovre 7T€LvaJvras els ravro Gvvayayojv diro rajv
taojv depaiTeveLV diravras, dpidpir]riKU)s ov yewfie-
rpiKchs opt^cov ro St/catov. elg KaiT'qXov p,€V ovv
<j)oira>pi€V evl xp^l^^^oi jjLerpcp rep hrfpocjLip Trdvres'
€7rt BeuTTVov* S' eKaorog Ihiav rjKei yaaripa /co/xt^CDV,
TjV ov ro loov dXXd ro dpKovv €p.7TL7rXr]GL.

1 a? o KJpLTjpiKas €K€Lvas oairas ov XP'^ /xcra-
D (f)€p€LV €K rcov orparicjriKcJjv /cat rrapepL^oXiKayv
ivravda SetTrvcjv, dXXd pidXXov rr)v rcjv TraXaidJv
(f)LXavdp(x)7TLav ^r]Xovv, ov puovov 6pi€oriovs ouS'
6p,(vpo(f)LOV9 dXXd /cat opioxoLVLKas /cat opLoaimjovg*
rep vdoav oi^eodai KOiveDviav ev npifj ridepLevexiV.''
rd pL€V ovv *Opi'qpov SeuTTva ;;^at/)etv ieZpiev vrro-
Xip,eo8r] ydp iori. /cat Sii/jaXea /cat rovs eGTidpxcLS
paenXels exovra rebv 'IraAt/cajv Seivorepovs Kan'q-

^ Hubert, Wilamowitz : dSi/ccuTaT?;.
- Basel edition : fiiKpai.
3 Added by Stephanus.

* Vulcobius : Seiww.
^ Leonicus : Sfi^piKas.

* ofjLomiTvovs Scaliger (cf. Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 136) :
ofioaiTovS'

' Hubert, Hartman : Tidefievovs.

" See Plato, Republic, viii, 558 c, with Adam's note : Laws,

757 A.

186



TABLE-TALK IL 10, 643

measure of enjoyment is one's appetite ; it does not,
like the division of meat and bread, pride itself upon
what is in fact a most unjust measure, the distribution
of equal portions to men who are actually unequal in
their capacities " ; for the same amount is too much
for a man who requires little, too little for one who
requires more. It follows, friend,^ that, just as one
is ridiculous who prescribes with precise weights and
measures an equal amount of drugs for many sick
men, so is the sort of host who brings to the same fare
men neither thirsty nor hungry in the same degree
and serves all alike, with an arithmetical instead of
geometrical determination of what suits them.*' When
we go to the grocery, we all use the same official
measure, but to a dinner-party each man brings his
own stomach, and it is filled quite full not by the por-
tion equal to that of others, but by the portion which
suffices it.

" Those portion-banquets of Homer we must not
introduce here from the military messes of the camps,
but rather emulate the kindliness of the men of long
ago, who, because they respected all companionship
with one's fellows, held in honour not only those who
shared their hearth and roof but also those who
shared their ration-measure and their meal-tub. Let
us then renounce Homer's dinners ; for they are
dinners to leave one a bit hungry and thirsty, and
the kings who preside over them are more dreadful

*• Friend = Plutarch himself, likely enough. See Cherniss
in LCL Mor. xii, p. 48, note a.

" See Adam on Republic^ 558 c, supra^ note a ; Plato,
Laws, 757 c, and especially Gorgias, 508 a, with now E. R.
Dodds's note, which cites inter alia Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 1131
b 13 and Plutarch, infra, viii. 2. 2, 719 b, and Be Fratemo
Amore, 484 b. See LCL Mor. ix, p. 123, note e,

187



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(643) XcvVy a)GT€ irapa ras fxaxoiS, €v x^P^^^ ™^ TroAc/xtcuv

OVTiDVy OLTTOfJiVrjIJiOVeVCLV OLKplPaJS, TTOOOV eKaoTos

Tcov SeSciTTvrjKOTWV Trap* avrols TreVco/cc' ra Se
UivSapiKa peXricx) Si^TTOvOev, iv olg

E rfpcoes alBolav ifJLiywvT* aix<j)i rpdvct^av Oafia^

Tco KOLVOJvetv dTrdvTCJV dAAiJAots". iK€LVO yap tJv
otov dvdpLi^L9 /cat ovyKpaois dXrjdaJ?, rovro hk
hiaipeoLS Kal Sia^oXr) rcov (jyiXrarcDV elvai Sokovv-
rcov, 0)9 firjS* oipov KoivcjveZv Swafxevcov ."

2. ETTt TOUTOts" €vhoKipirjuavri rw * Kyia Aa/x-
TTpiav^ 7TapcD^vva[JL€v €TTidiodai. eXeycv ovv ov^
^evov TL TTeiTovQivai irddos *Aylav, el rrjv tarjv
fxepiha Xa/jL^dvojv SvcrKoXatvei, yaoripa cf>opwv
rrjXiKavTT^v' Kal yap avros etvai rcov dhri(j)ayia
Xaipovrcov " iv yap ^vvcp lxOvl aKavOai ovk
€V€LGLV " a)s ^r]oiv 6 l^r^piOKpiTos . " dXXa rovr
aurd," €<l>T]y " Kal /xaAtcrra t^v fiolpav virkp
F elfiapfJLevqv rjfiiv iTT'qyayev. laoTqros ydp, riv

TToXeiS T€ TToXeCL CTUfJifxdxOLg T€ (TVfJLfJLdxOVS

7) ^vpiTrlSeLos ypavs (f>'r]oi avvheiv, ouSev* ovrcus
COS" r) TTepl TpdTvel^av Koivcovia Setrat, (f)VG€L kov^
vofjLO) Kal dvayKaiav ov Kaivr]v ouS* iirelGaKTOv

^ Stephanus : rjpcos aiSot avi^Lyvvro afixf>l Tpdne^av 6* dfxa.

2 Aa/x7rpiav added by Hubert from 635 a.

^ Added by Meziriacus.

* GUI' after ovbev deleted by Reiske, Wyttenbach.

* Bernardakis, Kal ov Xylander : koI.

" Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 136, cites a scholium (2 A) on
188



TABLE-TALK IL 10, 643

than Italian inn-keepers : in battle, in hand-to-hand
combat with the enemy, they remember accurately
how much each man who dined with them drank."
Clearly the banquets of Pindar are better where

About the noble table heroes often met *

all sharing everything with each other. That was
really like fellowship and communion ; but this is to
divide and put at enmity men held to be great friends,
on the ground that they are not able to share even in
meat."

2. We praised Hagias for his remarks, then urged
Lamprias to attack him. He began by remarking
that it was not strange for Hagias to experience some
irritation at receiving portions equal to those of the
rest, for the belly he carried around was so big ; and
indeed he numbered himself (he added) among those
who like to eat their fill, " for there are no bones in a
fish shared with another," as Democritus says.*' " But
this liking is the very thing," he continued, " which
has brought us to the custom of serving people more
than their share. Euripides 's old woman says that
equal treatment

City with city entwines and ally with ally,**

and nothing is so in need of that quality as com-
pany at table ; their need is natural and not facti-
tious, fundamental and not a novelty introduced by

Iliad, iv. 345, which may be the basis for Plutarch's treatment
of Homer's Agamemnon here. In Homer {Iliad, iv. 343 flF.)
Agamemnon does not actually count the glasses or the viands
consumed. ^ Frag. 187 (p. 277 Snell).

Frag. 151 Diels. No offence where the observer shares
the fault, as Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. pp. 136 f., argues.

•* Phoenissae, 537, quoted also at Mor. 481 a.

189



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(643) VTTO So^rjs exovaa ^(^petay rco nXeova 8' e/c rcov

KOLVcov iadlovTL ' TToXeyiiov KadiaTarai ' to KaO-

644 varepovv koI aTToXeLTrofievov , wuTrep iv poOlo)

TaxvvavTOvar]s rpiripovs. ov yap <J)lXlk6v ov8e

GVpLTTOTLKOV otfJLaL TTpOOLjJiLOV €VCO)(Lag V(f)6paGLS Kal

apTraapLO? /cat x^ipcxyv dfjuiXXa Kal hiayKCtiVLopio^y
aXX droTTa Kal kvvlkol Kal reAei^Tcovra TroAAa/cts"
els AotSoptas" Kal opyds ov /car* dXXrjXojv fJLovov
dXXd Kal Kara rdJv rpaTret^oKoixiov Kal Kara rcov
iar icjVT cx)V .

" "OcTov Se XP^^^^ V Motpa /cat rj Adx^OLS
Ig6t7]tl TTjv TTepl TCL BeLTTva Kal ovpLTTOGia Koivojviav
ippd^evov, ovSkv I8elv dKOGfiov rjv ouS' dveXev-
depov dXXd Kal rd SetTTva ' Satras" ' iKoXovv Kal

TOVS iGTLOjpiivOVS ' SaLTVfJLOVa?/ ' SaLTpOV? ' 8c TOV?

B Tpairel^oKoixovs diro rod Siaipelv Kal 8tave/x€tv.
Aa/ceSat/xdvtot Se Kpecohairas elxov ov tovs tvxov-
ras dXXd tovs irpwrovs dvSpas, ware Kal Aucxav-
8pov viT* ^ KyquiXdov rov ^aoiXiaJS iv *A(Tta
Kp€0)8aLTT]v dTToSeixdrjvaL. tot* ovv at ve/XTycrets-
€^€7T€aoVy or* €7T€L07jXdov at TToAuTeAeiat rots'
SetTTVOLS' ov yap ^v ot/Ltai Tre/Lt/xara /cat KavSvXovs
Kal KapVK€Las aAAa? re TravroSaTras' VTroTpipLfiaTcov
Kal oi/jojv TTapadiaeis Statpetv, dAA* i^rjTTCjfievoL
r-^S" Trepl ravra Xix^eias Kal 'qhvTradeias vpoiJKavro
n^v LGopLOLpLav. reKfjL'qpLov Be rod Xoyov t6^ Kal
1 Added by Hubert.

" Euripides, Phoenissae^ 539.
190



TABLE-TALK IL 10, 643-644

fashion. Those who eat too much from the dishes that
belong to all antagonize " those who are slow and are
left behind as it were in the wake of a swift-sailing
ship. For suspicion, grabbing, snatching, and elbow-
ing among the guests do not, I think, make a friendly
and convivial prelude to a banquet ; such behaviour
is boorish and crude and often ends in insults and
angry outbursts aimed not only at fellow-guests, but
at waiters and at hosts.

" However, nothing unseemly or unbecoming a
gentleman could be seen so long as the goddesses
Portion and Lot presided with equity over dinners
and drinking-parties. Moreover, cQnners were called
' distributions,' * the guests * those to whom distribu-
tion is made,' and waiters ' distributors ' because
they tend to the division and distribution of the food.
And the Lacedaemonians had * distributors of meat ' ;
the incumbents of this office were not nobodies but
the foremost men ; even Lysander " during the Asia
campaign accepted from King Agesilaiis appointment
as ' distributor of meat.' The custom of distributing
portions of the meat was abandoned when dinners
became extravagant ; for it was not possible, I sup-
pose, to divide fancy cakes and Lydian puddings and
rich sauces and all sorts of other dishes made of ground
and grated delicacies <* ; these luxurious dainties got
the better of men and the custom of an equal share
for all was abandoned. And the proof of my asserta-

* Cf. Athenaeus, i, 12 c, Odyssey, viii. 98, and Iliad, ix. 225.
hanpos and bairvfuov passim in Odyssey, e.g. i. 141, iv. 621.
See G. Thompson, Ancient Greek Society, p. 330.

� Life of Lysander, xxiii ; Life of Agesilaiis, viii. 1 ; but
in these accounts Agesilaiis did so in despite. The Asia
campaign in question is that of 396-394 b.c.

** See infra on iv. 1, 664 a.

191



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(644) vvv €TL ras" dvalag /cat ra SrjjjioaLa Selvva irpos
fxepiSa yiyveodai 8ta r^v d^eActav /cat KadapLorrjTa
TT]? SiaLrrjS' cjod^ 6 ttjv vefjLTjGLV^ dvaXafipdvojv
C ajxa GVvavaaa)l,€L rrjv evreXeiav.

' *AAA' OTTOV TO lSlOV eOTLV , aTToAAuTat TO

Koivov '• OTTOV fjiev ovv firj laov ecrrtv ov yap
OLK€LOV KTTJcns dAA* d<j)aLp€OLS dXXoTpiov /cat
TT-Acovefta 7T€pL TO KOIVOV dSiKLas rjp^e /cat Sta-
(fyopdg, TJv opcp /cat fieTpo) tov ISlov KaTairavovTe?
ol vofxoL TTJs" to-a V€fjLOVGr]s ets" TO Koivov dp^^js Koi
8vvdfi€Cx)g €7rd)WfJLOL yeyovaoLV. iirel /xTjSe are-
�^avov d^LOV Stave/x€tv rjpuv iKaoTcp tov ecrrtcovra
jLtTySe /cAto-tas" /cat ^(Jjpas, dXXd Kav ipajfjLevrjv ns"
-^ ipdXTpLav 'qKT) KOfJLil,ajv, ' Koivd Ta cfylXajv/ tv'
D * ojJLOv^ irdvTa xp^l^^'^^ ' yiyvr]Tai /card tov 'Ava-
^ayopav. el S' owSev rj tovtcov ISlojcns CTrtrapdr-
T€t TTjv KOLVOJViav TO) rd fieyLGTa /cat TrXeioTiqs
dfta ctttovStJs" etvat Koivd, Xoyovs, TrpoTTOoeL?,
(f)LXo(f>poGVvas y TTavawfJieda rds" Mot/jas" dTLfidl,ovT€s
/cat ' TOV TT^S" Tvxf]9 TToiSa kXtjpov ' cos EvpiTTtST^S"
(j)r]oivy OS ovT€ ttXovto) vefjLOJv ovt€ So^t] to

TTp(x)T€lOVy dAA' OTTOiS €TVX€V dAAoj? dAAoTe (JVfX-

<j)€p6pi€vos TOV fxev 7T€vr]Ta /cat Tarreivov eTTiyavpoZ

^ So y : vdfieaiv.
2 Wilamowitz : ra.

� Cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 722 f.
" See supra, 642 f.
� C/. 743 E, 767 D.

192



TABLE TALK IL 10, 644

tion is the fact that even now at sacrifices and public
banquets, because of the simplicity and frugality of
the fare, each guest is still served his equal portion
of the meal ; accordingly, whoever restores the cus-
tom of serving equal portions is at the same time
recovering thrift.**

" * But where each guest has his own private
portion, companionship perishes.''' This is true where
there is not an equitable distribution ; for not the
possession of one's own, but the taking of another's
and greed for what is common to all began injustice
and strife ; this the laws hold in check by limiting
and moderating private rights, and their very name
they owe to their office and power of equitable
distribution in regard to what is common to all.
Otherwise, don't count it right for the host to assign
us each a crown, couches, and places; but, if someone
come bringing his mistress or a harp-girl to the party,
don't think it proper for ' all possessions of friends to
be common,' ^ in order that 'community of every-
thing ' may prevail, as Anaxagoras ** had it. Private
possession in such matters does not disturb the
general fellowship, and this is due to the fact that
the most important characteristics of a gathering and
those worth most serious attention are in fact com-
mon, namely, conversation, toasts, and good fellow-
ship ; and so let us stop dishonouring the goddesses
of Portion, and ' Lot, child of Luck * as Euripides
calls him," for he gives pre-eminence neither to wealth
nor to glory, but, as he chances to fall, now this way,
now that, he makes proud the poor and humble man,

�* Frag. 1, cf. 679 a, infra. Cf. Kirk and Raven's interpre-
tation in Presocratic Philosophers^ pp. 368 f.
• Frag. 989 Nauck, cf. Mar. 965 e.

VOL. VIII H 19s



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(644) /cat Gvv€^aip€L^ yevofievov^ tlvos avrovofxCa?, rov
8e ttXovglov Kal fieyav edit,ojv Igottjtl [jltj Svgko-
Xaiveiv oXvttcjs ou)<j)povil,^L.'*^

^ Bernardakis, avvenalpet, Emperius : ovk i^aCpti.

^ Doehner : ycvofievov.

3 In T aw^povL^ek and decorative sigla end line 15, fol. 68 r ;



194



TABLE-TALK H. 10, 644

exciting him with a taste of independence, while the
rich and great he accustoms to bearing equal treat-
ment without ill-temper and so teaches them self-
control without giving offence."

the latter are repeated in line 16 ; the heading for Book III
occupies line 17.



195



TABLE-TALK

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES)
BOOK III



^^^ STMnOSIAKHN



BIBAION TPITON



TLVL TTOrCO ^€VOV ISojV KaTaK€L[JL€VOV OLOJirfj KOI

jjLrjSevl SiaXeyofjLevov, " a> dv6pa)7r\" etnev, " el
fiev r)Xl6LOS el, oo<j)6v Trpdyfia TTOieZs' el 8e (J0<j>6s,
'^XlOlov." " afJLadirjv yap dfjieivov," cSs" (f>7)GLV
'Hpa/cActros", " KpVTrreiv," epyov S* ev dveoei /cat
Trap* olvov

645 oar e<f)e'qKe rroXvcfypovd rrep /xaA' detcrai,

/cat 9^ oLTTaXov yeXdaai /cat r' opXTJcFaadai dvrJKeVy
/cat Tt €7ros" TTpoer]KeVy oirep t* dpprjrov dpueivov

olvojoeoys evravOa rod ttoltjtov /cat fjueO-qg, c5? €/iot
So/cet, hia<f)opdv vTToheiKvvvTOS . coSr) fiev yap /cat
yeXoJS /cat opxrjorig olvovpuevoLS fierpiojs eireiar to
�€ AaActv /cat XeyeiVy^ a peXriov^ tJv* Giojirdv,
irapOLvias rjSr] /cat fJLedrjs epyov ecrrlv. Sto /cat
nAaTOJV €V otvoj /LtaAtcrra Kadopdadat rd rjOrj^ tcjv

^ The heading TrXoifrdpxov HvunoaiaKiov V is followed as
usual in T by the table of contents.

* Xeyeiv Xylander ; ^Xeneiv koi AoAeii', comparing " kiss
and tell," Helmbold, Class. Philol. xxxvi (1941), p. 87:
jSAeVeiv. ' a ^eXriov Xylander : a^eXripov.

198



TABLE-TALK

BOOK THREE

When the poet Simonides at some drinking-party, my
dear Sossius Senecio, saw a guest sitting in silence
and holding no conversation with anyone, he said,
" Sir, if you are a fool, you are doing a wise thing ;
but if wise, a foolish thing." As Heraclitus � remarks,
" it is containly better to conceal ignorance," — and
it's a task to do so in the relaxation of drinking,

Which sets a man to sing, though he be wise
Indeed ; and starts him dancing, softly laughing ;
And saying words that better were unsaid — ^

where the poet shows, I think, the difference between
exhilaration and drunkenness.'' For song, laughter,
and dancing are characteristic of men who drink wine
in moderation ; but babbling and talking about what
is better left in silence is at once the work of actual
intoxication and drunkenness. Hence Plato,** too,
holds that most men show their real natures most

" Frag. 95 Diels, cited also in Mor. 43 d, 439 d, and with
Kpeaaov for a^eivov and other slight modifications in Sto-
baeus, Florilegium, iii. 82.

" Odyssey^ xiv. 464 fF., quoted also Mor. 503 e.

� Cf. von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag. iii. 712.

** Laws, i, 649 d f. ; cf. infra, 715 f.

* Xylander : rj. ^ Bernardakis : trdO-q.

199



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(645) 7ToXKa>v vofjLL^eiy /cat "OfJLrjpos €L7rd)V

ovSe rpaTre^T)
yv<x)Tqv aWrik(x)v

hriXos eariv ctSco? to 7roXv(f)OJVov^ rod oivov koX
B Xoywv^ TToXXcjv yovLfjLov. ov yap eon rpajyovTcov
GIOJ7T7J /cat TTLVovrcov yva)GLS' aAA* ort to TTLveiv et?
TO AaAetv TTpodyerai, rw Se AaAetv c/x^atVcTat' /cat
TO dvoyvpLVovadaL ttoAAcx tcov dXXcos Xavdavovrcov,

7rap€X€L TLvd TO GVpL7TLV€LV KaTaVOTjGLV dXXrjXojv'
(X)OT€ p.T} (f^avXcOS dv €7TLTLpLrJGaL TW Al(TC07Tlp' " Tt

Ta? dvpiSaSy c5 ^a/capt€, ^TyTets" e/cetVa?, St* cui^
aAAo? aAAoi� Karoiperai ttjv Sidvotav; 6 yap otvos
rjfJLas dvoiyei /cat heiKWOtv ovk ecov 'qovxio.v dyeiv,
oAA* dcfiatpcov TO TrXdofxa /cat rov oxy^p^CLTLopLov,
dTTCordra) rod vopuov Kaddrrep TraiSaycoyov yeyo-
voTOJV." AIgcjtto) pL€V ovv /Cat riAaTcuvi, /cat €t
C Tts" aAAo? i^erdoeojs rpoirov SetTat, Trpos rovro
XpriOLpLOV 6 aKpaTOS' ol Se pL-qSev aAATyAous" jSaoayt-
t,€iv SeopLCVoL pLTjSe KaTa(f)0)pdv aAA' -^ XPV^^^''
<f)iXo<j)p6vo)s , rd Toiavra Trpo^XrjpLara /cat rovg
roLovrovs* Xoyovs dyovcn^ avviovre?,^ ots" dno-
KpvTTreraL rd <f)avXa rrjs ^VXI^*' '^^ ^^ ^eXriorov
dvaSappei /cat to* pLovoLKCjrarov , ojOTrep €7tI Aet-
pLOJvas OLK€LOV9 /Cat vopidsy VTTo (f)iXoXoyias TTpO-
€pxdpL€vov. ddev /cat r)pL€L9 rpirrfv Sc/caSa ravrr)v

^ Hutten : lac. 4 vov.

2 Wyttenbach, omitting noXXtov : lac. 5.

' €fjL^€p€Tai Ziegler, €fi<f>v€Tai Reiske.

* Added by Reiske.

* eladyovai Faehse according to Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p.
79.

* Basel edition : awiovras.

200



TABLE-TALK III, 64>5

clearly when they drink, and Homer ^ by saying

Not even at table came those two
To knowledge of each other

shows that he understands wine's loquacity and its
engendering of much talk. The fact is there is no
way of getting to know a man who eats and drinks in
silence ; but, since drinking leads to talk, and talking
involves further the laying bare of much that is other-
wise hidden, drinking together does give men a
chance to get some understanding of each other. It
follows that one can reproach Aesop ^ rather severely :
" Why, sir, are you looking for those windows through
which one man will discern another's mind ? For wine
reveals us and displays us by not allowing us to keep
quiet ; on the contrary, it destroys our artificial pat-
terns of behaviour, taking us completely away from
convention's tutorship, so to speak." Aesop and
Plato, then, — and any other in need of a method of
examination, — find wine useful for this purpose ; but
those who are under no compulsion to cross-question
each other or to catch each other out, but merely
want friendly entertainment, bring to their meetings
such topics of conversation and such talk as conceal
the mean parts of the soul ; the best and most
civilized part renews its courage, going onward, as it
were, to its proper meadows and pastures shepherded
by literature and learning.'' And so I have pro-
duced for you this third collection of ten topics of

<* Odyssey^ xxi. 35 f.

' See B. E. Perry, Aesopica, i. 100, p. 360 ; Babrius, 59.
1 1 f. ; Lucian, HermotimuSy 20.

* Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 248 b; see G. Soury in Rev. l^t,
Grec. Ixii (1949), p. 326.

' Turnebus : rvxqs. * Basel edition ; rov.

VOL. VIII H* 201



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(645) crot TTCTTOLijfJLeda ovfiiroTLKcov ^rjrrjfidrojv, to rrepl
Tcjv OT€<j)dv(x)v irpcoTov exovaav.



nPOBAHMA A

P^ El ;^p7;CTTeov avdivois aT€<f)dvoi,s irapa ttotov^

CoUocuntiir Ammonius, Plutarchus, Erato, Trypho

1. ^"EydvovTO yap 7tot€ kol nepl arecfxivajv Xoyoi'
TO Se ovfjLTroGLOv rjv ^A6'qvT]GLV, ^Eipdrwvos rov
dppLoviKov ToZs Mouo-at? redvKoro? /cat TrAetova?
etJTtcDvTOS". iravToSaTTcov yap fxerd to Senrvrjaai

GT€(j)dva>V 7T€pL(j)€pOllivOJV , 6 ^AfJLflCOVLO? €7T€GK0Jlp€

TTOJS rjfids dvTL rod ha<f)vivov rols poSivoLg
dvaSrjGafjidvovs' oXcos yap etvai, rovg dvdivovs
KopaGLwSeug /cat Tratjouo-ats" ftaAAov iTnrrjSeLOUs
TTapdevoLS /cat yvvai^lv 'q GWovGiaiS <J)lXog6(J)(x>v
/cat fJLOVGLKWv dvBpojv. " davfid^oj Se /cat 'Epa-
TCOVa TOUTOVt TO,? fiev €V Tots' fJLeXeGL 7Tapaxp(J0G6LS

E pSeXyrrofievov /cat KaTTjyopovvra rod KaXov 'Ayd-
dwvos, ov TTpcjTOV els TpayaySiav (f>aGlv e/x/SaAetv
/cat VTrofxl^aL to p^pco/xaTt/cov, ore rovs Mvgovs
iSlSaGKev, avTos S' rjfjLLV cos" opaTC^ ttolklXojv
Xpcof^drcov /cat dvOrjpojv to GvpLiroGiov €/j,7r€7rXr)K€V,
/cat rrjv Bid rcbv a)TOJV aTroKXeUi, rpv(j>r]v /cat
rjSvTrddeLaVy ravrrjv ttjv Kara rd ofJLfiaTa /cat Kara

^ No heading or caption in T, an a in the margin.
^ 6pd9' cos Bernardakis, Hubert.

<• Athenaeus, xv, 669 e ff., has a long, richly illustrated
disquisition on garlands, with several points of contact with
Plutarch.

* Erato the musician is present also in Table-Talk^ ix. 14,
infra^ 743 c, with Ammonius, Trjrpho, Plutarch, and others.

202



TABLE-TALK IIL 1, 645

drinking-party inquiries, a collection which has for
its first subject the inquiry into garlands.



QUESTION 1

Whether flower-garlands should be used at drinking-parties

Speakers : Ammonias, Plutarch, Erato, Trypho

1. For garlands <* also were once the subject of our
conversation. The party was at Athens where the
musician Erato,^ after a sacrifice to the Muses, was
entertaining rather a large number of guests. Now
when garlands of all kinds were offered us after
dinner, and we put garlands of roses round our heads
instead of laurel, Ammonius '^ teased us a bit for
doing so, saying that garlands of flowers were quite
girlish and more suitable for maids and women at
play than for companies of learned and cultivated
gentlemen. " And I am astonished at Erato here
for hating the use of the chromatic scale in songs and
censuring our fine Agathon,** the first (so people say)
to introduce and blend chromatic music into tragedy
when he produced the Mysoi, and yet Erato himself,
as you see, has filled our party full of different kinds
of flowery colours ; and the extravagance and luxury
he shuts out when experienced through our ears he

" Plutarch's teacher at Athens, Academic philosopher, fre-
quent interlocutor in Plutarch's works, see particularly viii.
3. 1 and Book IX passim ; RE, *.r. " Plutarchos," coll. 651 ff.

** See supra on 613 d, 632 b, 634 d, infra, 686 d. The tragic
poet whose victory is celebrated in Plato's Symposium. The
present passage is the only reference to his Mysians known
to Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag. p. 763. He is ridiculed in Aristo-
phanes's Thesmophoriazusae {e.g. 101 ff., 130) for his musical
style.

203



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(645) ra? plvag cooirep Kad* irepas dvpag iireLGdycov rfj
ipvxfj Kal TOP Gr€(f)avov rjSovijs ttolcov ovk ev-
cje^etas". Kairoi ro ye puvpov rovro rrjs avOlvTjs
ravTTjs Kal fjLapatvopLevrjs iv rdls X^P^^^ '^^^ (jt€~
(jyavT^TrXoKcov OTTOvhaLoripav dvaStScoGiv evcoSlav

F dAA' OVK e;^et ;(ajpav iv ovpLTTOoico (f)iXo(j6(f>iov dv-
8pa)v r)8ov7] TTpog fjLTjSepLLav avfiTTeTrXeyixevrj ;^/0€tav
fjLTjS^ dKoXovdovoa (l)VGiKrjs ope^eojs dpxfj- Kaddnep
ydp^ ol [lev vtto tcjv KeKXr^jxevajv dyofievoL <f>i-
Xcjjv inl TO SecTTVOv edec <f)iXavdpo}7Ta) rvyxdvovaiv
roiv auraJv, cooTvep 'AptcrroST^juos" vtto HojKpdrov?
els^ ^Ayddojvos dx^els ioricovros , ct Sc ris d(j)^
646 OLVTOV jSaStfot, tovtco Set ty]v Ovpav KeKXeladai,
ovrcos at jjlgv Trepl ttjv iSajSr^v Kal ttoolv y^hoval
KeKXrjfjLevai vtto rrjg <f>v(j€a}g rats ope^eaiv eVo/xtvat
TOTTov exovoLV, rats' 3* dXXais (x/cAt^toi? /cat avv
ovSevl Xoyo) <f)iXrihoviais^ aTTTjAAa/crat."*

2. Yipos ravd^ ol fiev dijOets rov ^AfxpLOivlov
veavioKOL hiarapaxBevres rjdvx'rj vapeXvovro rovs
GT€<f>dvov?' iydj 8' ctScos" on yvpLvaolas eve/ca /cat
l^TjT'^oreojg /carajSe^AT^/cev iv jxeaco rov Xoyov 6
^AfJLfJicovLOs, TTpooayopevoas Tpvtjxjjva rov larpov,
c5 rdv, ri Karadeadai St/cato? ef fxeO^ tjijlcov
Tovrovl * Tov KaXvKeoaL" (fyXeyovra Tot? pohivois

B aT€(f)avov/ t) Xiyeiv, cooTTep etcoOas eKaorore TTpos

^ Added by Meziriacus. ^ Basel edition : kox.

^ (f)tAr]8ovLat.s Reiske : (f>iXrjSov ias.

* aTTo/ceVAciCTTai or aTroAAaKTeoi' Wyttenbach (the latter with
accusative).

^ Wilamowitz, cf. Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus, ii.
70. 2 ; KoXov re <f>\eyovd' oh Helmbold {he. cit.) : koX lac. 5 T.

204



I



TABLE-TALK IIL 1, 645-646

introduces into our soul by way of our eyes and noses,
as by other doors, and makes our garland a thing for
pleasure, not for piety." Yet the perfume of piety
yields a more excellent fragrance than this scent of
flowers which perishes between the hands of the
garland- weavers ; besides, at a dinnerparty of learned
men there is no place for pleasure not interwoven
with usefulness, not conforming to the rule of natural
appetite. For, as guests whom friends, themselves
invited, bring along with them to a dinner-party
receive by the usage of polite society the same wel-
come as the invited (for example, Aristodemus whom
Socrates brought to Agathon's party),** but if a man
comes quite on his own, the door must be shut against
him, just so the pleasures concerned with food and
drink, made welcome by nature because they follow
the natural appetites, have a place at our dinner-
parties, but for the rest, uninvited and unreasonable
luxuries, there is no place left."

2. At this the young men, who were unused to Am-
monius, were much embarrassed and quietly began
to take off their garlands, but because I knew that
Ammonius had tossed the topic into our midst for an
exercise in discussion, I turned to Trypho,*' the phy-
sician, and said, ** Either it is right for you. Sir, to
lay aside, along ^vith us,

the garland that blazes with rose-buds,

or tell us, as you are accustomed to do on every oc-

" Cf. F. Bacon, Of Praise : " A good name is like a
precious ointment ... for the odours of ointments are more
durable than those of flowers."

** Plato, Symposium y 173 b and 174 a ff.

� See infra on v. 8. 1, 683 c and ix. 14. 4 ; RE, s.v. " Plu-
tarchos," col. 668.

205



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(646) rjfJids, oaas exovcnv ol avBivoi GrdcjyavoL irpos to
TTLveiv ^oTjdeias." VTToXa^cbv S' o ^Kpdrojv, " ovtcxj
yap," €L7T€Vy " SeSoKTai (jLT^Sefilav tjSovtjv davfi-
^oXov Sex^crOai, oAA' ev^paivopiivovs hvoKoXaiveiv,
dv pjT] fxerd nvos paodov rovro Trdaxojfjuev ; rj to
jxev fJLvpov elKOTWS VTroSvocjTTOVfjieda /cat rrjv
7rop(j)vpav hid rrjv iiriBerov TToXvreXeLav cog SoXepd
ct/xara /cat ;^/3t/xaTa^ /caret ttjv tov ^ap^dpov
<f)OJvriVy at S* avTO<f)veZs XP^^^ '^<^^ OGfJial^ to d<t>€-
Acs' ovK^ exovGL /cat Kadapov /cat ovSev oTrwpas
hia^ipovGiv ; pur] yap evrjOeg fj tovs p,ev x^H'Ovs
SpeTreadat /cat aTToAauetv ttJs" <f>VG€(x)9 SLSovarjg,
C dcTjLtas' Se /cat ;)^poas" as at* (LpaC* <j>epovGi, �ia Tr]v
€7TavdovGav TjSovrjv raurat?^ /cat x^P^^ dTLiJLdll,€LV,
dv pbTj TL ^^petcoSes" e^coOev dXXo <Jvve7n(j>epo}GLV .
c/z-ot /Lt€v' yap auro So/C€t TovvavTiov, €t firjSev rj
<f)VGLS, (1)9 u/xet? <^aT€ StJttou/ fjidTrjv Tr€7roLr)K€,
TavTa Trjg r)8ovrjg 7T€7TOLrjudaL x^piv, a firjScv
dXXo ^^pT^crt/xov exovTa p.6vov evcfypalveiv 7re(f)VK€v.
GKorrei 5' otl tols (fyvopiivoLS /cat ^XaoTdvovoL ra
/Ltev <f)vXXa ocuTrjpLag €V€Ka tov KapTTOv /cat ottws"
utt' aT^TOJv" daXTTop^eva /cat i/wxdfieva pLCTpicog (/>^pj}
Tct? /LtcrajSoAds" yeyovcv, rou S* dvOovs 6(j)eXos
ovSev iTTLfxivovTos y TrXrjv et rt ^^/DOJ/xeVot? i^/itv

^ Cobet, ;fptcr/xaTa Stephanus : xP^^/^^tra.

2 ou after da^at omitted in Basel edition.

3 ou/c added by P. A. C.

* Hubert, xpoas as Stephanus : XP�^^ ^" ("o* ct^'* ^ Hubert
reports).



ravra.



^ Stephanus : wpav.

� TauVai? Herwerden, Hubert : /ui/,

' e/xoi fjL€v Wilamowitz : lac. 4-5 ev.

^ St/ttou Bernardakis : lac. 3-4.

^ TO. SeVSpa omitted after avrcov by Paton.

206



TABLE-TALK IIL 1, 646

casion, in how many ways garlands of flowers benefit
us in drinking." Erato interrupted, saying, " Are we
indeed decided to receive no pleasure which fails to
bring a useful contribution, but even in our merry-
making fret about what we experience \i'ithout profit ?
At perfume and purple clothing, because of their ex-
cessive costliness, we quite properly look askance
as deceitful garments and unguents (to use the
foreigner's <* phrase) ; but do not natural colours and
scents have a simplicity and purity exactly like that
of fruit ? The fact is, I am afraid it's rather silly to
cull and enjoy the condiments nature provides and
yet scorn the scents and colours which the seasons
bring if they do not contribute something needful,
scorning them simply because pleasure and delight
flower in them. For I think, on the contrary, that
if nature has made nothing without purpose ^ (as you
claim, I believe), it is for pleasure's sake that she has
made what by their nature only serve to delight us
and possess no other useful quality. Consider how
growing plants have leaves for the protection of their
fruit '^ and for supporting within limits the changes
of heat and cold ; but there is no use for the flower
while it lasts, except that it offers us, if we avail our-

" The king of the Ethiopians in Herodotus, iii. 22. The
saying is adapted to Plutarch's purpose here and somewhat
differently, if the emendation here is right, in Mor. 270 E-r
(xpwiiaTa " colours " instead of xpiiiara " unguents "). Cle-
ment of Alexandria, who has only xptCT/iara, attributes the
saying to the ancient Lacedaemonians : Stromateisy i. 48. 5
(Stahlin and Friichtel) and Paedagogusy ii. 65. 1 (Stahlin).

" Aristotle, Politics^ 1253 a 9 ; Theophrastus, De Causis
Plant, i. 1. 1. Cf. infra, 698 b, 960 e ; Aristotle, Physics^ ii.
8, 198 b 35 ff. ; and other passages cited by C. J. de Vogel,
Greek Philosophy^ ii, p. 499 ; Ross on Physics, 198 b 14 ( 10) ff.

� Cf. Aristotle, Physics, 199 a 25.

307



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

^ -pl €7TLTep7T€s oa(f)p€o6aL Kal ISelv TjSv Trapex^t, Bav-
pbaoras /xev ocr/xas' a^iivra, iroiKiXiav 8' apLipLrjTOLS
XpcLfjiaaL Kal jSa^ats" avolyovra} 8l6 ra)v /xev
^vXXcov a77 0G7rajpi€vcj(Jv olov dXyel /cat SaKverai ra
(f)VTa /cat ylyveraL Trepl avra ^Xd^rj rts" iXKcLSrj?
/cat i/jiXojGig d7rp€TTr]S, koI ov pLOvq? cos €oik€ /car'
'E/XTTcSo/cAea rrjg ' 8d(f>vr]s rcbv (f)vXXcov dno irdpL-
Trav €X€GdaL ' XPV> ^^^^ '<^'' "^^^ dXXojv <j)eih€Gdai
SevSpwv drrdvTiov /cat /xi^ KOGfieXv eavrovs rais
eKelvcov dKOGfiiais, jSta /cat Trapa <j)VGiv rd (f)vXXa
GvXajvras avrajv at 8e rcov dvOwv d^aip€.G€L9
TpvyrjG€Giv ioLKaGLV /cat ^XdrrrovGiv ov8ev, dXXd
E Koiv fJLT) Xdprj TLS iv cjpa, TrepLeppvrj jiapavdivra.
Kaddirep ovv ol ^dp^apoi tcjv dpefifidrajv rots
SepfxaGLV dvrl rcov iplojv dpi<^L€vvvvTai,^ ovrcu puoi
80KOVGLV ol jjidXXov €K rcbv (f>vXXcx}v ri rcbv dvOcbv
v(j)aLVovr€s rovs Gr€(f)dvov9 ov /caret Xoyov xP'^f^BoLi'
rots ^vrdls. iych fxev ovv ravra GvpL^dXXopiai
rais Gr€(f)avoTTCi)XLGLV' ov ydp elfiL ypapLpLariKos,
wGr d7TOfiV7][JLov€V€iv 77 o 17] fidrcjov, iv ols rovs Tra-
XaLovs UpovLKas dvayiyvcoGKOfxev dvBivoLS dva-
8ovfJL€Vovs^ Gr€(j)dvois' ttXtjv on ye rais Movoais 6
rcbv p68cx)v Gr€(f)avos €7n7T€(f)'r]fjLLGrai, fjLefxvfJGdal
fioi 8oKcb SaTT^ous" XeyovGTjs rrpos riva rcbv
dfJLovGCxJV /cat dfjLadcbv yvvaiKcbv

KarOdvoiaa 8k /cctcrcat*
F ov ydp 7r€8dx€LS* p68ojv

rcbv €K Yiiepias.^

^ dvoLyovra Turnebus : dvoiYOfieva.

^ Aldine edition : anKfuiwirrai.
* Basel edition : dvahovixcvois (sic).
* Wyttenbach : ttcScxt;?.
208



TABLE-TALK IIL 1, 646

selves of it, a delightful scent to smell and a sweet
sight to see, for flowers emit wonderful scents and
open up a tapestrj^ of inimitable colours and hues.
But when leaves are plucked, how the plants suffer
and are distressed ; a kind of ulcerlike blight comes
upon them and an ugly bareness ; and we must, it
seems, not only ' rigorously refrain from using the
leaves of the laurel ' (to borrow Empedocles's words),**
but also must spare all other trees and not array our-
selves by disarraying them, violently stripping their
leaves contrary to nature. But picking flowers is like
harvesting grapes, it harms nothing — on the contrar},
if one does not gather them when they bloom, they
wither and drop off. Those who weave garlands of
leaves rather than flowers seem to me to use plants
as illogically as outlanders use their domestic animals
when they employ their hides for clothing rather than
their wool. This, then, is my contribution to the gar-
land trade. I am no literary man to be expected to
remember poems where we read of old-time victors
in the games wearing crowns of flowers, except that
I do seem to recollect that the garland of roses is
dedicated to the Muses, for Sappho spoke to some un-
cultivated and ignorant woman thus :

Dead shall you lie, for you have no share
Of the roses that come from Pieria.*

� Frag. 140 Diels. Cf. Kirk and Raven, PrMocratic PhiUr
sophersy p. 224.

* Frag. 58 Diehl, i, p. 354 ; frag. 55 Lobel and Page, Poet.
Lesb. Frag.y p. 40 : a longer excerpt by Plutarch at 146 a, the
most extensive by Stobaeus, Florilegium^ iv. 12 (i. 96 Mei-
neke ; iii. 221 Hensc).

' riifpiTy? T. Hubert and Hemardakis adopt ITifptaff from
Mor, 146 A and Stobaeus, iv. 12.

209



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(646) et 8e riva /cat Tpu^cuv drro Trjg larpLKrjg StScocrt
fjuaprvpLav, aKovurlov.'*

3. *E/c Tovrov Sefa/xcvo? o Tpv<f)(x}v rov Xoyov
ovSevos e<j)7] tovtojv OLGKeTrrovs y^yovevai rovs
TraAatous", are �17 rrXeiarr] Kexprjfxdvovs dno <f>VT(x)v
647 larpLKfj' " reKfx-^pia 8' ead^ ariv*^ en vvv TvpLoi
fjLev ^AyqvopLSrj Mdyvrjres Se Xetpcovt, rots TTpwrois
larpevoai Xeyopievois , diTrapxd.? KopLit^ovGiv pit^ai
yap eluL /cat jSora vat, 8t' c5v tcDvro tou? Kapivovras.
6 he Atovucro? 07} piovov rep rov olvov evpeZv,
laxvporarov <f>dppiaKOV koI -^Slgtov, tarpo? evopLLoOr]
jLtcrptos", dWd /cat to) rov kittov avriraTTopLevov
/zaAtcrra ttJ SvvdpLei Trpo? rov oTvov eh ripLrjv
Trpoayayeiv /cat Gre<^avovodai hihd^ai rovg /Sa/c-
■)(evovra9 co? rjrrov^ dvicpvro, rod Kirrov /cara-
Gpevvuvrog rrjv pied-qv rfj ipvxpdrriri. SrjXol Se
/cat TcDv dvopidrojv evia rr)v irepl ravra TroXvTrpay-
B piocrvvrjv rcov TraXaiojv' rrjV re yap Kapvav ovrcog
(LvopLaaaVy on TTvevp^a ^apv /cat KapconKov d(^t€tcra
XvTTel roifs vtt* avrrjs Trapa/ce/cAt/xeVous" /cat rov
vdpKiaoov d)s dpL^Xvvovra rd vevpa /cat ^apvrrfras
epLTTOiovvra vapKcoSeig- Sto /cat TiO<f)OKXrJ� avrov
" dp;^atov pLeydXojv Oewv ore^dvcjpiaj^ rovreon
ra>v x^ovLOJv, tt poorly 6 pev Kev . ^acrt he /cat to ttt^-
yavov 0,770 rrj? hvvdpiecos ojvopidaBai' TT'qywai ydp

^ Wilamowitz : ean tlvol.

2 vTTo Tov oivov Omitted after -^tov by Wilamowitz and
Castiglioni, transposed after dvicuvro by Doehner.
' /xeyaAaiv ^eatv dpxauov or. MSS. of Sophocles.

" Agenorides and Cheiron : E. and L. Edelstein, Ascle-
pius, ii, p. 96, and i, T 50-T 62 (Cheiron).

210



TABLE-TALK IIL 1, 646-647

But if Trypho, out of his knowledge of medicine, has
any testimony to give us, he must be heard."

3. Then Trypho took up the conversation and said
that the ancients neglected none of these matters,
because, of course, much of their art of medicine
depended upon the medicinal properties of plants.
" Proof of this are the firstfruits which even now the
Tyrians still bring to Agenorides and the Magnetes
to Cheiron,^ said to be the first two practitioners of
medicine, — for the gifts are roots and plants with
which these two used to treat the sick. And Dionysus
was considered a pretty good physician not only for
his discovery of wine, a very powerful and very
pleasant medicine, but also for bringing into good re-
pute ivy, which is quite opposed to wine in its action,
and for teaching his celebrants to wear crowns of ivy
that they might suffer less distress, since ivy by its
coldness checks intoxication.^ Some plant names
also document the ancients' search for knowledge
about these matters. The hazel (karud) they so
named because it gives off a heavy and soporific
(Jcarotikon) exhalation harmful to those who lie beneath
it, and the narcissus they called by this name because
it dulls the nerves and induces a narcotic heaviness,"
— which is the reason why Sophocles has called it

ancient crown of great divinities,*

by which he means the Chthonic Goddesses. Rue
(peganon)y too, is said to have been named from its

* The same properties were claimed for ivy by Philonides,
a physician, and by Apollodorus : Athenaeus, xv, 675 a fF.

" This etymology is sound : Boisacq, Diet, etymol.^ s.v. vdp-
Kiaaos. E. H. Warmington notes that the property given
for karua suggests walnut.

■* Oedipus at Colonus, 683 f.

211



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(647) ^rjpoTTjTL Slo, depjxor'qra to GTrepfxa /cat oXojs tto-
XefJLLOv €(TTt rat? KVOvaaLg. ol Se /cat rrjv dfiedv-
OTOV ol6fJi€VOL to) TTpo? TCL? olvwocL? ^OTjOelv avT'qv
T€ /cat TTjV iTTWvufjLov avrrj? Xidov ovtoj KCKXijoOaL
hiaixaprdvovoLV . /ce/cAT^rat ydp dno rrjs xpoas' e/ca-
C repa' ov ydp^ ioriv avrrj? to <j)vXXov dKpdrar dXX
dvaipLCo^ /cat vhapel rrjv KpdoLV olvco irpooeoiKos .*
dXXa pievroL 7rdp,7roXXa Xa^elv eoTtv, ots" irapeoxov
rds KXriG€is at SwctjLtets" dpKel 6e /cd/cctva Trjv
Twv TraAatcov impLeXeLav VTToSrjXcoGaL /cat ttoXv-
7T€LpLav, d(f)* rjs ixprjcJOLVTO rols irapoivoLS OTC^avot?.
/xaAtCTTa />tev ydp 6 aKparos, orav rrjg K€(f)aXrJ9
Kaddip-qrai /cat ropievorf rd awpLara vpos rds rcov
alcdrjcrecjov dp^ds, eTTirapdoGeL rdv dvdpcjiTOV' at
Se ra>v dvdwv drroppoiai irpos rovro davpiaoLCos
^orjdovGL /cat dTroreix^^ovGL rrjv /cc^aAi^v (ztto rrjs
D piedrjs COS dKpoTToXiv, rcov pL€V OeppLcov pLaXaKco?
dvaxoiXwvrajv rovs Tropovs kol dvavvorjv rep otvu)
SlSovtojv, oaa 6' rjovx"^ 4^^XP^ '^^ pLerplajs eiri-
ipav€LV dvaKpovopLevojv Tas" dvadvp.ido€is , woircp 6
Tojv tojv /cat p68ojv aT€(l>avos' arv(f>€i ydp dp.-
(fyorepa /cat CTUcrTcAAet* rfj oopifj Tct? Kaprj^aplas.
TO Se rrjs K-urrpov dvdos /cat o KpoKos /cat r] j3a/c/ca-
pt? els VTTVov dXvTTOv vvdyeL rovs TreircoKoras' e;^et
ydp dTTopporjv Aetav /cat Trpoarjvrj /cat Tas" 7re/3t

^ ou yap Turnebus : lac. 4-5.
2 Wyttenbach : aKparov.

' Hubert : avivo). * Wyttenbach : TrpoaeoiKev.

^ P. A. C. (Hesychius rofiivovar re/xvouat) ; Sieirrovqcn]
McDiarmid, comparing Theophrastus, de Sensibus, 7 : to-

VUXTT).

� Xylander, r/. Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus^ ii. 71.
4 : areAAei.
212



TABLE-TALK IIL 1, 647

ability to stiffen (pegnunai) <* the seminal fluid by the
desiccating action of heat, and it is altogether harm-
ful to pregnant women.*' Those who imagine that
the herb amethyst and the stone named from it are
so called because they are helpful against intoxica-
tion ^ are mistaken ; each gets its name from the
colour, for the leaf of the herb is not like pure wine
in colour, but like a weak and dilute mixture of wine
and water. Now one can find very many other things
which owe their names to their properties, but even
those 1 have mentioned suffice to document the study
and experience upon which the ancients based their
use of drinking-party garlands. For pure wine, when
it attacks the head and severs body from mind's con-
trol, distresses a man ; and the exhalations of flowers
are a wonderful help against this and protect the head
against drunkenness as walls protect a citadel against
attack — for warm flowers by their gentle relaxing
action open the body's ducts (poroi) '^ and give the
wine a vent ; and those which are soothingly cool
check the fumes by their temperate touch, as for
example the garland made of violets and roses, for
the scent of both flowers diminishes and restrains
headaches. The flower of henna, the saffron, and the
hazelwort lull drinkers into an untroubled sleep, for
they have a mild and gentle effluence * which quietly

" Doubtless connected (Boisacq, s.v. 7n/yavov), but not be-
cause of the alleged property of the plant.

* Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. xx. 143.

* Among them Boisacq, at least for the stone {s.v. dfie-
dvaros).

�* On theories concerning poroi see infra^ vi. 2 and 3.

* Cf. V. 7. 2, 681 A fF. {aporrhoiai and rheumatd) and cf.
pneuma in vi. 10, 697 b ; on the specific point Clement of
Alexandria, Paedag. ii. 71, and Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxi. 130 ; in
relation to heat Aristotle, De Oen. Animal, ii. 3. 11 f.

213



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(647) TO crcD/xa tcDv fxedvaKOfjLevajv dvajfiaXlag /cat rpa-
Xyrrfras 'rjcrux'rj hiax^ovoav , a)(jr€ yiyvofxevr]? ya-
X'qvT]? djjL^XvveGdai /cat ovveKTrerreGdat to Kpanra-
AcoSes". ivicxiv 8' dvdcov oc/xats" dvw GKiSvafievaL?
E TTepl Tov iyKe<f)aXov ot re TTopoi rcov alaO-qTrjpiajv
iKKadalpovrai /cat X^Trrvverai rd vypd TTpdcus
dv€V TrXrjyfjg /cat adXov rfj OepfxorrjTL Sta/cptvo/xcva,
/cat <j)VGei ifwxpos cov 6 iyKe^aXos dvaOdXTTerai.
Sto jLtaAtcjra tovs dvOivovs e/c tojv rpax'^Xojv
KaddrrrovTes ' virodvixihas ' iKaXovv, /cat rotS" ciTro
TOUTcav pLvpoLS CKpLOV rd OT'qdrj- pLaprvpel S*
'AA/catos" /ceAei;a>v ' /cara^^eat to fivpov avrov
Kard^ rds TToXXa Tradoioas Ke(f)dXas /cat^ to) ttoXloj
orrideo'S.' ovrco /cat evrevdev at dcr^Ltat to^cvovglv
VTTO depfiorrjTos els rov iyKe(f)aXov d/37ra^o/x€vai
TatS" da<f>priG€GLV . ov ydp, on rrj /capSta toi^ ^v-
F jLtov ivGTparoTTeSeveLV coovro, rovg TrepiSepalovs rdjv
GT€<f)dvojv vrrodvpiihas eKaXovv {iTndvfiLda? ydp av-
Tots" 8id ye rovro fxaXXov rjv /caAeto^at irpoG-
rJKOv^)y dXX COS" Xeycjj Sid rrjv d7TO(f)opdv /cat
VTroBvpiiaGLV. (jltj daviJLdt,oJiJi€v S' ct roGavrrjv at

TCUV GT€(f)dvCOV d7TO(j)Opal SvVafJLLV eXOVGLV LGTOpOVGl

ydp, OTL /cat CT/cta cr/xtAa/cos" d-TTOKr^ivvGLV dvdpw-

TTovs eyKarahapdovras, orav opya pidXiora irpos

648 TT^v dvdrjGiv*' /cat to t-;^? pnqKCxJvos diroppiov

TTvevfxa fjLT) ^vXa^ajiivoLS rols rov ottov rpvyoioiv

1 /car P. Oxy. 1233, frag. 32, 1. 2 (Hunt, Oxy. Papyri, x
[1914], p. 65). 2 ^ai Kar ibid., 1. 3.

^ Stephanus : irpoaov. * Basel edition : aXadrjaiv.

� C/. Athenaeus, xv, 674 c-d, 678 d ; Alcaeus, Z 39 Lobel
and Page {Poet. Lesb. Frag. p. 275).

^ Frag. 42 Bergk, 86 Diehl, 50 (B 18) Lobel and Page {op.
cit. p. 135). Two phrases of this quotation stand in frag. 32

214



TABLE-TALK IIL 1, 647-648

disperses the distempers and exasperations of those
who drink freely, >vith the result that they become
calm and the effects of intoxication are blunted and
assimilated. The scents of some flowers, as they dis-
perse upward about the brain, clean out the conduits
(porot) of the organs of sense, and by their warmth
thin and easily separate the humours wdthout violence
and shock, and warm the brain, which is cold by
nature. That is certainly why men called the wreaths
of flowers they hung around their necks " fumi-
gators " {hypothymides) " and anointed their breasts
with the perfumes from them. Alcaeus ^ witnesses
to the practice when he utters the command :

Pour its perfume down upon my head.
Which has suffered much, and on my greying
Breast.

Thus even from there scents are caught up by the
nostrils and by the influence of heat shoot up into the
brain. Now garlands which hang around the neck
were not called hypothymides because men thought
the spirit had its billet in the heart, — for in that event
they ought rather to have been called epithymideSy —
but, as I say, their name is due to the fumigating pro-
perty of the effluence from their flowers. We must
not be astonished that the effluences of garlands
have such great power ; indeed, it is a matter of
record that even the shade of a yew kills men who
sleep in it, especially when the tree is bursting into
flower ; and it has happened to men engaged in
gathering the poppy's juice that they fell into a faint
if they did not protect themselves against the exhala-

of No. 1233 of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 2nd cent, a.d., and
provide evidence that the papyrus is a collection of the poems
of Alcaeus.

81^



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(6i8) ovvepT] KaraneGelv. rrjv 8' dXvaaov KaXovfxevrjv
pordv-qv Kal Xa^ovreg etV rrjv X^^P^ [jlovov, ot Se
/cat TTpoa^Xei/javres , dTraXXdrrovrai XvyjJiov' Xiyerai
Sc KOi TTOLfiVLOLS dyadrj /cat atVoAtot?, 7Tapa<f)VT€vo-
fievrj rat? fxdv^pais. ro Se pohov (hvopiaorai
S'qTTOvdev, on pevfxa ttoXv rrjs oScxjSrj? d(f)L7jGL' 8l6
/cat rdxicrra /xapatVerat . tpvKriKov S* iarl 8vvdjjL€L

Tjj S' 6lp€L TTVpCOTTOV, OVK dXoyOJS' XcTTTOV ydp

avTO) TTepiavdei to deppLov iTnTToXrjs i^codovpLcvov
VTTO rrj? i/jvxp6rr]TO�."^



^ nPOBAHMA B

Ylepl rod KLTTov TTorepov rfj (fivacL OcpfMos rj fpvxpos eariv
Collocuntur Plutarchus, Ammonius, Erato, Trypho

1 . 'E77atv€cravTcov S' rjpLOJV rov Tpv(f>ojva plclSlcov

6 'AjLt/XCOVtOS" OVK d^LOV €<f)r] TTOLKlXoV OVTOJ /Cat

dvdrjpov Xoyov ojoirep GTe<f)avov dvTLXeyovra Sta-
Aa/CTtfetv " ttXtjv 6 ye /ctrro? ovk ot8' ottoj?
CTuy/caraTreTrAe/crat ipvxporr^TL GvyKarao^evvvvai^
Xeyofievos rov dKparov ecrrt ydp epbirvpos /cat
deppLorepog, /cat o ye KapTros avrov pnyvupLcvog

CtS" TOV otvOV pLedvGTLKOV 7TOL€L Kal TapaKTLKOV TW

TTvpovodai. TO he kXtj pia Xeyovoiv avrov oircxipievov

C wairep rdv^ Trvpl ^vXa cruvSiacrTpe^CCT^at. xlwv 8e

TToAAa/ct? Tjpiepas avx^d? eTnpLevovaa rots' aAAot?

<j)VToZs <f>evy€L rdxiora rov klttov, pidXXov S*

^ Junius, Xylander : OepfxoTrjros.

^ Karaa^ewwai, Hubert in app. crit.

' Doehner : ra.

" Of. note e on G47 d.
216



TABLE-TALK IIL 1-2, 648

tion streaming from the poppy. And those who only
take into their hands the herb called madwort — and
some simply by looking at it — are relieved of hic-
cupping ; the herb is said also to be good for flocks
of sheep and goats when planted beside their folds.
And the rose has been so named, I suppose, because
it gives off a great stream (rheumd) <* of scent ; this
too is the reason why it withers very quickly. In its
action the rose is cooling, but in appearance fiery —
which is not unreasonable, for its heat glows faintly
round the surface of the rose, pushed outward by the
cold of its interior."



QUESTION 2

Concerning ivy, whether its nature is hot or cold ^

Speakers : Plutarch, Ammonius, Erato, Trypho

1 . We praised Trypho, and Ammonius remarked with
a smile that it was improper for him by counter-
argument to kick aside so rich and flowery a speech
as if it were a garland. " Except," he continued,
" that I do not understand how ivy has come to be
connected with coldness and acquire the reputation
of mitigating the effect of strong wine. For it is a
rather hot plant and a fiery one ; its berries, mixed
with wine, inflame the wine and make it intoxicating
and deleterious. And people say that a twig of it,
when pulled, becomes warped like wood in fire. And
snow, which so frequently stays for many days on
other plants, very quickly vanishes from ivy ; what

^ The heat or cold of a plant as " not perceptual, but
rational " (R. E. Dengler), is discussed by Theophrastus, De
Causis Plant, i. 21. 4 ff. Cf. supra^ 623 e, and note a at
635 c.

217



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(648) oAcDS" €vdv? oLTToXXuraL Kal Trepir'^KeraL Trepl avrov

VTTO OepfXOTrjTOS.

" ''O Se jliyLGTOV ioTLV VTTO Q€0(j>pdGTOV 8*

LGToprjTaiy ^AXe^dvSpov KeXevaavros 'RXXr]vt,Kd
SevSpa roL9 iv Ba^vXcovL TrapaSeiaoLS ifi^aXelv
"ApnaXov, fxaXiora he, rcov tottcjv ifiTTvpcov ovrcov
Kal 7r€pi,(j)X€'y6vra)v y rd dXawSr) Kal cvneraXa Kal
(TKtepa Karapu^aL tol? (j)vroi�, pLOVov ovk iSe^aro

TOV KITTOV Tj X^P^> KaiTOl TToAAct TOU * ApjrdXoV

7rpaypLaT€vop,€vov Kal TTpoGcfyiXoveiKovvros , dXX (xtt-
D cjXXvto Kal Kare^rjpaLverOy tco irvpdih'qs /xev avrds
etvai TTpos TTvpdjhy] he piiyvvodaL yrjv ov XapL^d-
vcov KpduLV dAA' e^LGrdpLevos. at yap vnep^oXal
<f>6eLpovGL ras" hvvdpLeig' hio rcov evavriojv pidXXov
dpeyovrai, Kal <f)iX6d€ppL6v €Gtl to i/wxpov Kal <J)lX6-
ipvxpov TO deppiov dOev ol opeioi Kal irvevpLarwheLg
Kal VKJiopievoL tottol rd hahcohr] Kal 7nGGOTp6(f)a
Tcbv (f)vrcoVy pidXiGra Treu/cas" Kal Grpo^iXovSy €K<f>e-

pOVGLV.

" "Avev he tovtojv, c5 <j>iXe Tpv<f>ajVy rd hvGpiya
Kal i/wxpd (j)vXXoppoeZy pLiKporrjTi rod BeppLOV Kal
dGOeveia GVoreXXopLevov Kal TTpoXeiTTOvros rd <f)v-
rov eXaiav he Kal hd(f)vrjv Kal Kvrrdpirrov deidaXrj
E hia^vXaGGei rd Xiirapdv Kal rd depp,dv wonep rdv
Kirrov} ddev 6 (fylXraros Alowgos ovx to? ^orjddv
enl rrjv piedrjv ouS' d)S TToXepaov rep otvco rdv Kirrdv
inrjyayeVy os ye rdv aKparov dvriKpvs ' piedv '
/cat * pLedvpLvalov ' avrds avrdv (hvopLaoev' dXXd
piOL hoKely Kaddnep ol ^iXoivoL pur) napovros dpLire-

^ Turnebus : o kittos.
218



TABLE-TALK IIL 2, 64.8

is more, in the vicinity of ivy snow is quite swiftly
destroyed and melted by the plant's heat.

" The best evidence in support of my opinion is to
be found in a story reported by Theophrastus.** When
Alexander ordered Harpalus to plant Greek trees in
the parks in Babylon and to be sure to combine leafy
woodland shade-trees among the planted specimens,
— for those places are blazing hot, — it was the ivy
alone which the soil refused to accept, though Har-
palus took much trouble and was persistent in his
effort. But the ivy withered and died, for, being
itself hot and being combined with a hot soil, it did
not accept acclimatization, but rejected it. Indeed,
excessive amounts of a given property destroy it
utterly ; that is why opposites are more attracted to
each other, and cold is heat-loving, heat cold-loving.
This explains the fact that resinous, pitch-yielding
trees, particularly pine and fir, grow in mountainous
terrain exposed to wind and snow.

" Apart from this, my dear Trypho, frost-sensitive,
cold-natured trees shed their leaves because they
have a small amount of weak heat, which diminishes
and forsakes the tree ; the olive, the laurel, and the
cypress are kept evergreen by their oil and their
heat, as is the ivy. And so our beloved Dionysus,
who frankly named unmixed wine ' intoxicant ' and
himself * Intoxicator,' ^ did not introduce ivy as a
specific against drunkenness or as something inimical
to wine. Rather it seems to me that, just as lovers

" Hist. Plant, iv. 4. 1 ; Pliny, xvi. 144, notes that ivy is
native to Asia; cf. Strabo, xv. 1. 58. 711 f., and RE, v. 2830.

* Cf. Athenaeus, viii, 363 b, where methy and the epithet
of the god, Methy mnaios, are explained as " relaxing, letting
oneself go." Plutarch has the right of the matter (c/. Boi-
sacq, s.v. fi4dv).

219



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(648) Xivov Kpidivco ^^pcDvrat Trofxari, /cat fjLTjXlras rivd?,

OL Se <j)OLVlKlVOVS olvOVS TTOIOVGLV, OVTO) Kal 6^

TTodayv )(€iiJia)vo� wpa^ rov arro r-rfs ajiTTeXov
OT€<f)avoVy (hs €K€Lvr]v iaypa yvjjivrjv /cat a(f)vXXov,
dyaTTTJcraL rrjv ojJLOLorrjra rov klttov. /cat yap rov
KXrjpiaros to iXiKOihes rovro /cat cr^aAAo/xevov iv
F rfj TTOpeia /cat rod rrerdXov ro vypov /cat Trepi-
K€XVfJL€vov droLKrcDS, fJidXiara 8* auros" o Kopyfi^os
6[Ji(f)aKL TTVKVcp /cat TTepKd^ovri TrpoaeoLKcos, iKfjL€-
lxip.y]raL rrjv rrjs dfXTTeXov hidSeoLv. ov fjLTjv dXXd
Koiv ^orjdfj Tt TTpos fjLedr]v 6 Kirros, depfJLorrjri.
rovro TTOielv (/yrjcrofiev avrov dvoiyovra rovg rropovs
7] (jvv€K7T€rrovra fidXXov rov aKparov, tva /cat /xcvt^
G^v x^P^^* ^ Tpv(f)0}v, larpos 6 Alowgos."

2. npos ravd^ 6 fiev Tpvcf)cov d<j)0)vos rjv, ottcd?
649 dvreiTTOi GKcnropLevo?' 6 8* 'Eparoiv eKaGrov rjpLOJV
rcjv vio}v dvaKaXovfxevos CKeXeve porjdeiv rep
T/3U^a)vt^ Tj rov9 Gr€<f>dvovs drrorideGdaL- /cat *AjLt-
fjLCJVios €<f)7] 7Tapex€LV dSeiav, ov yap dvrepelv oh
dv rjfjLels €L7TOj[JL€v. ovroj 8ri /cat rov ^pv^iovos
eTTLKeXevovros ctTTCtv €(f>r]v dri^ ro fxev ciTroSet^at'
i/jvxpov €tvat rov Kirrov ovk ifiov rjv epyov, dXXd
Tpv(j}OJVos' ovros^ yap avrcp ipvxovn /cat Grv(f>ovrL
TToXXd XPV'^^''' " ''"^^ ^' elprjjjLevcxJV," €<f>r]v, " ro
[JL€V iJL€6vGK€LV Kirrov olvip pLiyvvfievov OVK dXrjdes
CGriv o yap ifiTTOieV rot? ttlovgl irddos ov fjLeOrjv
dv Tts" etTTOt, rapaxrjv Se /cat 7rapa(f)poGVV7]v, otov

^ 681 Reiske, 6 deos Pohlenz.
^ Xeificjvos u)pa Basel edition : fiifiovixcvos copas.
3 Tcov aT€(f>dvcov omitted after Tpv<f)(ovi by the Anonymous
(so Wyttenbach) and by Hubert.
* €<f)7}v on Bernardakis : lac. 4 ri.
^ TO fiev oLTToSei^aL Bernardakis : ras ^ev aTroSei^eis.

220



TABLE-TALK IIL 2, 648-649

of wine, if the grape is not available, use beer <* or a
cider, and others make date-palm wine, so too
Dionysus, when in \vdntertime he wanted a garland
made from the vine and saw the vines stripped and
leafless, welcomed the very similar ivy. And to be
sure, it imitates the characteristics of the vine : its
stem which twists and falls in its course, the fresh-
ness and disorderly profusion of its foliage, and especi-
ally its berry clusters which resemble a heavy setting
of ripening grapes. Furthermore, even if ivy is in
some degree a specific for drunkenness, I shall claim
that its heat makes it so by causing the conduits
(porot) of the body to open or rather by aiding in the
assimilation of the wine — and this I grant in order
that Dionysus may remain a physician * for your sake,
Trypho."

2. Trypho remained silent considering how he
might answer this. Erato, however, appealed to each
of us young men, urging us to help Trypho out or to
put aside our garlands ; and Ammonius assured us a
safe-conduct, for he would not argue against what-
ever we might say. Thus, when Trypho too requested
us to take up the argument, it was I who replied,
saying that it was not my task to show that ivy is
cold, but Trypho 's, for he made much use of it as a
cooler and an astringent. " And what has been said,"
I continued, " about ivy mixed with wine causing in-
toxication is not true, for one cannot call the condition
it induces in drinkers intoxication, but a disorder and

" Like the Spanish king in Polybius, xxxiv. 9. 15, quoted
by Athenaeus, i, 16 c.

^ For Dionysus as physician cf. Oracle 414 in Parke-
Wormell, The Delphic Oracle, ii (1956), p. 167.

• Stephanus : ovtcjs. ' Basel edition : to yap cfiiroitlv.

221



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

T> voGKvafjLos efiTTOieu /cat TToAAa roiavra klvovi
IxavLKcbs TTjV SidvoLav. 6 8e rod KXtj/JLaros or
GfJiog dXoyos iarLV roiavra^ yap irapd ^vglv 'dp
rajv Kara <J)Vglv 8vvdpL€Cx)v^ ovk €Gtlv' dXXd /
rd ^vXa 8LaaTpe<l)€raL rov TTvpos to vypdv eXnc
T09 i^ avrcov ^la /cuproTT^ra? Loxovra /cat Tra/:
^do€LS' TO Se ovyyeves Bepp,6v av^cLV /cat rp€<f)

7T€(f)VK€V. OKOTTCL �€ fXTj fldXXoV dppWOTLa TIS t

ipvxpdrTjs ocofjLaros to TToXvKapLTrks /cat ;\;a/xat7re

7T€(f)VK€, TTpOOKpOVOeiS*^ TTVKvds Kol^ dvTLKOT

XajJi^dvovTos , a)07T€p oSonropov St' dodeveiav tk
C Aa/ct? aTTOKaOl^ovTos ctra TraAtv ipxofjievov
/cat TTepiTrXoKTJg Setrat /cat OT7]piypLaTos, av-
eavTov dv€X€iv /cat TToSr^yeLV dSvvaTCJv 8t' evSe
depjJLOTTjTOSy Tys" TO dvco^€p€s^ Svvafjilg ioTLV.
8e x^^^ aTToppel /cat TreptTT^/ceTat St* vypoTTfTa ';
(j)vXXov TO yap vSojp o^ivvvoiv avTrjs /cat /cott
T17V XOLVvoTTjTa Sta to' puKpcbv etvai /cat ttv/ci-
ddpoiOfia 7ro[jL(f)oXvycov' oBev ovx tjttov^ iv t
TTepLipvKTOLS o(f)68pa /cat voTepols tottois tj t
TTpooeiXois at ;^tdv€9 peovoiv. to S' dct^aAes" toi

/cat COS" <l)r)OLV 'E/LtTreSo/cA-^? * €lJL7T€86(f)vXXoV ' c
€GTL deppLOTTlTOS' OuSc ya/3 IpVXpOTrjTOS TO <f)l

D Xoppoetv 7) yovv^ jxyppLvr] /cat to dStavTov^" c|
ovTa Tcov depjjLCJV dXXd tcjv ipvxp^v del Tedr^X \
evioi jLtev ovv opLaXoTrjTi Kpdoecos otovTai iraf. \

^ Junius : lac. 2 Kvafios. ^ Bernardakis : raOro

' Xylander : Svvafievwv.

* Bernardakis, cf. Mor. 11 a : lac. 4-6 act?.

^ KoX added by Stephanus.

" Turnebus : dvcu^eAcy.

222



TABLE-TALK IIL 2, 649

a derangement like that induced by henbane and
many similar things which excite the intellect to
madness. The puUing-of-the-twig argument is un-
reasonable too, for such unnatural effects are no part
of natural powers. Actually, wood is twisted, bent,
and warped by fire violently drawing water out of it.
It is the nature of innate heat, on the contrary, to
strengthen and to sustain. Consider whether the
convolutions of the ivy and its clinging to the ground
are not rather produced by a certain weakness and
coldness of body as the plant meets a succession of
curbs and checks — like a traveller weak with fatigue
who often sits down to rest, then continues on his
way. And so ivy needs a support to twine about,
being unable to hold itself up and guide itself because
it lacks heat, one property of which is upward motion.
Snow melts and flows off the plant because of the
moisture of its leaf, for snow is a collection of many
small globules, is therefore porous, and water cuts
through it and destroys it. This is why snow melts
away not less in very cold and wet places than in
places exposed to the sun. That ivy is an evergreen
with * never-failing leaves,' as Empedocles says," is
not a sign of heat, nor indeed is loss of foliage a sign
of coldness — at least myrtle and maidenhair, which
are not reckoned among hot plants, but among cold,
are evergreens. Now some think that plants retain
their foliage because they have an even mixture of

" Frags. 77-78 Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratik^,
ii�(1961)�p. 339.

' 8ta TO Bernardakis : are.

• ovx ^TToi/ added by Xy lander, Stephanus.

• Reiske : oCv.

" Junius : dSidXeiirrov.



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(649) iieveiv to ^vXKov 'E/xttcSo/cA'^S' Se irpos rovra
/cat TTOpojv TLva GV^iiierpiav atrtarat, reray/xeVcof
Kol ofJiaXco? TTjv rpO(j)r)v SiUvrojv, oj(jr dpKovvroJS
imppetv. TOLS Be (f>vXXoppoovaLV ovk eon 8lc
jjLavoTTjra rwv dvoj /cat crrevorrjra tcjv Kara
TTopcoVy orav ol [JLev fir) iTTLTrejJiTTCOGLV ol Se pLrj
(f)v\dTTOJGLV dXX oXiyov Xa^ovres ddpovv e/c;^€a>crtv
ixiorrep iv dvSi^poLS tloIv ov^ o/xaAots" rd 8
vSpevofxev del rrjv Tpocl)rjv BiapKif /cat avfifierpoj
dvrex^L /cat 7rapap,iv€i dy^po) /cat ^(Xoepd.

E ""AAA' iv Ba^vXcovL <f)VT€v6pi€vos i^ioraro /ca.l
dTTTjyopevev' ' ev ye ttolcov 6 yevvaZos ouros" or
BoLOJTLov deov 7T€Xdr7]s /cat TTapdaLTog cov ovh
ipovXero fjueroLKelv iv ^ap^dpois ouS* 'AAefavSpoi
it,riX(jjaev i^oiKeioviievov iKeivoLS rocs eOveoiv ,
dXX €(f)€vy€ /cat hiepidx^TO TTpos ttjv diro^ivajGiv ,
alria 8' ov^ rj depjjiorr]? rjv, dXXd fxaXXov tj ifwxporris _
ovx VTrocfyipovaa ttjv ivavriav Kpaatv ov ydf.
(j>9eip€L TO OLKeiov, dXXd TrpocrUraL /cat Tp€(j)€Lf -
Kaddirep to dvfjiov r) ^r]pd yrj, /catVot OepfJiov ov
TTjv Se Ba^vXcovlav ovroj (f)a(jlv depa TTVLycjoSrj /ca
papvv 7r€pLex€LV, (x)gt€ ttoXXovs tcjv evTTopojv, oTai

P ipurXriGOJOiv ddKovs vSaros, inl rovrcov KadevSei)
dvaijjvxopievovs . ' '

^ Xylander : atare oapKovvrojv.

2 fi-q added by Vulcobius.

^ g y according to Wyttenbach : 8iapK€i.

* Bernardakis (Xylander alitur) : <f>d€Lp€i.



2S4



TABLE TALK IH. 2, 649

heat and cold ; but Empedocles claims for a cause,
in addition to this, also a certain symmetry of the
vessels (poroi) of their vascular system, which accord-
ingly admit nourishment in an orderly and even
manner, so that a sufficient amount is assimilated.
This is not true of deciduous plants because of the
openness of the vessels (jporoi) in the upper part of
their vascular system and the narrowness of the
vessels in the lower part, for the latter do not trans-
mit sufficient nourishment and the former do not re-
tain the little they have received but pour it out all
at once, like water in unevenly diked irrigation-
ditches ; but plants which drink in sufficient and
suitable nourishment resist leaf-fall and remain vigor-
ous and green.

" * Ivy planted in Babylon rejected and refused ac-
climitization,' you say. Well done by this noble plant,
to be unwilling to live among barbarians, seeing that
it was a neighbour and a companion of the Boeotian
god ! And well done not to emulate Alexander in
becoming a renegade among those races, but to fight
against expatriation and flee ! And the reason was
not heat in the ivy, but rather its coldness, which
does not endure the opposite temperature ; for the
quality peculiar to a given property is not destructive,
but receptive and nourishing — as, for example, dry
soil nourishes thyme, though the plant is hot. And
the air in Babylonia, people say, is so stifling and
heavy that many of the well-to-do fill wineskins full
of water and sleep on them to keep cool."



VOL. VIII



225



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

650 npoBAHMA r

Aia ri yvvaiKes "rJKLara ficOvaKOvrai rax'-ara 8' ol yipovres
Collocuntur Florus et Sulla

'E^aujLtaJc OAcSpos", el yeypacfxhs ^ ApiaroreXr]?
iv Toi Jlepl [ledrjs, on jLtaAtara jLtev ol yipovres
'qKiara S' at yvvaZK€� viro fJieOrjs dXiGKOvrai, rrjv
alriav ovk e^eipydoaro firjSev elcodcbg TrpoteoOai
rcbv TOLOVTCov etra jjLevroi TTpov^aXev iv fieaco gko-

7T€LV TOIS irapOVGLV. "^V �€ TCeJV (JVVl^dwV TO SeiTTVOV.

€(f)rj Toivvv 6 YivWas darepo) ddrepov €/x^atve-
CT^at* Koiv el TTepl rcov yvvaiKcov opdcos ttjv alriav
ActjSot/xev, OVK en ttoXXov Xoyov Sei^oeGdaL vepl
Tcov yepovTOJV' evavrlas ydp elvai pLoXiora rds ^v-
B cret? ttJ 6^ vyporrjn /cat ^rjporrjn /cat Xeiorrjn^
/cat rpaxvTTjn /cat fjLaXaKorrjn /cat GKXrjporrjn.
" /cat tout'/' ^4>'f]> " Xafipdvoj^ Kara rcov yvvaLKcbv
TTpcjrov, on rrjv Kpaaiv vypdv exovGiv, t] /cat rrjv
aTTaXorrjra rrjg aapKos efJipLeiXLyfJievr] Trape^ei /cat
TO arlXpov eiTi XeLorrjn /cat Tas" Kaddpoeis' orav ovv
6 0LV09 els vyp6ry]ra ttoXXtjv epbireor], Kparovfievos
dnopdXXei rrjv pa(f)rjv /cat yiyverai iravrdTraoLV
dva(j)7]s /cat vhanohr]? . eon 8e n /cat Trap* avrov
XafieZv * ApiororeXovs' rovs ydp dOpovv /cat d-
TTvevarl irivovraSy oirep ' dpLVori^eLV ' (I)v6iJLal,ov ol
TraXaiol, (f)rjolv yJKLora TTepnTirrreLV [xeOais' ov ydp

^ Kal XeLOTTjTL added by Xylander (translation), Stephanus.
2 Meziriacus : Aa/AjSavei.

� Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 6. 14-21.

* Frag. 108 Rose (1886) ; in frag. 107 Rose Aristotle as-

226



TABLE-TALK IH. 3. 650



QUESTION S •

\Miy women are least liable to intoxication and old men
quickly liable

Speakers : Fk>nis, SuUa

Florus expressed amazement that Aristotle in his
Concerning Drunkenness did not work out the element
of causation when he WTotc that old men were
especially susceptible to drunkenness and women
least susceptible, though it was not his habit to neg-
lect such a matter.^ riorus then proposed that the
company consider the question — tne occasion was a
dinner of his friends. Sulla replied that one part of
the prohirm thn-w lipht upon the other. If we should
rightly (letcniiiiic the cause where women are con-
cerned, there would be no further need of moch
speculation where old men ate concenied, for their
natures are very emphatically oppodtes : moist and
dry, smooth and rouffh, soft and hard. ** The first
thing about women,' he continued, ** I take to be
this, that they powess a moist temperament which,
bdnff a component of the female, is responsible for
her delicate, sleek, smooth flesh, and for ner menses ;
wine, therefore, when it faUs into a great amount of
liquid, is overcome, loset its edce, and beeomet com-
pletely insipid and watery. Furthermore, one can
get some hint of the causation even from Aristotle
himself ; for he says that people who drink all in one
gulp, without drawing a breath, — a mamier of drink-
ing the ancient�t called ' toasinir it off,* — are the people
least apt to fall into a state of intoxication, tkoee the

aerU that suscepCibUity to intoricatton in okl nen Is doe to
their lack of heat and in tlie very young to their super-
abundance of beat

287



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

p ivSiaTpL^eLV rov aKparov avrols,^ aAA' i^coOovfjievov
pvfJir) hiaiTope'ueodai Sta rov Gcofiaros' imeiKco's Se
ras yvvoLKas opcofjLev ovrw mvovcraS' et/cos" 3'
avrcjv Kal to aw/JLa Slol tov ivSeXexTJ tojv vypcov
Karaairacjpiov iirl ras arroKaddpoeis^ TroXviropov
yeyovivai Kal rerfirjadai Kaddirep avSi^pOLg Kal
ox^TOLS' ets" ovs ifjLTTLTTTOvra TOV CLKpaTov vrrdyeLV
Tax^ojg Kal {xr) TrpoGiaTaadai tols Kvpiois [xepeaiv,
wv SiaTapaTTOfjiivojv avfJL^aLvei to (JLedveLV.

"01 Se yipovT€S otl fiev eloiv ivheels iKfidSo?
olKeiaSj rovvopud pLoi 8ok€l (f>pd^€LV TTpcjTov ov yap
cos plovTes €19 yrjv, aXX cog yecoSeis Kal yerjpoL
TLves rjSr] yiyvopuevoL ttjv e^iv ovtcxj Trpoaayopev-

D ovTai' hrjXoZ he Kal to SvaKafiires avTCOv Kal
aKXrjpov en 8' rj Tpa^VTrj^ Tr]v ^T^pori^ra ttjs (f)v-
aecos" OTav ovv c/XTrtVcocriv, ecKos dvaXapL^dveodaL
TOV otvov, TOV ocjpiaTos G<f)oyya)8ovs 8 id tov av^-
/xov ovTOSy eiT €/XjLteVovra irXriyds Kal papvTTjTas
ipLTTOLeiv' (I)s yap to. pevpLara tojv p,€V 7rvKva>v
aTTO/cAu^crat ^i^ajptcov /cat ttt^Aov ov rroLel tol? 3'
dpaioZs dvapLiyvvTai pLaXXov, ovtcjs o olvos iv toZs
TcDv yepovTCov acopLaaiv e^ct hiaTpi^r^v iXKopuevos

V7t6 TTJS ^rjpOTTjTOS. dv€V Sc TOVTOJV tSetV €GTl TO.

E ovpLTTTiLpiaTa TTJs piedr]s tt^v tcov yepovrojv <j>voLV
i^ iavrrjs e^ovoav ecrrt yap o-u/XTrrcojLtara pbeOrjs
eTT-t^aveWara, Tpofioi piev dpdpojv i/jeXXiGpiol �e
yXcoaarjs, TrXeovaap^ol Se XaXids o^VTrjTes 3* opyrjs,
Xrjdai T€ Kal irapa^opal 8Lavoias' cov tol ttoXXol Kal

^ Turnebus : avrov. ^ Stephanus : diro lac. 6-8.
228



TABLE-TALK IIL 3, 650

wine does not linger in them, but proceeds through
the body and is pushed out by the force of the
draught.** And we usually see women drinking in
this fashion. Again, it is likely that the female body,
on account of the constant dra\Wng down of fluids for
menstruation, has come to be provided with many
passages and cut up as if by dikes and channels ; and
the v^ine doubtless falls into these, is quickly elimi-
nated, and does not attack the body's sovereign parts,
from the disturbance of which drunkenness results.

" As for ' old men ' the word itse\f (geronies) seems
to me to be the first thing to indicate that they are
in need of proper moisture, for ' old men * are so
called, not as ' flowing into earth ' (rheontes eis gSn),
but as individuals now become ' soil-like ' and
' earthy * (geddeis, geeroi) in their condition ; their
stiffness and hardness, and their roughness besides,
show the dryness of their substance. Therefore, when
they drink, it is likely that the wine is soaked up, for
their bodies because of dryness are like sponges ; and
then the wine lies there and afflicts them with its
heaviness. For just as flood-waters run off from com-
pact soils and do not make mud, but are soaked up
in greater degree by soils of loose texture, so in the
bodies of old men wine lingers on, attracted by the
dryness there. Apart from these considerations, one
can observe that the characteristics of intoxication
are those peculiar to the nature of old men, for the
characteristics of intoxication are very clear : tremb-
ling limbs and stammering tongue, excessive talk-
ativeness, irascible temper, forgetfulness, wandering
mind. Most of these exist even in healthy old men

" C/. infra, vii. 1.1, 698 c f. Apparently not Aristotle (r/.
Hubert, who cites Rose, ArUt. Pgeudepigr., p. 119).

229



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(650) TTcpl rovs vyiaivovra? ovra Trpea^vras oXLy-qs
poTTTJs SelraL /cat golXov rov tvxovtos' ware (jlt)
yeveaLV lSlojv dXXa kolvcov iTrlracnv GVjJLTrrcofidrajv
yiveoOai rrjv ixedriv tw yipovrr TCKjX'qpLov 8e
TOVTOV t6^ iirfhev etvai yepovri veov pbedvadevro?
ofJLOLorepov."

nPOBAHMA A

Uorepov ipvxporepai. rfj Kpdaei rojv avhp(x)V rj OeppLOTcpai
elaiv ax yxxvaxK^s

Collocuntur Apollonides, Athryitus, Floriis

F 1. '0 jLt€V ovv ^vXXas Tavr eiTrev. 6 Se ra/crt-
Kos * ATToXXajviSr]? €(j)rj rov /xev Trepl rcov yepovrcov
dTro8e)(€odaL Xoyov iv Se rats' yvvai^lv avra> 8o-
Kelv TTapaXeXeZ^Sai to ttJs" ijjvxporr^ros , fj depfio-
rarov aKparov dTToapivvvodai kol dno^aXXeiv to
TrXrJTTOv /cat TTVpcoSes. TTidavov Se /cat rovrov
651 SoKovvTOSy *AdpVLros 6 Sdaios larpos ipuPaXcov
Tiva rfj ^7jTT]G€L SiaTpL^Tjv elvai rivas €<f)7]a€v, ot
rds yvvalKas ov ipvxpds dXXd Oep/JLorepag rcov
dvhpoiv VTToXafjL^dvovoLV, iripovs Se irdXiv^ 61 rov
olvov OX) depfjiov dXXd /cat ipv^pov r^yovvrai.

2. �au^ao-avTo? 3e rod ^Xcvpov, " rov puev irepl
rov oivov Xoyov y" etiTev, " d(f)irjfjiL rovrw," Set^a?
€jLt€- /cat yap ervyxdvopL€v oAtyats" r}p.€paLS npo-
repov eLS rovro hieiXeyfiivoi' " tcDv Se yvvai-

^ Stephanus : rov.
^ Emperius : /xoAAov.

" Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia^ vii. 7. 1 fF. Cf. Aris-
totle, Be Part. Animal, ii. 2. 10, citing Parmenides (Diels-
Kranz,o/). cit. i, p. 227,28 a 52). On natural heat seep. 143,
note a.

230



TABLE-TALK IIL 3-4, 650-651

and need but a slight turn of the scale, an accidental
disturbance, to bring them out. Consequently, in-
toxication in an old man does not produce sympto-
matic characteristics peculiar to the individual, but
simply intensifies characteristics common to all old
men. A proof of this is the fact that nothing is more
like an old man than a young man drunk."



QUESTION 4 •

Whether women are colder in temperament than men or
hotter

Speakers : ApoUonides, Athryitus, Florus

1 . That, then, was what Sulla had to say. And Apol-
lonides,^ the tactician, remarked that he accepted
the statement about old men ; but in regard to
women, it seemed to him that we had failed to take
account of the quality of coldness in their constitu-
tion and that by means of this they nullify the effect
of the hottest wine and remove its kick and fire.
When the likelihood of this was agreed upon, Athryi-
tus of Thasos, a physician, induced us to linger on
the inquiry by saying that there are people who
assume that women are not cold, but hotter than
men ; and there are others in turn who consider wine
not hot, but actually cold.

2. Florus expressed astonishment, and Athryitus
replied, " The question of wine I yield to this gentle-
man," pointing to me (and actually we happened to
have been talking about this subject a few days
earlier), " but with regard to women," he continued,

* Doubtless not the ApoUonides of the D� Facie : see
Cherniss, LCL Mor. xii, p. 5.

231



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(651) Kcov," €(j)r), " TTjv depiiorriTa Trpcorov oltto Trjs
i/jlX6tt]to5 olovrai SeiKVVvai, KaravaXiaKOfievov
Tov TTepiTTCxijJiaros vtto rr]s depfjLorrjros, o nXeovd-
1,0V els rplxcLS Tperrerai' Sevrepov Se rco ttAtJ^ci

B TOV at/xaros', o Trrjyr] fiev etvac 8ok€l rrjg iv rat
GcopLan deppLorriTos, eon Be roaovrov rals yvvaL^LV,
(Lot ^ avTCLS KaTaTTipLrrpdvai /cat irepK^Xeyeiv , el fJLTj
TToXXal Kal Taxelai ovfJL^aLvoLev Kaddpoeis. rpi-
Tov TOVTO TO TTepl TCLS Ta(j)ds at{pet Oepp^oTe^pa^
TO. drjXea tcov dppevcov etvat" Aeyerai yap vtto tojv
OKevajpovjiivojv to. vo/xtJo/x€va^ ovvTideodai Trapd
SeKa veKpovs dvSpcov eva yvvaiKOS Kal Gwe^dTTTeiv,
SaScoSes TL Kal Xiirapov aurcov ttj? oapKos ixovorjs,
a)od* VTTeKKavpua yiyveadai tcjv dXXojv. crt 8',
€t deppLOTepov TO yoviyiOjTepov at Se napdevoi tcov
TTaihcov opyojGL irpoTepov /cat aaXevovTai rrpos to
yevvdv, ot)3* aur?^ tis dadevrjs aTroSet^ts" dv etr]

C TTJs deppLOTTjTOS. eTL Se fJLeli^cov Kal mdavcoTepa to
TTpos TO, KpvT] Kal Tovs ;Yet/xajvas' eixjyopojg e^eiv
7)TTOV yap at TrAetcrrat piyovoL tcov dvSpojv Kal
TTavTairaoLV t/xartcov dAtyojt' heovTai."

3. " *AAA' aTT* avTwv otpLai tovtojv," 6 OAcu/Jos"
e(f)r], " TcSv €TrLxeLp7]p.dTOJV eXeyxeodai to Soy/Lta.
TrpcoTOV fxev yap dvTexovoi Tip ^v^ei pidXXov, oti
TToXXdKis TO opiOLOV VTTO TOV opLOLOV hvoTTaOeoTepov
eoTLV. eTTecTa puevTOL Kal to OTTeppLa pLT] TTpoye-
yovevai to vapdTTav avTals ^atverat yovipLov* Sta
KaTdipv^LV, dAA' vXr]v puovov Kal Tpo(j>riv Trapexeiv

^ c5cn-'<av> avras Vulcobius (according to Hutten), Hubert.
2 Stephanus : at lac. 6-7 pa.
^ Hubert : fiev.
232



TABLE-TALK IIL 4, 651

" their heat is thought to be proved, in the first
place, by the lack of hair on their bodies, for it is heat
which consumes the excess of nourishment which,
when it is present in abundance, is converted into
hair ; and secondly by their great amount of blood,
which, it seems, is a source of the heat in the body —
women have so much of it that it would burn them
up and utterly consume them except for the quick
recurrence of their periods of menstruation. Thirdly,
the following practice at burials proves that females
are hotter than males : those who tend to the custom-
ary procedures for disposal of the dead, it is said,
place with every ten male corpses one female and set
it on fire, for the flesh of women possesses a kind of
resinous and oily quality, so that the female corpse
becomes kindhng-wood for the others. Again, if heat
is a factor of fertihty <� and girls become lustful
at an earlier age than boys and are earlier excited to
sexual activity, this fact would be no weak demonstra-
tion of their heat. A still greater and more per-
suasive demonstration is the fact that women easily
support cold and winter weather, for most of them
are less easily chilled than men and undoubtedly have
need of little clothing."

3. " But the very instances you employ," said
Florus, " refute your opinion, I think. In the first
place, women resist cold better because often like is
not easily affected by like. And, in the second place,
it seems that woman's seed has never had an active
part at all in generation, — the female's coldness is
responsible, — but merely offers matter and nourish-

" Cf. infra, 652 d with note.

* Pohlenz (aurais ReLske, <f>aiv€Tai Bernardakis) : to yovifiov.
VOL. VIII I* 233



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(651) rep OLTTO rod dppevos. eVetra Xrjyovon riKrovaai
TToXv TTporepov 7) yewa>VT€s ol avhpes. Kaiovrai
D he ^eXriov vtto TrLfxeXrjs, o SoKel i/jv^porarov^ etvai
rod Goyfiaros' rjKLUTa yovv ol veoi /cat yvpLvaoriKol
TTLpLeXcoSecs. r] S' efxpirivos^ Kadapois ov TrX'qdovg
aAAa hia^dopds koI cfyavXorrjros ioriv aifiaros' ro
yap aTT€7TTov avrov /cat TTepirrojpLaTiKov ovk e^ov
Ihpvaiv ovhk ovoTaoLV iv rco oojpLari 3t* aadeveiav

iK7rL7TT€L, TTaVTOLTTaGlV dfJL^Xv /Cttt OoXcpOV dppOiOTLCl

rod depfJLOv yiyvopbevov 8r]XoL 8e /cat to piyovv /cat
TO vTro(f)pLTT€Lv COS €7rt TToXv TO,? KadaipofJLevas ,
on ifw)(p6v €GTL /cat avreTTTOv to KeKLvrjfJievov /cat
OLTToxcopovv €/c Tov GCjfJLaTos. TT^v he ifjiXoTrjra
Tts" dv eiTTOL OTi^ depfioTTjTos ov^l fxdXXov i/jv)(p6-
rrjTOS eon to TrdOos, opibv Ta OepfioTara tov ocj-
E jLtaTO? p^^py] haGvvopLeva; irdvTa yap e^cvOeLTai Ta
ToiavTa Tip depfjLcp, x^P^^<^ovtl /cat dvaoropLovvTi
TTjv €7n(f)dveiav . tj he XeiOTTjs ttvkvottjtl yeyovev

VTTO ifjVXpOTlQTOS ' OTL S' CtOt TTVKVOTepai TCJV

dvhpcjv, w ^tA* ^AdpVLTe,* irvdov irapd tojv €Tt
GVvavaTTavopLevojv yvvai^lv rj pivpov dX'qXipLpLevais
•^ eXaiov dvaTTipLTrXavTaL yap avTol^ tov ')(piopiaTOS
iv Tip ovyKadevheiVy Kav purj dlycoGt, pLTjhe Trpoa-
difjcovTai Twv yvvaiKojv, hid OeppLOTrjTa /cat fia-

VOTTJTa TOV GWpLaTOS eXKOVTOS."^

^ Reiske : ipvxpoTepov. Cf. 638 b with note 2, p. 1 5$^ supra.

2 Xylander : ifxfiovos.

* OTL added by Bernardakis.

* Hubert, 'AouItc Reiske : Aoutrc. ^ Reiske : avrov.

' The first sentence of Question 5 follows here in T, before
the title of that Question. Wyttenbach and ms. y indicate a
lacuna after cXkovtos.



234



TABLE-TALK IIL 4, 651

ment to the seed from the male.** Moreover women
cease bearing children much sooner than men stop
begetting them. Female corpses burn more effi-
ciently because of fat, which seems to be the coldest
constituent of the body ; at any rate, young men
devoted to exercise are least fleshy. And the monthly
menstruation is indicative not of a quantity of blood,
but of corrupt and diseased blood ; for blood's un-
assimilated and excrementitious part has no position
and no structure in the body and so is eliminated by
its lack of vitality, its faint heat causing it to be com-
pletely dull and murky. The fact that women are
apt to be seized with chills and shivering during
their menstrual periods shows that the blood which
has been set in motion and is now being eliminated
from the body is cold and unassimilated. As for the
lack of hair on a woman's body, who can say that it is
a consequence of heat rather than of cold, seeing that
the hottest parts of the body are hairy ? For all such
growths are thrust out by heat, which furrows and
holes the surface of the body. And the smoothness
of women is due to the fact that their flesh is com-
pacted by cold ; that the flesh of women is more
compact than that of men you must learn, my dear
Athryitus, from those who are still going to bed with
women who perfume and oil their bodies ; for the
men are themselves filled with the ointment by sleep-
ing with their women, even if they do not touch their
companions or meddle with them, because a man's
body by reason of its heat and open texture attracts
the ointment."

" Cf. Mor. 374 f with Wyttenbach's note ; 905 b-c ; Aris-
totle, De Oen. Animal, i. 20. 1.



235



(651)
F



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

nPOBAHMA E

Et xf)vxp6r€pos rfj BvvdfxeL 6 olvos

Collocuntur Athryitus, Plutarchus, Florus



1. " Ov fJLTjv dAAa TO fiev irepl tojv yvvaLKOJV,"
€(f>rj,^ " Acat TTpos TOvvavTLOV avhpLKOJS iTTLKex^Lprj-
rai. Tov 8' olvov eindvpLa) puadeZv orrodev virovoiav
vpXv rov^ ifjvxpog etvai Trapeaxcv." " ol€l ydp,"

652 €<f)r]v iyo), " rovrov rjixerepov elvaL rov Xoyov; "
" dAAd TLVOSy" eiTTev, " irepov; " " pbe/jLvrjiJiaL fxkv
ovv/' €(f>r]v iywy " /cat ^ApLororeXov? ivrv^oiv
ov veojGTL Xoycp rrepl rovrov rov rr po^Xruxaros
aXX LKavcos rrdXai. StetAe/crat Se /cat ^EiTTLKOvpos
iv rep HvjjiTTOGLCp TToXXovs Xoyov? y CUV ro K€(j>dXaL6v
iarLV CO? eycLpiai roiovhe. (fyrjal yap ovk etvai
Oepfiov avroreXojs rov olvoVy dAA' ey^eiv rivds
dropiovs iv avrco deppLaatag aTToreXeariKas irepas
S* av i/jvxporrjros ' cLv rd? pikv dno^dXXeLVy orav
et? TO crcojU-a irapayevr^raLy rag 8e TTpoaXapi^dveLV
€K rod oihpiaroSy eco?^ dv ottcogovv* exovac^ Kpdoeojs
TjpLLV -^ <j)vo€OJS opaXriGrj,^ ws rovs pikv iKdeppLalve-
B or^at rovs Sc rovvavriov 7rd(7;^etv pLeOvoKopievovs."

2. " Tavr\" eiTTev'' 6 ^Xwpos, " dvrLKpvg els
rov Uvppcova Std rod Upcxjrayopov (j)€p€L rjpids'
SrjXov yap on /cat rrepl iXalov /cat irepl ydXaKros
piiXiros re /cat opLOLCJS rwv dXXojv Sie^iovres

^ Xylander : €<f>7jv. ^ Xylander : rjijuv to.

^ ecos Warmington : cuy.

* oTTcooovv added by Warmington.

^ Turnebus : excooi. * Turnebus : oniXrjaai.

236



TABLE-TALK IIL 5, 651-652

QUESTION 5 �

Whether wine is on the cold side in its power

Speakers : Athryitus, Plutarch, Flonis

1. "Now certainly," continued Florus, "we have
made a manful assault upon both sides of the dis-
cussion about women. Now for wine ! I should like
to know what made you suspect that it is cold." I
replied : " Do you actually think that this is my own
theory ? " " Whose else } " he said. And I answered:
" I remember coming on Aristotle's discussion ^ also
of this question, not recently but a long enough time
ago. And Epicurus in his Symposium ^ has discussed
the matter at great length. The sum of what he has
to say, I think, is this : he holds that vine is not hot
in an absolute sense, but has in it certain atoms pro-
ductive of heat and others of cold ; some of these it
throws off when it comes into the body and others it
attracts out of the body until it adapts itself to us,
whatever our constitution and nature may be. Ac-
cordingly, some men become thoroughly hot when
drinking, others experience the contrary."

2. " This," said Florus, " carries us via Protagoras
straight to Pyrrho ^ ; for it is clear that we shall go
on about oil, about milk and honey, and other things

" Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia^ vii. 6. 1 if.

" Ross, Aristotle, xii, p. 14, frag. 12 ; cf. frag. 221 Rose
(1886).

' Frag. 60 Usener ; cf. Mor. 1 109 e if.

•* Pyrrhonic scepticism may be traced to Protagoras and
other Sophists (de Vogel, Gr. Philns. ill, pp. 187, 1081) ; on
Pyrrho's sceptic attitude in regard to the nature of heat or
fire see Diogenes Laertius, ix. 104 f.

' Turnebus : tlnutv.

237



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(652) aTToSpaGOfieda to Xeyeiv irepl iKaaroVy ottoIov rfj
(f)VG€L iarlvy [xl^eGL rat? Trpos dXXrjXa /cat Kpaae-
OLV €KaoTov yiyveodai ^doKovr^s. dXXd ov ttcos
iinx^ipels cts"^ to ipvxpov etvat tov olvov; " " ovtojs,
(1)S,"^ €(f)7]v, " vTrihvv^ t6t€ 7rpoGr)vayKa(jfJL€vos
avTOGX^^i'd'aaL. npaJTOv S' eTTrjeL* pot to yiyvo-
p.€Vov V7t6 rcop' laTpajv tols yap €KX€Xvp,evois koX
Tovov Tivos SeojLtevots" Kara tcls dppcxjGTias GTopd-
Xov Oeppov jLcev ovSev irpoGcfjepovGLV olvov Se 8t-
86vT€5 poTjOovGLV. d)s 8' avTOJS Kal ras" pvoei? Kal
C €(f)Sp(x)Geis otvcp KaTairavovGLV y d>s ovhev tjttov
dXXd Kal pidXXov Trjg ;\;tovos" loTdvTi Kal KpaTVVOVTi
T(p ilfvx€iv Kal irepLGTeXXeiv (l)€pop.€vr]v ttjv e^iv.
el Se (f)VGLV Kal Svvap.LV €t%€v depp.avTiK-qv, opboiov
T^v ot/xat ;)^tovi nvp Kal KapStaKots dv^ 7TpoG<f>€p€iv
aKpaTOV. eTTCtra tov p,€V vttvov ol nXelGTOt irepi-
ipv^ec yiyveGBai XiyovGiv Kal i/wKTiKa^ to, TrActara
Tcov vTTVOJTiKwv ^appdKCJV cGTiv, COS" o p,av8pa-
yopas Kal to pLr)Ka)VLOv' dXXd TavTa p,kv G<l>68pa
Kal jSta TToXXfj Gvvojdel Kal Tr-qyvvGiv, 6 8* olvos
rjpepia KaTaipvxo^v cGTrjGL jite^' rjSovrjs Kal dva-
D Travel tt^v klvtjglv iv to) pidXXov Kal tjttov ovG-qs
TTpos €Keiva' TTjS hia<j)opds ' ert he to p,ev 6epp,6v
yovipuov evpoiav yap rj vypoTTjs iGX€L Kal tovov
TO 7Tvevp,a Kal Svvap^iv vtto ttjs Oepp.OT'qTOS €^op-
ycjGav ol 8e rrivovTes voXvv aKpaTov dppXvTepoL
TTpos ras" Gwovoias elolv Kal GveipovGLV ov8ev elg
yeveGLV loxvpov ov8e KeKpaT7]p,evov, dAA' i^LTrjXoL

^ els added by Hubert.

^ (Ls added by Wyttenbach (after t^r/v), Hubert.
^ Hubert : vtto Svelv. * Bases : ^mUl^lL.

^ KaphiaKols av P. A. C, KapSiwyno) Hubert : KapBiq. olvov
(Benseler deleted olvov).

288



TABLE-TALK IIL 5, 652

in like manner and shall avoid saying about each
what its nature is by defining them in terms of their
mixtures and unions with each other. But how will
you argue on the proposition that \vine is cold ? "
" In just the manner," I replied, " I slipped into
in the conversation the other day when compelled
to extemporize. A regimen used by physicians was
the first thing to occur to me ; for to ailing patients
in need of some tonic for stomach disorders they give
nothing hot, but do provide relief by giving them
wine. In like manner they stop fluxes and sweats
with wine, which, no less efficiently than snow, indeed
more so, checks (so it is claimed) and controls the
given condition by its cooling and constricting action.
And if the nature and power of wine were calorific,
administering wine to sufferers from cardiac disorder
would be, I think, like putting fire to snow. Next,
most people assert that sleep is produced by the
action of coolness, and most of the hypnotic drugs,
like belladonna and opium, are refrigerants ; but
the depressant and torporific action of these drugs is
one of very great violence, while wine cools gently,
pleasantly checking and stopping movement, the
difference between it and the hypnotics being a
matter of degree. Thirdly, heat is generative,** for
through the agency of heat the generative fluid has
a good flow and the spirit tension and a lusty power ;
but men who drink much wine are the duller at love-
making and the semen they emit is not at all strong
and efficient for procreation ; on the contrary, their

• Aristotle, De Oen. Animal, ii. 3. 1 1 f.



• Kol omitted by Xylander after tlivKTiKa.
' Xylander (translation), Meziriacus : eVciv



239



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(652) /cat areAetS" elatv at irpos ra? yvvaiKag o/xtAtat
auTcov 8ia (j^ayXorr^ra /cat Kardipv^LV rod oirep-
jiaros. /cat fir^v ooa TraG^ovoLV avdpojTTOi vtto
Kpvovs, TTOLvra CTU/XjSatVet rots' fxedvoKopievoLS, rpo-
fioL, ^apvTTjreg, 6t>;^/Dtacr€ts", craAot rov irepl to.
yvla TTvevfJiaro^y dcra^eta yXwrrr]?, evraais rcov
E Trepl rots' d'/cpots' vevpcov /cat arrovapKriOLS' tols 8e
TTXeiGTois els Trdpeoiv at jxedai reXevrcoGLv, orav
eKTrXij^Tj TravTOLTTaGLV /cat Karao^iar^ to OepfJLov 6
d/cparos". Icovrai ye fjbrjv rds" Trcpt ro aajfia rojv
jjLedvGKOfJievcov /cat KpanraXayvTOJV KaKOJGeis evdvs
jxev (1)S eoLKe irepiGroXfj /cat /cara/cAtaet cfv^dA-
TTOvres, fied^ rjfiepav 8e Xovrpo) /cat dAet/x/xari /cat
GiTioig, OGa pA) rapdrrovTa tov 6y)(ov dpio^ Trpdojs
F dva/caAetrat ro deppuov vtto tov olvov hieGiraGpLevov
/cat 7re(f)vya8evpLevov e/c rod GcopiaTOS.

UpLCJS o y eiTTOVy ev tols cpaLVopLevoLS /cat
opLOLOTrqTas dhriXovs e^ixveviopiev^ /cat hvvdpieis.
ovhev he TTepl ttjs piedr]s Set hiaTTopeZv, ottoZov ttot
eGTLV COS' yap eoiKev {/xdAtara /xev ^vglv e^ovGLV
ol TTpeGpvTaL ipvxpdvy}^ pudXiGTa 5*/ co? elp^-
KapieVy eoiKaGL tols irpeG^VTaLS ol pLedvovTes'
hio /cat Trpojtatrara yrjpcJjGLV ol (f>iXoLVOL' tovs he
TToXXovs avTwv /cat ^aAa/cpcoaets' dojpoL /cat TroAtat
Trpo rjXiKLas e)(ovGLV' vravra Se raura So/cct OeppLo-
T7)Tos evheia KaTaXapL^dveiv tov dvOpcoTTOv. en
Toiwv TO o^os olvov Tivos eoTL (f)VGLS /cat hvvapLis'
ovhev he tcjv G^eGTTjplojv o^ovs irvpl pLa^LpicoTepov,
dXXd pidXiara irdvTcov cTrt/cparct /cat GvpL7net,ei Ty]v
(f)X6ya hi* vTTep^oXrjv ijjvxpoTr^TOS . /cat twv dXXojv
240



TABLE-TALK IIL 5, 652

intercourse with women is weak and ineffectual be-
cause their seed is worthless and cold in action. In-
deed, everything men experience from cold, all of it
happens to them when they get drunk : trembling,
heaviness, pallor, convulsive movements in the limbs,
unintelligible speech, a rigidity and numbness of
the sinews at the extremities, — and for most men
drunkenness ends in a paralysis, when wine has com^
pletely beaten out and quenched heat. The bodily
distress of those who get drunk and have a terrible
hangover is cured, it seems, by immediately putting
them to bed, well covered and warmed, and the next
day giving them a bath, a rub-down, and such food
as does not irritate the system but restores the heat
scattered and dissipated from the body by the wine.
" However," I continued, " let us track thoroughly
among the phenomena of our experience obscure
similarities in the properties of cold and intoxiation.
There need be no problem about the essential nature
of intoxication ; for, as it seems, (old men most
certainly have a cold nature) and drunkards, as I
have said, especially resemble old men : wine-lovers
very soon become in fact old men, and many get bald
at an early age and their hair turns gray before their
prime — and all this seems to afflict such men because
of a deficiency of heat. Further, some wine possesses
the characteristic and the property of vinegar, and
there is no extinguisher more deadly to fire than
vinegar ; it masters and smothers the flame best of
all because of its excessive coldness. And we see



^ Reiske : dXXa. ^ Hubert : e^ixvevofiev.

3 Lacuna noted by Hubert, perhaps <fj.dXiara fikv <f>vaLv
€xovaiv ol npea^vTai ijjvxpdv.y P. A. C.
* �€ omitted by Vulcobius.

241



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(652) 8e KapTTcov rols olvwSecn fidXXov (Ls ^vktlkoIs
Xpojjjievovg rovs larpovs opcofiev wcnrep poais kol
653 /xtJAois". avrrjv Se rrjv rod /xeAtro? (j)voiv ovyi TTpog
ofiPpiov vSojp Kal x^ova avfJUfMLyvvovres oIvottolovgl,
Tov ipvxpov TO yXvKV Sia Gvyyiveiav els to
avGT'qpov, orav KpaTijar), ^deipovros ; ol TraXaiol
3* ovxl Sta TOVTO rcjv ipTrerojv tov SpaKovra /cat
Tcov (f)vr(x)V TOV KLTTOV oLvedecrav tco deep Kal
Kadiepojoav cos" tivos ipv^pas Kal KpvwSovs Kvpico^
Swdfiecos; eav 8', ort to Kcjveiov eTrnrivopievos
Idodai SoKeZ ttoXvs aKpaTos, otcovTai tovto 9epp,6-
TTjTos etvai TeKfjL'qpLov, rjfJLeig av (j)rj(jopLev dva-
GTpeipavTe?, otl avyKpadev avTcp tovto (fxipfxaKov
aviaTov eoTiv Kal KaOdrra^ aTTOKTeivei tovs ttlvov-
B Tas' a)(7Te (jbrjSev fjidXXov etvai SoKeXv Tcp avTiirpaT-
T€tv Bepfxov ri tco ovvepyelv i/jvxpov, et ye 8rj^
ilwxporrjTL TO Kcoveiov ovk dXXrj tlvI <f>VGei Kal
Swdfjuei fjidXXov iridavov eoTLV dvaipelv Toifs m-
ovTas.**

nPOBAHMA s*
Ilept Koxpov axjvovaias^
Collocuntur adulescentes, Zopyrus, Olympichus, Soclarus

1 . Ncavtcr/cot Ttves" ov TrdXat toZs TraXaiols Xoyois
TTpoGTreejyoiTrjKOTeg iairdpaTTOV tov ^KirLKovpov, cus"

^ Kvplco added by Reiske.

2 ye Btj Wyttenbach : 8e ^lr^.

^ No title in T (numeral in margin).

" Honey wine or mead, 672 b, infra.

* Euripides, Bacchae^ 101 ff. and 696 fF. with Sandys's
and Dodds's notes ; Horace, Odes^ ii. 19. 19.
242



TABLE-TALK IlL 5-6, 652-653

physicians using vinous fruits, like pomegranates and
apples, for refrigerants more than they use others.
And do not people make wine " by mixing honey itself
with rain-water and snow, since coldness because of
its relationship to tartness, when it prevails, destroys
the sweetness ? And did not the ancients for this
reason dedicate and consecrate the snake ^ among the
reptiles of the earth and the ivy " among plants to
the god of wine as to one who is lord of a cold and
chilling power ? And if it is thought to be an indica-
tion of the heat of wine that the drinking of a large
quantity of it is held to be an antidote for hemlock,**
for my part I shall deny the fact and claim that this
drug is incurable when mixed with wine and kills
once for all those who drink it. Accordingly, it seems
to be not so much a question of wine being hot
because it opposes hemlock as a question of its being
cold because it reinforces the action of hemlock — if
it is indeed the more probable hypothesis that the
coldness of hemlock rather than some other property
and power of the drug is responsible for the death of
those who have drunk it."



QUESTION 6

Concerning the suitable time for coition

Speakers : Zopyrus, Olympichus, Soclarus, young
men

1. Certain young men with no long experience in
the ancient literature were attacking Epicurus on

" Paiisanias, i. 31. 6 ; RE, v. 1015 f.
�* Mor. 61 B, 509 d-e ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxv. 152.

243



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(653) OX) KaXov ou5* avayKoiov ifjL^e^XrjKora Xoyov irepl

KaipOV GVVOVoiaS CtS" to TtVfJLTTOULOV pLi/jLv^crKeodaL

yap d(f)po8LGLajv avhpa TTpea^vrepov iv heiirvco
C fieipaKLOJV napovTCDV /cat SiaTTopeXv, Trorcpov fJLera
SeLTTVov 7) 7Tp6 SeiTTvov ;^p7]crTeov, iax(irrjs olko-
Xaorlas etvaL. irpos ravd^ ol fiev rov "Revocfxjovra
TrapeXa^ov co? dTrdyovra rovs avpLnoras fxerd
SeliTVov ovxl pdSrjv aAA'^ €<^' lttttojv irrl ovvovGias
TTpos rd? yvvalKas. TjCJirvpos 8* o larpos, €u
fjidXa TOLS ^^TTLKovpov X6yoL9 evcopn.X'q'xajs i ovk
e(f)7] TTpouexovras avrovg dveyvcoKCvai to 'Etti-

KOVpOV HvfJLTTOGLOV' Ol) ydp WGTTep €^ ^PXV^ TLVOS

/cat Karaorrdaecos rovro Trpo^XiqpLa TroLrjadfievov
etra Xoyov? €77' avro) Trepatveiv, dXXd rovs veovs
dvLordvra ju-era heliTVOv els TrepLTrarov inl ooj(f>povL-
D cr/xo) hiaXeyeodai /cat dvaKpoveiv 0,770 rajv ini-
dvjjiicjv, COS del fiev e7nG<f>aXovs els ^Xd^rjv rov
TTpdyfjLaros ovros, KdKiora^ ^e rovs irepl ttotov
/cat eSojSrjv^ ;)^pct)/xeVot>S' avrcp SLaridevros. " el 8e
St) /cat TTpo-qyovfJuevcos ," etiTev, " etprirelro Trepl
TOVTOVy TTorepov ouS* oAa>S" eGKe<f)6ai /caAoi? €t;^€
Tov (f)LX6oo<f)ov Trepl ovvovoias Kaipov /cat cjpas,
rj ^eXnov jLtev iv Kaipcp /cat jLtcra Xoyiop.ov rd
Toiavra TTpdrreiv, rov 8e Kaipov dXXws /xev ctti-
oKorreZv ovk dcopov* iv^ 8e GvpLirooia) /cat Trept
rpdiret^av aluxpov; ifiol ydp 80/cet rovvavriov dv

^ ^dSrjv oAA' added by Hubert, Castiglioni : lac. 4-5.

2 Stephanus : fidXiara. ' Wyttenbach : rjSovriv.

* Doehner : dnopov.

2H



TABLE-TALK IIL 6, 653

the ground that he had introduced in his Symposium �
an unseemly and unnecessary discussion about the
proper time for coition. For an older man to talk
about sex in the presence of youths at a dinner-party
and weigh the pros and cons of whether one should
make love before dinner or after dinner was, they
claimed, the extreme of indecency. At this, some of
our company brought up Xenophon, who, so to speak,
took his guests home after dinner, not on foot, but on
horseback, to make love to their wives. ^ And Zopyrus
the physician, who was very well acquainted with the
works of Epicurus, added that they had not read
Epicurus 's Symposium with attention ; for Epicurus
did not propose the problem as one involving a prin-
ciple or a settled procedure and then proceed with
his discussion of it ; but he took the young men for
a walk after dinner, conversed with them for the pur-
pose of moral instruction, and restrained them from
their lust on the ground tharin to^cou rse is always
precarious and harmful, and affects worse those who
engage in it when they have been eating and drink-
ing. " Indeed," said he, " even if intercourse were
the chief topic of his inquirj% would it be to the philo-
sopher's credit to have refrained entirely from all
consideration of the right time and hour for coition ?
Would it not be better for him to engage, at the proper
moment, in rational discussion of such matters ? And
would it be to his credit that he consider this stage of
his discussion not inappropriate to any occasion
except drinking and dining, and there shameful ? On
the contrary, indeed, one can blame, I think, a philo-

" Epicurus, frag. 61 Usener.
'' Xenophon, Symposium^^ ix. 7.



* <V added by Turnebus, Xylander.



245



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(653) TLs iyKaXeaat (f)iXoa6<j)a) iieO^ rjfjLepav iv rfj SiaTpL^fj

E TToXXcOV Kal TTaVToSaTTCOV dvdpiOTTCOV TTapOVrWV TTCpl

TOVTOV StaAeyo/xeVo), kvXlkos Se TrpoKCijJievr)? iv
GVvrjOeGL Kal (J)lXols, evda Kal to irapaXl^ai fivdov
dfJL^Xvv ovra^ Kal ipvxpov iv otvo) crviJL(f)€p€i, naJs
alaxpov eLTTelv tl Kal OLKOVGai els oruvovalas xprjoiv
fl}(j)eXipLOis Xeyopievov ; <J)S eyojye, vq rov Kvva, Kal

TOVS Zj'qVCOVOS dv i^OvXofJLT^V," C^T], " SiajJLTjpL-

Gfiovs^ iv avfjLTroGLa) rivl Kal TratSta fxaXXov 7}
OTTOvhrls ro(javT7]s ixofJLevo) Gvyypdpip,arL, rfj IloAi-
T€ta, KarareraxdaL."

2. Upos rovro TrXriyivTes ol veavioKOi oiojirfj

KaT€K€LVTO' TCJV 8' dXXojV TOV TjWTTVpOV d^LOVVTWV

Tovs 7T€pl TOVTOV Xoyov? 'Etti/cou/oou SieXdelv, €(f)rj
F Tcov [JLev /card fxipos ovk^ dKpi^cjs piVTjfjLOvevciv,
oleoOai Se tov dvSpa tols iK ttjs GVVovGias TrXrjyds
SeSteVat Std tov tcov aco/jidTOJV vaXfiov els Tapax'rjv
Kal GaXov iv Tip tolovtcu jSaStforrcov. KadoXov
pL€V yap i^ eSpas Ta aaj/xara /xe^icrravat 7tX7]kt7]v
ovTa Kal KLVTjTLKov Tapaxrjs tov aKpaTOv dv 5'
ovTCJS exovTa tov oyKov tj/jlcov yaXijvT] jxr)* Trapa-
XaPj] Kal VTTVos, dXX ercpat Std Tchv d(f>po8iOLa)v

— ^ KLV1^G€LS\, iKdXL^OjJiivWV Kal jJLOxXeVOpLeVCVV TCJV

pidXiGTa avvSeXv Kal KoXXdv to crcu/xa rrecjyvKOTwv,

654: KLvSvvos ioTLV dveSpacTTOv^ yiyveadai tov oyKov,*

^ a/xj3Auv ovTa Wji:tenbach : ajx^Xvvovra.

^ Salmasius : Biafiepiafiovs.

3 ovK added by Vulcobius.

* pii) added by Stephanus.

� Doehner : dvdSacrTov.

• oyKov Xylander (translation), Stephanus : oIkov.

246



TABLE-TALK IIL 6, 65S-654

sopher who talks about this matter in his day-time
lecturing, when many men of all sorts are present.
But among one's companions and friends, wine-cup
at hand, where even the telling of a dull and silly
story is suitable as wine goes round," how can it be
shameful to say and to hear anything useful on the
subject of coition ? " And he continued : " For my
part, by the Dog, I could wish that Zeno ^ had put
his remarks on ' thigh-spreading ' in the playful con-
text of some dinner-party piece and not in his Govern-
ment, a work which aims at such great seriousness."

2. This put the young men out of countenance, and
they sat in silence. The rest of the company re-
quested Zopyrus to give them an account of what
Epicurus had to say about this matter, and he replied
that he did not remember the particulars accurately, ^^
but thought that the man feared the affifeiions result-
ing from coition, due to the disturbance caused by our
bodies entering into the tumult and turmojl of such
activity. For wine is generally a brawler, an iti-
stigator of tumult, and unsettles our body from its
base ; and if tranquillity and sleep do not take pos-
session of oi^r. body when it is in this condition, but
the new -msltw^ances of coition supervene, the forces
which naturally tie together and cement the body are
crushed and dislodged, and there is danger that the
body be unseated, like a house shifted from its

" The Greek has been emended to recall a phrase quoted
by Philodemus, de Musica^ iv. 12, lines 1-3 (Kemke) and
attributed by Wilamowitz to Pindar {Pindaros^ pp. 142-143,
513 ; Snell, Pindarus, ii [1964], p. 104, 124 d). The connec-
tion between the two fragments (if any) and the relation of
either to Pindar remain doubtful : see further, Annemarie
Neubecker, Philologus, 98 (1954), pp. 155-158, and J. Irigoin,
Gnomon, 33 (1961), p. 265— both cited by Snell, loc. cit.

" von Arnim, Stoic. Vet. Frag. i. 252.

247



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(654) ^o"^^P oIkov^ €k defjueXicov Kivovixevov^- ovhe yap
€v peZv rr)VLKavTa rrjv yovijv, G(f)'r]va)G€OJS Sia rr^v
77X7)0 puovr^v ovG7]s, dXXa jSta Kal GVijL7r€(f)vpiJL€vrjv
aTTOGirdodai' hio ■)(p'r]vai ^iqaiv 6 dvqp, orav tjov-
Xi'CL y€vr]Tai irepl to Gcjfia /cat Aax^T^cJcocriv at rrj?
Tpo(fyr]g dvaSoGCLS Kal rd pevpLara Sie^LOVGTjs Kal
(j)€vyovGr]g , rd rotavra rrpdrreLV, Trplv^ erepag av
TrdXiv rpo(f)rjg eVSee? yeveoOaL to o-co/xa. GVpL^dX-

XoLTO 8' dv Tt? TOVTCp* Tip ^FjTTLKOVpOV^ Kal TOV

larpiKov^ Xoyov. o' ydp pLed^ rjpiepav /catpds", tJSt]

TTJS 7T€lp€aJS^ KpLGLV €XOVGT]S, dG(j>aX€GT€p6s^ €GTLV'

B T^ Se pL€.rd rd Scittvov dpp.r] rrpos rr^v GvvovGiav ovk
a/ctVSuvo?' dS-qXov ydp el, ttjs rpocfyrjs pLrj Kparr]-
OeLGYjs, dneipLa Se^airo rov €K ttjs GvvovGias dpa-
hov^^ Kal TTaXpLov, wore Sltttjv ttjv ^Xd^rjv yevlodai.
3. *T77oAajSa;v 8' 'OXvpLinxo?, " ipLol ju-eV," €^17,
" TO TOV HvOayopLKOv KAeiytou Atav dpeoKei- Ae-
ycrai ydp epojrrideig , oTrrjVLKa Set p^dXiora yvvai-
Ki TrpooUvai, ' orav,' (fydvai, ' pLaXiora rvyxdvr)?
pXa^rjvaL ^ovXopbevos .' Kal ydp o Xconvpog €t-
pr]K€ vvv, €^€1 rivd Aoyov, /cat rov erepov Kaipov
aAAa? aKaipias exovra Trpos rd 7Tpdyp,a Kal hvo-
X^peias opcj. Kaddirep ovv SaXrjs 6 oo(f>6s v'no

C rris pLT^rpog ivoxXovpuevos yyj/xat KeXevovo-qs €v

1 oLKov added by Reiske.

2 Turnebus : yivofxevov.

3 Reiske : v(f>\

* Hubert : lac. 4-5. Cf. T. C.'s transl. : " to this of Epi-
curus." ^ Hubert : 'ETTtKovpw.

* Turnebus : iraTpiKov.
' o Basel edition : ov.

* Turnebus : oipccos (sic).

* Meziriacus : aadevearepav.
^" Doehner : dpa^ov.

248



TABLE-TALK IIL 6, 654

foundations — for the seed does not flow easily at this
time, repletion blocking it, but with effort it is ex-
tracted in a clotted mass. Consequently our man says
that we must engage in such activity when the body
is quiet and ended are the assimilations and fluxes of
the nourishment which traverses and quits the body,
and must do so before the body is again in need of
further nourishment. To this analysis of Epicurus
one can add a physician's opinion. The fact is that
the safer time for coition is during the day, when the
process of digestion is now completed. Rushing on
to coition after dinner is not without danger, for one
does not know whether, when food has not been as-
similated, an indigestion may follow the disturbance
and agitation resulting from coition, and the injury
thus be twice as great.

3. Olympichus took up the discussion, saying, " For
my part, I very much like the retort of the Pytha-
gorean Kleinias : in reply to the question at what
time most especially ought one to have coition with
a woman, he is said to have answered, * At whatever
time you happen to want most especially to suffer
harm.' " For, on the one hand, what Zopyrus has just
said is reasonable enough, and, on the other, I see
that the other possible time has other disadvantages
and difficulties affecting the business. Therefore, just
as the wise man Thales,* when annoyed by his
mother's pleas that he get married, avoided her im-

" Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker^ i^", p. 444, 54.
5 ; Diodorus Siculus, x. 9. 4, and Diogenes Laertius, viii. 9,
attribute the saying to Pythagoras in different wording. On
sexual restrictions imposed by the Pythagorean Society see
E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational y p. 154 and note
122 on p. 175, and especially Aristoxenus, frag. 89 Wehrli.

" Diogenes Laertius, i. 26.

249



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(654) TTCJS^ V7r€$€(f)vy€ Kal^ Traprjyaye Aeycov' npo? av-
rrjv* €V apxfj /LteV, ' ovttoj Kaipos c5 firJTCpy' varcpov
5', ' ovK€TL Kaipos (L {jLTJrep/ ovTOJS dpa /cat npos
a(f)pohiaia KpariuTov^ ^X^'^ eKacrrov, cSorre Kara-
KXivofxevov Xiyeiv, 'ovttoj Kaipos,* aviarapL€Vov S',

OVK€TL KaipOS.

4. " ^AOXrjTLKO. ravT y" etnev 6 ScoAcAapo?, " a)
*0Xvfi7TLX€, TTavraTTacjiv ert ttJs" /corrajStaea)? o^ovra
/cat TcDv Kpeo^ayiibv iKCivcov, ovk iv Seovri. vioi
re yap Trdpeiai yeyafxrjKOTcg, vcf)* Sv Set ' <f>iXo-
TTjaia epya reActcr^at ' /cat ^JjLtds" ovtto) TravrdTraoLV
ri ^A(j)po8LTr] iricfjevyev , dXXd /cat TTpooevxojJLeda^
SiJTrovdev avrfj Xiyovres iv rols tojv decov vpuvoLS

D dvd^aXX dvoj ro yrjpaSi

CO KaXd ^(j>pohira.

aKOTTCoixev ovv, el 5o/c€t, irorepov e/x/xcAca? /cat

TTpOGTJKOVTCOS 6 ^KlTLKOVpO? rf TTapd TTOiV St/CatOV

d(f)aip€l TTiv 'A^poStTT^v ttJs" vvktos' ^9* /cat to
KpdriGTOV avTTJ decov /xcrctvat ^T^onv ipWTLKos
dvrjp MevavSpos. iveredrf yap olfxai /caAcDs" Trapa-
KdXvfJLfia rrjg rjSovrjg to okotos Trpodepiivois* ravra
Trpdaoeiv /cat jlctJ, Std (jxiJTO? ivrvyxdvovras , i^-
cAawetv^" rojv ofjLfjLdrcov to atSou/Ltcvov /cat toj
d/coAacrTa> ddpoos ijJLTToielv /cat fim^fjias ivapyels,

^ €v TTOjj Pohlenz : ttcD?.

^ Krai added by Stephanus.

' Reiske : Adycu. * avTrjv Vulcobius : T171'.

^ larai omitted by Bases and Castiglioni after Kpanarov.

• Stephanus : Trpoaepxofieda.

' ^ added by Turnebus.

250



TABLE-TALK IIL 6, 654

portunities well enough and diverted her by saying
to her at first, ' It is not yet the right time, mother,'
and later on, * It is no longer the right time, mother,'
so the best habit for each man to have about love-
making is to say, when he goes to bed, ' It is not yet
the right time,' and when he gets up, * It is no longer
the right time.' "

4. " This is athletes' talk, Olympichus," said So-
clarus, " still thoroughly reeking of cottabus-playing
and those roast-beef dinners of theirs, and it is not
opportune. For among us are young married men
who must * do love's deeds ' ^ ; and, Aphrodite has
not yet completely abandoned us older men, but we
too are imploring her favour, I suppose, when we say
in the hymns of the gods

Our old-age postpone, fair Aphrodite. *

Let us then consider, if you will, whether it is proper
and fitting, or contrary to all justice, for Epicurus to
deprive Aphrodite of night, to which she has indeed
the strongest claim among the gods, as Menander, an
authority on love, claims." Indeed, in my opinion it
was a good thing to draw a veil of darkness over the
pleasure of those who engage in this activity, yet do
not wish to banish modesty from their eyes by making
love in daylight, or to create bold, vivid, licentious

" Odyssey, xi. 246.

* J. M. Edmonds, Lyra Oraeca (LCL), iii, p. 510, no. 3 ;
Diehl, Anth. lyyr. Graec. ii, p. 29. 66, following Crusius,
attributes the fragment to Alcman.

* The reference to Menander seems to be an adaptation of
frag. 789 KOrte, Menander, ii (1959), p. 246.

' ^s added by Doehner, who expunged koX.

* TTpodefidvois Cherniss : rrpodefievovs.

^" Basel edition : e^tXavvwv.

251



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(654) ah To^ ivSiarptpcLV avOis eKpiTrit^ei^ Tas^ einOviiias.
' oijjLS yap r^pZv o^vrdrr] rcov Slol rod owpiaros
E epx^r ai ' Kara rov UXdrojva ' TTadrjfjLdrajv/ /cat
Gcf)68pa rat? eyyvs (jiavraaiaLS^ rrjv i/ry^i^v iyelpovaa
TTpos rd etScuXa rrjg rjSovrjg, Kaivr^v del iroieV' /cat
TTpoa^arov ttjv^ eindvpLiav . rj Se vu^ rd aTrArycTTa'
/cat pLavLCoSeorrara rcov epywv d^aipovoa Trapdyei
/cat Karevvdt,€i ttjv ^vuiv ovk i^oKeXXovaav^ vtto
rrjg oj/rect)? ctV v^piv.

" "AVCV Se TOVTCOV, TtV* €X€L XoyOV aTTO SeLTTVOV

pcev 'qKOvra yeyavojpiivov, dv ovtco tvxJ), arec/iavov
Kopbit^ovra /cat pLvpco Kexpip^dvov, diroorpa^ivra
/cat GvyKaXvifidpLevov KaOevSeLv, rjpiepas 8e /cat Sta

pL€GOV TCOV TTpd^eOJV €K TTJ? yVVaiKOJVLTL^OS Tr)V

yvvaiKa peraTrep^TreadaL TTpos tl tolovtov t] irpon
F SiKrjv dXeKrpvovos crupLTrXeKCGdaL ; ttjv ydp icjTri-
pav, CO iralpe, rcov ttovojv dvdTravaiv vopnoriov,^ rdv
8' opSpov dp-)(riv /cat rr^v /xev o Avoios €7naK07T€L
AtdvuCTOS" jLterd rrjg Tep^i^dpris /cat �aActas", o hk
irpds rr}V ipydvqv ^Adr^vdv /cat rov dyopalov 'Ep-
pLTJv €7ravlGT7]aLV. 8l6 Tr]v pL€v a)8al Karexovai /cat

^ fjLTj omitted after to in Basel edition.

^ Turnebus : eKpnrTel.

' Aldine edition : rijs.

* els omitted after <f>avTaaLais by Xylander, Wyttenbach.

^ noiel added by Doehner.

^ T-qv added by Hubert, Castiglioni.

252



TABLE-TALK IIL 6, 654>

memories which pre-empt attention and rekindle lust.
' For vision is the keenest of the sensations which
traverse the body,' according to Plato ,<* and it makes
very efficient use of immediate impressions to rouse
images of pleasure in the mind, constantly rene^ving
and refreshing desire. But night blots out the in-
satiate and A\dldest of the deeds of love-making and
thus diverts and calms one's constitution, which
visual stimuli do not shipwreck on the shores of
outrage.

" Apart from this, what sense does it make for a
man to come from dinner, joyful it may be, bringing
his garland and anointed with perfume, and go to
bed, turn his back on his wife, and WTap himself up
in the covers, — but during the day, in the midst of
business, send for her to come from the women's
quarters for some such activity, or, like a cock, em-
brace her the first thing in the morning ? Evening,
my friend, marks the end of the day's work, one must
suppose, and morning the beginning. Dionysus Lord
of Relaxation,'' Terpsichore, and Thalia take charge of
evening ; morning rouses us for our duty to Athena
Mistress of Work '^ and Hermes Lord of the Market.**
Thus, song, dance, and the marriage-hymn occupy

" Phaedrus, 250 d. " Supra, 613 c.

� Cf. Mor. 99 A and 802 b, quoting Sophocles, frag. 844
Pearson =760 Nauck, and inscriptions; see RE, s.v. " Er-
gane."

** C/. Aristophanes, Knights, 297 with Rogers's note ;
Aristophanes elsewhere {e.g. Acharn. 816) has the synonym
Empolaios for Hermes. Agoraios could refer to his patronage
of public business in the Agora, where his statue was, Pau-
sanias, i. 15. 1.

' Doehner : irXilara. * Benseler : e^oictAAouCTa.

• vofjLLoreov added by Reiske, ^xofiev Wyttenbach.

253



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(654) xop€LaL Kal u/xeVatos"

KOJfiOL r elXaTTivai re /cat rjXV^^^ 6 poos avXiov

rov Se KTVTTOL paiorrjpiov /cat TpLOjJLoV rrpiovcDV /cat
655 reXojviKCJV CTTopOpiafJiol KeKpaypLCJV /cat KrjpvyjxaTa
KaXovfievcov Ittl St/ca? rj depaTTcla? tlvcov ^aoiXecjv
7] apxovTCxJV €V CO Kaipo) (j)pov8a ra rrj? rjSovrj?,

Xt^yei Se KvTTpLS daXiai re vecov,
ov8* ert dvpaos f ^t'Aa Ba/c;)^tou^-

avvreivovoi yap at (jipovrihes. eireira Sc /cat o
TTOLTjTrjs Tcbv rjpcowv ovT€ yajjLerfj riva fied^ rjfiepav
ovre TiaAAa/ctSt ovyKareKXivev TrXrjv rj rov Hdpiv
SpaTTerevoavra iroirjoas KaraSvopevov els rovs
koXttovs rrjs yvvaiKos, (hs ovk dvSpos dXXd p,oixov
XvoGcovros ovoav rr)V p,€67)p.€pLvr)V aKpaoiav. /cat
pLrjV ovhk TO crcojLta ^XdiTTOiT* dv vtto rrjs ovvovaias

B pLoXXoVy COS" ^KTTLKOVpOS OtCTai, /XeTCl TO ScLTTVOV,

dv ye pLT) piedvojv tls t] prjyvvpLevos vtto TrXrjapLovfjs
dTTTTjraL pe^apripLdvos' d/xeAct yap ovrws €7no^aXks
TO TTpdy pia /cat ^Xa^epov. dv S' LKavws ex^xiv tls
avTov /cat pbCTpLcos hiaKexypiivos , rov t€ ocopLaros
avrov /xaAa/cou yeyovoros /cat rrjs ^XV^ nap-
€aTa)(T7]s, Sta xP^^^v Troi^ijraL rrjv evrev^LV, ovt€
rapax'Tjv dTrepydt^erai pieydXrjV Kard^ rov oyKov
oijT av TLvas ^ a<j)v^€LS* 7} pLeradeaeis^ i^ eSpas

^ Turnebus : rpififiol.

2 Perhaps (f>vXd re BaKyov, which is translated. <f>vXXa the
A Mine edition ; BaKx^iov Stephanus.

3 Hubert, Pohlenz : 8ia.

* ovr* av rivas ^ a<f>v^€is Usener : lac. 6-8 rayevr) ipv^is
(sic) T].

254>



TABLE-TALK IIL 6, 654r-655

the evening, and "-'

revels
And feasting and the piercing wail of pipes • ;

but the other is filled by the clang of hammers, the
chatter of saws, the early morning cries of the tax-
collectors, and the proclamations of those who sum-
mon men to court or to the ser\ice of some king or
magistrate. At this time the activities of pleasure
vanish :

The deeds of the Cypriote Lady stop.

And the joys of the young ;
No longer the thyrsus, no longer the Bacchic troops.*

For the day's concerns exert their pressure. Then the
Poet " too put none of his heroes to bed during the
day either with wife or with mistress, except when he
represented Paris slinking off to his wife's bosom after
he had run away from his post, as much as to say that
the incontinence of day-time love-making is no part of
an honest husband's behaviour but a mad adulterer's.
And surely the body would not suffer greater harm
by coition after dinner, as Epicurus thinks it does,
provided a man does not make love when he is over-
burdened, drunk or stuffed full to the point of burst-
ing. For of course, if that is the case, the thing is
precarious and harmful. But if a man is sufficiently
himself and moderately relaxed, his body at ease and
his spirit disposed, and if then after an interval he
makes love, he neither causes his body great disturb-
ance nor does he bring on any morbid excitement or

" Placed by Otto Schneider among the " anonymous frag-
ments " of Callimachus, Callimachea^ ii, p. 786, no. 377.
" Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag., Adespoton 397.
* Homer, Iliad, iii. 441-447.

' litraOeaeis Usener : ixerddfois.

255



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(655) aro/xcoy, fj (j)rjGLV ^^iriKOvpo'S' aXXa rij (j)vo€L to
oIk€lov^ dnoSovg, iavrov Sc ttojs airoyaX-qviaas'^
ava7rXrjp(x)G€L, veas iTnpporjs rot? KevcofiaGt yiyvo-

'E/cetvo 8e jLtdAAov a^LOV evXa^eias , to avveyyvs

C ovra Tcov Trpd^ecov d^pohioiois xpr^odai, fi-q tl^

dpa [xereajpov to crcD/xa /cat K^KXovrjpievov at t€

TtJs" ^^XV^ (f>pOVTL8€9 at T€ 77€pt TttS" XP^^^^ TTpay-

)Ltaretat /cat kottol irapaXa^ovT^s evdvs cKTpaxvvoj-
GLVy ovx LKavov €v jLtccTOj StczAet/XjLta TT^s" (f)VG€aj? els
dvaTTavGLV Xa^ovorjs. ov yap iravTes, cL eTatpe,
TTjv KniKovpov axoXr^v /cat paoTCJvqv vtto Xoyov
/cat <f)LXooo(f)Las d(f)6ovov els del TrapeaKevacriJLevrjv
exovGLVy TToAAot S' €KaoTov dycjves €/cSe;^ovTat St'
rjfjLepas, yu/xmcrta S* cos" eVo? ctTretv dnavTas' ols
OVT€ KaXoV OVT6 OVlX<j)€pOV OVTlxi SiaKeLfjievov TO
D GOJfjLa Trapex^LV Xvaorcjar) ovvovoia Sta/c€;^f/xeVoi^.*
TO Se fiaKdpLov /cat d(f)dapTov eoTO) fxev^ olov avTO
[JLT] (f>povTLl,€LV Tojv Kad^ rjfjLas' r]pZv Se ttov vopap
TToXeco? avv€7rofJL€VOLS^ €^evXa^7]T€ov ecrrtv els Oeov
y ifjLpdXXeiv^ /cat KaTdpx^odai dvoLCOVy oXiyov
efXTTpoaOev hiarreirpaypievois rt tolovtov. odev ev
ex^-i TO TTjv vvKTa /cat tov vttvov ev fieaco dep^evovs
/cat TTOLTiGavTas LKavov StaAei/xjita /cat SidaTTjfia
Kadapovs avBis axjTrep e^ vnapxrjs /cat ' vea^ €<f)*
rjlJLepr] (f)poveovTas ' /cara Arjp^oKpLTOV dvioTaoOaL."

^ aAAa T-fi (fivaet to otVeiov added by Wyttenbach : lac. 5-6.

2 T^viaas added by Wyttenbach : airoyaX lac. 5-7.

' firi rt Turnebus : /lit^tc.

* Doehner : hia lac. 7-8.
^ Stephanus : yiivov.

* Doehner : eu i-rTOfievois.

256



TABLE-TALK IIL 6, 655

unsettling of atoms, as Epicurus claims. But if he
has given nature her due and has calmed himself to
some degree, he will restore his system, for a new
influx will occupy the parts emptied.

" It is love-making in the midst of preoccupation
with affairs that is the more deserving of caution, lest
mental worries and the troubles and difficulties con-
cerned witli business take hold of the body in its state
of excitement and agitation and exasperate the con-
dition because nature has failed to receive a sufficient
interval for rest in between. For all men, my friend, do
not possess Epicurus 's leisure and equanimity," which
has been provided in everlasting abundance by
reason and philosophy. But each one of us is occupied
with one struggle after another day after day, — the
exercise-schools receive practically all of us, — and to
these struggles it is neither good nor proper to bring
one's body in this condition, that is, enervated by the
fury of coition. Let it be granted that that blessed and
immortal deity can himself disregard what concerns
us ; nevertheless, I suppose we must, in obedience
to our city's law, guard carefully against rushing into
a god's sanctuary and beginning the sacrifices when
we have been engaged in any sexual activity a short
time before. Hence it is well for us to have night and
sleep intervene and after a sufficient interval and per-
iod to rise pure again as before, 'with fresh thoughts,'
as Democritus says, ' for the fresh day.' " ^

" Epicurus, frag. 426 Usener ; infra^ 1033 c.
" Democritus, frag. 138 Diels ; infra, 722 d and 1129 e.

' els deov en^aXXeiv Headlam (Journ. of Philology, xxiii
[1895], p. 297 ; y' e^jS. Helmbold {Class. Phil, xxxvi [1941,] p.
87) ; ad templa Xylander (translation) : eiV depos ifiPaXelv.

� Reiske : vea.
VOL. VIII K 257



(655)



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

nPOBAHMA Z

Aia Ti TO yXiVKOS rJKioTa fiedvaKei

CoUocuntur Plutarchi pater, Hagias, Aristaenetus,
Plutarchus, alii

E 1 . Tov viov olvov ^Adr)V7]GL fxev ivSeKarrj jJLTjvog
^AvdeGTrjpLCJVos^ Kardp^ovrai, Ht^otyta Trjv rjfxepav
KaXovvres' koI TrdXai y <hs eoiKev evxovro, rov
OLVOV TTplv "q TTieiv dTTOOTrivhovres � d^Xa^rj kol
ocDTrjpLOV avTOts TOV (fyapfioLKOv Trjv y^prjoiv ye-
veodai. Trap' rfplv 5* o pikv pLrjv KaXetrai Ilpo-
ararrjpLOS, €kt7] 3' lorafjievov vojLtt^erat dvoavras
^Ayado) Aat/xovt yeveodai rod otvov fxcrd ^e^y-
pov ovTog yap fidXiora tojv dvepLOJV i^torrjoLV /cat
Kivel TOV otvoVy /cat o tovtov hia<^vywv tJStj So/cet
7TapafjL€V€LV jSe^aios". edvoev ovv 6 vaTTjp woTrep
elwdet Trjv Qvoiav, /cat /xera to SetTrvov/ iiraivov-

F fxevov TOV OLVOV, rots" (j)LXooo(f)ovcTL iJL€LpaKLOLS pied^
TjiJLCov TTpov^aXev i,r]T€tv Xoyov, wg to yXevKos tjkl-
(jTa fjLedvGKeL. tols pL€V ovv TToXXoLS TTapdSo^ov
i<j)dvrj /cat aTTLarov' 6 S' * Ay Las e^ to yXvKv
TTavTaxov TTpoaloTaodaL /cat TrXTjapLiov etvai' 8l6

^ *Avd€aTT)pLa)vos added by Xylander (translation), Reiske,
Wyttenbach.

^ TO SeiTTvov Turnebus : rov SeiTjvov,

** Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 7. 14 if.

^ Cf. infra, 735 d-e. The name means Opening of Jars,
usually interpreted as " Wine Jars " ; but P. Stenzel, Griech.
Kultusaltertumer, p. 238, and A. \V. Persson, Religion of
Greece in Prehistoric Times, pp. 17 f., argue that, since an
early use of the pithos was as a receptacle for the dead, the
Pithoigia was first an All Souls' Day, though later connected
with the Wine God. See further Kl. P., s.v. " Anthesteria."

258



TABLE-TALK IIL 7, 655

QUESTION 7 �

Why sweet new wine is least intoxicating

Speakers : Plutarch's father, Hagias, Aristaenetus,
Plutarch, others

1. At Athens people consecrate the fresh wine on
the eleventh of the month Anthesterion, calling the
day Pithoigia ^ ; and long ago, it seems, they used
to pour a libation of the wine before drinking and
pray that the use of the " medicine " be harmless and
safe for them. Among us the month is called Pro-
staterios," and on the sixth of the month it is our
custom to sacrifice to our Good Genius <* and taste
the wine, — after a Westerly, for this wind especially
changes and alters the wine, and wine which sur-
vives it successfully seems now certain to keep good.
My father had celebrated the ritual, as was his custom,
and after dinner, while the wine was being praised,
he proposed to the young men *" of philosophical tem-
perament among us the examination of a saying
that sweet new wine is least intoxicating. Now this
seemed an incredible paradox to many, but Hagias'
remarked that sweetness everywhere was offensive
and filling, and therefore one could not easily drink a

The Attic month Anthesterion might fall as early as February
or as late as March.

* Doubtless connected with Apollo Prostaterios, the Pro-
tector ; cf. RE, s.v. " ApoUon," col. 64, and s.v. " Prostate-
rios," col. 900.

•* A chthonic spirit and guardian of the house, perhaps
originally a ghost ; cf. Rohde, Psyche^'* (1925), i, p. 254, note
2 ; RE, s.v. " Agathodaimon."

• Perhaps pupils ; cf. Hartman, De Plutarcho Scriptore
et Philosopho (1916), pp. 381, 384 fF. ; RE, �.??." Plutarchos."
col. 663.

f Supra, 642 e, 643 e.

259



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(655) Kal yXevKovs^ ovk av riva TTielv paSloj? oaov et?
fiedrjv LKavov ioriv OLTrayopeveLV yap drjSla ttjv
ope^iv dxpi rod fir] Siiprjv irpoeXBovoav.^ ort Se rod
yXvKeos 8La<f)€p6L to r)8v Kal rov TTOLTjrrjv eTnord-
fjLcvov Xeyeiv

656 TVpo) Kal pueXiri yXvKepco Kal rjSeL olvco'

rov yap olvov iv dpxfj p-^v elvai yXvK-uv, yiyveodai
S' 'qhvv orav els to avorrjpov rfj Trei/jei pLera^dXr)
7TaXaiovp.€vos.

2. 'AptCTTatVeros" S' o Nt/caeus" ev tlolv ivioi?^
ypdpLp.auiv dveyvojKOJS €(f)7] p,vrjp,ovev€LVy on yXev-
Kog piLxdkv^ olvcp Travel p.€dr]V' tcjv 8* larpcbv rivag
eXeyev^ rovs irXeov 7Ti6vra<s KeXeveiv €/x€tv/ ef^*,
orav pieXXiooi KadevSeiv, dprov els fteAt Kara^d-
ifjavras ep^cfyayelv .'' el ri ovv at yXvKvr-qres dp,^Xv-
vovoLV dKparov, elKorojs 6 veos olvos ov pbedvaKei,
TTplv av Tj yXvKVTiqs p^era^dXr].

3. Ti<l)68p* ovv dveSe^dp^eda rrjv evpTjcnXoylav
Tcx)v veavLOKOJv, on rots c/xttoScov ovk eTTLTreaovres

B ISlojv r]V7r6pr)Gav e7n')(eipr]p.dT(jL>v . eirel rd ye irpo-
;^et/>a Kal paSia Xa^elv 17 re� ^apvrrjs eorl rov
yXevKovSy ct>? ^ApicrroreXrjs (j)r]oiv, rj SiaKOTrrovoa
Tr)V KoiXiav, Kal ro ttoXv crvpLp,epiiyp.evov^ vvev-
piarcjSes Kal vSarwbes' u)v ro pLev ev6vs eKTTLTrreL

^ Reiske : yXevKos. ^ \'^ulcobius : TTpoaeXdovaav.

^ So T, accepted by Doehner ; others assume corruption
and propose various solutions, among: which the deletion of
tvLois seems best (Bollaan, cf. Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 80,
note 1).

* Amyot : yXvKvs fuxdek. ^ Turnebus : Xeyei.

^ €ix€tv added by Wyttenbach from Macrobius, Saturnalia,
vii. 7. 17.



TABLE-TALK IIL 7, 655-656

quantity of sweet new wine sufficient for intoxication,
for one's appetite, once thirst was satisfied, refused
more with disgust. The Poet, too (he argued), "WTote

Cheese, sweet honey, and pleasant wine,*

recognizing that " pleasantness " differs from " sweet-
ness " ; for wine at first is " sweet " and becomes
" pleasant " when the changes due to fermentation
make it " dry " as it ages.

2. Aristaenetus of Nicaea said he recollected hav-
ing read in a certain number of writings that sweet
new wine mixed ^vith other wine stops intoxication.**
And he added that some doctors recommend that
those who drink too much, first vomit and then, when
they are about to go to bed, soak bread in honey and
eat it. If, therefore, properties of sweetness in any
degree blunt the effect of wine, the fresh wine is not
intoxicating, reasonably enough, until its sweetness
changes.

3. Now we heartily approved the ingenuity of the
young men because they did not fall upon the obvious
arguments, but had a good supply of their own at-
tempts at a solution, although the explanations lying
at hand and easy to understand are the heaviness of
the sweet new wine (a heaviness which, as Aristotle
says," breaks on through the stomach) and the large
amounts of gaseous and watery elements combined
with the wine ; of these last two, the one soon forces

" Homer, Odyssey^ xx. 69.

* Cf. Pseudo- Aristotle, Problems, iii. 13, 872 b 32 AT. Ari-
staenetus occurs only here.

" Aristotle, frag. 220 Rose (1886).

' ISoCTav omitted by Bases after €fuf>aY€iv.
" 17 T€ Stephanus : rj rot. • Hubert : au/x/xeWiv.

261



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(656) pLal^oixevov, to Se TrecfyvKe^ dfJipXvrepov ttolclv rov
olvov TToXaicxJOLS S'^ iiTLracnv^ Trotet/ eKKpivo/Jievov
Tov vSarcjSovs' Kal yiyverai ybirpcp /xev eXdrrcov
6 olvo's 8vvd{X€L Se G(f)o8p6T€pOS .



nPOBAHMA H

Ata Ti Tcov OLKpodcopaKcov Xeyofj-evcov ol a(f>68pa fjuedvovres ■fjTTOv
TTapaKivrjTLKoi elaiv

Collocuntur Plutarchi pater, Plutarchus

C 1. " OvKOVVy" €L7T€V 6 TTaT'qp, " €7T€l 7rapaK€~

KLVT]Kafji€V TOV ^ApLGTOTeXr] , Kal TTepl TCOV OLKpodoj-
paKOJV TL KaXovjJievajv lSiov iTTiX^LpT^crofjiev eiTTelv ;^
ov yap LKavoiS jLtot So/cct, Kaiirep dfuraros' c5v

€V TOL9 TOLOVTOLS ^TjT'^lXaaL, SiT^KpL^COKevaL TTjV

aiTLav. (j)'iqGl yap ot/xat tov fjiev VTJ(f>ovTos €v /cat
KaTOL^ TO, ovTa Kpiv€iv TOV Xoyiop,6vy TOV S* dyav
[xedvovTog eKXeXvjJbevrjv KaTex^odai ttjv aLGOrjoriv,

TOV 8' OLKpodcopaKOS €.TL fXeV loX^^l'V TO (jiaVTaOTlKOV

7]8rj Se TeTapaxdoLi to XoyidTLKOv 8l6 Kal Kplveiv
D Kal KaKcos Kpiveiv inaKoXovdovvTa^ rat? <f)avTa-

CJiaiS. dXXd TTOJS," €L7T€V, " VpUV 8oK€i TTepl TOV-

Tcuv; "

2. " 'E/XOt fteV," ^(l>y]l^, " €7TLGK07TOVVTl KaT

ifJLavTOV drroxpcov ovtos "^v irpos ttjv aiTLav 6
Xoyog- el 8e KeXeveug l8l6v tl KLvelv, opa TTpcoTOV el
TTjv elprjjJLevrjv 8La(f)opdv enl to ocbjjLa [xeTOioTeov

^ TO vSaTwBes omitted after it4<I>vk€ by Doehner, Hirschig.

2 8' added by Wyttenbach.

^ eTTiraaLV Stephanus : evl ra lac. 5.

* TToiel added by Wessely, cuiroiel by Wyttenbach.

262



TABLE-TALK IIL 7-8, 656

its way out and escapes, the other naturally and
effectively blunts the impact of the wine. But aging
increases its force, the water being separated out,
and the wine becomes less in measure, more powerful
in strength.

QUESTION 8

Why those who are very drunk are less deranged than the
so-called tipsy

Speakers : Plutarch and his father

1. " Now that we have disturbed Aristotle," said my
father, " shall we attempt also to say something of
our own on the subject of the * tipsy,' so called ? For
sharp indeed though Aristotle <* was in such investiga-
tions, it seems to me that here he failed to deal
adequately with causation ; for he says, I believe,
that the judgement of the sober man is capable of
sound and realistic distinctions, that the perception
of the man who drinks too much is suppressed and
destroyed, and finally that the imaginative faculty of
the tipsy man is still strong but his rational faculty in
disorder : he judges, and judges badly, because he
follows illusory appearances. But what," he con-
cluded, " is your opinion of the matter ? "

2. " When I examined this passage of Aristotle
for myself," I replied, " I found it adequate so far as
causality is concerned. But if you request me to stir
up something of my own, consider first whether one
must attribute to the body the variation you have

" Pseudo-Aristotle, Problems, iii. 2, 871 a 8 ff.

' For punctuation see Denniston, Greek Particles, pp. 433 fF.

' Kara added by Doehner.

' Xylander : CTraKoXovdovvras.

263



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(656) eoriv. ra>v yap aKpoBoypaKcov r) SidvoLa [xovov
rerdpaKraiy to 8e GojjjLa rats op [xals i^vm^perelv
Svvarai, fju'ijircj ^epaTmajJievov orav 5e Kara-
oeiadfi Kal Trieadfj, TTpoSlScjou ras" opfxas /cat
TrapelraL, p^^XP^ Y^P ^py<J^^ ov TTpoeLaiv €KeZvoi Se
TO Gcopia^ avve^ap^aprdvov e^ovTes ov rep p,dXXov
aXoyiOTelv dXXd TCp p^aXXov io-)(yeiv iXeyxovTai.
E (xtt' dXXrjs 8^ ," €L7Tov, " dpxrjs gkottovvti tov

OLVOV TTjV 8vVap.LV OuScV KCoXv6L TTOLKlXtJV €LVaL

Kal TTJ 7TO(j6t7]ti GvpipueTa^dXXovoav' woTrep to
TTvp TOV KepapLov, dv pikv fj piirpiov, GvyKpaTVvei
Kal TTiqyvvaiv, dv 8* virep^oXfj TrXij^rj, (7vvdr7]^€ Kal
peZv iiToiiqcTev' avdiraXiv 8' 7] copa rovs TTvpeTovs
dpxopL€vr] puev dvaKivei Kal e/c/catet, Trpo'Covorjs 8e
jLtdAAov KadioTavrai Kal dTToXiqyovuiv . tl ovv
Ka>Xv6L Kal TTjv Stavotav vtto tov olvov (fyvoLKoJg
KivovpL€V7jv, oTav TapaxOf] Kal Trapo^vvdfj , TrdXtv
dvUcrdai Kal KadioTaodanrXeovdl^ovTos ; 6 yovv iX-
Xe^opos dpx'Tjv TOV Kadaipeiv ex^L to Tapdrreiv tov
F dyKOV dv ovv^ iXdrTOJV tov pL€TpLOV 8odfj, raparret
p,€V ouSev 8e Kadaupei. Kal roiv vttvwtlkciJv €vlol
Xa^6vT€s €v8oT6pa) TOV pi€Tpiov 9opv^a)8eaT€pov
8LaTLd€VTaiy TrXeov 8k Aa^ovres"^ Kadev8ovGi.v. gIkos
Se TTOV Kal TavTTjv T'r]v rrepl tov aKpodcopaKa
TapaxriVy orav aKpLTjv Xd^r], papaiveodai, Kal irpos
TOVTO ovvepyelv tov olvov ttoXvs yap elaeXddjv to
657 ocopua ovve^eKavoe Kal KaTavdXcooe to p,avLcoS€S
TTJs ifjvx'^'S. oi(j7T€p ydp^ Tj dprjvcp8ia Kal 6 €itl-

^ auifxa added by Hubert after Xylander (translation).
2 av ovv Hubert : aXovv (A — or v? — in an erasure).
^ evLoi, omitted after Aa^oVres by Reiske.
264



TABLE-TALK 111. 8, 656-657

mentioned. Tipsy people's mind alone is disordered ;
the body, not yet soaked, is still the able servant of
impulse. But when the body is overthrown and op-
pressed by the weight of intoxication, it betrays and
completely neglects its impulses, for it does not
advance to the point of action. The tipsy, on the
contrar}', with a body which joins in error, are dis-
graced not by the fact that they are more irrational,
but by the fact that they possess greater strength to
act. And if one consider the matter," I continued,
" from another point of view, there is nothing to pre-
vent the power of wine from being variable and
changing in proportion to its quantity, as fire, if it is
the right amount, strengthens and hardens pottery,
but if an excessive amount strikes the potterj*, the
fire fuses it and makes it flow. Again, the beginning
of spring stirs up fevers and makes them burn, but as
the hot season advances, fevers abate and cease.
What, then, prevents the mind, naturally roused by
wine, after it has fallen into disorder and excitement,
from becoming relaxed and calm again as the wine
becomes excessive ? At any rate, hellebore has the
characteristic of causing the body distress as it begins
its purging action ; if, then, less than the dose be
given, the drug causes distress but does not purge.
And some people become more excited when they
take a subnormal dose of sedatives, but sleep when
they take more. It is also likely, I suppose, that this
disorder which characterizes the tipsy, when it attains
its height, dies down and further that the wine works
as a whole toward this end, for the large quantity
which has come into the body joins in burning out
and consuming the mind's frenzy. For, as dirge and

* yap added by Wyttenbach.
VOL. VIII K* 265



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(657) Ki^Seios aifXos iv apxfi TrdOos kiv€l Kal SaKpvov
cKpaXXeL, TTpodyojv Se rrjv ijjvx^v els olktov ovtoj
Kara fiiKpov i^aipel Kal dvaXioKei ro Xvtttjtlkov,
ofJbOLCDS lSols dv Kal Tov otvov, orav G(j)68pa rapd^r)
Kal TTapo^vvT)^ TO dKfjLaiov Kal dvpLoeihes, avdig
KaraSvovra Kal KadtGrdvra^ Tr]v Scdvoiav, ws
7Toppa>T€pa> fiedr]? Trpo'Covaav rjGvxd^eLV."

nPOBAHMA

Ucpl TOV " 7j TreWe TnWiv t] rp" rj fj.r] reaaapa"

CoUocuntur Aristio, Plutarchus, Plutarchi pater

B 1. 'E/xou Se ravT elirovros, ^ApLoriojv dva^orj-
Gas coGTTep elayOei, " 7re(j)avTaL," eliTev, "els rd
GV^JiTTOGia Tcp BiKaLordra) Kal hrnxoKpaTLKCordra)
Tojv fJLerpwv KdOoSos, vtto 8t] nvos Kaipov v^<f)ov-

TOS" WGTTep TVpdwOV 7T€(l)Vya8€VfJL€VCp TToXvV y^pOVOV .

KaOdirep yap ol Trepl Xvpav KavovLKol tojv Xoycov
^aat TOV fxev tjixloXlov ttjv Sid 7T€vt€ GVfJL(j)OJVLav
TrapaGX^^v, tov 8e BnrXdGiov ttjv Sta rraGchv, ttjv Se

Sid T€GGdpOJV dfJLvSpOTdTTjV OVGaV iv iTTLTptTO) GVV-

iGTaGdaiy ovTws ol Trepl tov Aiowgov dpfjLOVLKol
TpeZs KaTelSov olvov GVfxcjxjjvias Trpos vScvp, Sid
TTevTe Kal Sid Tpiojv Kal hid TeGGapojv, ovtoj puev
XeyovTes Kal aSovTes

'q^ 7revT€ iriveLV ?} TpC ri fxr) TeGoapa.

TTevTe ydp eGTiv* iv "qpnoXioj Xoy oj, Tpiojv^ vSaTos

^ Koi Trapo^vvTj Xylander : Trapofwei.

^ Reiske : KarahvovTai koX Kadiaravrai,

^ -n added by Vulcobius.

* ecmv added by Wyttenbach : lac. 1-2.

266



TABLE-TALK IIL 8-9, G57

funereal pipe at first rouse grief and cause tears to
flow, and thus by leading the soul to pity little by
little remove and consume distress, so in like manner
you can see that wine too, when it very much harasses
and excites the full vigour of passion, quiets the mind
again, and calms it, and finally, as it advances farther
into drunkenness, lays it peacefully to rest."



QUESTION 9

On " Drink five or three, not four "

Speakers : Aristion, Plutarch, and Plutarch's father

1. When I had said tliis, Aristion" spoke up loudly
in his usual manner : " The most just and democratic
of rules, one long exiled by some abstemious fashion
as by a tyrant, is in sight of restitution to drinking-
parties. Now just as the experts in the musical
theory of the lyre assert that among ratios that of
3 : 2 gives the concord of the fifth, 2 : 1 the concord
of the octave, and the concord of the fourth (which is
weakest) consists in the ratio 4- : 3 ; so the musicolo-
gists of Dionysus observed three concords of wine
and water, fifth, third and fourth, for in their song
they say this :

Drink five or three, not four.'

' Five,' indeed, is in the ratio 3 : 2, three parts of

" A man learned in matters of food and wine ; cf. infra^
692 B if., 696 e f. It is uncertain whether or not he is the same
as Aristion the father of Soclarus at Amatorius^ 749 b.

*� Cf. The Proclan scholion on Hesiod, Works and Days,
591-596 (pp. 191-192 Pertusi) ; further, Athenaeus, x, 426 d.

' Basel edition : lac. 4-5 wv.

267



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(657) KepavvvfJLevojv^ npo^ Su' o'lvov rpua^ 8' cV hnrXaoico
rrpos €va^ p,iywpL€V(x)v Svetv reocjapa S*, els eva
rpiojv vharos eTnx^opLevcjv, ovrog ianv eTrirpiTos
Aoyos", dpxovrcov tlvwv*' iv TTpvraveia) vovv ixovrojv
'^ hiaXeKTiKcov ras 6(J)pvs aveorraKOTCOv , orav ras"
fxeraTTTCoaeLS rcov Xoycjv dvaaKOTraxTL,^ vr)(f)dXios
/cat dSpavTjs Kpauis.^ eKeivcov Se rcDv dXXcxJv rj /xev
Svelv TTpos eVa tov rapaKTiKov rovrov /cat OLKpo-
OcopaKa TTJs fiedrjs iiTdyeL tovov

D Kivovvra ^opSas ras dKtviJTOVs <t>p€vcov'

ovT€ yap id vrj^eiv ovre Karahvei TravrdrraoL tov
dvorjTOV els tov a/cparov rj 8e Svelv irpos Tpia
fjLovoLKOJTdTrj , TTacr' v7TVO(j)6pos /cat XadiKTjSrjs /cat
/caro, TTjv *H(7to8eiov iKelvTjv ' dXe^Ldprjv iraihwv
evKTjXriTeipav tcjv iv rjfjLLV dy€pa>xojv /cat dKO-
Gficjv 7Tad<jL)v Sia ^ddovs TTOiovoa yaXrjvqv /cat
rjovxiav."

2. Ylpos raura Tcp ^ ApLOTicovi^ dvTelne fiev ovSels'
SrjXos yap rjv Trat^ojv iyoj S' iKeXevaa Xa^ovTa
TTOTTjpLOV ojGTTep Xvpav ivTCLveodaL TTjv iiraivov-
pL€V7]v Kpdaiv /cat dpfiovlav, /cat TrpooeXOdav 6 irais
E V7T€x^^ 'TOV aKpaTOV 6 S* dveSveTO, Xeycov dfxa
yeXojTL Tcov XoycKOJV elvai Tvepl jjLovolktjv ov tcov
opyavLKcov. 6 fxivTOL TraTTjp tooovtov iireliTe tols
elpr)p,€Vois, OTL Sokovglv avTcp /cat ol TraXaiol tov
jLtev Atos" Svo TTOielv TLdijvas, ttjv "IStjv' /cat ttjv

^ Kipavvvixevcov Turnebus, who also omitted ov before rrpos :

K€paVVVfJL€VOV OV.

2 rpla Turnebus : ra.

' €va added by Wyttenbach (Turnebus tv).

* Turnebus : rpicjv.

^ Wyttenbach : dvao7Ta>ai.

268



TABLE-TALK IIL 9, 657

water being mixed with two of wine ; ' three ' is in
the ratio 2:1, two parts of water being mixed with
one of wine ; and four, — three parts of water being
poured into one of wine, this is a ratio of 4 : 3, a drink
for some group of sensible magistrates in the pry-
taneion, or logicians their brows contracted as they
meditate upon syllogistic conversions, a sober and a
feeble mixture. Of the two others, the mixture with
ratio 2 : 1 brings on that disturbing and half-drunk
pitch of intoxication

that plays upon
The inviolate strings of the mind,"

for neither does it allow sobriety nor does it com-
pletely immerse the foolish man in strong drink. But
the mixture with a ratio of 2 : 3 is most harmonious,
a complete inducer of sleep and relaxer of care, a
* protecting and soothing governess,' in Hesiod's
phrase,^ because it creates a profound calm and quiet
among our lordly and disordered passions."

2. No one attacked Aristion's remarks, for clearly
his talk was play. And I invited him to take a cup
as his lyre and tune it to the scale of the medley he
praised. The servant came forward and was begin-
ning to pour the wine, but Aristion declined, saying
with a laugh that he was a theorist of music, not a
performer. Then my father made the following addi-
tion to what had been said : the ancients too, it
was his opinion, made Zeus's nurses two (Ida and

" Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag.^ Adespoton 361, quoted also in
Mor. 43 E, 456 c, 501 a, and 502 d.
'' Works and Days, 464.

" Turnebus : <t>aais (sic). ' Hubert : KaraBvuv.

* 'ApiWcuvt T {rf. 657 b, *ApurrUiiv\ 692 n, *AptaTa>vo? ; and
692 E, 'ApioTicov). " Xylander : Itt^v.

269



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(657) ^ASpdaretav, rrj? S' "Hpag /xtav, ttjv Eu/3otav
djLteAct Se Kal rod 'AttoAAcovo? Svo, ttjv ^AX'^Oeiav
Koi TTjv K.opvddX€Lav' rod 8e Alovvgov TrAetova?,
on Sel rov Oeov rovrov iv TrXeiodL piirpois wji^cbv
riBaoevopievov /cat 7Taih€v6pi€vov rjfJLepwrepov 7tol€iv

Kal (j)pOVLpL(JL)T€pOV.

nPOBAHMA I

Aia TL TO. Kpia ariireTai fJMXXov vtto ttjv aeX-qvqv ^ tov rjXiov
Collocuntur Euthj^demus, Satyrus, Moschio, Plutarchus

F 1 . ^vdv8rjpL09 6 Sowteus" iarLCOv r]p,dg gvv d-
ypiov evpLeyedrj TrapedrjKev eTndavpLaadvrojv he

TCOV TTapOVrOJV, dXXoV €(f)7] TToXv fJb€L^OVa Kopiil,6-

pbovov VTTO T7J9 GeXrjvTjs 8La(f)daprjvai Kal G(f)68pa ye
TTcpl rrjg alrias hiaTTopeiv ov yap et/co? etvai pi)
rov tJXlov pidXXov rd Kpea orjTreiv Oepp^orepov ovra
658 '^'^S" oeXrivr]?. 6 Se Sarupo?, " ov rovr ^ ^^V>
" pLoXiora davpida€L€V dv rig, dXXd pidXXov ro vtto
rojv Kvvriychv yiyvopievov orav yap r^ ovv r] eXacf)ov
KarapaXovreg TToppcodev elg ttoXlv aTTOGreXXcjoL,
-)(aXKovv epLTTTiyvvovGLV riXov co? ^orjdovvra Trpos
rrjv GTJijjLV."

2. *Q? ovv eTTavadpLeda SeiTTVovvres Kal rrdXiv 6
Kvdv8r]pLO? eTTepLV^adr]^ rov 8iaTTOp-qdevro�, Mo(T;^ta)y
€(f)r](T€v^ 6 larpos rrjv arjipiv rrj^LV etvai^ Kal pvGiv



^ Stephanus : ini^vrjadels.

2 Basel edition : I<^t7.
^ eu'ai added bv Reiske.



� The Hyades {RE, viii. 2620) and others. (/. supra, p. IS.
^ Imitated by Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 16. 15 ff. Cf.
Dfi Facie in Orbe Luna^, 939 f, with Cherniss's note b.



270



TABLE-TALK IIL 9-10, 657-658

Adrastea), Hera's one (Euboea), and Apollo's of
course two (Alethea and Corythalea), but gave
Dionysus more, for it was necessary to make this
god more gentle and prudent by giving him nymphs **
in greater measure to tame him and civilize him.



QUESTION 10 �

Why meat spoils more readily in moonlight than in
sunlight

Speakers : Euthydemus, Satynis, Moschion, Plutarch

1 . Euthydemus '^ of Sunium, when entertaining us at
dinner, served up a wild boar of remarkable size.
When the company had expressed their astonishment
at the size, he said that a much larger one he had
caused to be procured had been spoiled by the moon
and he was very much at a loss to know the cause,
for it was not likely (he thought) that the sun, being
hotter than the moon, was less effective at spoiling
meat. And Satyrus ** said, " The most astonishing
thing is not perhaps this, but rather the practice of
hunters. When they have killed a boar or a deer and
are sending it back to town, they drive a bronze nail
into the carcass to preserve it against spoilage."

2. Then when we had finished dinner and Euthy-
demus mentioned again his perplexity, Moschion *
the physician remarked that spoilage was a disin-

* C. Memmius Euthydamus in the list of Delphic priests,
RE^ iv. 2671 ; cf. infra, 700 e " my colleague as priest " ;
apparently it was to his son, Plutarch's pupil {Mor. 965 c),
that De Audiendis was dedicated, RE, s.v. " Plutarchos,"
cols. 674 f.

** Apparently only here.

• Mor, 122 B, D, where his philosophic bias is lauded.

271



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(658) aapKog ets" vypov <f)dopq} {jLera^aXoiJor)? , /cat oAcos"

vypaiveoO ai ra CTT^Tro/xeva* Oepfjiaatav 8e Trdaav, av

ixev fj fiaXaKr] /cat irpaela, KLvelv ra vypa /cat Tr]V

B ^rjporrjra KwXveiv,^ av 8* fj TrvpwSr]^, rovvavriov

d7TLG-)(VaiV€LV TO,? GCLpKaS . €/C Sc TOVTOJV ^aV€p6v

etvai TO ^rjTOVjJievov' rrjv yap oeX'qvr^v r^pefxa
xXiaivovuav avvypaiveiv ra Gcop^ara, rov S' tJXlov
avapTTdt,eiv fxdXXov €/c rcJov acjofJLdrcov ro vorepov
hid rrjV irvpajGLV Trpos o /cat rov *ApxiXo)(ov
elprjKevaL (fyvuiKcJJS

eXiropiai, ttoXXovs piev avrcov llelpios Karavavel^
d^vs iXXdpLTTCjov

€TL 8e aa^iurepov "0pL7]pov iirl rov "E/cropos", w
/cet/xeVo) vecjyiXiqv rivd OKiepdv 6 'AvrdAAajv eTrrj-
yayev,

puT] TTplv pidvos rjeXloLO
GKi^Xr) dpi<j)l 7T€pl xpoa IveuLV rj8e /xeAecrcrtv

T^v �€ aeX'qvrjv dSpavearepa? a<^teVat ras" auya?*

C pidXas yap avrals ov TreTratVerat porpvs

Kara rov "lojva.

3. AexOevTOJV Se rovrcov, iyo), " raAAa /xeV,"
€(f>r]V, " eiprjraL /caAoJS" rfj Se ttooottiti Kal to)
jLtaAAov /cat rjrrov ttJ? OeppLaoias Kplveiv* to
Gvpi^dv^ ov Set' /cat^ yap rjXiov opcopiev rjTTOV ev'

^ Reiske : <f>dopds.

^ Kcxi erased in T. tt^v ^-qpoTt^ra added by P. A. C.

3 Hatzidakis, Helmbold : KadavaveZ.

* TO) fxdXXov . . . Kpiveiv Wyttenbach (Turnebus suggested
T<v /MctAAov, according to Hutten) : to fxaXXov /cara rov rijs
Oipfiaoias Kaipov.
272



TABLE-TALK IIL 10, 658

tegration and liquefaction of the carcass, which
changed into a fluid as it decayed, and rotted flesh
became completely liquefied. All heat (he pointed
out), if it is gentle and mild, stirs moisture and pre-
vents dryness ; but if it is a fiery heat, it has the
opposite effect of drying out flesh. These considera-
tions clarify the problem : the moon by its gentle
warmth humidifies carcasses ; it is rather the sun
which, because of its fiery heat, robs carcasses of
their moisture. With reference to this Archilochus
has written � in accord with nature

I hope the Dog will wither lots of them
With his keen rays !

Still clearer is what Homer said of Hector, when
Apollo brought up a cloud to shade him as he lay
dead,^

Lest the strength of the sun cause the flesh
On his muscles and limbs to dry up.

But the moon (he concluded) sends out rays which
are weaker ;

Dark clustered grapes are not matured by them,

in Ion's phrase.*'

3. When Moschion had finished, I said : " This is
a fine statement in almost every way, but one ought
not to judge the result by the quantity and degree of
heat. For we see that the sun heats less in winter,

� Frag. 61 Bergk, 63 Diehl (1952).
" Iliad, xxiii. 190 f.

* Nauck, Trag. Or. Frag. p. 744, no. 57, quoted also at
Mor. 929 a.

* avyi^av Madvig : cru/Lnrav.
^ Koi added by Wyttenbach. ' cV added by Hirschig.

273



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(658) TO) x^LfjLcbvi daXiTovTa /cat /xaAAov ev rw depei
cnJTTOvra ret (Tw/xara' rovvavriov 8' co^ctAc Trotctv,
el fxaXaKorrjTi rrjs depfiaGtag at crrjipei? iyiyvovro'
vvvl 8\ ore fiaXXov ivreivei to Kavfxa, ddaaov
8La(f)d€Lp€L^ ras crctp/cas'. ovkovv oi5S' t] ueXijvrj St'
evSecav aAea? /cat aodiveiav els arjifjiv ayei ret
veKpa Tcjv GCDpLOLTCOv, (lAA' tStoTT^Ta ^aAAov at-
D Tiareov rod (fyepofjuevov pevpLaros oltt* avrrj?. on
yap ov piiav e;^et TTOioriqra irdv to BeppLov, avro)
piovcp TO) pidXXov /cat rjrrov hiacjiepovaaVy aXX
elol TTapbTToXXai rod rrvpog SvvdpieLs ovSev dAAi^-
Aats" eoLKvlaiy S-^Aov 0,770 rcbv Trpox^ipordrajv. ol
jLtev yap XP'^^^X^^^ ^^^ '^V^ dxvpLvrjs (f)Xoy6s^
epydl^ovrai rov ^^puadv, ot S' larpol pLaXiara rfj
KXripLarivrj rd GvveipopLeva tcjv ^appidKCJV vtto-
yXiaivovGiv irpos Se tt^v tov veXov pidXa^LV /cat
TVTrojGLV evdppiOGTOv etvat So/cet to pLVpiKLVOV to
8' diTo TTJs iXalag ra pLev o-ca/xara rats' Trvpiais ev
hiaTidy]GL, rols Se ^aXaveioLS rroXepnov cgtiv /cat Xv-
E puaiveTai ttjv invdKiOGiv avTcbv /cat roi)? BepieXiovs
VTTOKaiopievov' oBev ol ;^a/Dt€vres' dyopavopLOc tov?
ipyoXa^ovvTas ovk icoGiv eXatvois ^vXols xPV^^^^'
Kaddirep oi5S' aipas^ epu^aXelv els ttjv vnoKavGLV, at
yap diTo* TOVTCOV dvaBvpadGeis Kaprj^aplas /cat
GKOTcopiaTa Tols XovopLevois ipLTTOLOVGLV. ovSev
ovv BavpuaGTOv cgtiv /cat ttjv GeX'^V7]v rod tjXlov
hiacjyepeiv, tov puev ^-qpavTiKa ttjs Se ;^aAaCTTt/cd
/cat KLvqTLKa tcjv ev tols^ GcjpiaGLV vypcov d(f)LeLGr]s
pevpLaTa. 8td rd piev v^TTia TravrdiraGLV at rtr^at
heiKVvvai TTpos^ TrjV GeX'^vrjv <j>vXdTTOVTaL' irX-qpr]
274.



TABLE-TALK IIL 10, 658

yet carcasses spoil more readily in summer, and they
ought to do the opposite, if spoilage were the result
of gentle heat ; but actually, the more intense the
heat, the faster it rots flesh. Accordingly, it is not
because of a lack of heat and a weakness of heat that
the moon induces spoilage in dead bodies ; on the
contrary, one must claim that the cause is rather a
peculiarity of the stream of heat which comes from
the moon. For it is obvious from the most ordinary
things that all heat is not of one kind differing in
degree alone, rather that the properties of fire are
indeed many with no resemblance to each other.
Goldsmiths use a chaff fire for working gold, physicians
use a vine-twig fire to heat by degrees decoctions of
drugs, and tamarisk wood seems to be most suitable
for melting and moulding glass. A fuel of olive wood
for sweat baths has a beneficial effect upon people's
bodies, but is injurious to bath buildings and dirties
their panelling and their foundation stones as it burns
underneath the building ; this is the reason why con-
scientious commissioners do not allow concessionaries
who operate bathing establishments to use olive wood
for fuel, just as they refuse to let them put darnel
into their furnace fire, since the fumes of this plant
give the bathers headaches and induce vertigo. It
is not astonishing, then, that the moon too differs
from the sun, the latter sending out withering streams
of heat and the former emitting streams M'hich loosen
and set in motion the moisture in bodies. Thus nurses
are exceedingly careful to avoid exposing young

^ 8ia<^^€ip€i Hirschig : evhia^diipfi.

* Basel edition : to? Aoyo?. ^ Basel edition : apds.

* aiTo Wyttenbach with E and y : vtto.

^ Tcov iv Toi? Reiske : toi? eViots.

* irpos added in Basel edition.

275



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(658) yap vyponr^ros ovra, Kaddnep ra ;^A6t>pa tcuv
F $vXa)V, GTrdrai /cat hiaoTpe(j)€Tai. roijs 8e Kara-
KOLjJirjddvras iv avyfj creXrjvrjg pioXis i^aviara-
fievov? OLOV ifjL7TXi]KTOvs rats atcr^Tycreat /cat vap-
KcoSeig opajfiev rj yap vyporrj? vtto rrjs (jeXi^vrjg
SiaxeofJievr] ^apvvei ra crctj/xara. Aeycrat Se /cat
rrpog evTOKLav ovvepyeiv , orav fj St^o/XT^vos", dveoei
Tctjv vypatv fxaXaKcorepas rrapexovGa ras" caStva?.
659 odev ot/xaL /cat ttjv "Aprepnv Kox^iojv /cat EtAet-
^utav, ou/c ovaav irepav -^ t^v (tcAt^vt^i^, ajvopidadai.
Tifiodeos 6' dvTiKpvs (fyrjGLV

Sid Kvdveov ttoXov darpajv,
Sid T (Lkvtokolo creAavas".

yiyverai Se /cat 77€pt ra di/jvxo- tojv ocDjxdrojv
iTTiSrjXos Tj TTJg GeXiqvris Swa/xts" tojv t€ ya/)
^uAoiv ra reixvofjieva rals iravGeX'qvoLS diro^dX-
XovGLV ol T€KTov€s COS dnaXd /cat fjLvSayvra ra)(€ajg
St* vyponqra, rovs re^ TTVpovs ol yeojpyovvres
GTTevSovGL (j)divovros rod fJLTjvos €/c rrjs dXoj Gvval-
p€LV, Lva TTayevres^ rfj ^rjporrjTL fjidXXov Trpos rov
Xpdvov^ dvrexojGLV' ol 8' aK/Jifj rrjg GeXi^vr]? 8ta-
KopLit^oix^voi KOTTTOvrai jJidXiGTa Sid rrjv vyporrjra
B fJLaXaKCjrepOL yiyvofjievoL. XiyovGi Se /cat rdXevpov
iv rals TravGeX'qvoLS t,viJLOVG6aL jSeArtov 'q ydp
i,VfxcoGLS oXiyov aTroSet orji/jis etvat*- /cav dTTO^dXr)
TO fJLerpov, inl rrjv avrrjv <j)dopdv dpaiovGa /cat
XeirrvvovGa to (jyvpafxa Trporjyayev. al Se gtjtto-

1 Ziegler: 8e.

2 Meziriacus : vavres.

' Toi' xpovov Wyttenbach, xpovov Turnebus : lac. !2-3 vov.

276



TABLE-TALK IIL 10, 658-659

children to the moon, for, being full of moisture like
green wood, they are thrown into spasms and con-
vulsions. And we see that those who have gone to
sleep in the light of the moon are hardly able to rise
again, like men with senses stunned or doped, for the
moisture poured through them by the moon makes
their bodies heavy. The moon is also said to assist
in easing child birth, when it occurs at full moon, by
making the pains gentler by releasing moisture. For
this reason, I take it, Artemis, who is none other than
the moon, is called Locheia and Eileithyia. And
Timotheiis says outright "

Through the dark-blue vault of the stars
And the moon who is quick to procure
The delivery of children.

The power of the moon is also quite clear where in-
animate bodies are concerned. Builders discard wood
cut in the full moon as soft and quick to decay on
account of its moisture. Farmers hurry to gather
wheat from the threshing-floor at the end of the
month so that, hardened by dryness, it may last for
a longer time ; wheat in transport when the moon is
full splits very easily because the moisture in it has
made it softer. People say, too, that flour rises better
at the time of the full moon ; indeed, leavening is
much the same process as putrefaction, and if the
proper time limit be ignored, leavening in making
dough porous and light produces the same decom-
position in the end. What happens to decomposing

• Diehl, Anth. Lyr. Oraec. ii (1942), p. 194, frag. 12 ; cf.
Quaestiones Romanae^ no. 77, with Babbitt's note (LCL Mor.
iv, pp. 116 f.).

* aTroSei ct^i/�ij (.Ivoa lleiske, who added rov before <r^0(s :

277



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(659) fievai adpKes ovSev dXXo TrdaxovGLV rj, rod
GvveKTLKov 7TV€V{jiaTO� jJiera^dXXovTos ets" vypov,
i^apaiovvrai^ /cat piovoiv. ravro^ Se /cat rov depa
Trdoxovra decjpovpiev SpoGo^oXet yap rats' navae-
X'qvoLS /xaAtcrra SiarTjKOfjievog, cjs ttov /cat 'AA/c-
pbdv 6 fieXoTTOLog alvLTTOfievos rrjv SpoGov dipos
dvyarepa /cat ueX'qvr]?

Ota {<j)r)GL) Atos" Ovydrrjp "Epaa^ rpe<f>€L koX hias
ScAavas"/

C ovroj TTavTaxddev ixaprvpelraL ro ttjs aeXijvTjs <f)cos
dvvypavTLKTjv exov^ /cat fxaXaKriKriv SvvafjLLV.

" '0 Se ;\;aA/cof;s' rjXos, €t ye SceXavvofjievos, cos*
cf>aaLV, darjTTTorepa hianqpel rd Kpia, ^aiverai rt
OepaTrevTiKov^ e^cj^v /cat gtvtttlkov iv avrcp- rep
yap lip TTpos rd roiavra xpaJVTai rcov <f>appLdKOJV
larpol, /cat toijs ye SLarpi^ovras iv rotg ;)^aA/c6opi�-
X^^OLS LGTopovGLV ox^eAetCT^at rd OjLt/xara /cat
j8Ae<^aptSa? €k^v€lv tovs aTTO^ejSAT^/coras', "q ydp
diTiovGa rrjg ;^aA/ctTtSos' dxvr] /cat e/X77t7rroi/cra^
rots' ^X€(f)dpOLS dST^Xojs avaareAAet ra pevfiara /cat

7T€pLGTU<f)€L TO SdKpVOV 8l6 /Cat (/)aGLV ' evTjvopa '

/cat ' vojpoira ;^aA/cov ' zJtto rou TroLrjrov irpoG-

D ayopev€Gdai. ^ApLGToreXrjg Se /cat rd rpavpLard

<l)rjGLV rd 0,77-0 rcDv ;^aA/c6ov iTTiSoparlSajv /cat

^ Basel edition : i^aipovvTai.
^ Hubert : tovto.
^ Xylander : yieya.

* 8ta? ScAava? Bernardakis (but at 918 a and presumably
at 940 A the words are transposed) : aaeXdvas.

^ dvvypavTLKTjv €xov WllcobiuS : dvvypovTi lac. 2 ktjv,

278



TABLE-TALK IIL 10, 659

flesh is simply that it becomes spongy and Hquefies
as the spirit which binds it together changes to
moisture. The same thing happens to air, as we see ;
for especially at the time of the full moon it dissolves
and precipitates dew, as, I suppose, the lyrist Alcman
also suggests, calling dew the daughter of air and
moon when he says �

Such Hersa nourishes, daughter of Zeus
And Selene divine.

Thus it is everywhere attested that moonhght has the
property of producing moisture and softness.

" The bronze nail, — if actually, when driven into
meat, it preserves the flesh in sounder condition, as
people say, — obviously has some healing and astrin-
gent quality in itself. Indeed, bronze-rust is employed
by physicians among their drugs for such purposes,*
and they record that the eyes of men who pass their
time in copper-mines are benefited and those who
have lost their eyelashes grow them again, for the
dust which comes from the copper ore and settles
upon their eyes insensibly checks discharges and dries
up tears. This is why the Poet, they claim, calls
bronze * man's helper ' '^ and ' eye-affector.' ** And
Aristotle * says that wounds from bronze spear-heads

<• Frag. 48 Bergk, 43 Diehl (1942) ; cf, Mor. 918 a, 940 a,
with Cherniss's notes, LCL Mor. xii, p. 175.

" C/., e.g.y Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxv. 42 with the legend of
Achilles healing Telephus.

• See, e.g.y Odyssey^ xiii. 19.

^ See, e.g., Iliads ii. 578 ; the word is usually translated
" flashing," " bright " (origin obscure, Boisacq, s.v.).

• Cf. Pseudo-Aristotle, Problems, i. 35, 863 a 25 fF.

• Tt dcpaiTiVTiKov P. A. C, cf. 659 d to arvif). koI to depan. :
fiev. ' Reiske (Macrobius incidens) : Trirrrovaa.

279



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(659) fiaxai'pcov tjttov elvai hvoaXyrj /cat paov* Idodai
Twv 0,770 rod GiSrjpov 8ta to (jyapfiaKcohes ex^LV tl
Tov ;^aA/c6v ev iavrw kol tovto rals nXrjyals
evdvs evaTToXeiTTeLV . on 3e^ /cat to) ariirovrL to
arvcjyov^ /cat to depajrevov roi <f)deLpovTL ttjv
evavriav ex€i SvvajjLLV, ovk dSrjXov.^ el fx-^ tls
dpa Tjj SieXdoeL <j)ai'r] tov ^Xov i<f)^ eavTOV to. vypd
Gvvdyeiv, i7Ti(f>opds del yiyvofxev-qs irpos to Trdaxov
8l6 /cat Trepl avTov eKelvov tov tottov olov TLva* {jlco-
Xcoira /cat ottZXov opdodat (f)aGLV, /cat Aoyov €;^€t*
TTjv dXXr]v adpKa hiafxeveiv dnadrj, ttjs <j>dopd.s
eKel GVVTpexova7]S'"^

^ Se added by Xylander.

^ Xylander : arv(f)ov. * g and Turnebus : ah-qXog.

* Aldine edition : rt. ^ Reiske : ^x^lv.



280



TABLE-TALK IH. 10, 659

and swords are less painful and heal more easily than
those from an iron weapon because bronze has in it-
self something medicinal which it immediately leaves
in wounds. It is obWous that whatever is astrin-
gent has the property of opposing what causes de-
cay, and whatever heals has the property of opposing
what destroys. Of course, someone might claim
that the nail in being driven through collects mois-
ture to itself, since there is always attraction to the
hurt part. This is why people remark that in that
area itself one sees something like a bruise and a
stain; since the morbidness gathers there, it stands to
reason that the rest of the flesh will remain sound.**

' In T awrpexovoT^s and decorative sigla end line 12 ; line
13, avyiTToai.aKU)v y between decorative sigla ; line 14, decora-
tive sigla ; line 15, the heading of Book IV.



281



INTRODUCTION TO
BOOKS IV-VI

As in the other parts of the Symposiacs, the text of
Books IV-VI depends mainly upon T, a Vienna codex,
Vindobonensis graecus 148 (tenth or eleventh cen-
tury). It suffers from a number of important lacunae,
particularly in Book V from page 676 c 8 to 680 oil
\cf. LCL Mor. ix, p. 3) ; fortunately the loss is not
total, for we have copies made earlier. In addition,
the exemplar from which T was copied was already
defective at the end of iv. 6, where an incomplete
sentence is followed by a blank in the page, and the
margin has a notation to the effect that a quaternion
is missing with five chapters {sic, the prefixed index
to Book IV gives only the normal four remaining
titles of Questions). I have constantly referred to a
photostatic copy of T and one of E, a Paris manu-
script (Parisinus 1672) of the early fourteenth cen-
tury, to correct the published reports of T's readings
everywhere and those of E where they become
important. The text and apparatus are based mainly
on Hubert (Teubner, Leipzig, 1938), who rarely,
perhaps only two or three times to my knowledge, is
found inaccurate. I have systematically consulted
also the editions of J. G. Hutten (volume xi of his
complete Plutarch, part 5 of the Moralia, Tubingen,
1798), whose reports of Reiske's readings I frequently
adopt when Hubert fails to cite them, D. Wytten-
bach (Partes 1 and 2 of Tomus III of Plutarch, Mo-
ralia, Oxford, 1797), and the earlier Teubner edition

288



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

in Bernardakis' Moralia, 1888-1896, as well as H. Bol-
kestein's Adversaria Critica. From these sources and
Hartman I have sometimes derived a fuller account of
manuscript readings or emendations than Hubert's ;
but I am aware that his judgement in omitting certain
details may have been distinctly the wiser.

For brevity I have chosen to include under the no-
tation " Turnebus " items often labelled "exemplum
Turnebi." If this should prove inadequate to any
reader, I wish to refer him to Hubert, whose edition
is of course indispensable for scholarly purposes, rich
as it is in matter not ordinarily expected of a text
edition. Incidentally, I apply the term " after " in
the apparatus criticus to cases where the^ later scholar
makes a relatively slight modification of his prede-
cessor's reading, as well as to outright adoptions.

I have accepted the judgement of those who be-
lieve that Plutarch went back to the more ancient or
Attic form of Greek in using forms of yiyveirdai and
ytyvwo-Kei)', rather than ytv€(rdai. or yivojcrKtti'. This
may be considered an inconsistent pohcy when I do
not alter forms, for instance, of (/xAacro-etv to ffmXaT-
T€i,v. The evidence seems to be that our author was
himself inconsistent in presenting both OdXaaa-a and
BakaTTa, but it is well known that manuscript evi-
dence is unreliable. I have altered TrnrXa^uvo'i to
TTifiTrXdjUievos, ovdev to oi'Sei', but keep -t^fxtp' at 674 E,
and with some serious doubt iWe/Sopos for kXki/Sopo'i
in vi. 693 a (the influence of Hippocrates }).

Necessarily I have not only depended on standard
reference works, special studies such as the ones by
Volkmann, Hartman, and Ziegler, and related investi-
gations by Hirzel, Martin, and others, but found it
useful to compare translations into Latin (Xylander

284



INTRODUCTION TO BOOKS IV-VI

as corrected and reprinted by Wyttenbach), French
(Ricard), German (Kaltwasser), and English. The
EngUsh translation which I have mainly consulted was
that by ** T. C." at the end of the seventeenth cen-
tury ; although once or twice I have looked into
Philemon Holland's.

In Book IV the topics discussed include, after a
proem on the relation between convivial parties and
rational friendship, the question of the digestibi-
hty of an elaborate or varied diet (Question 1), that
of truffles and other eifects or alleged effects of thun-
der and lightning (Qu. 2), the reason for large
wedding banquets (Qu. 3), the contributions of sea
and land to our food supply, particularly the gourmet
and health value of those of the sea (Qu. 4), the
mystery of Jewish dietary practices and the astonish-
ing importance of the pig (Qu. 5), and the equally
astonishing identity of the God of the Hebrews with
Dionysus (if we can beheve it, considering the pre-
vailing ignorance of evidence Plutarch did not con-
sult !) (Qu. 6). The missing " Problems " of this
book — according to the captions — concerned the
order of the days of the week as compared to the
order of the " planets " (note that Sun and Moon,
but not Earth, are planets here, and of course the
ancients did not know all our planets) (Qu. 7), the
reason for wearing the seal-ring on a certain finger
(Qu. 8), whether one ought to wear images of gods
or of wise men on seal-rings (Qu. 9)> and why women
do not eat heart of lettuce (Qu. 10).

In Book V we find a proem of psychological nature
both in the original and in our sense of " psycho-
logical," followed by discussions of the contrast in
our reaction to the depiction of feeling in art and

^5



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

of the expression of the same emotions in real hfe
(Qu. 1), of the history of competitions in hterature and
poetry at the Games (Qu. 2), certain facts about the
history of the crown awarded at the Isthmian Games,
>\ath sundry learned observations (or speculations)
on the properties of the pine and celery (Qu. 3), the
meaning of a certain word used by Homer (Qu. 4),
the problem of whom or how many to invite to a
dinner party (Qu. 5), the puzzle why guests find
themselves becoming less crowded on the dining
couches during the course of a meal (Qu. 6), the " evil
eye " (Qu. 7), a couple of points of usage in Homer
and Empedocles, with some etymological considera-
tions (Qu. 8), the paradox of a tree of bitter quality,
the fig, producing the sweetest fruit (Qu. 9), and the
proverbial " salt and bean friends " and the divine
quality of salt (Qu. 10).

Book VI begins in its proem with an anecdote
relating to Plato and his Academy : a banquet there
was wholesome and chiefly intellectual. Of the
Questions which follow, the first deals with thirst
caused by fasting, the next follows this up by raising
the matter of the physiological nature of hunger ;
similarly Question 3 ties in with this by exploring the
contradictory physical phenomenon of hunger as-
suaged by liquid food, but thirst only intensified by
solid. Question 4 investigates another not unrelated
scientific puzzle connected with this general sphere
of interest : why is the water in a vessel held sus-
pended in a well found cooler than the well-water
itself ? Question 5 asks why pebbles or bits of metal
thrown in will cool water ; Question 6 how chaff and
cloth can preserve snow ; Question 7 whether one
ought to filter wine ; Question 8 the causes of bulimy,

286



INTRODUCTION TO BOOKS IV-VI

a kind of ravenous hunger ; Question 9 another
point of Homeric usage, namely calling oil liquid par
excellence, and Question 10 the curing property of
fig-trees when Upila are hung from their limbs.

Neither the traditional captions nor this skeleton
summary give even a hint of the richness of the con-
tent. Plutarch and his friends are always ready with
a literary citation and a philosophical or scientific
extension of the subject.

It is, as everyone knows and gladly states, a
pleasant duty to acknowledge much help and friendly
advice. I am indebted to the Research Council of
the University of California, Los Angeles, for provid-
ing clerical help in the early stages of the project. I
owe a special debt to my colleague, P. A. Clement,
for his initial suggestion that I participate in this
task, and for his kindness in making available books
and materials. I have heavily imposed on the
patience of Professors Alfred C. Andrews, Harold
Chemiss, and W. C. Helmbold, and of the late Pro-
fessor Ludwig Edelstein. Especially often have I
called upon Professor Andrews for answers only he
could provide ; he has regularly responded and
beyond that assisted me greatly in matters not con-
fined to his speciality. Equally ready with acute
suggestions in truly phenomenal variety has been
Professor L. A. Post, egregie cordatus homo, whose un-
flagging zeal is known to countless scholars. Also far
beyond what I had a right to claim I have drawn upon
the various abilities and loyal co-operation of my wife .
Lastly, I must record deep indebtedness to one other
generous scholar, who insists on remaining anonymous.

Herbert B. Hoffleit
University of California
Los Angeles gorr



TABLE-TALK

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES)
BOOK IV



VOL. VIII



^^^^ STMnOSIAKQN

BIBAION TETAPTON

*n SoCTcrtc Ti€V€KLa)v, rod UoXv^lov ^K-rjiriajvL
rrapaivovvTOS ^A(f)pLKava) firj Trporepov i^ dyopdg
aTreXdeXv ^ (J)lXov riva TTOLtjaaadai rcov ttoXltcov

F ^iXoV^ Set /XT^ TTLKpCOS fJLTjSe GO(j)L(JTlKa)S OLKOVeLV

€K€ivov Tov d/xeraTTTCOTOv /cat jSejSatov, dAAa /coivcu?
rov evvow worrep coero ;)^p-^vat AiKalapxos evvovs
fxev avTcp TrapaGKevd^eiv drravras, <f)iXovs he
660 TTOieioOaL rovs dyadovs. <f)iXia yap iv XP^^V
TToXXo) /cat St* dp€T7Js dXa)GLfjiov' evvoia^ Se /cat
XP^^o, /cat OjLttAta /cat TratSta TroAtrt/ccov dvSpoiv
CTrdyerat, Kaipov Xa^ovua ireidovs (fnXavdpwnov
/cat ;\;dptTOS' crwepyov.

'AAA' o/Da TO T-:^? TTapaivioeoJS , €t /xt) piovov

^ Se after ^t'Aov omitted by Xy lander.
2 ewotav Xylander.

" C/. Sayings of Romans, 199 f (LCL Plut. 3/or. iii, pp.
184 if.), Stobaeus 37. 35. At Rome, " friendship " was apt
to have a political sense ; see Cicero, Commentariolum Peti-
tionis, 5. 16 and L. R. Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of
Caesar, pp. 7 ff.

" See Aristotle, Eth. Nic. viii, esp. 1159 b 8, and ix, 1 172 a
9 ; Cicero, De Amic. 19 and 32 ; Plutarch, Be Amic. Mult.
94 a.

" Celebrated philosopher, pupil of Aristotle. See RE, v.

290



TABLE-TALK

BOOK FOUR

When, dear Sossius Senecio, Polybius advises Scipio
Africanus never to return from a visit to the Forum
until he has made a new friend of one of his fellow
citizens," we must not interpret " friend " with pe-
dantic strictness as referring to the celebrated ideal
type,** immutable and steadfast, but take it in a
broader sense as meaning any well-wisher. Just so
Dicaearchus " recommended securing the good will
of all and sundry, but making friends only with the
good. Friendship is an objective that can be captured
only by long effort <* and sturdy qualities of char-
acter," whereas good will is enUsted through the
ordinary associations of business, social life, and play
shared with members of the community, with the
opportunities thus afforded for the exercise of friendly
persuasion and good feeling.'

As to the advice of Polybius, perhaps you'll agree

546, no. 3 ; F. Wehrli, Die Schule des AristoteleSy Heft i, frag.
46.

'^ Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 1156 b 25.

' There is a military metaphor here, but the phrase 8i'
dp€Trjs is intended also by its other meaning to allude to
Aristotle's point in Eth. Nic. viii. 4 and elsewhere, that there
is a close relation between true friendship and sound char-
acter, f Cf. infray ix. 14, 746 a.

291



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(660) €X€L Se^Lios rrpos ayopav aAAa kol irpos ovfjLTTooLov
cjare helv firj Trporepov dvaXveiv t] KTrjoaodai Tiva
rcov avyKaTaK€LiJL€vcov Kat rrapovrajv evvovv iavrco
Koi <f)iXov. €LS ayopav piev yap ipL^dXXovoi it pay -
[xdrcov €LveK€v Kal ;^petcov iripcjv, els Se ov/JLvoGiov
OL ye vovv exovres d^iKvovvraL Knqoojxevoi <f>iXovs
B ovx '^rrov t] rovs ovras €V(f)pavovvr€'S . Stdrt tcjv
fiev dXXcDV l,rjT€LV €K(f)opdv dveXevdepov dv etr] Kal
<f)OpTiK6v, TO he (jiiXcuv TrXiov e^ovTas dinivaL Kal
TjSv Kal aepLvov iariv. Kal rovvavriov 6 rovrov
TTapapLeXcjv dxapi'V aura) /cat dreXrj rrjv ovvovoiav
TTOieZ /cat aTretCTt rfj yaorpl ovvheiirvos ov rfj ^xfi
yeyovojs' 6 yap avvBeiTTVos ovk oijjov Kal oivov
Kal TpayrjpLdrcov fjuovov, dXXd Kal Xoycov kolvwvos
7]K€L Kal TratStas"^ /cat ^iXocfypoovviqs et? evvoiav
reXevTCjGrjs . at pLev yap TTaXaiovrcov im^oXal^
Kal eA^ets" KovLOprov Seovrac, rat? Se (^t At/cat?
AajSatS" 6 otvos d<j>7jv evhihaxji payvupievog Adyco*
Xoyos yap avrco to (jyiXdvOpcjirov Kal tjOottolov

€7tI TTjV ^Vxh^ ^'^ '^^^ GCOp^arOS €7rOX€T€V€L Kal

C o-uvStaStSojcrtv^- et 8e /xtJ, TrXavcopievos €V rep gco-
/xart TrXrjGfJiovrjs ovSev OTTOvSaiorepov irapeox^v.
bvev cjoirep 6 /xap/xapos", rod htairvpov GiSrjpov rep

^ So Xylander : -naiheia^.
^ iinXa^ai Bases.

^ So Hubert, evhihojaiv AMlamowitz, crwevStScocn Bernarda-
kis : avvhihioaiv.

" Cy.the interdict at sacrifices ovk €K^opd, "no removal from
the premises ! " as recorded in comedy and inscriptions ; see,
e.g., Aristophanes, Plutus, 1138, and scholia, as well as van
Leeuwen's note.

'' Wrestlers sanded themselves after anointing with olive-
oil : RE, s.v. KoviSi and Ovid, Metamorph. ix. 55 f.
292



TABLE-TALK IV, 660

that it is well adapted not only to the market place
but also to parties. That is, we should not let a party
break up before we have made a new friend and well-
wisher among the other guests and fellow diners.
People rush to the market place on business or for
some other practical purpose ; they attend a party —
at least if they're intelligent — as much to gain new
friends as to give a good time to the old. For
though it would be low and vulgar to wish to carry
off'* anything else, it is both a pleasure and a dis-
tinction to come away with a profitable addition to
the number of one's friends. On the other hand,
anyone who neglects to do so makes the social occa-
sion incomplete and unrewarding to himself; he de-
parts after having partaken only with his stomach,
not his mind. A guest comes to share not only meat,
wine, and dessert, but conversation, fun, and the
amiability that leads to friendship. The grips and
tugs of wrestling require fine sand ^ ; the holds of
friendship are won by a blend of wine and conversa-
tion. For it is through conversation that wine chan-
nels from the body and distributes through the
character a generous influence that permeates the
whole man.*' Otherwise the wine, circulating uncon-
trolled in the body, produces nothing better than
mere repletion. In consequence, just as marble **
eliminates excessive melting and fluidity in red-hot

* Or, with T, " which it contributes," �.�., to the wine. On
the argument compare Plutarch's theory of music as a correc-
tive to the influence of wine, De Musica^ 1 146 e = Aristoxenus,
122 Wehrli (see Wehrli's commentary and infra^ 713 b), and
Septem Sap. Conv. 156 d.

<* Lime is still used as a flux in metallurgy. Cf. R. J.
Forbes, Metallurgy in Antiquity (Leyden, 1950), pp. 35 ff.
and 396.

293



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(660) Karaipvx^i'V rrjv ayav vypor-qra kol pvaiv d<f)aipcov,

€VTOVOV TrOL€L TO IXaXaGGOfMCVOV aVTOV Kal TVTTOV-

lievov, ovTCxJS 6 GVfJLTroTiKOS Xoyog ovk id Sta^o-
petadaL TTavrdiTaaiv vtto tov olvov rovs TTivovras,
dXX €(f)LGrrjGL Kal 7tol€l rfj dviaei to IXapov kol
^iXdvd pcDTTov eyKepaoTov Kal t6^ K€\apiopiivoVy dv
TLS ififieXo)? dTTTTjTai, Kaddirep o<j)paylhi (^iXias



nPOBAHMA A

D El -q TTOLKlXr) TpO(f)r} TTJS OLTrXrjS €V7T€TTTOT4pa

Collocuntur Philo, Plutarchus, Philinus, Marcio

1 . Trjs OVV T€TdpTr]S TCJV GV/JLTTOTLKCOV J^TJTTjIJLdTOJV

Sc/caSos" rjfjuv TrpwTov carat to irepl ttjs ttoikiXt]?
Tpo^r\s i,r]T7]6ev. 'EAa<^')]j8oAtcov yap ovtojv et?
^YdfiTToXiv €7tI t7]v iopTTjv dcjuKvovpiivovs rjfJids
eloTLa OtAcov o laTpos €k TrapaGKevrjg tlvos, co?
€<f)alv€TOy veavLKTJs.^ tScuv 8e tujv TraiSicov tcjv*
dfJLa Tcb OiAtVoj^ TO veov^ dpTco -)(pcx)pi€vov dXXov Se
jjLrjSevos Seofievov, " o) 'HpaK-Aei?," ^^i]} " tout'

^ TO added by Hubert.

^ So Reiske : evrimdjTaTov.

^ So Reiske : veaviKcbs, defended by Hubert, cf. 686 �.

* Ta)v TTaiSiW Tuiv Wyttenbach : to TraiSiov. Perhaps rolv
Traihioiv.

* So Xylander or Amyot : <j>LXuivi.

^ TO vewTcpov Hartman, De Avondzon des Ueidendoms, i^,
p. 181 : TOV veov {to Reiske). Tiva viov ^^'armington, piovov
Post. Perhaps povio or tov eTcpov.



<• Imitated by Macrobius, SaturnaUa, vii. 4 and 5.
* Dedicated to Artemis the Huntress, attested for Hyam-
polis in Inscriptiones Graeca�, ix. 90.

294



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 660

iron by cooling it down, and thus gives the right ten-
sile strength to the metal during the softening and
shaping process, so table-talk prevents the complete
dissipation of the drinkers' minds under the influence
of the wine. Conversation steadies those who drink,
adding through relaxation an element of gaiety and
— yes — of kindly sociability, if people go about it in
the right way, since the wine makes the company
pliable and ready to take an impression, as it were,
from the seal of friendship.

QUESTION 1 •

Whether a variety of food is more easily digested than
one kind alone

Speakers : Philo, Plutarch, Philinus, and Marcion

1 . The first in our fourth decade of convivial questions
shall be the discussion we had concerning variety in
diet on the occasion of a banquet during the festival
of the Elaphebolia,^ for which we had gone to Hyam-
polis.*' On our arrival there we were entertained at
dinner by Philo ^ the physician, who, as we saw, had
provided a mighty feast for us. Our host, having
noticed that one of the young boys who came with
Philinus * took bread and wanted nothing else, ex-
claimed," Good Lord ! So this is what the proverb

" Near Abac in Phocis.

<* Cf. above, Table-Talk, ii. 6. 2, p. 640 d, and below, vi. 2
and viii. 9 ; RE, xx. 60, no. 61.

• Cf. above, Table-Talk, i. 6, and below, viii. 7 ; and De
Pythiae Oraculis with Flaceliere's Introduction, pp. 25 ff.
See RE, xxi. 681, s.v. " Plutarchos." A later descendant of
Philinus seems to be known : Hesperia xi. 71, no. 37. J. J.
Hartman, Be Plut. Script, et Phil. pp. 384 f.. identifies
Ta TToxhia as students, the fitipaKia <f>iXoao<f>ovvra of Table-Talk,
iii. 7, 655 r.

295



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(660) ap* TjV TO Xeyofxevov

€V Se XtOoLS iyidy^ovTo i Xidov S* ovk rjv dveXe-

E /cat dveTTrih-qoev olao/JLevog n rwv XPV^^H'^^ CKei-
vois, €t^' rJK^ fxerd xpovov avx^ov tcr;^a8as' avrols
TLvas /cat rvpov KOfxllcov.

'E/xou S' etVovTos', OTL Tovro (jvii^aiveL rols rd
TTepLTrd Kal TToXvreXrj TrapaaKevaJ^ofJicvoL? , d/LteAetv
Acat 07Tavit^€LV Tcov dvayKaiojv /cat ^^pi^cr tjitcuv, " ov
yap ifjLefjLv^pLTjVy" elirev 6 OtAcov, " on l^woaorpov

rjfUV V7TOTp€<f)€L^ OtAtVOS", OV (paUL /X7^T6 TTOTO) ^pf^Crd-

pL€Vov dXXo) pLrjr ehiupLari ttXtjv^ ydXaKTOS Sca^iw-
aai Trdvra tov ^lov dXX eKeivco jxev €/c fJbera^oXrjg
dpx'TjV yevioOai ttjs roiavrr]? hiainqs euKos' rov 5'
rjfjLerepov dvTLOTpocj^cos rcb 'A;!^tAAet rpecficov 6 Xet-
pojv ovTos evdvs dTTo rrj's yevdoeojs avatjita/crot?' /cat
F di/jvxois* rpo(f)aLS ovk aKpav dnoSeL^LV irapix^t'^ €v
depL /cat Spoao)^ Kaddnep ol rerriyes cnrovp^evov ; "

^ o deleted by Benseler before OiAlv-os.

2 ^ deleted by Bernardakis before ydXaKTos.

' So Stephanus, Wyttenbach : avat/zaroi?.

* Kol ailsvxois Wyttenbach : lac. 6-Q X^*-^'

^ Trap^x^L Post : l^ei. Post would continue (cVSei yap h'
or €v fjiovov ?), de'pi, and either avrov aiTovpievov or (with
Wyttenbach) aiTovpLcvov, inserting an article before dTrdSet^ir.
Madvig proposes ovk els puaKpav aTroSei'^et, omitting e^^i,

' Xeyovai omitted after hpoaco. Bernardakis proposes ois
XeyovoL or KaOdvep Xeyovai tovs remyas.

� Part of a riddle referring to shipwreck on a reef. The
riddle is quoted by Athenaeus (x, 457 n) as containing this line
along with the original of Coleridge's " Water, water every-
where, nor any drop to drink." See Gulick on Athenaeus
(LCL), iv, pp. 572-575.

^ Wyttenbach cites Amyot and the Codices Vulcobius and

296



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 660



Mid stones they fought, but couldn't lift a stone." *
With that he rushed out to get them something that
they could eat. After a long time he came back with
a few dried figs and some cheese for them.

" This," I remarked, " is what happens when people
provide elaborate and costly fare. They're prone to
be negligent and run out of the staple and essential
items." To this Philo rejoined, " True enough. It had
slipped my mind that Philinus has been bringing up
among us a Sosaster,^ who they say never took any
food or drink but milk during his whole life. But the
original Sosaster must have turned to this diet from
an earlier one, whereas our young friend, unlike
Achilles,'' has been fed bloodless and vegetarian food
by his Cheiron here from birth. Isn't he giving a
splendid illustration of a person fed as they say
cicadas ^ are on dew and air ? "

B as reading " Zoroaster," whose name is retained by Kalt-
wasser and Ricard in their translations. A slight degree of
support for this interpretation may be found in Pliny, xi. 97.
242, where Zoroaster is alleged to have lived on cheese for
twenty years. Cf. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Ancient Philo-
sophers, Prologue, 7 and 8, with R. D. Hicks's note in Dio-
genes Laertius (LCL), i, p. 8. Sosaster is unknown, but he
may be identical with an obscure character in lamblichus's
Life of Pythagoras, 267. Sostratos (RE, Suppl. viii. 782)
appears to have lived about a century later.

" Achilles was fed on meat from the start by Cheiron :
Apollodorus, iii. 13. 6 ; Statins, Achilleid, ii. 382 (ii. 96 if.) ;
J. D. Beazley, Development of Attic Black-Figure, pp. 10 f.

^ For the belief that cicadas need no food see Plato, Phae-
drus, 259 c, Aristophanes, Clouds, 1360 ; Aristotle, Historia
Animal. 532 b ; Hesiod, Shield, 393. Pliny's explanation is
found in Nat. Hist. xi. 32. 92 if. See also RE, s.v. " Tettix,"
cols. 1 116 f., and now E. K. Borthwick in Class. Quart. N.S.
xvi(1966), pp. 103 if.

VOL. VIII L* 297



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(660) " 'H/xets" )Ltev ovv," 6 ^lXlvos elirev, " rjyvoovixev
'EiKarofxcfyovia SeiTTVijcrovTes cjairep irr^ ^Apiarofie-
vovs- errel TraprjfjLev^ dv oipa tojv Xltcov /cat vyiaivov-
Tijjv, WGTTep a\e^i<j)dpixaKa, irpos ovtoj TToXvTeXels
Kal (f)\eyiiaLVovGas Tparret^as Ticptai/fa/xevof /cat
661 raOra, oov^ ttoXXolkl? aKTjKoores on rwv ttoiklXcov
TO. airXd fJidXXov evireTrr iorlv /cat^ evrropLGra."

Kat o MapKiojv TTpos rov OtAcova, " Sta^^etpci
GOV OlXlvos," ^(f>T], " Trjv TTapaGKevqv, OLTrorpeTrajv
/cat SeStTTOjLtevos' rovs SaLrvfiovas' aAA* dv ijJLov
S€r]9fjs, iyyviJGOfjiaL rrpos avrov^ virep gov rrjv
TTOLKiXrjv Tpocfyrjv evTreTrrorepav etvaL rrjs aTrXrjs,
a)Gr€ dappovvras aTToXaveiv rcov irapaKeLfjidvajv."
6 fjiev ovv OtAcov cSctTO rov MapKLOJVOs ovtoj

TTOtetV.

2. 'Ettci 8' rjfjieZs TravGafxevoL tov SeiTrvelv irpoG-
eKaXovjJLeda tov OtAtvoy CTrt^ea^at ttj KaTrjyopia
B rrjs TTOiKiXris Tpocfyrjv, " ' ovk c/xos"/ " elirev, " '6
/jLvdos' dAA' ovTOGL OtAojv e/ccLCTTOTe Aeyct irpos
rjjjidg, ort TrpojTov fiev tol diqpia rpo^at? ijlovo€l8€gl
Kal aTrXals Xp<x>iJi€va fxdXXov vyiaivei, tcov dvSpoi-
TTCOV OGa 8e GLTevovGL Kadeip^avT€S, €7nG(j>aXrj

TTpos TO,? VOGOVS ioTLV /Cat paSiCOS rat? WpLOTTJOLV

aAtcr/c€Tat Sid to jjlikttJv Tiva /cat GVvrjSvGfJLevrjv
Tpo(fyrjv 7TpoG(l)€p€G6ai.* 8evT€pov ovSels yeyovev
ovTCx) Tcjv laTpojv TrapaToXfios iv /catvoro^ta /cat

^ So Leonicus : nap rj^uv.
2 So Wyttenbach : ov.

^ So Wyttenbach : ^. Perhaps en Se /cat or /cat 817 /cat, or
a/xa /cat.

* So Stephanus : vpo<f>€p€adai.

" Literally " the slaying of a hundred enemies," a sacrifice



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 660-661

" But we," answered Philinus, " weren't aware that
we had been invited to a banquet to celebrate the
hekatomphonia," as in Aristomenes's time. Other-
wise we should have come furnished \vith some simple,
wholesome food as with an amulet and an antidote
against such luxurious and unhealthy eating. What
is more, we have often heard you say that simple food
is more digestible than an elaborate variety, as well
as easier to obtain."

Here Marcion interposed, " Philo, Phihnus is ruin-
ing all your efforts by discouraging and frightening
away your guests ; but if you entreat me, I'll guaran-
tee to them all for you that mixed food is more digest-
ible than simple, so that your guests need have no
misgivings about enjoying what is set before them
here." Philo accordingly did entreat Marcion to do
so.

2. So when we had finished dinner, we called upon
Philinus to open the charge against variety of food ;
but he answered, " * Not mine the argument.' ** It's
Philo here who tells us on every occasion that, for
one thing, animals by always sticking to simple, uni-
form food are generally healthier than human beings.
Moreover, those that are fattened in pens are liable
to disease and fall an easy prey to crude humours
because the fodder that they consume is mixed and
richly flavoured. In the second place, no physician
has ever been so foolhardy an innovator, so courage-
performed among the Messenians by one who had personally
slain one hundred enemies in combat. Aristomenes, in the
7th century, is said to have celebrated this feat three times.
See Pausanias, iv. 14 fT., 19. 3 ; Plutarch, Life of Romulus,
XXV. 3 ; RE, vii. 2790 and ii. 947, no. 1.

" Literally " the tale " : from Euripides's Melanippi, frag.
484 (Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag. p. 511).

299



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(661) dvSpeios, wore ttolklXtjv Tpo(f>'r]v TrvpirrovTi rrpoa-
eveyKelv dAAa tt^v aTrXrjv /cat aKVioov w? vtttjkoov
fjidXiara rfj Trdipei rrpoGcjiipovGiv. Set ydp rro.deiv
C rrjv Tpo(f)'r)v /cat juerajSaAetv KparrjdelGav vtto tcjv
iv rjfXLV Svvdfieojv Kparel 8k /cat ^acj)'?) rcov olttXcov
Xpcop>d,TOJV fjLdXXov, /cat fivpei/jiKois (jiapfiaKOLS rpe-
Trerat rdxiara to dajSeararov^ eXaioVy /cat Tpo(fyfjs
evrradeGrarov vtto Triijjecjs [xera^dXXeLV^ to dcfyeXes
/cat /xovoetScV. at 8e vroAAat /cat Troi/ctAat TroLorrjreg
V7T€vavTLa)G€LS €XOVGaL /Cat SvGfJLaxovGai ^deipovrai
Trporepov TrpoGTriirrovGaL, Kaddnep iv TroXec pnyd-
8a)v /cat GvyKXv8ajv dvOpwirajv ttXtjOos ov paStcog
jjilav ouS' ofJiOTTadovGav iG^ovGaL KardGraGiv, dXX

eKdGTT] TTpOS TO oIk€LOV dvTLT€LVOVGa /Cat hvGGVfJi-

jSaro? ovGa rrpos to dXX6(f)vXov. epicfyaves 8e
D T€KpLripiov TO 7T€pl Tov otvov at ydp aXXoLviat
XeyojJLevaL Ta;)^tcrTa jJLedvGKOVGLV, dTreipla S* oivov
TrpooeoLKev r] piddr]' 8l6 (jyevyovGL tov piepiiypiivov
otvov ol 7tIvovt€s, ol 8e piyvvovTes TretpcDvrat
Xavddveiv cos" €7tl^ovX€vovt€s , cKOTaTiKov ydp r)
pLeTa^oXrj /cat to^ dvcLjiaXov. ddev ttov /cat ra?
7ToXvxop8ias jLtera ttoAAtjs' ot pLovGiKol kivovgiv
evXa^eia?, ah* ov8ev dXXo /ca/cov t) to puKTov
€GTL /cat ttoiklXov. iyd) 8' e/cetv' e;^a) etTretv, ot^

^ So Turnebus : eucoSearaTov.

^ So Wyttenbach : /jLera^aXXei.

^ TO added by Reiske.

* ais added by Xylander.

" Or " unseasoned." Cf. Be Tuenda Sanitate^ 123 b (LCL
Mor. ii, pp. 220-221).

" A relevant point is made by Plato in speaking of dyeing
in Republic^ 429 d-e, with which Adam aptly compares

300



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 661

ous a man, as to prescribe a varied diet for fevered
patients ; all give them a simple, fat-free � diet as
the most easily digestible. For the food has to be
acted upon and to suffer a change by subjection to
our internal processes. In dyeing ^ also, simple
colours are more likely to be fast ; and in perfumery
the most scentless oil is most quickly blended ; thus
simple and homogeneous nutriment is most easily
converted in the process of digestion.'' When a
number of divergent qualities in food are united,
essentially opposed and clashing as they are, they
encounter each other prematurely and are destroyed.
Like a mob of ill-assorted riffraff in a community, these
elements cannot easily establish unity and harmoni-
ous order among themselves, but each pulls in its
own direction, and will not come to terms \vith an
alien kind. Wine offers a clear proof : the mixture of
several wines together, the so-called alloinia, quickly
intoxicates, and intoxication is like a kind of indiges-
tion with respect to wine. Drinkers, for this reason,
avoid a mixture of wines,** and those who mix wines
try to conceal the wily practice. Change and ir-
regularity are disruptive. This no doubt explains
why musicians too are very cautious about striking a
combination of notes together ; yet the only thing
wrong about it is the combination itself and the
bizarre effect. So I for my part am justified in what

TimaeuSy 50 d-e, where essentially the same point is supported
by an analogy from perfume-making.

* Or " more easily absorbed " ? With simple dyestnflFs
are contrasted, for instance, the prevalent dibapha^ " double-
dyed " : Pliny, Nat. Hist. ix. 63. 137.

** Cf. Pliny, JVat. Hist, xxiii. 24. 45 : " misceri plura
genera [of wine] omnibus inutile," and Aristotle, Rhetoric^
iii. 2. 4, with Cope's note : such artifice puts one on one's
guard as against a plotter.

801



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(661) fJidXXov dv^ €K Xoycjv VTrevavrccov yivoir dv ttigtls
KOI (jvyKarddeois^ r] veipLS €K Siacfyopwv ttolottitcxjv .
hiL oe 07) ooKOj TTaL^eiv, ravT eaoas €ttl ra
E OtAcovo? avctjLtt. TToXXaKis yap aKovo/jLev avrov
XiyovTOS , cos em* ttolott^tl rpocf)!]? ylyveraL ro
8vG7T€7TTOV Kal euTTeTTTov/ 7j 8e^ TToXvfiLyLa pXapepov
Koi yovLfjLov dXXoKOTOJV TTOLOT'qrojv, Kal Set to
crvfi(l)vXov €K 7T€ipas Xa^ovra xprjaOai /cat oripyeiv.
et Se (ffvoet SvoTrerrrov ovSdvy dXXd ttXtjOos eon to
Tapdooov Kal ^Oelpov, ert pbdXXov ot/xat tcl rravTo-
SaTTCt raura /cat TTOt/ctAa (J)€vkt4ov, ols dpTLCos

Tjixds 6 OtAcOVOS" OljjOTTOlOS CUCTTTCp dvTLT€)(VO? aVTOV

KaT€(j)dpiJiaTT€v, i^aXXaTTOJV ttj /catvoTTyrt /cat
fi€Ta^oXfj TTjv dpe^LV ovK dnayopevovoav , dAA'
dyofJLevqv ctt* aAAa /cat TrapeK^aivovoav iv T(h

TTOiKlXcp TO fJL€TpLOV^ Kol aVTapK€�, WO^TTep 6 TTJS
*Yl/jLy7TvX'q9^ Tp6(j>L[JLOS €K€lvOS^

^ €T€pOV €(/>* €T€pOV alpOlXEVOS^^

dypevfi dvdeojv^^ rjSofieva ipv^d,

\ / 12 " \ � ^ 13

TO VqiTLOV aTTA7]GTOS €vJV



inl nXeloTov efar^tjerat tov Aet/xcovo?.

'Evrau^a 8e /cat tov HiOKpaTovs ajxa fJLvrjfjLO--



(( )i



n



^ Lacuna after ay, perhaps av<dpa)7Tois> Bernardakis.

2 So Turnebus, Vulcobius : Karddeais.

^ el hk 8rj Reiske, Wyttenbach, Iva Se fi-n Xylander, Aniyot:
€t 8e /i.17. * €7ret Wyttenbach, ei Meziriacus.

^ K:ai cvveTTTov added by Hubert.

' 8e added by Madvig, Hubert, tc Bernardakis.

' TO fMCTpiov supphed by Turnebus : lac. 4.

* So Turnebus, c/. 93 d : cba lac. 1-2 TrvXrjs.

' So Kronenberg, c/. 691 d : lac. 3-4 vos.
^" So Turnebus, Stephanus (e^' eVepoj), r/. 93 d : €<f>€T€pas
Uiievos. ^^ So Turnebus, Stephanus, c/. 93 d : av aw-.

302



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 661

I said, because persuasion and agreement can sooner
be reached by conflicting statements than good diges-
tion by foods of divergent types.

" But if this seems frivolous, I shall drop it and
get back to Philo's views. We often hear him say
that good or bad digestion depends on the nature of
the food consumed, and that a combination of mis-
cellaneous viands is harmful and engenders adverse
conditions. We must learn by experience what foods
go together and be content to use them. But if
nothing is of itself indigestible, and it is only the
quantity that causes disorder and harm, then I think
that we should all the more avoid the multifarious
variety with which Philo's cook has just drugged us.
This he does as if to set his skill in opposition to
Philo's, altering our appetite by novelty and change,
not letting it be appeased, but ever leading it on to
something else, and causing it to exceed what is
reasonable and self-sufficient by colourful variety. So
our cook is like the nursling of Hypsipyle,** as he
gathers flowers far and wide through the meadow :

Flower after flower he plucked.
Garnering: his catch with rejoicing heart.
Never satisfied — the child !

" In this connection we must also recall Socrates *s ^

" Daughter of King Thoas of Lemnos who, being enslaved,
became the nurse of Opheltes, son of King Lycurgus of
Nemea.

" Euripides, frag. 754- from the IlypsipylS (Nauck, Trag.
Gr. Frag.). See now G. W. Bond's edition, Oxford, 1963,
pp. 34 f. and 91 f. Opheltes is bitten by a snake and dies.

" Xenophon, Memorabilia^ i. 3. 6.

^' So Turnebus, Stephanus from 93 d : lac. 3-4 firjniov.
*' anX-qaTOS €utv (sic) T, axprfcrrov lx<ov MSS. at 93 D.

SOS



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(661) vevreoVy irapaKeXevofjievov ^vXarTeadai rcov ^pcofid-
Tcov Ota Tov? fjiTj TTeivcxyvras ioOUiv dvaveidei, cos
ovSev aAA' rj ro TravrohaiTov koI ttolklXov evXa^ei-
aOai Kal SeSievai rwv gltlojv Trapaivovvrog . rovro
662 ydp TTOppcorepoj i^dyei rrjs ypelas rrjv diroXav-
GLV €V dedpiauLV iv aKpodixauiv iv d^pohioioig ev
•naihials aTrdoais Kal Starpt^ai?, dvaXa/ji^avo-
fji€V7]v VTTO rod TrepLTTOV TToAAas" dpxds exovros' iv
Se rats' aTrAats" Kal pLovorpoTTOis rjSovalg ov irap-
€K^aiv€i rrjv (jyvaiv rj deX^cg. oXcns Se jjlol So/cet
fjidXXov dv TVS UTTO/xetvat iroXvxophiav jjlovglkov
iwaivovvra Kal ixvpaXoi(f)iav dXeLTrrrjv ^ TToXvoipiav
larpov at ydp eKrpoTral Kal pLera^oXal rrjs etV
vyUiav evdeias eK^L^dt^ovoLV."^

3. Tov 8e ^lXlvov ravr elirovros, 6 MapKLa>v
B €(j)r] SoKeZv avTcp rfj HcjKpdrovs evix^odai Kardpa
firj fjLovov Tovs TO XvcnreXes dvo tov koXov
XOJpi^ovrag, dXXd Kal rovs rjSovrjv Suardvras drro
rrjs vyieias, wg dvTiTaTTopL€V7]v avrij Kal TroXe-
pbovaav ovxl pidXXov uvvepyovaav " apuKpa ydp,"
€(f)rj, " Kal aKovTes cos" jStatoraro) rchv opydvcov dX-
y-qhovi TTpoaxpi^iP'^Oo,' rcov 8* dXXa)V ovScls dv ovBe
^ovXofievos aTrdxjaLTo ttjv tjSovt^v, dXXd Kal rpo<f)aLS
Kal VTTVOLS Kal TTepl XovTpd Kal dXeipLpLara Kal
KaraKXioei'S del TrdpeoTLV Kal avveKSex^rai Kal

OVV€KTl6rjV€LTaL TOV KdpLVOVTa, TToXXqj TO) OLKetCp

C Acat Kara <f)vaiv i^afiavpovGa^ to dXXoTpLOv. rroia
ydp dXy7]S(x)v, tls evSeia, rrolov Sr]Xr)TT]piov ovtco

^ So Reiske : eK^idlovmv. ^ So Stephanus ■.^afj.nvpoiira.
304



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 661-662

admonition to beware of those dishes that tempt
people to eat when they're not hungry ; apparently
he is simply urging us to be cautious and wary of
variety and mixing of foods. Such variety encourages
indulgence far beyond need in sights and sounds, sex,
or in any kind of sport and pastime, because it adds
certain elements which renew the pleasure by their
numerous stimuli. On the other hand, in simple,
uniform pleasures no charm or magic induces us to
overstep the bounds of nature. In general, I should
sooner expect people to tolerate a musician who finds
a jumble of mixed sounds acceptable or a gymnastic
trainer who accepts scented oils, than a physician who
commends a combination of many meats. For the
detours and changes in such a diet divert us from the
straight road to health."

3. When Philinus had ended, Marcion said that in
his view the imprecation of Socrates ** falls not only
upon those who detach interest from honour, but
upon those who divorce pleasure from health, as if it
were an opposing and hostile force instead of a sup-
porting one. " We have recourse to pain in treating
the sick only sparingly and reluctantly, for it is ex-
cessively violent ; from all other therapy no one could
remove pleasure, even if he wished. Eating, sleeping,
bathing, anointing and resting on a couch are all
attended by pleasure, which does its part to support
and nurse a man back to health, weakening the
abnormal and extraneous by providing abundance of
what is normal and proper. What pain, what deple-
tion, what poison ^ can so easily and simply break up

� Stoic. Vet. Frag. i. 558; Cicero, De OJfieiis, iii. 3. 11.
Socrates is said to have habitually invoked a curse upon those
who considered expediency and honour incompatible.

" More literally " destructive, harmful agent."

305



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(662) paSlojs Kal a^eActJS" voaov eXvaev, c^? Xovrpov iv
Kaipcp yevofxevov /cat otvo? Sonets' heofxivois; Kal
Tpocjyr] TrapeXOovaa [xed* 'qSovrjs €v6v9 eXvore ra
SvGX^prj TTavra Kal Karearrjaev els to oIk€lov T17V
(f>VGiv, a)07T€p evSlas Kal yaX'qvrjs yevopiivr]? . al
Se Std Tcov iiTiTTOvojv ^o'qdeLat pLoyis Kal Kara
fjLLKpov dvuovGL, ^^aAcTTcos" €KixoyXevovoaL Kal npoG-
jStaJo/xevat ttjv <J)vglv. ovk av ovv rjfJids Sta/SaAot
(^iXivoSy €L fxrj ra iGrla iKarep* iTrapafxevoi rrjv
r)8ovr)v (l)€vyoLiJi€v, dXXa Treipcpfieda to rjSecog Kal
D vyiecvajs ipLfxeXeGTepov 7} (L? evioi (f>LX6<70<f)OL to
rjSdcu? Kal KaXcos gvvolk€iovv.

" Eu^US" ovv 7T€pl TO npCOTOV, c5 OtAtVC, Toiv €7Tt-

X€cpr]fjidTa)V Sokcls (Jlol Sieipevodaiy tol diqpia tcov
dvdpcoTTCDV aTrXovcjTipais Tpo^als XPV^^^^ '^^^ p-dX-
Xov vyiaiveiv vTTOTiOepbevos. ovSeTepov yap dX-qdis
€GTLV' dXXd Tcp /xev at nap^ EuTroAtSos' atyes dvrt-
piapTvpovGLVf vpivovoai Tr]v Tpocfrrjv (Ls 7rap,p,iyrj Kal
TTOLKiXrjv ovGav, ovTOJS TTws Xiyovoai

PoGKopied* vXrjs dno TravToSaTrfjs , iXaTrjg npLVov

Kopidpov T€
TTTopdovs diraXovs diroTpajyovGaiy Kal TTpos tov-

TOLGLV €T aAAa,

^ So Xylander : er lac. 3-4, T, iyaXXorjv ms. of Macrobius,
Saturnalia, vii. 5. 9, roirroim ye daXXov Meineke, J. M.

306



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 662

a disease as a bath at the right time or wine provided
when the patient needs it ? Nourishment taken with
pleasure can quickly soothe all discomfort and set
nature to rights, as when clear sky and calm sea
have returned after a storm. Painful remedies work
slowly and are rarely successful, harshly AVTenching
and doing violence to nature. Philinus, then, cannot
give us a bad name � merely for refusing to hoist both
sails and run for it to escape pleasure. Rather, we
are trying to reconcile the concepts * pleasant ' and
' healthy ' more reasonably and appropriately than
some philosophers do ' pleasant ' and * honourable.'

" Your very first argument, Phihdus, is fallacious, it
seems to me, when you begin by assuming that animals
thrive on a simpler diet and are healthier than men.
For neither point is valid. Eupolis's ^ goats testify
against the first, when they chant the praises of their
diet as being all-inclusive and of wondrous variety. I
think the lines run as follows :

For we feed on every kind of tree " : silver-fir, kermes-

oak, arbiite-tree.
Chewing off the tender shoots ; and others too besides —

" Or " set us at variance."

* Eupolis, frag. 14 (Kock) and J. M. Edmonds, Fragments
of Attic Comedy, vol. i (1957), pp. 319 ff.. The Goats. Eupolis
was a writer of Old Attic Comedy, notus omnibus according
to Macrobius {Saturnalia, vii. 5. 8 with citation of the same
fragment).

" Botanical identifications are notoriously problematic.
See Sir Arthur Hort's edition of Theophrastus, Hist. Plant.
(LCL) with its admirable index of plants. See also Edmonds's
note on the fragment.

Edmonds, Frags, of Attic Comedy, i, p. .320 (c/. Athenaeiis,
582 f, 587 a, Harpocration, s.v. Nawiov, Plut. ^for. 30 c-d),
TouToi? TidvfjLoXXov Hergk, Eyssenhardt (" spurge "), dXo-qv tc
Warmington.

307



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(662) KVTLGOV T -qSe acfxiKov^ evcoSrj Kal ofjLtXaica ttjv^

E TToXv^vXXoVy

KOTLVoVy (jxlvov,^ fjieXlav, XevKTjv,^ apiav,^ hpvv,

KlTTOVy ipiKTlV,^

TTpofxaXov, papivov, (fyXofiov, avdepiKov, klgOov,
(jyriyov, OvpLa,^ Ovp^^pav

ra yap KarrjpLdfxrjfjieva pLvpia? S'qTrov 8La<f)Opa?
ex^i' ;^t>^cDv Kal oSjjlwv Kal SvvdjJiecov TrXeiova �e
TcDv elprjpevojv TTapaXeXeiTTrai .

To 8e hevrepov "O/xTypo? aderel jJLciXXov ip.-
TT^ipojSy ra XoipiiKa Trddrj irpcorov aTrreoOai tcjv
aXoycov dTro(f)aLv6pL€vog . Karr^yopei S' avrojv Kal
Tj ppaxvTT]s rod ^iov to eTTiKiqpov Kal vocjcDSe?*
ovhev yap cos eiTTeLV TToXvxpovLov €gtlv, ttXtju el
cf)aLT] Tis KopaKa Kal Kopcovrjv,^ a Srj 7TapL(j)dya t
F ovra Kal irdoris aTTTop^eva Tpo<j)ris 6pcx)p,€V.

Kat pLTjv Kal rfj rcov vogovvtcov hiairr^ KaXchs

eiToUis rd euTreTrra /cat SvaTreTrra reKpLaLpopLcvog-

Kal yap ttovos Kal yvpivdaia /cat' to SiaipeLV ttjv

663 Tpo(f>'r]V evTreiTTa^^ piiv ecrrtv, ov^ dppiol^ei Se rot?

^ So Bodaeus Stapelius : <f>a lac. 5-8 T, (f>aa.Kov ms. of
Macrobius. ^ ^^^ Macrobius : omitted in T.

' So in Macrobius : ixlvov.

* So Kock : 7T€VK7jv Macrobius, omitted in T.

^ So Lobeck : aAiav Macrobius, omitted in T.

^ So Macrobius : yivpiK-qv.

' So in Macrobius : omitted in T.

^ Kopa)V7]v added in Basel edition to fill lac. 3-4. T ; cf.
Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 5. 11 ^^ cornicibus."

^ Kara Post, eiV Hubert, 8ia Franke.

^" avvepya or TreTTTLKo. Hubert, but he allows an " active "
sense to cvTre-rrra ; cf. Gulick in A. J. P. Ix, pp. 493 f. on
dXKifjios (669 b) and Xvai^os.

" Or holm oak or yew. Smilax or milax seems to have been
308



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 662-663

Tree-medick and fragrant sage and leafy bindweed,"
Wild olive, mastic, manna ash, poplar, cork, common oak,

ivy, and heath,
Promalus,* boxthorn, mullein,'" asphodel, rock rose, va-

lonia oak, thyme, and savory.

The plants enumerated here surely have thousands
of different flavours, fragrances, and other properties ;
and Eupolis has omitted more than he has named.

" Your second point is refuted by Horner,*^ because
of his truer observation of nature, when he represents
the plague as attacking animals first. The very short-
ness of their life-span betrays how susceptible they
are to death and disease.* Practically none of them
is long-lived, unless you wish to cite ravens or crows,
which we see omnivorously snapping up every kind
of food that they come upon.

" Moreover, it was kind^ of you to distinguish
digestible from indigestible foods by reference to the
diet of the sick. For exertion, exercise and the use of
different foods ^ promote digestion, yet they are not

a name applied to two or three very different plants. Cf.
Theophrastus, Hist. Plant, iii. 16. 2 and 18. 11 ; and Pliny,
Nat. Hist. xvi. 19 and 153. The yew is a poisonous conifer
whose leaves are said to be very injurious to cattle : see Pliny,
Nat. Hist. xvi. 30 f. Hence, though leafy, the tojci nocentes of
Virgil, Georgics, ii. 257, appear unUkely as food for goats.

'' Perhaps a kind of willow. See Athenaeus, xv, 673 b-c,
and Apollonius Rhodius, iii. 201, with Mooney's note.

" Probably " comfrey," Andrews. •* Iliad^ i. 46-50.

* De Iside^ 371 b, has the same sequence of Greek words in
Xylander's emendation.

f i.e., to me (a way of saying " thank you for arguing on
my side.") The meaning may, however, be " it was intelli-
gent of you."

" Or " dividing the nourishment," i.e., eating twice a day.
Cf. (with L. Edelstein) Celsus, i. 1. Bernardakis compares
689 D on the process of digestion. With Post's reading the
sense would be " by helping to break up the food."

309



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(663) TTVperrovGL. Tr]v Se fidxW '^^^ '^V^ hia<j)opav rrjs
ttolklXtjs rpo^rjs aXoycjs iSeSUis. etre yap i^ 6-
jjLOLCov^ dvaXap,^dv€L to OLKetov rj <j)VOLS ko.V' els tov
oyKOV avTodev r) ttolklXt] rpo<jyi] TroAAa? pLedieioa
TTOLOTTjras i^ iavrrjs eKaarcp /xepct to 7Tp6o(j)opov
dvaSlScjOGiv, a)GT€ ylyveodai to tou 'E/xTreSo/cAeoi;?

a)S yXvKV /X€v' yXvKV pLdpTrre, TTiKpov 6' €7rt iriKpov

6pOVO€V,

6^1) 8' €7r' o^v €^r],* SaXepov SaXepov Xd^er wKaJ'

T(x)v he Koi dXXojv to 7rp6a(f)opov €7rtju.evovTcav/ tt}
depfjLOTTjTL iv rw TTvevfiarL rod fXLyfxaro? oKeSa-
B odevTOSy rd OLKela TOtS" GvyyeveorLV eTrerai- to yap
ovTCJS TrajLtjLttye? oajfjia Kal TravrjyvpLKOv, cos to
rjpLerepoVy e/c ttoiklXt]? vXtjs Aoyov e;^et jxaXXov r)
aTrXrjs ovvepavit^eodai /cat dvaTrXrjpovv rrjv KpdoLV.

EtT€ jXTj Tovr eoriv, dXX rj KaXovpievr] neipLS
dXXoLOvv 7Te(f)VKev Kal pbera^dXXeiv rrjv rpo^rjv, iv
TO) ttolklXo) tovto oviJLprjaeTaL Bdrrov Kal KdXXiov
dirades yap vtto tov ofiolov to op-oioVy rj 8' dvrl-
Ta^LS Kal hiacjiopd fxaXXov e^LOTTjOL ttj TTpos to
evavTLOV pii^ei Ta? TTOLOTrjTag dir o p^apaivo pievag .

" Et S' oAoJ? TO [JLLKTOV dOeTeiS Kal TTOLKlXoV, (I)

OtAtV€, jjLTj SeiTTvll^ovTa jLtryS' oipoTTOiovvra piovov

^ dvoiMOLcov Wyttenbach, oyLoiwv koX dvofxolcjv Reiske, Hart-
man.

2 Wyttenbach would delete Kal.

3 em after /x€v deleted by Xylander with Macrobiiis.
* €^7) added by Xylander from Macrobius.

^ Xd^€T coKa Paton : Xa^erws T, Bcpfiov 8' irrox^viTO dip^w
Macrobius.

310



TABLE-TALK lY. 1, 663

suitable for people who have a fever. Still, you were
not justified in being afraid of conflict and disagree-
ment in a variety of foods. For it may be that the
body naturally takes its specific nutriment from the
related elements in its foods, and that a varied meal
directly transmits into the system a multiplicity of
qualities that are distributed as required to each part
of the body. What happens is the process described
by Empedocles � :

Sweet seized sweet, and bitter rose to meet bitter.
Sour went to sour, hot quickly caught up hot

— and as other elements likewise wait for their
counterparts, while the heat in the vital spirit dis-
solves the compound, the elements combine accord-
ing to their affinities. It is right to assume that so
completely heterogeneous an assemblage of elements
as our body must draw upon many different sub-
stances rather than any single one, in order to com-
plete the compound.

" On the other hand, if this is not so, but the
natural function of what we call * digestion ' is
rather to alter and convert food, the alteration will
be accomplished better and more quickly with a
varied diet. For like is unaffected by like ; rather it
is opposition and contrast that, by the union of con-
traries, drive out certain qualities and make them
waste away.

" If, however, you completely reject mixture and
variety, Philinus, then you mustn't criticize Philo

* Frag. 90 (Diels). The language of the whole passage
also contains echoes of Empedocles, e.g. oyKos (frag. 20) and
Htyfia (Emped. a 32 and frag, 92).

* rcjv 8c Koi oAAcov to iTp6a<f>opov iiTifj,€v6vrcov Post : (with-
out TcDv) Se Kal aXXov lac. 4 em irpoa^opov fievovros.

311



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

^ L Xoihopei ^iXcova tovtov, dXXa ttoXv fjidXXov, orav
fjnyvvrj T(Z9 /SacrtAtfca? /cat dXe^KfyapfJLaKov? €K€Lvas
SwdfjieLS, a? ' dewv ^^eipas" ' chvofjiai^ev 'Epacrt-
OTparos, SieXeyx^^ rrjv droTriav /cat Trepiepylav,
ojjiov jLteraAAt/ca /cat ^oravLKO, /cat drjpLaKa /cat rd
aTTO yrjs /cat daXdrrrjg ets" to awro cruyKepavvvvros^ '
KaXov yap ravr idaavrag iv TTTLadvy] /cat oiKva
/cat ev vhpeXaicp ttjv larpLKrjv dnoXLTTelv .

'AAAd vrj Ata TO ttolklXov i^dyeu /cat yor)r€V€L
TTjv ope^LV ov Kparovoav iavrrjg '• /cat yap to
KaddpLOv,^ CO 3atjLtoyt€, /cat to evGTOfjiaxov /cat to

€1)6036? /cat oAcOS" TO tJSlOV i(f)€XK€TaL /Cat TTOtet

D ^pajTLKOJTepovs rjpLas /cat TTOTLKCorepovs. ri ovv
ovyl KpipLVov jjiev rj/JLels dvrl ttoXtov fjidrrofiev dvrl
S' duTrapdyov y^reta /cat oKoXvpuovs irapaaKevd-
^o/x€V, Tov S' dvdoGjJLLav dTTOjadpLevoL TOVTOvl /cat
rjpLepihriv dypicorepov TTiVOjjLev e/c ttlOov, kojvcjttcov
Xopcp TTepiaSofxevov ; on ^atry? av ou (f)vyr)v ouS'
aTrdSpaotv rjSovrjg etvat tt^i^ vyLetvrjv StaiTav, dAAd
7re/3t o^Soms" fieTpLorrjra /cat rd^iv vTrrjKoa) XP^~
p,evr]v 6pi^€i rod ovpL(j)ipovTOS.

'Q.S Se Xd^pov TTvevfia KvPepvfjraL TroXXals
pLTixo-vals V7TO(j)€vyovGLV, TTavcrdfievov Se /cat piapav-
dkv ovhels irdXiv eKpiTrioaL /cat Staoetaai SwaTos"

E €oriv, ovrojs npos ope^cv evorrjvai /Ltev /cat /coAouoat

TO TrAeovd^ov avrrj'S ov jU-ey' epyov, rjSrj Se KdpL-

^ So Leonicus : 8' i^eyxeu

^ So Turnebus : axr/KepavvvvTaS'

^ So Basf;l edition : Kiddpiov.

" " Hands " seems here to allude to the help or the power
of the gods (see Scribonius Largus, praef. init.)^ although

312



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 663

here merely for his dinners and fine cooking, f'ar
better instead to expose his absurdity and wasted
ingenuity in compounding those kingly antidotes
that Erasistratus called ' the hands of gods/ � and in
which he combines mineral, vegetable and animal in-
gredients, the products of both land and sea, in one
prescription. It would be a good thing to forget all
that and confine medical practice to gruels, cupping,
and oil-and-water.

" But you say variety encourages and bewitches
appetite to such a point that it loses control of itself ;
yes, but so, my dear fellow, do purity, wholesomeness
and fragrances. In short, anything that is especially
pleasing draws us on and makes us eat and drink
more than necessary. Why is it that we never pre-
pare a coarse barley-cake instead of porridge ? And
instead of asparagus M'hy don't we prepare horn
onions ^ and golden thistles ? And why, spurning the
fine bouquet of mellow wine like this, do we not drink
coarse, inferior wine out of the cask — wine surrounded
by a choir of singing mosquitoes ? It is because, you
would answer, the healthy plan of life is not headlong
flight from pleasure, but, on the contrary, moderation
in the enjoyment of pleasure and an ordered pattern
that makes appetite the servant of welfare.

Navigators have many devices for escaping from
a violent storm, but once it has subsided and died
down, no one can fan it into fury again and renew its
turmoil. Just so, it is no great task to oppose appetite
and cut back its excesses, but a very grim and

later, in Oribasius and Alexander Trallianus, it refers to an
ointment with five ingredients.

'' Getion or gethyon is so translated in the Oxford Greek-
English Lexicon, but identified as " long onion " in LCL
Pliny, vol. vii, Index of Plants.

SIS



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(663) vovaav npo Kaipov /cat pbaXdaKit^oyiivqv koI airo-
XeiTTOVoav to oIk€lov ivreXvaL /cat dval^atTTvprjaaL
TrayxaXeTTOV , c5 iralpCy /cat Bvaepyov. oOev tJ
ttolklXtj rpo(f)'r] ^eXriajv rrjs avX'fjs /cat ro fJuovoeiSes

€XOVG7]S TTXrjOpLlOVy^ OGCp pdoV LGTOLVaL (f)€pOIX€Vqv

rr)v (f>VGLV T] KLvelv arrenTOvcjav . /cat /xtJv, o ye
Xiyovoi TLves ojs TrXrjcjiJLovr) <f)€VKr6T€pov ivScias,
ovK aXrides €otlv dAAa Tovvavriov €t ye TTXrjGjJLOvrj
fxev, orav et? cf>dopdv riva reXevrrjcrrj /cat voaov,
epXai/j€V, evSeia 84, kolv dXXo pirjSev i^epydarjTaL
F /ca/cdv, avTTj /ca^' avrrjv rrapd (j>voiv eoriv.

*' Kat ravra fxev co? dvTLxopSa^ KeioOcj rots

VTTO GOV 7T€^lXo(J0^7]lxivOl� . €K€iVO �6 TTCJS^ Vflds

XiXrjdev ' rovs nepl dXa /cat /cua^ov,'* ort to jLtev

TTOLkIXoV '^SlOV^ €GTl, TO 8* T^StOV eVOpCKTOTepOV,*

TO S' €v6p€KTOv vyi€Lv6T€pov , dv Tr^v vTTep^oXrjv
/cat Tayav^ a^eAi^S"; Trpoa^uerat ya/o dpy ujvti /cat
Sexopieva) tw crco/xart, r^s" oi/jeojs TTpooSoTToiovoTjg'
664 TO S* dv6p€KTOv TrXavcofxevov^ /cat pe/>tj8o/x6vov -^
iravTdTTaoLV i^d^aXev rj (j)V(Jis r] pLoXis utt* evheias

€GT€p^€V. €K€Zv6 pLOL pLOVOV <f>vXaTT€ /Cat pi€p,VrjGO,

TO ttolklXov c5? ou/c €V d^vpTdKais /cat /cavSuAot?

^ So Stephanus : reXqaiov.

2 So Basel edition : dvrixopS^?.

2 TTcus (T) and punctuation at end of sentence defended by
Sandbach, cf. 745 a.

* So Stephanus : KVfuvov.

^ vBiov added by Stephanus, Amyot.

^ So Turnebus : evo lac. 8 npov.
314.



TABLE-TALK IV. 1, 663-664>

difficult one indeed, my friend, to intensify it and re-
kindle its spark, if it has weakened prematurely,
grown soft and abandoned its proper function. For
this reason variety is better at a meal than simplicity
and monotony that is merely filling — as much better
as it is easier to halt nature in full course than to start
it moving again after it has lost momentum. Further-
more, the claim made in certain quarters, that reple-
tion is more to be avoided than deficiency, is not true ;
quite the contrary. Granted that repletion when it
culminates in some form of impairment or disease is
harmful ; still, deficiency, even ^vithout any other ill
effect, is in and of itself contrary to nature.

" Let this be my antiphonal response, so to speak,
to your speculations. But how can you advocates of
beans and salt ^ have missed the point that variety is
more agreeable, and that the more agreeable is the
more appetizing, and the more appetizing is the more
healthful, if you prune away superfluity and excess ?
For delicious variety of foods is eagerly assimilated
by the body if it is aroused and made receptive under
the influence of the sense of sight. The unappetizing,
on the other hand, wanders aimlessly in the system,
and nature either expels it altogether, or puts up with
it reluctantly because of necessity. Only please keep
this one thing in mind without fail, that variety is not
confined to fancy sauces, like abyrtake, kandylos^

" A play on words. The proper meaning of this proverbial
phrase seems to have been " intimate friends " ; here it has
also a loose application to advocates of a simple diet. See
below, Book V, Question 10, with note on 684 e.

' TO 8* ivopeKTov vyietvorepov added by Paton.

* So Bernardakis : vTrep lac. 6 av T, virep^oXriv koX ttoXv-
(f>ayiav Turnebus.

* vXavwfievov added by Amyot, Meziriacus to fill lac. 6.

315



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(664) Kal KapvKai? eoriv aAAa ravra ju-ev TrepUpya /cat
OTTepiioXoyiKa, iroLKiXiav 8e kol YWdrcov rrapexci
Tois KoXols Kal yevvaiois €K€lvol� TToXirais, rrapa-
Tidels ^oX^ovs, iXalas, XdxcLva, rvpov, e^ij/xara^
iravrohaTrd, Trpos Se rovrois ovhe rpayrjfjLdrojv d-
fjLolpovs TTepiopa Senrvovvras."



nPOBAHMA B

Aid TL TO. vhva So/cet ttj ^povTrj ylveadai, /cat Sid ti rovs
KaOevBovras otovrai fir) Kcpavvovadai

CoUocuntur Agemachus, Plutarchus, Dorotheus, alii

B 1. "YSva TTajjifxeyedr] SeiTrvovGLV rjfJLLV ^Ayifxaxos
7rapedr)K€V iv "HAtSt. davfia^ovroiv Se rcov irapov-
Tcov, €(f)rj TLS VTroixeihidoas y " d^id ye rojv ^povrojv
Tctjv evayxos yevofxevajv/' co? Srj KarayeXwv tojv Ae-
yovTCjov rd v8va ttjv yeveoiv €K ^povrrjs Xapi^dveiv.
rjoav ovv ol ^duKovres vtto ^povrrjs rr^v yrjv Stto-ra-
CT^at Kaddrrep '^Xco^ rep depL ;^pCL>/xeV7]9/ etra rat?
pcuyfJiOL? reKfjiaipeadaL rovg rd vSva pberLovrag' €k
Se rovTOV 86^av iyyevlodai rol? ttoXXols, on to

C vSvov at ^povral yevvcbuiv ov heiKvvovoiVy wanep €t
TL9 oloLTO Tovs KO')(Xias TTOieiv rov op^pov dXXd prj
TTpodyeiv p,r]8i* dva(f>aiv€LV .

^ So Turnebus from Plato, Rep. 372 c : ot/iifiaTa.
2 So Xylander : -qXio), cf. 952 a, where the same correction
is credited to Turnebus.
^ So Xylander : XP^H-^^'

" Ahyrtaki is a sour sauce made from leeks, cress, and
either mustard and stavesacre or pomegranate seeds : Phere-
crates, 181 in Com. Att. Frag, i, p. 199, with Kock's note ;

316



TABLE-TALK IV. 1-2, 664

karyke,'^ which are mere curiosities and frivolities.
Variety is admitted even by Plato, ^ who sets before
those noble citizens of the genuine state onions,
olives, green vegetables, cheese and all manner of
boiled viands ; he doesn't cheat them of dessert ^^ith
their dinner, either."



QUESTION 2

Why truffles are thought to be produced by thunder, and why
people believe that sleepers are never struck by thunder

Speakers : Agemachus, Plutarch, Dorotheiis, and others

1. At a dinner in Elis, Agemachus served us some
giant truffles. Everyone present expressed admira-
tion, and one of the guests said with a smile, " They
certainly are worthy of the thunder that we've had
lately," obviously laughing at those who say that
truffles are produced by thunder. Several of the
company held that the ground splits open when
struck by thunder, the air serving as a spike, and that
afterward the truffle-gatherers are guided by the
cracks in the earth. This is the source, they con-
tinued, of the popular notion that thunder actually
produces the truffles, instead of merely bringing them
to light. It is as if someone were to imagine that rain
not merely brings out snails where we can see them,
but actually creates them.

Theopompus, 17 (Kock i, p. 737). Kandylos or kandaulos is
a Lydian dish, of which there were several varieties, supposed
to be aphrodisiac : Nicostratus, 17 (Kock ii, p. 224) ; Athe-
naeus, 516 c— 517 a; Menander, 462. 11 (Kock) =397. 11
(Korte). KarykS is another Lydian sauce, composed of blood
and spices: Pherecrates, 181 (Kock i, p. 199) ; Athenaeus,
516 c. " Republic, 372 c.

317



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(664) *0 8' ^AyejjLaxos loxvpit,€To rfj loropia kol to
OavfJLaGTOV Tj^LOV p,r) amGrov rjyelcjdaL. /cat yap
dXXa TToXXa davfidaLa ^povrrjs epya /cat Kepavvov
/cat rdjv TTCpt ravra SLOGrjfjuojv efvat, ;\;aAe7rd9
Karafxadeiv ^ TravreXcos dSvvdrovs ra? atrta?
exovra. " /cat yap 6 yeXcofievos ovrocrl /cat
TTapoifiLcoSr]? ,"^ €(f)rj, " ^oX^os ov jJLLKporrjTL 8ta-
^euyet rov Kepavvov, aAA' €;(a)y Svvafiiv avTiTradrj,
Kaddnep rj ovktj /cat to Sepfia rrjg <f)a)Kr)g cu? ^aat
/cat TO T-^? valvrjs, ols ra aKpa rcov loricjv^ ol

D vavKXrjpoL Karahi(j)depovGiv ra S' darpaTrala rcjv
vSdrojv €vaX8rj koXovglv ol yewpyol /cat vofii-
^ovoLV. /cat oXoJs €V7]dis ioriv ravra davfid^eiv
ro Trdvrtov dinororarov iv rols irddeoL rovrois
KadopcjvraSy €/c piev vypojv (f>X6yas €/c hk piaXaKcov
v€(f)Cx)v^ ipocjiovs oKX-qpovs dvaStSo/xevovs". ravra
S'," etrrev, " dSoAeo-^^^ca rrapaKaXajv vfids cm rrjv
^T^rrjoLV rrj9 alrias, Iva [xrj iriKpos yevojfJLai crvpi-
jSoAds" rcov uSi^ajv Trpaouopievos."

2. A?5tov ovv €<f)r]v iyw* rpOTTOV rtvd ru) Xoyw
Se^idv opeyeiv rov ^Ayepiaxov ovSev yap ev ye
rep irapovri <f)aiv€G6aL TTiOavcjrepov, rj^ on rats
Ppovrals TToAAd/ct? vSwp GweKTriiTreL yovipLOV.

E " atTta S* 7] rrJ9 depfJLorrjro? dvd/xt^ts" ro pLev

^ So Basel edition : Trapo/noicoSi;?.

* iCTToDv Reichardt. ^ So Turnebus : lac. 3.

* So Benseler : iyu) €<f>7)v.

^ T) added by Xylander.

** " Signs from Zeus " {diosemia) usually refer to dis-
suasive omens important in politics, but here Plutarch un-
questionably is thinking of meteorological phenomena in the
broad Greek sense of the word, including astronomy, meteor-
ology in the modern sense and seismology, etc. See Aris-

318



TABLE-TALK IV. 2, 664.

Agemachus, however, upheld the popular theory,
and advised us not to regard the miraculous as un-
worthy of belief. For indeed many other marvellous
effects are, he said, produced by thunder, lightning,
and other meteoric phenomena (diosemia),'^ though the
causes of these effects are difficult or completely im-
possible to discover. " For instance, the much-ridi-
culed, proverbial tassel-hyacinth ^ here is protected
against the thunderbolt not by its smallness but by a
resistant property in it,'' like the fig tree, the seal-
skin,** they say, and the pelt of the hyena, which ship-
owners use to cover the mastheads. Farmers assert
and believe that showers accompanied by lightning
enrich the soil. In general, it is simple-minded to be
surprised at such things when we observe directly the
most incredible part of it all, namely, flashes of fire
coming from moisture, and rough, loud crashes from
soft clouds. But my chatter is meant only as an invi-
tation to search for a theory" that will explain these
things ; I don't mean to be unmannerly and exact
a contribution from each man to pay for the truffles."

2. Here I remarked that Agemachus himself was,
after a fashion, lending a helping hand to the dis-
cussion. At the moment at least, I said, no more
probable theory occurred to me than that fertile
rains often accompany thunder. " The reason," I
went on, " is the warmth mixed with the rain ; the in-

totle, Meteorologica, passim^ especially i. 1 with H. D. P. Lee's
notes and his introduction to the LCL edition, p. xi.

'' Athenaeus, ii, 64 b, has a proverb relating bolboi to
virility, and says further that holhoi are hard to digest.

" The Pseudo-Democritean Bolos wrote a book on " anti-
pathies " in the time of Callimachus. See RE, s.v. " Bolos."

<* Compare parallel ideas and examples in Book II, 641 b
above, Book V, 684 c below and Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 146.

819



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(664) yap 6^v /cat KaOapov rod TTVpos aTreioiv aGrpaTrrj
yevofjievov, to S' ifi^ptdes /cat TTvevfjLarojSeg evei-
XovfjLevov to) V€(/)€l /cat cn;/LtyLteraj3aAAov i^aipel^
rrjv ijjvxporrjra /cat GVveKTTovel^ to vypov cjore
pudXiGTa^ TTpoo-qves evhveoOai rols ^Xaordvovoi, /cat
ra^v TTaxvveiv. CTret he /cat Kpdoecjjv ISLorrjra /cat
•)(vp.ov hia(j)opdv ifjLTTOLeV rd roiavra rols dp8o-
jjuevots,^ coGTrep at re SpoGot yXvKvrepav ttolovgl
roLS OpefjifjiaGL tyjv TToav koI rd^ rrjv Ipuv i^avdovvra
V€(f)r], Kad" wv dv eTrepeiGrj ^vXojv, euo^Sta? dva-
TTLfJLTrXrjGL (/Cat ravrr) yvcL>pit,ovT€S ol irap* ^fuv
F IpiGKrjTrra' /caAoucrt, rrjv Ipiv VTToXafx^dvovres
€77ta/c?^7rretv) , ttoXXco^ ye^ fiaXXov etKog eGn roZs
dcrrpaTratots" /cat Kepavviois vSaGL /cat TTvevfiaGL
/cat depfJLOTTjGLV ets" ^dOos iXavvofievaig ttjv yrjv
GTpe(f)€Gdai /cat GVGrpo^ds lgx^lv roiavras /cat
Xcivv6rr]ra? , wGTrep iv rols crctj/xaat rd xoipahaihy] ;
/cat aScvctJ^Ty ^vfiara depfJLorrjres TLves /cat vypo- |
Trjres at/xarcoSets* ivhr^pLiovpyovGLV ov ydp €Olk€
cj)VTa)^^ TO vSvov ouS' dVeu vSaTog ex^i ttjv yeveGiv,
665 dAA' dppi^ov /cat ajSAacrrcs" €gtl^^ /cat aTroAeAu/xeVov,
to) /ca^' iavTO tt^v GVGTaoLv^^ e/c r-^s" y"^? e;^^'^

^ So Emperius : e'latpei.

^ So Bernardakis : awe/cmVet.

3 TO after iiaXiara deleted by Reiske.

* So Reiske : iiMiroLelv.

^ So Stephanus : dpxofjievoLS.

^ TO. added by Wyttenbach.

^ So Bernardakis : Upels, avra. There is a fragrant ipvai-
aKrjTTTpov, apparently also called epLGKTjTrrov, of which Pliny
has an account {Nat. Hist. xii. 1 10) closely resembling Plu-
tarch here, except for the etymology.

* So Xylander : ttoXXwv.

9 So Hubert : 8e. ^� So Turnebus : lac. 3-4 t<^.

320



I



TABLE-TALK IV. 2, 664r-665

tense and pure fire passes off in the form of lightning,
while its heavy, vaporous element is packed in the
cloud and transformed with it, drawing off the cool-
ness and helping to discharge the moisture. This
moisture in turn permeates the young shoots in a
benign form, and swells them up rapidly.* All this
imparts special characteristics and specific flavour to
vegetation thus watered ; for example, dew makes
grass sweeter to the cattle, and the clouds that blos-
som out into a rainbow fill with fragrance the trees
that they rest upon. Such trees are identified by
their fragrance, and in our district people call them
iriskepta ^ in the beUef that they have been struck by
the rainbow. This gives us all the more reason to
think that the soil is stirred, clodded, and made
spongy by the deep penetration of heat, wind, and
rainwater from thunderstorms ; just so, in animal
bodies scrofulous and glandular growths are caused by
certain kinds of heat combined with sanguinous
moisture. For the truffle resembles no plant and yet
does not come into being without water. It appears
without roots or sprouts and unattached, because it
develops in a way peculiar to itself in soil that is some-



" Parallel treatment of this subject is found in Plutarch,
Aetiae Physical, ii, 912 a and iv, 912 f ff., where freshness, ad-
mixture of air, heat, and some generative property in spring
rains seem to be the main qualities suggested to account for
the fertiUty of rain water or rains accompanied by lightning.

* The Pseudo-Aristotle tries to account for belief in fra-
grance attributed to rainbows as due to the moderate moisture
after the rainbow, rather than to the rainbow itself: Prob-
lems, xii. 3 (906 a 37 ff.).

^^ afiXaoTes eon Vulcobius : lac. 7 rej Irt.
^* Ti7i� avaraaiv Hubert, (rvaraaiv Turnebus : rrju ardaiv,
VOL. VIII M 321



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(665) 7radovGr]s n /cat fjLeraPaXovarjs . et 8e ye yXlo-
Xp09," €cj>r]v, " 6 Xoyos vfMV 8ok€l, Toiavrd tol to.
TrXelara rchv ^povraZs koL KepavvoZs avveTrofievcov
8l6 /cat fidXiara rotg TrddeaL rovrois So^a deLonqros
irpoaeoTi.'*

2. Ilapcbv 8' o pT^TCop Aojpodeos, " 6pda)s,"
€<l)r), " XeyeiS' ov yap [jlovov ol ttoXXoI /cat tSiajrat
TOVTO Trenovdacnv, dXXd /cat tojv (f)iXo(76<f)ajv rives,
iyoj yovv ol8a, Kepavvov Trap* tj/jlTv elg olKLav
ijJLTreaovTOS /cat ttoXXcl davpLaord Spdaavrog {olvov
B re yap €/c ttWcov 8Le(f)6pr]Ge rod KepdfJLOv firjSev
TTaOovTog, dvdpcoTTOv re KaSevhovros SiaTrrdpLevos
ovr avrov rjSlKrjaev ovre rrjs eodrjro? eOtyev,
t^ojvqv he ;)^aA/co�'9 exovoav VTre^ojap^evov^ hUriq^ev
TO vojLttcr/xa^ vdv /cat ovvex^^v) (j)iXoo6(f>cp^ Trapein-
SrjjjiovvrL HvOayopLKcp TrpoueXdovra avrov* /cat
hiaTTwdavopievov rov S' d(f)OGLa)GdfjLevov /cat KeXev-
oavra rd^ /ca^' eavrov opdv^ /cat irpocevx^odaL rols
OeoLS. dKovto 8e /cat orpariajrov cf)vXdrrovros
lepov iv 'PcofiT] Kepavvov iyyvs ireaovra SiaKavaai
rwv VTToSrjjjidrwv rovg Ifidvras, dXXo 8e jJLrjSev /ca-
Kov epydoaodai' /cat kvXl-)(vlojv^ dpyvpcov ^vXivois
eyKeip^evajv^ eXvrpois rov fxev dpyvpov ovvit/qGai, ra-
C Kevra, ro 8e ^vXov ddiKrov /cat diraOes evpeOrjvai.

^ So Turnebus : VTre^coafj-evovs.
2 So Turnebus : vo lac. 3-4 /xa.
' Se after <f>LXoa6<f)(x) deleted by Bernardakis.

* avrov " subaudiendum " Hubert. Xylander reprinted
in Wyttenbach supplies hxinc hominem.

^ Tct added by Meziriacus.

• hpdv Doehner, Bernardakis " sacrifice."
' So Basel edition : Auxv'iojv.

^ So Basel edition : cy/fet^e'vois.



TABLE-TALK IV. 2, 665

how modified and transformed. If this seems to you
but a spare account of the matter," said I, " never-
theless most of the effects of thunder and Ughtning
are of the character that I have described. And that
explains exactly why these phenomena have gener-
ally been supposed to be supernatural." "

3. The rhetor Dorotheiis, who was present, spoke
up, saying, " You are right. For not only the general
run of ordinary people but even some philosophers
accept the divine theory. I at least know personally
of one case in connection with a stroke of lightning
in a house in our town. It produced a number of
astonishing effects, such as spilling wine out of jars
without damage to the vessel, and passing through a
man asleep without hurting him or touching his
clothes, yet completely melting and fusing the copper
coins in the money belt that he was wearing.'' He
went to a Pythagorean philosopher who was staying
in town and asked his opinion ; but the philosopher
only made a pious gesture and told the man not to
gaze higher than his own level, and to -pray to the
gods. I have also heard that lightning once struck
close to a soldier posted before a temple in Rome and
burned his shoelaces, but caused him no further harm.
Another instance is that of silver cups *^ in wooden
cases ; the silver was melted down completely, but
the wood was later found untouched and undamaged.

" Pseudo-Aristotle, Problems^ xxiv. 19, recognizes sulphur
and thunderbolts as sacred.

" Cf. the story told of Mithridates, 624 b, supra.

' This interpretation is due to an emendation. The manu-
script reading may be correct in referring to " lampstands "
or, possibly, " lamps." Silver lamps or lampstands would
be comparatively rare, though actually (c/. RE^ xiii. 1569)
silver and gold ones were known.

328



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(665) " Kat ravra fiev e^ean TnareveLV Kal ixrj- vdv-
TO)V Se davfJLaGnoraTOV, o navre? d)S ejTOS elirelv
ta[jL€v, on Tcjv vno Kepavvov 8ia(f)dap€VTiov darjTrra
rd crco/xara SiajLteVet* ttoXXoI yap ovre KaiovGiv ovt€
KaropvTTOvaLV, dAA* iojGL 7T€pi<^pd^avT€S , cocr^'
opdaOat rovg veKpovs dai^TTTovs del, ttjv EuptTrtSou
J^Xvfxevrjv iXeyxovra? inl rod ^adOovros clnovaav

cf)LXoS Se fjLOL

dXovTos^ €V (j)dpay^L GTjTTeraL vIkvs.

odev ot/JLai Kal to deXov (hvopidodai rrj ofioiorrjTi
rrjg oafJiTJs, 7]V rd vrato/xeva rol? Kepavvols d<f)Lr]GLV
D eKTpL^ojJLevrjv TTVpcoSr) Kal SpLpLelav vcf)* rjg ifiol 80-
KOVGL Kal KVV€9 Kal opviOes d7T€X€G9aL rcDv 3to-
^X'qrojv GCOfidrcDV.

'AAA'^ cjLcot ydp dxpi rovrov rrj? alrias wanep
8d<l>vr]s TTaparerpciixPcx)^' rd 8e XoLird rovrov ,"
€(f)7], " 7TapaKaXiofji€v , iwel Kal rols v8vols iv€V7]-
IJL€pr)K€v, Iva (JLT) TTadajfJuev rd rod *Av8poKv8ovs'
eKelvos ydp (Lv iiroirioe rravrcov iuapyeorara* Kal
KaXXiara^ rovs irepl rjjv TiKvXXav Ix^vs ^coypa-
<l>rjGas cSofe rco Trddei fxaXXov tj rexvj] Kexprjodai,
(l>VG€L ydp rjv ^iXo^os' ovroj (ji-^GeL^ rt? Kal rjfjLas

^ So Musgrave : oAA' oSros.

* oAA' added by Hubert. ' So Reiske : Trapareraxdco.

* So Anonymus : evepyecrrepa.

^ So Basel edition : fxaXLora. ' So Turnebus : <f>r]aL

<* Pliny (ii. 145) says that they were buried ; cf. Lucan, i.
607. There may be here a confusion with the bidental^ a
place struck by lightning, never to be covered, at Rome. Cf.
Thesaurus Ling. Lat. and also RE, s.v.

* Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag., Euripides, 786.

" A highly dubious etymology.

324



TABLE-TALK IV. 2, 665

" Now all this you may believe or not, but the most
astonishing of all is what practically every one of us
knows : that the bodies of those killed by Hghtning
will not decay. For many neither cremate nor bury
them," but leave them undisturbed, with fences built
around them, so that the bodies are seen forever in
an undecayed state. Thus they prove that Clymene
in Euripides was wrong when she said of Phaethon,

My dear one
Rots, unwashed, in some mountain cleft a corpse. ''

Hence, I believe, sulphur even gets its name in Greek,
theion " (divine), from the similarity of the smell to
the burning, pungent odour that is forced out of ob-
jects struck by lightning. This odour, to my mind,
explains why dogs and birds abstain from such Zeus-
smitten carcases.

" But let this be enough of my nibbling at the
problem of the explanation, as at a bay leaf.** For
the rest, let's call upon our friend * here, for he has
been quite successful on the topic of truffles. Let's
avoid the predicament of the painter Androcydes.^
He had a natural fondness for fish, and inasmuch as
the finest and most lifelike details in any of his work
were the fishes that surrounded Scylla, he was ac-
cused of having consulted his appetite rather than
his art. Just so, someone will say that we too were

•* The Pythian priestess is said to have chewed bay leaves
to secure inspiration. Cf. Farnell, Cults of the Greek States^
iv, p. 188, and Tibullus, ii. 5. 63, with note in K. F. Smith's
edition. For other beliefs about the laurel and lightning see
RE, xiii. 1439 ff.

� Plutarch himself. Cf. 665 a above.

^ RE, i. 2150, no. 3 ; Athenaeus repeats the story in viii,
341 a, citing Polemon as source : cf. RE, s.v. " Polemon
(Periheget)," col. 1306.

325



PLUTARCH'S xMORALIA

TjSovrjs (f)LXoGO(f)rjaaL ra^ irepl rcov uSvcuv
jLG^rjT'qoLfjLov ixovrojv rrjv yiveoiv cl>? opas^

. . €V Se TOVTOLS vTTOKeLjjLevrjg raJ Xoycp rrj?
tjTret^etas'' /cat rrjv air Lav . . . TrpoSrjXov* etvai
TTeidovoris."

4. 'E^oO 8e TrapaKeXevofjidvov^ Kal XiyovTog Kai-
pov^ elvai Kaddirep ev' KCxjpLcpSia jJLrj^ava? atpovra
/cat ppovrag ifi^aXXovra irapa ttotov hiaXiyeoOai
TTepl Kepavvojv, ra /xev d'AAa TrapUaav^ uvvopLoXo-
yovvT€Sy TTcpl 8e rcov ev a>' Kadevhovaiv {jltj Kepav-
vovfxevcov aKovuai ri ^ovXofievoL AtTrapet? rjcrav.
ifJLol Se ttXIov ovhev eyiyvero rrjs atrta? cupajjieva)
KOLVov €.xov(J7]S rov Xoyov O/XO)? S' ovv €<f>r]V COS" TO
KepavvLov Trvp (XAcptjSeta fcat XenrorrjrL davjxaarov

> > //) 10 ^ ' � Zl'� **

co-Tiv, avrouev re rrjv yevecnv e/c Kauapas /cat ay-
F V7]? ^'x*^^ ovGias, /cat Trav et rt ovpiiiiyvvrai vore-
pov 7] yecohe? avrcp rrj? irepl rrjv KivTiCfiv o^vrrjros
OLTTOGeLopevrjs Kal hiaKadaipovaris -

" AtdjSAT^Toy jLtev ovhev," u)S <j)r]GL ^-qpoKpiros,
" yrjLVOv olov ro^^ Trap'^^ aWpLTjs areyeiv euaye?" ae-
Aa?." ra pLev ovv irvKva rojv acjfjidriov, oih-qpos,^^

^ So Wyltenbach : <f)iXooo<f>T]aavras.

^ (hs dpaavTar Hubert, [cos] paarcoveveiv 8' ev tovtois Paton,
loTopias 7rapa84x€adai paSiojs Pohlenz, (Ls paar eVSoCvai, ovhkv
hk TovTots . . . vet/Mtti Post. Pohlenz also sugf^ests eXXiLireiv or
aTTayopeveiv after iv 8e rovrois. The dots in these lines mark
the letter spaces left in T.

^ evTTadelas Turnebus.

* So Bernardakis, Paton : vpoST^Xu) tw.

^ vapaiTovfievov Wyttenbach " begging to be excused."

* GLKaipov " unseasonable, improper " Wyttenbach.
' So Stephanus : ei.

� So Stephanus : Trdpeioi.

* So Emperius : rots. Perhaps eV tcD KadevSeiv Kronenberg.
" So Diels : n€pl.

326



TABLE-TALK IV. 2, 665

guided by our own pleasure when we philosophized
about truffles and their obviously so controversial
origin. In cases like this, the discussion is affected by
an underlying willingness to be convinced, which
persuades us that the explanation is ob\dous." ^

4. I urged that we should pursue the topic, and
said that it was time, as in a comedy, to hoist the
stage machinery and hurl some thunderbolts ^ in our
after-dinner discussion of thunder and lightning. The
others, however, while agreeing to omit other phases
of the subject, were insistent in their determination
to hear something on the topic why sleeping persons
are immune to strokes of lightning. But when I at-
tempted an explanation of this immunity, which is an
open question, I found that I could make no head-
way. Still, I ventured to say that the thunderbolt is
fire of a marvellous purity and fineness, because it
originates directly in a pure and uncontaminated sub-
stance. The speed with which it moves dislodges and
eliminates any watery or earthy matter that is mixed
in it.

" No earthen object that is struck by lightning,"
according to Democritus," ** can support the bright
flash that comes from the sky." The dense substances

" The translation reflects the sense of the extant words, as
amended, in the text, but the ms. has gaps : see critical note.

* On the bronteion, " thunder machine," see Haigh, Attic
Theatre^ p. 218, where Pollux, iv. 130 and a scholion to Aristo-
phanes, Clouds^ 292, are cited.

' Frag. 152. Diels adopts from Bernardakis a reading
which he interprets, " No Zeus-sent lightning fails to carry
the pure radiance of the aether."

^^ y^ivov otov TO added by Pohlenz, Gulick : lac. 5-6.

^^ So Aldine edition : -nep. ^^ So Diels : lac. 4-5.

^* So Turnebus : lac. 6.

327



1/



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(665) ^aXKoSy apyvpos, XP^^^S"/ aTrocTTeyet kol (j)deip€raL
/cat TT^/cerai, Trdaxovra rw TTpoGyLd)(^€odai /cat
dvTcpctSetv^- T(x)V S' dpatcov /cat TroXviropajv /cat
666 ^(aXwvTCOv vtto jjLavorrjros difjavorl Sic/c^ct, KaOd-
irep^ lixariojv /cat ^i;Aa>v avojv rd 8e ;i^A6opd /catct,
T-^S" vypoTTjTos dvTLXap.^avofjLevTj? /cat ovve^aiTTo-
fjLevT]?. eirrep ovv to tous" /ca^euSoi^ra? /xt) aTro-
6vrjOK€iv VTTO Kepavvwv dXrjdes iariv, ivravOa
Set i,r]T€tv ovK dXXaxddi tt^v alriav. jxaXXov yap
eppcorai /cat ovveuTr]Kev /cat dvrepelSeL rd acjfiara
Tcbv iypTjyopoTOJVy are Sr] irdai rots fxepeoL
7T€7TXr}pa)iJLeva TTvevpiaros' v<f)* ov /cat rds alodrjoeis
€7TLGTp€(j)ovros Ci)G7T€p €V opydvo) /Cat G(f>iyyOVTOS
evrovov yeyove /cat avvex^s avra> /cat ttvkvov to
t,a)ov. iv Se rotS" vttvols e^avetrat /cat fxavov* /cat
dvcojJiaXov /cat drovov /cat SiaKexvpidvoVt /cat nopovs
B eax'TjKe ttoXXovs, tov Trvevpiaros ivSiSovrog /cat
dTroAetVoi^TOS", St* c5v <j)(x>vai re /cat dcrjLtat St€/c-
deovGLV fiT^Sefjilav a'iaOriaiv iavrcov vapexovoai. to
yap dvrepelSov /cat toj^ dvrepelSeiv Trda^ov ovk
dnavTa rots' TTpoocfyepojievois y rJKiora 8e rot? utto

AeTTTOTT^TOS" /Cat WKVTTJTOS TOLa^JTr]? WGTTCp 6 KCpaV-

vos huTTTapievoLS^' rd /xev yd/3 tJttov loxvpd
hvoTradeiais rj <f)VGLS dp^vverai, GKXrjpoTrjra^ TTpo-
paXXop.€V7] /cat TTUKVOT-qras' cLv S* dpa^os rj
hvvapLLS €GTLV, VTTO TovTOJV rjTTov dSi/c€tTat rd
€t/covTa TcDv dvOiGTap^evajv .

^ So Turnebus : lac. 4-5.
^ So Basel edition : . . TcpetSeiv.
5 So Xylander : KaOap.

* Reiske would add c'cm, Bernardakis, Hartman ov, Zieg-
ler yeyov€v. ^ So Basel edition : to.

^ So Turnebus : Buarafievois.

328



TABLE-TALK IV. 2, 665-666

like iron, copper, silver, or gold, which block the path
of lightning, are broken down and melted in con-
sequence of their opposition and resistance. But the
lightning passes without contact through loose-
textured and porous substances, which are slack and
open, like clothing and dry timber. It burns green
wood because the moisture, by intercepting the
lightning, catches fire. If, then, it is true that sleep-
ing persons are never killed by lightning, we must
look for the reason here rather than elsewhere. The
body of those awake is firmer, compacter, and more
resistant, because it is filled in all its parts with vital
spirit. This vital spirit <* tightens up and attunes the
organs of sense like strings in a musical instrument,
and gives the whole animal its proper tension, solidity,
and compactness. In sleep, on the other hand, the
body relaxes, becomes loose-textured and uneven in
its consistency, and is left untensed and diffuse. The
result is that many passages are opened as the vital
spirit weakens and is lost. Through these, sounds
and smells pass unperceived. For there is no resist-
ance to encounter onrushing particles and to receive
an impression from them, especially when the
particles that speed through are as fine and swift as
those of lightning. Nature defends itself against
weaker assault by various degrees of imperviousness,
throwing up a shield of hardness and density ; but
where the destructive force is irresistible, less damage
is suffered by soft, yielding substances than by those
that stand firm.

" This seems to be an echo of the theory held by Erasis-
tratus, the famous physician of the 3rd century b.c. C/. Well-
mann in RE^ s.v. " Erasistratos," col. 341. See also supra^ i.
7, 625 B-c.

VOL. VIII M* 329



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(660) " YlpoaXa^e^ 8e tovtol?," €(f}rjv, " ovtl^ fjLLKpav
eKTrXrj^iv irpos ra roiavra koI (f)6^ov koL rdp^os,
V(/)^ Sv TToXXol fjLTjSev aXXo iradovres avro) rw Seloai
t6^ aiToOaveZv airiSavov. koL yap ra Opep^pcara
C SlSolgkovgl PpovTTJs y€vopL€V7]s ol TTOipiives els
ravro avvdelv /cat ovweveiv ra yap oTTopdBrjv
d7roXeL(j)6ivra hid rov cJ)6^ov eKTirpojoKei. /cat
pivpiovs rjSr] redvrjKoras ISelv €Otlv vtto ^povrijs,
ovSev ovT€ TrXrjyrjs lx^os ovre Kavoeojs e)(Ovras,
aAA' VTTO ^o^ov TTJs ipyx^js * cos* €olk€v opvidos Slktjv
aTTOTTrapLevrjs rod ocoparos ' • * ttoXXovs ' yap {cos 6
EuptTTtST^S" (j>rjGL), ' ^povrrjs TTveu/x'* dvaipLov wXeae.'
/cat ydp aAAcos"^ rcov alodiqTripicjv rj aKor] TTadrjri-
/ccorarov ioTLV, /cat pbeyloras ol Sta ip6(j)ov Oopv^OL
/cat (f)6^oL rapa^ds eTTicfyipovGiv c5v tco KadevSovri
TTpo^Xrjpa TO dvaLoOrjTov ionv. ol 8' eypiqyopores
D /cat ratS" TrpoTradelais dvaXioKovrai /cat, rod Seovs
TO acopia ovvSeovTOS d)s dXrjdcos /cat avvdyovTos

/cat TTVKVOVVTOSy loxypdv TTOIOVOL TTjV TrXrjyjjV Tip

avTepelSeiv ."



nPOBAHMA r

Aid Ti TrXiLOTovs eV ydfxois im SetTrvov KoXovaiv
Collocuntur Sossius Senecio, Theo, alii

1. 'Ev rots' AvTo^ovXov Tov vlov ydpoLS avv-
€0)pTat,ev rjpuv Trapcbv ev Xatpoiveta^ Socrcrtos'

^ So Stephanus : TrpooeXa^e.

* So Bernardakis : In.

3 TO added by Benseler, Stegmann, Castiglioni.

* rpavfia Theon of Smyrna, Wilaniowitz.

330



TABLE-TALK IV 2-3, 666

" Add to that," I said, " the not inconsiderable
effect of surprise, fear, and panic ; such things cause
emotions that have caused the death of many simply
by fear of death. Shepherds in fact train their sheep,
at the sound of thunder, to run to one place and huddle
together, because thunder causes miscarriage through
fright in any that are left isolated. What is more, the
evidence is plain that countless thousands of people
have been killed by thunder and lightning without a
trace of wound or burn ; * apparently the life in panic
took flight from the body like a bird.' For, as Euri-
pides ** says.

Many the bloodless breath of thunder has destroyed.

In general, our hearing is of all our senses the most
liable to shock, and therefore the upset and terror
produced by a noise cause the greatest disorders.
Now the sleeper is protected against these by being
unconscious ; whereas people in a waking state are
not only doomed by their imagination but also add
force to the actual blow by opposing it, because fear
(deos) really does bind (dein), contract, and solidify
the body."

QUESTION 3

Why it is customary to invite the most guests to wedding
suppers

Speakers : Sossius Senecio, Theon, and others

1. At the wedding of my son Autobulus, Sossius
Senecio was present in Chaeronea as one of our

" Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag.^ Euripides, 982 : rroAAous Se /crA.

^ So Basel edition : oAAoi;?.
• So Volkmann, Hartman : eV xaipuivna.^ 6.

331



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(666) Scve/ctcDV, /cat ttoAAcDv Xoycov^ dXXcov re ttj t66^
ioprfj jJidXa TTpeTTOvrcjv Trape^x^v^ dcfyoppids kol
TTepl TTJg atrtas"/ St' "^v TrXeloroi rwv aAAcuv* eirl
E rd yafJUKo. SecTTva TrapaXafjupdvovrai,, SnjTToprjcre'
/cat yap rcjv vofjLoderojv rovs rfj TToXvreXeia /caret
Kpdro<s TToXefJLrjGavras opiaai ixdXiora rwv €t?
Tou? ydyiovs KoXovjievcov to ttXtjOos. " 6 yap
elncoVy" €(1)7], " TTepl ttj? alrias avrrjs tcov TraAatcDv
(f)LXoa6(f)a)V ovSev, e/.tot yovv KpLrfj, indavov etprjKev,
*E/carato? d ^A^8r]pLT7]s^' Xeyei Se rovg dyofxevovs
yvvaiKag iroXXovg TrapaKoXexv iirl ttjv eariaoLV,
Iva TToAAot CTwetScDcrt /cat pbaprvpcooLV iXevdepois
ovGL /cat Trap' iXevdepojv yapiovGi. rovvavriov yap
ol KCOfiLKol Tovs TToXvTeXoJs /Cat Go^apcos XafXTTpo-
TTjTL SeLTTVCxJV /Cat 7Tapa(jK€vrjs^ yapLovvras ojs ov
^e^aicjjs ovhe dappaXeojg^ imuwdTTrovoLV' ojs
F yievavhpos rrpos tov KcXevovra rats XoTrdoL vrept-
(fypdrreiv tov ydpov^'

Sctvcos" dowTOV (f)pdyiJia kov vvp(f)7]g Aeyei?.*

2. AAA OTTCOS fJLT], TO paoTOv, ey/caAetv ere-
pots" SoKOjpev avTol p,7]8ev XiyovTes, o-Tro^atVo-
/xat^^ TTpcoTog," €L7T€V, " iyo) , ovhepiiav ioTidoeco?

^ So Wyttenbach, Trpo^X-qfidTcov Meziriacus : lac. 3.

2 So Stephanus, Trapelxev Turnebus, irpoeiT Bolkestein :
lac. 3-4. ^ TTJs alrias Stephanus : tt; lac. 4 aa.

* dvOpuiTTOjv Reiske, oAAoTpt'cov or ^iXiov \\'yttenbach.

^ So Xylander : d^appiJTrjs.

" So Reiske : rrapaaKevij.

' Reiske suspects a lacuna here, jStjSaiou? ovSe dappaXeovs
Amyot, Meziriacus. ' tov ydfxov added by Post.

^ So Paton, but Beivfjs '• lac. 4-5 wnov Seivcos lac. 3-5 ov
irpayixa v. A. ^� So Reiske : o/xtus.

^^ So Reiske : /a^ lac. 4-5 iotoj'.

332



TABLE-TALK IV. 3, 666

guests. Among many subjects that he brought for-
ward which were particularly appropriate to the oc-
casion, he raised the question why people invite more
guests to wedding dinners than to other parties. For
it is true, he observed, tliat those lawgivers who have
campaigned most vigorously against extravagance
have particularly sought to limit the number of guests
at weddings. " But as to the reason itself for these
large numbers," said Senecio, " the only ancient
philosopher who had anything to offer was Hecataeus **
of Abdera, who, in my judgement, said nothing con-
vincing. His point was this : At their marriage men
invite a crowd to the banquet so that there may be
many witnesses to testify that the hosts themselves
are of good family and that their brides come from
good families. On the other hand, the comic poets
attack those who celebrate a wedding in a prodigal
and ostentatious style, with splendid dinners and
great outlay, as not putting down a secure founda-
tion or looking courageously to the future. Men-
ander,** for instance, said with reference to someone
who ordered that his marriage should be fenced
around with dishes,

This fencing-in you talk about
Befits a frightful debauchee.
But not a bride.

2. " But to avoid what is all too easy, the appear"
ance of accusing others when I myself have nothing
to offer, I shall be the first," he said, " to state my

" RE^ vii. 2750, no. 4 ; Diels, Vorsokratiker^ Hekataios
von Abdera, a 5.

" Menander, frag. 865 (Kock), frag. 747 (K5rte).

^2 So Reiske : d'no<l>aivcv aTro^avto. \\'armington.

333



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(666) Trp6<j)aoLV ovtoj9 eKSrjXov etvai /cat TrepL^oTqrov (Ls
TTjv TCJov yafiovvTcov Kal yap Ovovras deols /cat
TTpoTrepiTTOVTas (f)iXov /cat ^evit^ovras eart ttoXKovs
SiaXadelv tojv emTiqheiojv , rj Se yaixtjXLOs rpairel^a
667 Karrjyopov e;)^et tov vfievaiov fxeya ^ocovra /cat
rrjv SaSa /cat rov avXov, d (fyrjacv "Opuqpos /cat ras
yvvaiKas lurapbivas iirl rats' dvpais ^au/xa^etv /cat
Bedodai. Sto pnqhevos ayvoovvros ttjv V7To8o)('qv
/cat rrjV kXtjglv, aiGyyvojJLevoL irapaXiTTeZv iravras
Tovs ovvTjdeLS /cat oIk€lovs /cat dixajGyeTTCos Tvpoo-
TjKovras avTOLS irapaXapi^dvovGLV ."

3. ^ArroSe^afJievajv 8' rjjjidjv viroXa^wv 6 Seojv,
" /cat rovT y ^^V> " KeiaOco, ovk diriOavov yap
early KaKeZvo TTpooOes, el povXei, ras" roLavrag
earidueis p^r) piovov 0tAt/ca? aAAa /cat ovyyevLKas
B etvat, KarapLLyvvpLevrjs els to yevos erepas olKeio-
rrjrog. o 8e rovrov pLeZl,6v eonv, olkcjv els to
avro (jvviovTiov hvolv 6 re Xapi^dvojv tovs tov
8i86vTos olKeiovs /cat (f)LXovs o re Sl8ovs tovs tov
XapL^dvovTOS olopievoL 8eZv cfuXocfypoveZadaL SnrXa-
Gidt^ovaiv TY]v VTToSox'qV' eTL^ TToAAa Ta)v ya/xt-
Kcov rj rd TrXeZora Sparat 6ta yvvaiKcov ottov he
yvvaZKes TrdpeiOL, /cat tovs dvSpas dvayKaZov eoTi
uapaXapi^dveodai . ' '

^ So Turnebus, Anonymus : eVei.



334



TABLE-TALK IV. 3, 666-667

\aew. It is that of all the occasions for a banquet,
none is more conspicuous or talked about than a wed-
ding. When we offer sacrifice to the gods, or honour a
friend on the eve of a journey, or entertain guests
from abroad, it is possible to do so unnoticed by many
of our intimates and relatives; but a wedding-feast be-
trays us by the loud marriage cry, the torch, and the
shrill pipe, things which according to Homer ** even
the women stand at their doors to watch and admire.
Consequently, since no one is unaware that we are
receiving guests and must have invited them, we in-
clude all our relatives, acquaintances, and connections
of any degree, because we are afraid to leave anyone
out."

3. When we had applauded this, Theon took up
the thread with these words : " Let us adopt this
theory, for it is quite probable. But add, if you will,
a further point, that these particular banquets are
not merely friendly entertainments but important
family occasions, which solemnize the incorporation
of a new set of relatives into the family. What is
more important than this, at the union of two houses,
each father-in-law regards it as a duty to demonstrate
good will to the friends and relatives of the other,
and so the guest-list is doubled. Besides, many or
most of the activities relating to a wedding are in
the hands of women, and where women are present
it is necessary that their husbands also should be
included."

• Iliad, xviii. 495 f.



535



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(667) nPOBAHMA A

El tJ ddXaaaa Trjs yrjs evotporepa
CoUocuntur Polycrates, Symmachus, Lamprias, alii

C 1. Trjg EujSotas" o AIStji/jos,^ ov to. Qcpfia
XOJpiov iarlv avro^vrf' ttoWol rrpos rjSovas ^X^^
eXevdepLovs Kal KareGKevaafxevov OLKijaeai. Kal
StatVatS", KOLVov olKTjT'qpLOV aTToSeSct/crat rrjs *EA-
AaSos" TToXXcov Se /cat 7m]va)v koX ;Yep(Tatcov
dXidKOfjLevojv, ovx '^rrov rj ddXarra 7rap€;^€t ttjv
dyopdv evrpdiret^oVt iv roiroi? Kadapols Kal dy^tjSa-
deGi yewalov l^Ovv koI ttoXvv €KTpi(j)ovGa. fxaXi-
ara S' dvOel to ;^coptoy aKpLal^ovTos eapos' iroXXol
yap d(l)LKvovvraL rrjv wpav avrodi^ /cat Gwovalas
TTOiovvrai pier* dXXriXcL>v iv d(f)66vois Trdai /cat TrAet-

D CTTas" rrepl Xoyovs vtto axoXrjs StarptjSa? exovai.
Ys^aXXiarpdrov Se tov oo(f)LOTov irapovros epyov
rjv dJ^Xaxodt SeLTTveiv dpuaxos yap rj <j)LXo(f>poovvr] y
/cat TO TTavTas els ro avTO avvdyeiv imeiKcos Tovg
XO-pUvTas 'qSiGTOv* Trapelx^' rroXXaKis /Ltev yap
tjLtt/ictro Tcov TraAatcov tov Kt/xojva ttoXXovs /cat
TTavTohaiTOVs ecrricov rjSeoJS, del S'^ cos" enos elirelv

1 So Turnebus, Xylander : yaXr}tl>os.

2 So Reiske : avro^vks.

^ Franke adds StaTpiipovres here.

* Post suggests TO SeiTTvov after TJBLarov.

^ 8' added by Xylander.

" See J. J. Hartman, Be Plutarcho Scrij)tor€ et Philosopho^
pp. 382 ff., Be Avondzon des Ileidendoms, i*, p. 173.

^ Infra, vii. 5. 1 and 3, 704 e and 705 n ; De Defect. Orac.
410 A with Flaceliere's note 4 ; EE^ s.v. " Plutarchos ", col.

336



TABLE-TALK IV. 4, 667

QUESTION 4

Whether the sea is richer in delicacies than the land

Speakers : Polycrates, Symmachus, Lamprias, and others

1 . Aedepsus <* in Euboea has become a popular resort
for people from all over Greece, particularly because
of the place called Hot Springs, which possesses many
natural resources for the worthy enjoyment of leisure,
and is further embellished by villas and elegant apart-
ment houses. Game and fowl are caught there in
abundance, and the sea no less lavishly supplies the
market with provisions for the table, producing many
a fine, noble fish in the deep, clear waters close to
shore. This resort flourishes especially when spring
is at its height, for many continue to come there all
that season. They gather together, exempt from
every want, and, having the leisure, engage endlessly
in conversation. When Callistratus * the sophist was
there, it was difficult to dine at anyone else's house,
for his graciousness was irresistible, and made the
occasion very pleasant ^ when he brought practically
all the choicer spirits together in one group. For he
often copied Cimon ^ among the ancients in giving
delightful banquets for a large and miscellaneous
company ; he virtually always imitated Celeus,* who

676. An official of Delphi, no doubt one of the Callistrati
attested in inscriptions as holding several offices there.

" Or " made him very popular," following Wyttenbach's
interpretation in his Index Verb, in Plut.

^ Cimon was, according to Theopompus in Athenaeus, xii,
533 a-b, exceedingly generous to the poor of Athens, for
whom he kept open house and an open purse. He was the
celebrated general, the son of Miltiades.

* Legendary king of Eleusis in the Homeric Hymn to
Demeter^ 473, and elsewhere.

337



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(667) Tov KeAeov, ov Trpcorov luropovuLv evSoKtfjLOJV Kal
dyadajv avSpcov KaraGKevdaavra gvvoSov Kadrj-
fjiepLvrjv ovofidaaL irpyravelov.

2. ^Kytyvovro 8rj XoyoL Toiavrji avvovaia npe-
7TOVT6S iKOLGTore- Kai TTore irapeGXov at rpciTrcJat

E TTOtActAcorarat yiyvopievaL tpqrrjGiv VTrep oiJjojv,
TTorepov rd ck yrj? rj rd eK OaXdrnqs eTnrrjScLorepa'
Kal TOiv dXXojv G^ehov dirdvTCjJv vjjlvovutcjov rd e/c
yfjs TToAAd Kal TTavToSaTrd Kal SvGe^aptdfjLrjra TOt?
yiveGL Kal rats 8La(f)opaZs, rov Su/x/^a^^ov^ o rToAu-
Kpdriqs TTpOGayopevGas i " gv 8'/' €?7rev, " dfJi^iaXov
ojv l,(pov Kal TOGavrais cyrc^pa^/xeVo? OaXdrrais,
at rrjv lepdv rripi^^ vfiojv iXirrovGi Nt/coTToAtv, ovk
djLtwet? rw YloGeihcbvL ; " " ^o-uXoixai ye vrj AC,"
6 Su/x/xa^^os" €L7T€V, " Kal Ge TTapaXafx^dvcx) Kal
TrapaKaXoj, rd 7J8(,Gra ttjs 'A^^al'/CT^s" KapirovpLevov
daXdrrrjg." " ovkovv," 6^17, " TrpojTov/' 6 UoXv-
Kpdrrjs, " liopiev irrl rrjv GVvqdeLav. (I)� ydp

F TToXXcJov ovTWV 7TOL7]T(jbv €va TOV KpdriGTOv cfat"
pircos TTOLrjTTjV KaXovfxeVy ovrcog ttoXXwv ovtojv

OlpCOV €KV€VLKr]K€V 6 IxOvS piOVOS^ "^ jLtaAtCTTCl y*

o^ov KaXelGdai 8 id rd ttoXv iravrcov dperfj k par civ.

^ So Aldine edition : aifiaxov (and immediately below
aifxaxoi) T, avjxaxov E {avfiaxos below).

2 So Stephanus : Trepl.

3 So Bernardakis from Athenaeus, 276 e : ixovov.

" This is to be distinguished from the better known use of
the term for a political administrative unit during the Athe-
nian democracy.

^ Polycrates of Sicyon in Achaia, descendant of Aratus ;
cf. Plutarch, Aratus, i. 3 ; the Life of Aratus is dedicated to
him.

338



TABLE-TALK IV. 4, 667

first, according to the record, established a diurnal
council of excellent and respected citizens, which he
called a prytaneumJ^

2. Hence there was always conversation worthy of
such an assemblage. At one such dinner, the elabor-
ate fare gave rise to a discussion whether food pro-
duced by the soil or food from the sea is preferable.
Most of the company sang the praises of the products
of the land, citing their abundance, variety, and
almost infinite diversity of qualities and types. But
Polycrates,^ turning to Symmachus,^ said, ** You're
a seagirt specimen, raised as you were amid all those
seas that course around your sacred Nicopolis.**
Aren't you going to rise to the defence of Poseidon } "
" Yes, I certainly want to," answered Symmachus,
" and I call upon you to back me up, since you reap
a harvest of the most delicious sea food that the
Achaean ^ waters have to offer." " All right," said
Poly crates. " First let us consider word usage.
Though there are many poets, we call the best one
pre-eminently ' the poet ^ ' ; and so, though there
are many delicacies, fish has won the title, either
exclusively or pre-eminently, of * delicacy ' {opson),^
because it far excels all others in quality. In fact, we

* According to Ricard, the physician mentioned by Martial,
V. 9, etc. ; but according to Ziegler, in RE^ s.v. " Plutarchos,"
he is a member of the Amphictyonic Council from Nicopolis.

'^ City founded by Augustus on a peninsula near Actium,
in honour of his victory there.

* Because Polycrates comes from the region Achaia on the
Gulf of Corinth.

^ Homer.

" Opson varies in meaning from any prepared food to an
especial delicacy. It is sometimes defined as anything eaten
with bread (as in Plut. Mor. 99 d). C/. Gulick's note on
Athenaeus, 276 e (LCL).



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(667) /cat yap oipocfxiyovs /cat (juXoifjovs^ Xeyo^ev ovx^t
668 rovs jSoetots" xot'^povras' woirep 'Hpa/cATys" os ' rot?
Kpeaoi ^^Acupd cru/c' iTn^adiev/ ^ ov8e rov <^l\6gv-
Kov^ olos tJv nActrcov, ov c/ycXoPorpw olos ^ApKeal-
Aaos", aAAa rous" Trept tt^v IxOvoTTwXiav dvaStSov-
ras" iKOLGTore /cat tou /cco8a>vos"* o^eojs aKOVovras.
/cat d ArjfjLoadevqs rov ^iXoKpdrrjV (f)7]Glv €/c tou

TTpohoTlKOV ^(pVGLOV ' TTOpvaS KOl l-)(BvS dyopdi,€LV,'

€77* oijjo^ayia /cat dacAyeta. rdv dv8pa XoiSopcov.

6 8e }^Tr]GLcf)a)v ov /ca/ccos", 6ijjo<j)dyov rivos iv rfj

f^ovXfj ^ocovTos payi]G€GdaL, ' {JLTjSafjLOJs ,' elirev,

(L dvdpcjTre, ttol'^g'DS r}ixds Ix^'^ofipoyrovs .' 6 he

TO GTlX^'hiOV TOVTO TTOirjGa^

TTpos KaTTirdpiov t,fj? Svvdfievos rrpos dvdiav

B Tt TTore fiovXerai; tl 8' ot TroAAot ^ovXovraL, TTpos

Oecov, orav rjSecos yeveGdai TrapaKaXovvres dX-

X'qXovs XeyojGL ' G'^fxepov dKrdGCJfJiev ' ; ovxl to

Trap* d/CTTy Selnvov '^Slgtov dirocfyaivovGLV wGirep

eGTiv; ov hid rd KVfjiara /cat rds t/jTjcfylSas (rl ydp;

€77* d/CTTjs" TLS XiKiSov oipdrai /cat Kdirirapiv;),

^ So Basel edition : oXotpvxovs.

2 So Xylander from Athenaeus, 276 f: ^xoiv -rjaOicv.

^ So Basel edition from Athenaeus, 276 f : <f>iX6ao<f)ov.

* So Basel edition : kovcovos-

� Euripides, frag. 907 (Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag.). Athe-
naeus, who has this whole passage almost verbatim in vii,
276 f, adds hoeia (" of beef ") to " meat."

^ Founder of the Middle Academy.

� Strabo, xiv. 2. 21, p. 658, has an amusing story about
people's quick response to the bell that announced the sale of
opsa from the sea.

^ On the False Legation^ xix. 229. Philocrates was the

340



TABLE-TALK IV. 4, 667-668

describe as ' eaters of delicacies ' and * lovers of
delicacies ' not those who enjoy their beef, like
Heracles — ' he downed green figs after his meat ' *
— nor any lover of figs like Plato, or of the grape like
Arcesilaiis,'' but those who always show up when fish
are sold and who have a keen ear for the bell.*'
Demosthenes, '^ too, by way of an accusation for glut-
tony and licentiousness, says that Philocrates ^ used
money gained by treason to buy harlots and fish.
Again, Ctesiphon ^ wittily answered a devoted eater
of delicacies who shouted in the Council that he was
about to burst with anger : ' My dear fellow, please
don't ! You'd get us all eaten alive by fish.' But
what is the poet getting at who wrote the neat line,

You live on capers,^ when you could have anthias ? '

Or what, in heaven's name, do people mean when
they say, inviting each other to have a good time,
* Let's have a shore party to-day ' ? Aren't they de-
claring what is certainly true, that a dinner by the
shore is the most delicious ? This isn't because of the
waves and the pebbles — does anyone ever make a
meal of porridge and capers at the beach ? — it is

sponsor of the peace of 346 b.c. between Athens and Philip of
Macedon, ana was accused by Demosthenes of treason
against Athens.

• A minor public figure at Athens, known chiefly because
of his proposal that a gold crown should be bestowed upon
Demosthenes.

^ Starvation rations, as Philemon, frag. 98 (Kock), shows.

' Probably the Mediterranean barbier, according to An-
drews's Zoological Index to De Sollertia Animalium in LCL
Mor. xii, p. 484. For further extensive lore on this fish see
A. W. Mair in Oppian (LCL), pp. iii ff., and D'Arcy Thomp-
son, Glossary of Greek Fishes, pp. 14 ff., and note o on p. 426
of LCL Plut. Mor. xii, 977 c.

341



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(668) aAA' d)S IxOvos d(f)d6vov /cat veapov ttjv irapaXLov
rpdnel^av evnopovaav .

" Kat fxevTOL Kal TTnTpdoKeraL irapa} Xoyov
airavrajv rifiicorarov to daXdmov oifjov 6 yovv
Yidrwv ovx vttcp^oXlkcos dAA* dXrjdojs irpos ttjv
Tpv(f)rjv Kal TToXyreXeiav ri]? noXecog SrjfJLT^yopoJv
C ctnev, on TrXeiovos TnTrpdoKerai iv 'Pco/xt^ Ixdv?
Tj ^ovs KepdfJiLOV re rapixovs^ jtojXovgl TLfirjs, oarjv
ovK dv eKarofJi^rj ^ovirpwpos dX(f>OL /cara/coTretcra.

Katrot ^ap/xa/ccejy SwdfJiecos 6 larpLKoyTaros
dpLGTOs Kpir7]s Kal /xeAcov dperrjg 6 (ftiXopiovGO-
raros", ovkovv Kal dperij? oijjojv 6 (fnXoiporaros .
ov yap WvOayopa ye rovrcjv ouSe 'B.evoKpdreL
SiaiTrjrfj ^^^pi^crreov, ^Avrayopa Se rw 7T0Lr]rfj Kal
OtAo^eVoj TO) 'EpiJ^tSos" Kal rw l^a)ypd<f)a) 'AvSpo-
KvSrjy ov (fyaoL rrjv ^KvXXav t,coypa(f)ovvra rov� irepl
avTTjv Ixdvs ifiTTadearara Kal l,a>TLKa)Tara St'
6ijjo(^ayiav i^epydaaadaL. 'Avrayopa S' o jSacrt-
Xevs ^ Avriyovos iv rep crrparoTrdScp XondSa yoy-
D ypojv eipovTL Trepte^cucr/xeVaj rrapaords , ' dpd y*,
et7r€, ' rov "Ofiripov otet rdg rod AyafiepLvovos
TTpd^ets dvaypd(f>eLV yoyypovg eipovra; ' KaKelvog
ov cf)avXco?, ' ov 8' otet,' e(f)7]cr€, ' rov ^Aya/jLefivova
TCtS" 7Tpd^€L9 eVetVa? ipydoaadai iroXvirpayfio-
vovvra, ris iv rep GrparondScp yoyypov ei/jei ; '

^ So Basel edition : Trepi.
^ So Reiske from Athenaeus, 275 a : yap.

" The Censor, 234-149 b.c. Cf. Athenaeus, vi, 274 f.
* Head of the Academy from 339 to 314 b.c.

342



TABLE-TALK IV. 4, 668

because at the seashore there is abundance of fresh
fish for the table.

" Furthermore, sea food is out of all proportion the
most expensive. Cato � assuredly wasn't exaggerat-
ing but speaking plain truth in his harangue against
the luxury and extravagance of the capital, when he
said that a fish sells for more at Rome than a cow,
and they sell a cask of smoked fish for a price that
a hundred sheep plus one ox in the lead wouldn't
bring, cut in pieces.

" Again it is certainly true that as the most com-
petent physician is the best judge of the effect of a
drug, and as the most ardent lover of music is the
best qualified to appraise a tune, so the best critic of
the excellence of a dish must be the greatest gourmet.
Obviously, we cannot appeal to Pythagoras or Xeno-
crates ^ to arbitrate such matters ; but only to such as
Antagoras '^ the poet, Philoxenus '^ the son of Eryxis,
or the painter Androcydes.** Androcydes, they say,
in a painting of Scylla, elaborately rendered the fishes
swimming in the water around her in a most en-
thusiastic and lifelike manner because of his appetite
for fish. As for Antagoras, King Antigonus once
found him in the camp girt like a cook and boiling a
dish of conger-eels, and asked him, * Do you think
Homer has recorded the deeds of Agamemnon w hile
cooking eels ? ' Antagoras 's apt reply was, ' Do
you imagine Agamemnon performed those deeds
while busying himself with finding out who was boil-
ing a conger-eel in the camp ? ' That is what I have

<= RE, i. 2338, no. 4. Epic poet of the 3rd century b.c.
Intimate of King Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia.

^ RE, XX. 190, no. 5. Notorious rou6, ridiculed by Aristo-
phanes.

• See supra, 665 d with note. Cf. Athenaeus, viii, 340 f.

343



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(668) TavT\" etVrev o HoXvKpdrrjgy " eyojye cju/xjSaAAojLtat
/cat VfjLLV^ /cat vrj Ata rot? IxOvoTTCoXaLS avro roiv
fjLaprvpcov /cat r?^? ovviqdeias."

3. " 'Eyco 8'," o llvfJLjjLaxos^ ^^V' " "^^ Trpdy-
jLtart /xera ctttouS-:^? TTpoGeipn /cat StaAc/crt/ccarepov.
et yap o^ov eart to tt^v rpo(f)'r]v i(j)r]8vvov, dpiarov
av oi/jov eif] to [xaXiorra^ rrjv ope^Lv iirl rco oirco

E Karaox^Zv SvvdjJievov. warrep ovv ol Trpoaayopev-
divres 'EA7rt(7Tt/cot <j)i\6uo(jioi cruveKTLKCjrarov etvat
rod ^Lov TO eATTt^etv a7ro<^atVoyTat* to) OLTTOvarjs^
cATTtSos" ouS'" rjSvvovar]? ovk dveKrov^ elvai rov
^ioVy ovTOJ /cat ttJs" €77t TQ^v Tpo(j)rjv ope^eoj^
uvveKTLKov dereov ov pur] Trapovros^ dxcLpLS yiyverai
Tpo(f)r] Trdaa /cat hvG7rp6a(f>opos .^ tojv puev ovv e/c
y^S" TOiovTOV ovhev €vpii]G€L9, Twv Se daXarTLOJV
Tov aAa Trpcorov, ov p^ojpts" ofoev ojg evros" etTretv
€CTTtv ehajhipLOV dXXd /cat tov dprov ovros €/Lt-
p.iyvvpL€vos avvrj8vv€L (Sto /cat ATJfJbrjrpog avvvaos 6

F rioaetScDv) /cat tojv olAAcuv o?/fajv ot aAe? T^Stov

0?//OV €LGIV.

" Ot yow ripciies evreXovs /cat AtTTy? iddSeg cjo-
7T€p dcrKTjral StatTT^s" ovtc? /cat rrjs rpoc/irjs Trdaav
rjSovrjv iiriBerov /cat TrepUpyov d(f)€X6vT€9, cos pirjS*
IxOvoi ;^/)'rJo-^at irapd rov 'EAATyoTrovTov drparoTre-

^ Kol added by Madvig, vfilv by Wyttenbach.

^ alfxaxos T, avfZaxos E.

3 TO after fidXiara deleted in Basel edition.

* So Turnebus : aTro^ai lac. 4-5.

^ dTToucn;? Xylander : .Trdarjs-

� So Reiske : ou^-

' ovAf avcKTov Turnebus : lac. 4-5 ve/croi'.

^ So Stephanus : Trarros.

' So Xylander, bvarrpoaoiaTos Turnebus : bvanpo lac. 1-2.

^� ov x^p'i-s added by Stephanus.

344



TABLE-TALK IV. 4, 668

to offer to you — and, by George, to the fish-peddlers,"
said Poly crates, " from the testimony of history and
from usage."

3. " Well," said Symmachus, " for my part I shall
attack the subject in a serious and rather more logical
vein. If a relish (opson) is something that makes a
dish palatable, then the best relish would be the one
that does most to attract our appetite. The philo-
sophers called Elpistics <* declare that hope is the
strongest bond of Ufe, pointing out that in the absence
of hope and without its seasoning life is unendurable.
Correspondingly we may assert that the means to
sustain appetite is something without which all food
is tasteless and unpalatable. You will find nothing of
the sort in foods produced on land ^ ; whereas from
the sea you will. First there is salt, \iithout which
practically nothing is eatable. Salt is added even to
bread and enriches its flavour ; this explains why
Poseidon shares a temple with Demeter. Salt is also
the best relish to season other relishes.

" The heroes of old, at any rate, who were accus-
tomed to a modest, simple diet, and who acted as if
they were in training, excluding all superfluous
elaborations and condiments, even did without fish,
though they were camping by the Hellespont '^ ; yet

* From el pis, " hope."

'' Obviously Plutarch is thinking of salt as derived only
from the sea, although Herodotus sliows that salt mines and
rock salt were known (Herod, iv. 185). See now A. S. Pease
on Cicero, De Natura Deorum, ii. 53. 132 "salinae" ; RE, s.v.
" Salz."

* Plato in Republic, 404 b-c, defends the frugality of the
original citizens of his simple state on exactly this basis, that
Homer did not indulge his heroes in fish from the near-by
Hellespont.

345



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(668) SevovreSy ovx VTrlfxevov ra Kpea x^P^^'S aAcov irpocr-

(pepeadaiy fjiaprvpovvreg on rovro rwv oijjojv fJLOvov

aTTapaiT-qrov eariv. chs yap ra ;;^pc6jU.aTa rov^ ^coros",

ovrws ot x^fJ^ol Tov^ dXog heovrai npo? to KLvijoai^

669 TTjv alodiqGLV el Se jU,')]/ ^apets rfj yevcreL rrrpoa-

7TL7TTOVGL KOL VOVTuLheiS . ' V€KV€S yCip KOTTpiCOV €K-

pXrjTorepoi,' KaO^ 'Hpa/cActrov, Kpeas Se ndv veKpov
ioTLV /cat v€Kpov ixipos' rj Se rcbv dXcov Swa/xt?,
(x)GTr€p ipvx'T] TTapayevojjLevr], X^P^^ avrco /cat r)8ovrjv
TTpoGrWrjGL. 8l6 /cat TrpoXafi^dvovGi rrjg dXXrjs
Tpo(f)rjs rd Spifxea /cat rd dXpivpd, /cat oXcog oGa [xd-
Aicrra rwv aAcoj^ jJLereGX'rjKe' ycyveraL ydp (f)LXTpa
ravra rfj ope^ec rrpds rd dXX oipa, /cat SeAeaa^etcra
8ta TOVTOJV €77* €/cetva irpoGeiGLV veaXrjg /cat irpoOv-
jLtos" edv S' 0,77* €K€Lvajv dp^rjTai, raxdcog dnayo-

p€V€L.

B " Ov fJLovov Toivvv TTpds rrjv Tpo(f)rjv dXXd /cat
Trpos t6^ ttotov oifjov elolv ol dXes. to fxev ydp

'OfirjpLKOV €K€lVO, ' KpOfJLVOV TTOTOJ OlpOv/ VaVTaiS

/cat KcoTTrjXaTaig jjidXXov t) ^aotXevGLV iTTLTijSeLov
rjv TO, 8' u</)aA/xupt^ovTa pieTpicos tcjv gltlcdv 3t'
evGTOfJLLav Tidv jLcev o'lvov yevo? rj8v ttj yevGei /cat
Aetov eTrdyei, Tvdv S' vhojp TTpoG^iXks irapex^L /cat^
aA/ci/xov'' diq8ias 8k /cat 8vGX€p€Las, 7]v €/X7rotet

^ Tov (f>coT6s Benseler {^iotos Turnebus) : lac. 6-7 tos-
^ TOV aXos Benseler (dAo? Turnebus) : lac. 2-3 Aoj.
^ So Turnebus : lac. 4-5 aai.
* el hk fx-q Stephanus : e^?).
^ TO added by Bernardakis.

^ So Bollaan, cf. Helmbold, Class. Philol. xxxvi, p. 85 :
TTapex^adaL. '' hoKifxov Post, oXvttov Bernardakis.

� Diels, frag. 96 (Diels-KranzS, p. 172) ; Strabo, xvi. 4. 26,

p. 784.

346



TABLE-TALK IV. 4, 668-669

they could not endure to eat meat \vithout salt.
They testify that salt is the only relish that cannot
be dispensed with. Just as colour requires light,
so flavour requires salt to stimulate the sense ;
otherwise flavours are disagreeable and nauseous
to the taste. The bodies of the dead, according
to Heracleitus,** are fitter to be cast out than dung,
and all meat is either a dead body or part of one.
But the effect of salt upon meat, like the addition
of a veritable soul,^ is to lend flavour and an agree-
able quality to it. This is why it is conventional
before a main course to take appetizers that are sharp
or briny, and in general anything that has a highly
salty character. For these relishes act as charms to
entice the appetite towards the other delicacies ; and
appetite, caught by this magic, attacks the other
viands with youthful " vigour. If, however, these
other viands are the first food presented to the
appetite, it quickly wearies.

" Nor is salt a seasoning only for food ; it also
seasons drinks. The Homeric phrase, * the onion, a
relish to a drink,' ^ would be better suited to sailors
and oarsmen than to princes ; but moderately salty
foods, on account of their pleasant taste, bring out the
sweetness and smoothness of any kind of wine, and
also make any water agreeable and tonic,* without a
trace of the disagreeable and objectionable effect that

'' Cf. Cicero, De Natura Beorum^ ii. 64. 160, " animam
ipsam pro sale datum " (to the sow), with Pease's note.

<= Combined perhaps with another meaning, " newly
salted."

<* Iliad, xi. 630.

� With Gulick in AJ.PA^ (1939), pp. 493 f. ; or " forti-
fying" (so Oxford Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. dXKifios ii) ;
with Post's emendation the meaning would be " accept-
able."

347



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(669) TO KpofJifJivoVf ovS^ oXtyov yi€r€oxr]K€V' dAAa kol
hiacjiopei rrjv aXXrjv t/oo<^7^v /cat TrapaSiSojcnv ev-
7T€i6rj Kol pLoXaKiorepav rfj Trej/ret/ X^P^^^ i^^^^
otpov SvvajjLLV Se (^ap/xa/cov rw acofiari rcuy dXcov*

C 7TpOG(f)€pOfJL€VOJV . Kal fJLTjV TO, y (xAAtt QoXcLTT'^S Ol/ja

Trpos Tip rjSLGTCp Kal to d^Xa^eoTaTov e;^€f KpecoBr]
pikv yap ioTiVy ov ^apvvet S* ofiolcos dXXd Kara-
7r€TT€Tai Kal hia^opelTai paSiO)?. ixapTvprjoei 8'
ovTOol ILrqvojv Kal vr) Ata Kparcov, ot tov9 dode-
vovvTas irpo tcov dXXcjv dnavTcov inl tov Ix^vv
dyovoiv 0)9 KOV<^6TaTov oijjojv. Kal Xoyov e;^et
TT^v ddXaTTav vyieivd Kal StaTreTTOVT^/xeVa rots'
ocofiaoLV €KTpe(j)eLVy et ye Kal rjfjblv dipa AeTrroTTyrt
Kal KaOapoTTjTL TrpoGcjyopov dvaSlScooLV."

4. " ^Opdco?," €(l)7], " Xey€L�," 6 Aaixirpias ,
" dXX €TL T(p Xoyo) Trpoo^iXoooijirjacopLev . 6 yap
ipLos TraTTTTOs elcjdei Xeyeiv iKaoTOTe tovs 'lof-
Satovg iTTicrKcoTTTOJV, otl to StKiatorarov Kpeas
D ovK iodiovoLV r]fJL€L9 8e ^tJcto/xcv St/catorarov oipov
etvau TO €K OaXaTTT]?. TTpos fJiev ydp^ raurt ra
X€p(Tala KOLV dXXo [xrjSev r]fiiv rj St/catov, dAAa
Tp€(j)€.Tai ye tols avTols Kal XapL^dvei tov avTov
depa, Kal XovTpd Kal ttotov avTOis direp rfpilv

eOTLV fj Kal^ G<f)dTTOVT€9 iSvGOJTTOVVTO (f)aJV7]V

^ So Turnebus : o^et.

^ XOipi-v Post : evxapiv. els x^P'-^ Turnebus, a�s x^P^^ Wji.ten-
bach, evxapi-v /xev x^^P'-^ Bernardakis, cf. 685 a.

^ yap after fxkv deleted by Turnebus.

* So Basel edition : dXXwv.

^ So Bernardakis : ye.

' ^ /cat Wyttenbach, a kol Stephanus, Kal Basel edition :
viKai.

348



TABLE-TALK IV. 4, 669

your onion produces. Beyond that, salty food aids
digestion of any other * ; it makes any food tender
and more susceptible to concoction ; the salt con-
tributes at once the savour of a relish and the good
effect of a medicine. Moreover, the other delicacies
of the sea, in addition to being most gratifying to the
taste, are also the safest to eat ; for they have the
character of meat without its heaviness, and are easily
digested and assimilated. Here is Zeno ^ to testify,
and yes, so help me, Crato,*' too ! Both prescribe
fish for invalids, because it is the lightest meat,
before allowing them any other. One more point :
it is logical that what the sea brings forth should be
wholesome and well-perfected, since the sea sends us
air that is healthful because of its lightness and
purity."

4. " You are right," said Lamprias, " but let us add
a little to our speculations. My grandfather used to
say on every occasion, in derision of the Jews, that
what they abstained from was precisely the most
legitimate meat. But we shall say that of all delicacies
the most legitimate kind is that from the sea. As
far as the land animals whose meat is here before us
are concerned, we must admit at least this if nothing
else, that they consume the same food and breathe
the same air as we do, and drink and bathe in water
no different from ours. This has in times past made
men ashamed when they butchered them in spite of
their pitiful cries and in spite of having made com-

� Cf. infra, 688 b.

* Occurs only here, according to RE, s.v. " Plutarchos,"
col. 686.

" A relative of Plutarch's by marriage, supra, i. 4, 620 a.
There is a physician of this name from Athens in the early
Roman Empire in Inscriptiones Graecae, iii. 1327.

349



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(669) a(f)i€VTa yoepav /cat ra irXeiGra TreTTOLrjfjLevoi. avv-
i]d7] /cat avvrpo(f)a ratS" Statrats". to Se rcDr
ivaXicov yivos €K(j)v\ov oXco? /cat avoiKov rjfjicbv,

COG7T€p €V d'AAo) TtVt KOGjJiCx) yeyOVOTCJV /cat l,(X)VTOJV,

OUT oi/jLS ovT€ (fxjjvrj Tt? ov6^ VTTOvpyia 7TapaLT€LTaL
TTJg 7Tpoa(f)opds^ (ovSev yap avrolg e^tt yp'qGaadai
E ^wov, o /XT^S' oXojs l,fj Trap* r^fxlv), ovhe Set tlvos
CTT* avra oropyrjs, aAA' ayoirep ''AlStjs avrols ianv
ovTos 6 Trap* rjjjLlv tottos' iXdovra yap els avTov
€vde<x>s redvTjKev."



nPOBAHMA E

HoTcpov ol 'louSaiot ae^ofievoi rrjv vv t] Svax^po-Lvovres
o-TT^xovTai rojv Kpecov

Collocuntur Callistratus, Polycrates, Lamprias

1. 'Evret Se ravr ippijdr], PovXofievojv rtvayv
avrt/cararetVetv rov erepov Xoyov eKKpovoiv 6
KaAAt'o-rparo? €0^7, " VT-ca? vpLiv 8ok€l XeXexOo-L to

F TTpos rovs ^lovSalovs, on to St/catoTaToi^ Kpias
ovK ioOiovGLv; " " i)7Tep(fivo)sJ' €(f)7) 6 UoXvKpdrrjs,
" iyd) Se /cat TTpoohiaTTOpcb, TTorepov ol avhpes TLfifj
TLVi Tcov vcov t) pLVGaTToyievoL TO ^ojov OLTrexovraL
rrjg ^paxjeajs avrov- ra yap Trap' eKeivois Acyo-
pueva pivdois eot/cev, et pLiq rivas dpa Xoyovs oirovhai-
ov� exovres ovk €K(f)€pov(7LV."

2. " 'Eyct> fiev tolvuv," etirev 6 KaAAtoTpaTO?,

^ So Anonymus : vpoa lac. a?.

� The same argument is advanced, on the contrary, in
viii. 8, 729 a infra, as the genuine reason for abstention from
all products of the sea by the Egyptians. In 729 d ibid, that
attitude is ascribed to the Pythagoreans.

350



TABLE-TALK IV. 4-5, 669

panions of most of them and shared their store of food
with them. Sea animals, on the other hand, are a
species entirely alien and remote from us," as if they
had sprung up and were li\ing in some different
world. ^ Neither look nor voice nor ser\ice rendered
pleads with us not to eat them, for no animal can
employ these pleas that has no life at all among us ;
nor need we feel any affection for them. Our world
is equivalent to Hades for them, since to come here
is instant death."



QUESTION 5

Whether the Jews abstain from pork because of reverence or
aversion for the pig

Speakers : Callistratus, Polycrates, Lamprias

1. When he had finished, and some of those present
would have made an extended reply to his arguments,
Callistratus headed them off by saying, " What do
you think of the assertion that it is precisely the most
proper type of meat that the Jews avoid eating } " ^^
" I heartily agree with it," replied Polycrates, ** but
I have another question : do they abstain from eating
pork by reason of some special respect for hogs or
from abhorrence of the creature ? Their own ac-
counts sound like pure myth, but perhaps they have
some serious reasons which they do not publish."
2. ** My impression," said Callistratus, " is that the

'' For this obvious point cf. the simpler statement in 729 c
infra : air is destructive to fishes.

" These questions and the whole theme of the bias and mis-
conceptions revealed here in Plutarch as well as elsewhere
in ancient pagan literature are discussed in detail by Heine-
mann in RE, Suppl. v. 19-35.

351



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(669) " otfJLaL TLva TLfJurju to Jojov e;;^etv Trapa tols dv-
670 SpoLGLV €1 8e 8v(jfjLop(j)ov 7) vg /cat doXepov, dAA'
ov^ Kavddpov /cat fjivyaXrjs^ /cat^ KpoKoSelXov /cat
alXovpov* TTjV oi/jiv droTTwrepov^ rj ttjv <J)Vglv
dpLOvaorepov^- ols ws dyLCordroLS Upels AlyvTrrlcov
dXXoLS^ aAAot 7Tpoa(j)€povTaL. rrjv S' vv drro XPV~
aTTjs" alrias^ TifJudadaL Xeyovor TTpcLrr) yap axi-
aaua rco TrpovxovTi rov pvyxovs,^ cSs" (fyaat, rrjv
yrjv Lxvos dpoaecos edrjKev /cat ro rrjg vvecj?
v^riyqaaT epyov oOev /cat rovvofJLa yeviudai rep
ipyaXelcp Xiyovoiv aTTo rrjg vos. ol he rd /xaA^a/ca
/cat KoZXa rrJ9 x^P^^ AlyvTmoi yewpyovvres oi)S*
B dpoTOV Seovrai to irapdrrav dXX orav 6 NetAo?
dTTOppdrj Kara^pi^as ras" dpovpas, inaKoXovdovvres
rds ^S" Kare^aXoVy at Se XPV^^H'^^^^ Trdro) /cat
opvxfj raxv rrjv yrjv erpeipav €/c ^ddovs /cat rov
GTTopov dTTCKpyipav. ov Set 8e davpud^eLV, el Sid
Tovro TLves vg ovk iadiovaLV, erepojv ^cpojv fxel-
l^ovas €77* alriais yXioxp^t,Sy evicjv Se /cat irdw
yeXoiaiSy TLpuds ixovrcov irapd roZs ^ap^dpoi? . ttjv
ixev yap jJLvyaXrjv eKredeidaBaL Xeyovaiv vtt* Alyv-
TTTLCOV TV^Xr^v ovoav , on ro gkotos rod (fycorog
•qyovvro Trpea^vrepov riKreodaL S* avrrjv €/c pLvaJv
TrepiTrrr) yevea vovpiy]vias ovarjg' en 8e fxeiovaOai ro
'^TTap ev rots d^aviopiols rijg aeX'qmjs.

^ dAA' ov Turnebus : lac. 5.

* HvyaXrjs Xylander, cf. 670 b : ypv lac. 3.

3 So Aldine or Basel edition : €k.

* So Basel edition : lac. 5-7 vpov.

^ So Basel edition : aToiroiTaT-qv.

352



TABLE-TALK IV. 5, 669-670

beast enjoys a certain respect among that folk <* ;
granted that he is ugly and dirty, still he is no more
absurd in appearance or crude in disposition than
dung-beetle, field-mouse, crocodile, or cat, each of
which is treated as sacred by a different group of
Egyptian priests. They say, however, that the pig
is honoured for a good reason : according to the story,
it was the first to cut the soil with its projecting snout,
thus producing a furrow and teaching man the func-
tion of a ploughshare. Incidentally, this is the origin,
they say, of the word hynis (from hys, ' swine ') for that
implement. The Egyptians who cultivate the soft
soil of their low-lying areas have no use for plough-
ing at all. After the Nile overflows and soaks their
acres, they follow the receding water and unload the
pigs, which by trampling and rooting quickly turn
over the deep soil and cover the seed. We need not
be surprised if some people do not eat pork for this
reason. Other animals receive even greater honours
among the barbarians for slight and in some cases
utterly ridiculous reasons. The field-mouse is said to
have been deified among the Egyptians because of
its blindness, since they regarded darkness as superior
to light ; and they thought that the field-mouse was
born of ordinary mice every fifth generation at the
new moon, and also that its liver was reduced in size
at the dark of the moon.

<� This suggestion is even more forcibly made in an epi-
gram attributed to Petronius (Biicheler, Petronii reliquiae^
1862, with preface, p. xxxvi), fragment 47, line 1 : " ludaeus
licet ut porcinum numen adoret."

• fivaapcorepov Hirschig, " dirtier, more loathsome."

■^ oAAoiy added in Basel edition.

* diro XPl^"^^ alrias Madvig : aiToxpT)crrfjaai. Kal Koi (sic).

" Tov pvyxovs Reiske : rijs dpvxfjst which may be right.

VOL. VIII N 353



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

^ " Tov Se^ Xeovra rep rjXta) crvvoiKeiovGLV, on,
rwv ya/jn/jojvvxojv rerpaTToScov jSAeVovra tckt€l
fjLovos, KOLfxdraL S* a/capes" ;^/)dvot> /cat vTTo\diX7T€L
ra o/xjLtara KadevSovros' Kprjvai Se /cara p^aor/xaro^y^
XeovreLOJV i^idoi Kpovvovs, on NetAos" indyeL veov
v8a)p rats AlyvTrrlajv dpovpais rjXlov rov Xeovra
TTapohevovros . rr^v 8' l^iv <j)aoLV eKKoXa^deZoav
€v6vs eXK€LV 8vo Spaxfjids, ogov dpn Traihiov
yeyovoros Kaphiav^- TTOielv he rfj rdv ttoSojv*
diTOordG€L^ TTpos dXXriXovs^ Kal Trpos ro pvyxos
looirXevpov rpiyojvov. /cat ri av ns AlyvTrriovs
alncpro rrjs rooavr'qs aAoytas", ottov /cat rovs

D YlvdayopiKovs loropovcnv /cat dXeKrpvova XevKov
ae^eadaL /cat rcov daXarrtcov fidXiora rpiyX-qs /cat
dKaX'^<f)rjs d7Tex€adaL, rovs 8' diro T^copodorpov
fxdyovs nfjidv jLtev iv rots fidXiara rov ;^€po-atov
ex^vov, €x0oLLp€LV Be rovs ivvSpovs puvs Kal rov
diTOKreivovra TrXeiorovs deocfyiXrj /cat jJLaKdpiov
voiJLil,€iv; otfJLaL Se /cat rovs ^lovSalovs, elirep
i^SeXvrrovro rrjv vv, aTroKreiveiv dvy axjTrep ol
jjidyoL roijs fJivs diroKreivovGL' vvv S' ofjiolajs rep
^ayetv to dveXelv aTTOpprjrov ianv avrols. /cat
LGOJS ex^t Xoyov, (Ls rov ovov^ dva(f)'qvavra Trrjyrjv

^ 8e added by Reiske.

2 8e Kara xacrfiaTiov Tumebus, cf. Mor. 366 A : hk KoX Kara-
apfd/x^ara.

3 So Aldine edition : Kaphia.

* So Basel edition : ttovwv.

^ So Hubert, cf. Siaardaei 381 d : aTTordaet.

" So Basel edition : dXXovs.

7 Se after 6vov deleted in Basel edition.

* In Plutarch's time a drachm was equivalent to ^ oz. or
c. 3-4 grams (Hultsch in RE^ s.v. " Drachme," col. 1629).

354,



TABLE-TALK IV. 5, 670

" They associate the lion with the sun because it,
alone of quadrupeds that have claws, bears young
that can see at birth, sleeps only for a moment, and
has eyes that gleam in sleep. Egyptian fountains
pour forth their water through lion mouths, because
the Nile brings new water to the fields of Egypt
when the sun passes through Leo. They say that
the ibis when hatched weighs two drachms,** as
much as the heart of a new-born infant, and forms an
equilateral triangle by the position of its outspread
feet and bill . How could anyone blame the Egyptians
for such irrationality when it is recorded that the
Pythagoreans respect even a white cock,^ and that
they abstain particularly from the red mullet and the
sea anemone among marine animals ? <' Or when we
remember that the Magi, followers of Zoroaster,
especially esteem the hedgehog and abominate water
mice,"* regarding the person who kills the greatest
number of the latter as blest and dear to the gods ?
So I think the Jews would kill pigs if they hated them,
as the Magi kill water mice ; but in fact it is just as
unlawful for Jews to destroy pigs as to eat them.
Perhaps it is consistent that they should revere the

•• Diogenes Laertius, viii. 34, has fuller arguments and ana-
logies in support of this Pythagorean precept or practice.

� Aulus Gellius, iv. 11. 11 flF., quotes this passage, identify-
ing aKoX-j^ri with sea-nettle (urtica), and citing from a lost
work of Plutarch on Homer.

^ Or " sea voles," " sea shrews," or " sea rats." These
were not adequately differentiated. See De Lacy and Einar-
son's comments on 537 a above (LCL Mor. vii, p. 97, note/).
Another possibility, attractive because it explains the abhor-
rence, is the highly poisonous globe-fish : see A. C. Andrews
in Trans. Am. Phil. Assoc, bcxix (1948), pp. 232 ff. Prof.
Warmington suggests " water-shrews " or " water-voles " or
both, because the Magi were of an inland race.

355



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(670) avToZs vSarog tlixcoglv, ovrco? Kal rrjv vv oe^eoOai
OTTOpov Kal dpoTOV StSacr/caAov yevoixevrjv el pnq,^

E VT] Ata, Kal rod Xayojov ^rjoei^ tis aTrix^oOai rov?
avSpas cos fivaepov Kal aKadaprov hvox^-paivovras
TO L,cpov.

3. " Ov Srjr* ," €<l)rf 6 Aa/XTTpta? vnoXa^wv ,*
" dXXa rod /xev Xayojov (j)€ihovraC' hid rrjv irpog rov
ovov ripLCx)ix€Vov^ V7T* avroiv \xdXiora! drjpiov €pL(f)€-
p€iav.^ 6 yap Xaycos fieyedovs €olk€ Kal irdy^ovs
ivSer]? ovos^ etvat* Kal ydp r) xpoa /cat rd cLra Kal
rajv ofJLfxdra>v rj XiTraporrjs Kal rd Xapivpov^^ €olk€
davpLaoLCOs' oiore pjr\hev ovrco^^ puKpov pueydXcp rrjp
pLop(l>r)v opLOLOv yeyovivai. el pirj vr] Ata /cat Trpos
rds TroLorrjras^^ alyvrrridt^ovres rrjv ajKvrrjra rod
^cpov delov rjyovvraL Kal rrjv d/cptj8etav rwv

F aladrjrrjp iojv 6 re ydp o^daXpiOS drpvros ionv
avrcjv, wore Kal KadevSetv dvaTTeTTrapuevoLS rots
op^pLaoLV, 6^V7]Kota re 8o/cet 3ta<^e/)€tv, t^v AlyvTrrLot
Oavpidoavres ev roZs lepoZs ypdpipLacnv dKorjv or]-
piaivovGLV ovs Xayojov^^ ypd^ovres.

To S' veiov Kpeas ol dvSpes d^ooiovodai

^ et firi added by Xylander. ^ Sq Reiske : <j>T}ai.

^ brJT €(f)r] Reiske, SrJT etTTcv Hubert : 8 lac. 7-8.

* So Aldine edition : vnoX lac. 4-6.

^ So Doehner : lac. 2-3 rai. Stephanus d-nexovTai.

^ ovov rifjLioixevov Franke, ovov, irn ainuyv /xvaaxOevra
(" loathed ") Scaliger, ovov"^ e veteribus codicibus " : fievov
VTT 'avToJvfiv lac. 4-5 CTxa.

' yLoXiara Reiske, cf. preceding note.

^ So Scaliger, Franke : €^(f)€p€aTaTov.

* Trdxovs ivSerjs ovos Doehner : Ta;^oi;s ev Seivols-
^" So Reiske : aXuvpov.

^^ fi-qbi after ovtco deleted by Doehner.

356



TABLE-TALK IV. 5, 670

pig who taught them sowing and plowing, inasmuch
as they honour the ass � who first led them to a spring
of water. Otherwise, so help me, someone will say
that the Jews abstain from the hare because they
can't stomach anything so filthy and unclean."

3. " No indeed," countered Lamprias, " they ab-
stain from the hare because of its very close resem-
blance to the ass which they prize so highly. The hare
appears to be simply an ass inferior in bulk and
size ; for its coat, ears, bright eyes, and salacity are
amazingly similar, so much so that nothing small
ever so closely resembled something large. Per-
haps, to be sure, follo>ving the Egyptians even in
their conception of traits of animals, they regard the
swiftness of the creature and the keenness of its
senses as something divine. For its eye is untiring :
the hare even sleeps with its eyes wide open. In
acuteness of hearing it is found to be unrivalled ; the
Egyptians admire this so much that in their hiero-
glyphics they draw a hare's ear to represent the idea
of hearing.

" The Jews apparently abominate pork because

• Tacitus {Histories t v. 3 fF.) has an ampler version of this,
naming Moses and apparently misrepresenting Exodus, xv.
23 ff. Josephus {Contra Apionem, ii. 7. 86) denies that the
Jews honour the ass as the Egyptians do crocodiles. See B.
Latzarus, Les Idees religieuses de Plutarque (Paris, 1920), p.
164. Plutarch himself rejects {De Jside^ 363 c) a connection
between the Jews and Typhon (Set), who both rode an ass
and was otherwise identified with the animal. Latzarus
adduces a number of Old Testament passages to which Plu-
tarch may be indirectly indebted, which show that, the ass
was given a favoured place by the Hebrews. ? Jesus's entry
into Jerusalem.

^^ So Reiske : o/LtotdnjTa?.
*' ovs XaycDov Reiske : rovs Xaycooiis-

357



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(670) SoKovGLV,^ on jLtaAtara ttolvtojv^ ol ^dp^apoi ras
€7tI xP^'^'os XevKas^ Kal Xeirpas Svax^palvovaL /cat
TTJ TTpoG^oXfj ra TOLavra Kara^oGKeadat Trddrj
671 Tovs dvdpaiTTovs olovrai, Trdaav* 8* vv vtto rrjv
yaardpa Xiirpas dvanXecov Kal i/jojpLKoJv i^avdrj-
fjidrajv^ opcopuev, d 8t], Ka^^^io^s rivos iyyevofidvrjs^
to) crco/xart /cat cfydopds, €7nrp€X€LV So/cet rots'
GcofjiaGivJ ov [X7]v dXXd /cat to OoXepov irepl rrjv
hiairav rod BpdfJLfjLaro^ €;^et rtva irov-qpiav ovhkv
yap dXXo pop^opo) ;!^at/5ov ovro) /cat tottols pvira-
poZs /cat aKaddpTois opcjfieVy e^o) Xoyov ridefievoL
rd^ rrjv yeveoiv /cat tt^v <j)VGiv iv avrols exovra rov-
TOLS. XlyovGi he /cat ra ofifxara tojv vcjv ovtcjjs
iyK€KXdG6aL /cat /careo"7racr^at rat? 6ifj€GLV, c5ctt€
B [Ji7]8€v6s dvriXa[jLpdv€G6 at firjSeTTOTe rcJov dvcu /xT^Se
TTpoGopdv Tov ovpavoVy dv fXTj (f>€poix€VOJV vtttIcov
dvaGTpo^riv riva irapd <I>vg(,v at Kopai Xd^ojoiv
Sto /cat fJidXicrra Kpavyrj ;)^pcajLt€Vov to Joiov
rjavxdt,€LV, drav ovtoj ^dpiqrai, /cat OLCOTrdv /cara-
T€da[jiPr]iJL€vov d-qdeia rd ovpdvia /cat Kpeirrovi
(f)6^cp TOV ^odv avvexdfjievov. el Se Set /cat ra
fjLvdiKd TTpoaXa^eiVy Aeyerat /xev o "AScovts" vtto
TOV ovo? 8La(f)daprjvaL, tov S' "AScuvtv ovx eTepov
dAAct AtowCTOv ctvat vo/xtjovcrtv, /cat ttoAAo, tcDv
TeXovybivajv e/carepo) 7r€/3t rd? iopTas jSejSatot tov
Adyov ot Se TratSt/cct tou Atovvcrou ycyoveVaf

^ So Stephanus : lac. 4-5 Kovaiv.

2 Trdj^cov Bernardakis : lac. 2-3.

' em xP^Tos XevKas Hubert : em lac. 2 + lac. 4 AcuKiag.

* rrdaav Stephanus : eg av.

^ So Stephanus : e^avOrjaavrcov. * So Reiske : eKyevofxemris.

' Tois €$a) fiepecLv Paton. � So Reiske : fifra.

358



TABLE-TALK IV. 5, 670-671

barbarians especially abhor skin diseases like lepra"
and white scale, and believe that human beings are
ravaged by such maladies through contagion. Now
we observe that every pig is covered on the under
side by lepra and scaly eruptions, which, if there
is general weakness and emaciation,^ are thought to
spread rapidly over the body. What is more, the
the very filthiness of their habits produces an inferior
quality of meat. We observe no other creature so
fond of mud and of dirty, unclean places, if we leave
out of account those animals that have their origin
and natural habitat there. People say also that
the eyes of swine are so twisted and drawn down
that they can never catch sight of anything above
them or see the sky unless they are carried upside
down so that their eyes are given an unnatural tilt
upward. Wherefore the animal, which usually
squeals immoderately, holds still when it is carried
in this position, and remains silent because it is
astonished at the unfamiliar sight of the heavenly
expanse and restrained from squealing by an over-
powering fear. If it is legitimate to bring in mytho-
logy too, Adonis is said to have been slain by the
boar. People hold Adonis to be none other than
Dionysus,*' a belief supported by many of the rites at
the festivals of both ; though others have it that he
was the favourite of Dionysus . Phanocles,** an erotic

" Lepra : any scaly condition, cf. psoriasis.

* Or, with Kronenberg's readine aijuari for ouiyLari^ " since
a morbidity is engendered in the blood." The body referred
to may be that of the pig or that of a human being who
touches him.

* See infra. Question 6, notes on Adonis, etc.
<* Elegiac poet, perhaps of the 3rd century b.c.

359



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(671) /cat ^avoKXrjSy ipojriKos avijp, ovk eiKij^ 8i]7rov

7T€7rOLr]K€V'

C iJS' to? Oetov "AScoviv 6p€i<l)oiT7]� Alowgos
^pnaaev, rjyaddrjv Kvirpov^ iTTOixoficvos.^*



Tis 6 rrap' *Iov8alois deos
Collocuntur Symmachus, Moeragenes, alii

1. �au/xaaa? ovv to iirl Trdart* prjOev 6 TiVfifia-
Xos, ap , €(f>7]y ov Tov TrarpLOJTTjv 0€ov, CD AapL-
TTpia, ' evLov opoiyvvaiKa jLtatvo/xeVats" dvdeovra

TLfJLalGL AlOVUGOV ' iyypOL(j)€L� Kal VTTOTTOielg Tolg

*Ej8pata)v oLTTopprjroLs ; tj to) ovtl Xoyos eari ns
6 rovTOV EKeivq) rov avrov a,7ro<^atvcuv ; " o Se
Mot/jayeVi^s" vnoXa^cov, " ea tovtov," elTrev " iyoj
yap ^Adrjvdtos cov dTTOKptvofxal gol /cat Xdyo) jjltj'
SeV dXXov etvai' /cat rd /xev rroXXd rwv els rovro

D TeKflTjpLOJV flOVOLS €CTTt pT^TO, Kol SlSa/CTtt Tols /XVOf-

fievois Trap' rjpZv els rr]v rpLerrjpLKrjv TravreXeiav d

^ OVK elKTJ Hubert : ov lac. 2 T.
2 So Xylander : Kvirpiv.

' There is no heading in T or E, the text being continuous,
but the title is listed in the index prefixed to the Book.
* So Reiske : irdv.
^ aifJiaKos T, avjlaxos E.

" On this entire question see B. Latzarus, Les Ide'es reli-
gieuses de Plutarque (Paris, 1920), chap, xiv, and Heinemann
in RE, Suppl. V. 18-35. * Supra, 667 e.

' Dionysus in many accounts is the son of Semele of
Thebes, and so a Boeotian compatriot of Plutarch and his
brother Lamprias. ^ Lyrici Adesp. 131.

360



TABLE-TALK IV. 5-6, 671

poet, surely knew whereof he spoke when he wrote
the following lines :

And how mountain-coursing Dionysus

Seized the divine Adonis,

As the god did visit holy Cyprus."



QUESTION 6

Who the god of the Jews is"

Speakers : Symmachus, Moeragenes, and others

1. Symmachus,^ surprised at this last statement,
asked, " Lamprias, are you enrolling your national
god <^ in the calendar of the Hebrews and insinuating
into their secret rites * him of the orgiastic cry,
exciter of women, Dionysus, glorified with mad
honours ' ? ** Is there actually some tradition that
demonstrates identity between him and Adonis ? " *
Moeragenes ^ interposed, " Never mind him. I as
an Athenian can answer you and say that the god is
no other. Most of the relevant proofs can lawfully be
pronounced or divulged only to ^ those of us who
have been initiated into the Perfect Mysteries '^ cele-
brated every other year, but what I am going to

* Adonis (probably from Semitic adon " Lord ") of Cyprus,
Byblos, and other Semitic or near-Semitic places, was a god
or demigod in many respects comparable to Dionysus.

' Unknown unless identical with the Moeragenes cited by
Philostratus as one of his authorities in his Llf*^ of Apollonius
of Tyana, i. 3. " Or " by."

* See RE^ s.v. " Panteleia." It is a controversial question
whether the Panteleia belonged to Bacchus or to Demeter,
and whether it refers to Perfection or Consummation, as the
etymology would suggest, or, as Muller-Graupa (in RE)
insists, rather to the simpler concept of " great mysteries."
On the significance of the two-year periods see REy vii a, 122-
124, and Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, v, chaps. 4, 5.

VOL. VIII N* 361



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(671) Se Xoyco ^leXdeZv ov KeKwXvrai TTpos <f)LXovs dvSpag,
dXXcos re Kal Trap* olvov eul toZs tov deov ScopoLS,
dv ovTOL KeXevojGLy Xiyeiv eroLfios."

2. UdvTcuv ovv KeXevovTCxiv /cat Seo/xeVcov, " Trpco-
rov fiev," e(f)riy " rrjs ixeyionqs Kal reXeLordrrjs
ioprrjs Trap* avrolg 6 Kaipos eoriv Kal 6 rpoiros
Alovvgw TTpoGi^KOJV. Trjv ydp Xeyopievrjv vr^areiav
dyovres^ aKpidi^ovTi, rpvyiqrco rpairit^as re TrporiSev-
rai TTavToSaTTTJs oircopas vtto OKiqvaZs Kal KaXidaiv^
CK KXrjpLdrajv fidXiora Kal klttov hiaTreirXeypiivaLS'
/cat TrjV TTporepav rrjs ioprrjs GKrjvrjv ovofxa^ovcrLV.
E oAiyats" S' vorepov rjjxipais dXXrjv iopr'^v, ovKeri^
St' alviyfjidrojv aAA' dvrtKpvs BdK^ov KaXovfievrjv,*
reXovGLV. €(TTt Se /cat Kpahri<j)opia^ ns ioprrj Kal
dvpGo^opia Trap' avrols, iv fj dvpGovs exovres els
ro Lepov eiGLaGLV eiGeXdovres S' o n SpcoGLv, ovk
LGfJLev, eLKos Se ^aKx^tav etvai rd Trotou/xeva* /cat
ydp GaXmy^L puKpals, iOGirep ^ApyeXoi rots Ato-
vvGLOLS, dvaKaXovfjievoL rov deov ;)^pcuvTat, /cat
KiOapii^ovres erepoi TTpotaGLV,^ ovs avrol Aeviras
TrpoGovojxdl,ovGLV , elre rrapd rov Avglov elre pidX-
Xov irapd rov Eutov rrjs eTTLKXiJGeaJS yeyevrjp,evr]s.

^ dyovres added by Madvig. ^ So Scaliger : Kadidaiv.

^ ovk4ti Bollaan, ovk av Reiske : ovk av.

* So Reiske : KoXovfxivov.

^ So Turnebus : KpaTrjpo(f>opLa. * So Reiske : irpoaidaiv.

" Evidently an allusion to skenopegiay " Feast [not " Fast "]
of Tabernacles " ; cf. the scholiast in T.

^ See below, the note on Sabaoth. A scholium in T identi-
fies the reference " in my opinion " with to Trap' avrols <f>daKa
i.e. TTaaxoL " Passover," but see below, note d.

'' Josephus, Jewish War, v. 210 and Jewish Antiquities^ xv.
11. 395, in his description of the gate of the Temple, speaks
of golden vines with huge clusters of grapes. Cf. Tacitus, Ilis-

362



TABLE-TALK IV. 6, 671

speak of is not forbidden in conversation with friends,
especially over after-dinner wane, while we are enjoy-
ing the god's own bounty. I am ready to speak if
these gentlemen urge me."

2. At this, all did urge him and beg him to go on.
" First," he said, " the time and character of the
greatest, most sacred holiday of the Jews clearly
befit Dionysus. When they celebrate their so-called
Fast, at the height of the vintage, they set out tables
of all sorts of fruit under tents and huts plaited for
the most part of vines and ivy. They call the first of
the two days Tabernacles." A few days later they
celebrate another festival, this time identified with
Bacchus not through obscure hints but plainly called
by his name,^ a festival that is a sort of ' Procession
of Branches ' or ' Thyrsus Procession,' in which they
enter the temple each carrying a thyrsus.'' What
they do after entering we do not know, but it is
probable that the rite is a Bacchic revelry, for in fact
they use little trumpets '^ to invoke their god as do
the Argives at their Dionysia. Others of them
advance playing harps ; these players are called in
their language Levites, either from Lysios (Releaser)
or, better, from Evius (God of the Cry).*

toriesy v. 5. Latzarus, p. 165, note 6, quotes a commentator on
Luke, xiv. 1-6 on the disregard of the Jews for their abstem-
ious principles in respect to wine and food on the Sabbath.

" Deubner, Attische Feste, p. 96, note 4 ; Aristophanes,
Acharn. 1000 ; Grove, Diet, of Music^ article on Hebrew
Music ; Sachs, Hist, of Mus. Instruments y p. 112 ; Leviticus,
xxiii. 24 ; Numbers, x. 1 if. ; a scholium in T possibly identi-
fies Plutarch's reference as being to phaska (shofar ?). Cf. 1
Chronicles xv. 16 and 28.

* One of the few scholia in T scornfully expostulates against
this nonsense. The names Lysios {supra^ 613 c) and Evius
are epithets of Bacchus.

363



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(671) " Olfiai Se /cat ttjv tojv oa^^aroyv ioprrjv {jltj
F TravTOLTTaGLV aTTpoGSLowGov etvaL' Sa^ofS' yap /cat

VVV €TL^ TToAAot TOVS BoLKXOVS KaXovGLV /Cat raVT7]V
a(j)idaL TTjV (jxjjvrjv orav opyidt^cjjoi raj deep, ov
TTLUTCOGLV^ €GTL SiJttov /Cat TTaptt Ar^p^oadevovs Xa-
/3etv /cat napa MevdvSpov, /cat ovk dno rponov^
TL9 dv cfyalr] rovvopia* 7T€TroLrjo6aL irpos riva^ ao-
672 ^rjGLV,^ rj KaT€X€L TOVS paKX€vovras. avrol 8e
TO) Xoycp puaprvpovGLV, orav od^^ara reXcoGL,^
pidXiGra pi€V 7TLV€LV /cat olvovGdai rrapaKaXovvres
dXX'^Xovs, orav Se KOjXvrj ri /xetfov, diroyeveGdai
ye TTavrojs aKpdrov vopiit^ovres . /cat ravra pikv
elKora (l)aLrj rt? dv ctvai* Kara Kpdros Se rows'
ivavrtovs^ Trpcorov puev 6 dpx^epevs iXeyxei, pLirp-q-
<f>6pos re TTpoLwv ev raZs eopraZs /cat ve^piha
XpvGOTTaGrov evr]pipLevos, x^'^^'^^ ^^ TToh-qpr] cfyopwv
/cat Kodopvovs, KcoSojves 8e ttoXXol KaraKpep^avrai
rrjs iGdrjros, vvoKopiTrovvres ev rep /SaStfeiv, cos
/cat Trap' rjpLLv' ip6(l)OLS Se ;)^pa)vTat Trepl rd vvKre-

^ So Stephanus : on.

2 ov TTLaTcoaLv Hubert, c5v ttlotlv Scaliger, ^e^aicoaiv Bernar-
dakis : lac. 8-10 cnv.

^ So Stephanus : lac. 4-5 ttov.

* So Turnebus : tov a/ta.

^ So Stephanus : ttjv. " So Reiske : dG^rjaiv.

' aajSjSara TcXcbat, Hubert, ad^^ara already in g y ace. to
Wyttenbach : aa/njSa nfiwai T.

* 8e TOVS ivavTLovs Madvig, Se tovs ivavnovfievovs Wytten-
bach : eV avTots.

" When the Hebrews spoke oiSabaoth (" armies," heavenly
or earthly : cf. Romans, ix. 29 ; Isaiah, i. 9) they would seem
to a Greek to be referring to Sabazios or Sabos, who was
identified with Dionysus. The Romans in 139 b.c. put them-
selves on record officially as guilty of the same confusion by

364



TABLE-TALK IV. 6, 671-672

" 1 believe that even the feast of the Sabbath <� is not
completely unrelated to Dionysus. Many even now
call the Bacchants Sabi and utter that cry when cele-
brating the god. Testimony to this can be found in
Demosthenes ^ and Menander.'' You would not be
far off the track if you attributed the use of this name
Sabi '^ to the strange excitement (sobesis) that pos-
sesses the celebrants. The Jews themselves testify
to a connection with Dionysus when they keep the
Sabbath by inviting each other to drink and to enjoy
wine ; when more important business interferes with
this custom, they regularly take at least a sip of neat
wine.* Now thus far one might call the argument
only probable ; but the opposition is quite de-
molished, in the first place by the High Priest, who
leads the procession at their festival wearing a mitre
and clad in a gold-embroidered fawnskin, a robe
reaching to the ankles, and buskins, with many bells
attached to his clothes and ringing below him as he
walks.^ All this corresponds to our custom. In the
second place, they also have noise as an element in

expelling the Jews for allegedly introducing Sabazios to
Rome. See Wissowa as quoted in RE^ s.v. " Sabazios," col.
1547, and Valerius Maximus, i. 3. 3. The cry euoi saboi
(fvoi CTajSot), derisively quoted by Demosthenes, is referred to
Dionysus Sabazius by various Greek authorities.

'' he Corona, 260. C/. preceding note.

� Menander, fr. 905 (KOrte) = 1060 (Kock).

•* Plutarch is playing with variants on th*' root sab. A
different reading would make the meaning " reverence " or
" awe."

� Ricard and Kaltwasser cite Leviticus, x. 9, which com-
pletely refutes this ; however, see Judges, ix. 13 ; xix. 19 ;
Psalms, civ. 15 ; which give very weak support to Plutarch.

' Much of this reproduces Exodus, xxviii ; but whence are
the fawnskin and buskins derived ? Helmbold compares
Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, iii. 159 ff.

365



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

-D Ata/ Kal ;^aAft:o/<:poTOt>s' rag^ rod deov TLd'qvas I
TTpoaayopevovGLV Kal 6 SeLKvvfjLcvos €V tols aerols^ ^
rod v€oj dvpuos ivrervTrcofjuevos Kal rvfiTrava' ravra
yap ovSevl S'qTTovdev dXXcp Oecov* rj Aiovvao) rrpoa-

rjK€V.

" "Ert Toivvv jLteAt jLtev ov TTpoo<f>epovai rals
L€povpyiaLSy on Sok€l <f)6€ip€Lv rov otvov Kcpav-
vvjJL€vov Kal TOVT* Tjv GTrovSr) Kal fjiedv, irplv a/x-
ireXov <f>avrjvaL' Kal p-^XP^ '^^^ '^^^ '^^ pappdpcjov

ol p/T] 7TOLOVVT€S oIvOV jLteAtT€tOV TTLVOVGLV, V7TO(f)ap-

pLOLGaovres rrjv yXvKvrrjra otvcoSecrt pit^ais Kal
avGTTjpals, "FiXXr]V€9 re vrjcfxiXia ravrd Kal /LteAt-
OTTOvSa dvovGLV, COS" OLvriOerov (j)V(nv pLaXiara rod
piiXiros TTpos rov otvov exovros. on Se rovro

C VOpull^OVGl, KOLKelvO GTJpeLOV ov pLlKpOV €(7Tt, TO

7ToXXcx)v npLOjpLojv ovGc^v Trap* avrois pLiav etvau
pidXiGra 8ia^€^Xr]pL€vr)V, rrjv otvov rovs KoXa-
t,opL€vovs drreipyovGav, ogov dv rd^rj XP^^^^ ^
Kvpios rrjs KoXdGccJS' rovs 3' ovrcxj KoXa . . ."^

^ So Turnebus : vvv reAeia.

^ \aKKOKp6rovs rd? Corais : y^aXKOKpohvaraS'

' So Doehner : ivavriois.

* So Bernardakis : 6ea).

^ The rest of the page in T is blank, with a notation in the
margin in a smaller hand to say that a quaternion containing
five headings is missing. Only four, however, are lost, the
miscount being due to the inclusion of Qu. 6 with 5, see note
on 671 c.

" As emended by Corais, an epithet of Demeter, associated



366



TABLE-TALK IV. 6, 672

their nocturnal festivals, and call the nurses of the
god ' bronze rattlers.' " The carved thyrsus in the
relief on the pediment of the Temple and the drums
(provide other parallels).^ All this surely befits (they
might say) no divinity but Dionysus.

" Further, the Jews use no honey " in their rehgi-
ous services because they believe that honey spoils
the wine with which it is mixed ; and they used
honey as libation and in place of wine before the vine
was discovered. Even up to the present time those
of the barbarians who do not make wine drink mead,
counteracting the sweetness somewhat by the use of
winelike bitter roots. The Greeks, on the other hand,
offer the same libations as ' sober libations ' and meli-
sponda ^ on the principle that there is a particular
opposition between honey and wine. To show that
what I have said is the practice of the Jews we may
find no slight confirmation in the fact that among
many penalties employed among them the one most
disliked is the exclusion of a convicted offender from
the use of wine for such a period as the sentencing
judge may prescribe. Those thus punished ..." *

in Pindar with Dionysus : Isth. vii (vi). 3, where Fennell in his
edition says that it was originally an epithet of Rhea.

^ The words in parentheses here give the sense implied by
the context. There is at least a verb missing.

" Correct for once, except for the reason alleged. See Levi-
ticus, ii. 11.

" See Helmbold on 464 c (LCL Mor. vi. p. 159) : such
" honey-offerings " or wine-less libations were made to the
Eumenides.

� The text of Book IV breaks oflF here. Titles of Questions
7-10 are derived from the table of contents at the beginning
of the MS.



$67



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA



(672)



nPOBAHMA Z

Aid Tt TCLs ofiojvvfiovs TOLS TrXdvqaiv rjfiepas oi) Kara ttjv cVetVcuv
rd^iv dAA' ivTjXXayfidvws dpidfiovaiv iv co Kal Trepi rjXiov
rd^ecos



nPOBAHMA H

Aid tL twv baKTvXcov fidXtara rat Trapaixeau) a<f>payLhas (f>opovaiv

nPOBAHMA

El Set decijv eiKOvas iv rats o<f>pa'yLaiv 7] ao(/icDv dvbpwv <f>opeiv

nPOBAHMA I

Aid Ti TO pLeaov ttjs dpihaKOS ai ywai/ces' ov rpcoyovaiv

<* The answer to this question may partly be recovered from
the two in Dio Cassius, xxxvii. 18. The positions of the known
planets, sun, and moon, and their orbits were believed to be
in the order : (1) Saturn, (2) Jupiter, (3) Mars, (4) Sun, (5)
Venus, (6) Mercury, (7) Moon. The hours of the day were
named each after a planet, in the order given. Each day was
named after the planet of its first hour ; then, if the first day
was named for the first planet, the second day, beginning 24
hours later, would be named for the fourth planet, the third
day for the seventh planet, and so on through third, sixth,
second, and fifth. The alternative explanation in Dio Cassius,
which is described as based on " the principle of the tetra-
chord," amounts, in simple terms, to the following : if the
degrees of the musical scale are numbered from one through
seven, and these are grouped in terms of tetrachords (as the
Greeks had practical reasons for doing), the same series 1-4-7-
3-6-2-5 is again arrived at as by the astronomical approach.
The identification between music and mathematical astro-
nomy would be to Greeks like Pythagoras, Plato, and Plu-
tarch almost automatic. Our weekdays are still named after
Teutonic equivalents, as those of the Romance languages are



368



TABLE-TALK IV. 7-10, 672

QUESTION 7

Why days named after the planets are arranged in a differ-
ent order from the planetary positions " ; also on the
position of the sun

QUESTION 8
Why seal rings are worn on the finger next the middle



finger



QUESTION 9

Whether it is more proper to wear images of the gods "
or of wise men on seal rings

QUESTION 10
Why women do not eat the heart of lettuce **

derived from the Latin names of the planets, sun, and moon,
in the sequence established in antiquity. Note, however, that
in languages derived from Latin the first day of the week is
the Lord's day rather than Sunday. The Welsh term, how-
ever, comes from dies solis.

** See Macrobius, Saturnalia^ vii. 13. 7 fF., where two
reasons are suggested. One, called the Egyptian, is to the
effect that a nerve from this finger leads to the heart ; the
other, called Etruscan, is quoted from Ateius Capito, and is
based on more practical reasons connected with the use of
signet rings, such as not wearing one on the right hand,
where it would be more easily damaged.

" Pythagoras (see Porphyry, Life of Pythag. 42, in Diels-
Kranz, Vorsokratiker^, vol. i, p. 466, lines 5 f.) and Ateius
Capito (in Macrobius, Saturnalia^ vii. 13. 11) forbade images
of gods on rings. Under the emperor Claudius courtiers wore
his image on a ring (Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxiii. 12. 41).

^ Lettuce was considered antiaphrodisiac. See Pliny, Nat.
Hist. xix. 127, and especially Dioscorides, Materia Medica^ ii.
136.



369



TABLE-TALK

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES)
BOOK V



<^'^� SYMnOSIAKQN

BIBAION HEMnTON

Hepl Tcov TTJs ^XV^ '^^^ crcojLtaro? rjSovcov, co
Socrcrie HeveKLCov, rjv crv vvv €X€is yvcofjLrjv, ifjLol
yovv ahriXov ioriv,

i7T€Lr) fjLoiXa rroXXa fxera^v
ovped T€ GKioevra daXaood re r)-)(i^€GGa'

TTCtAat ye fxrjv eSd/cet? fjLT] ttolvv tl ovficfyepeGdai jjltjS*
eiraiveiv rovg ovSev l8lov ttj ^vxfj repiTvov ovhk
XOipTov ou3' alperov oXojs TTpoavejjLovrag^ aAA'
E drexvojs rw oajpLari Trapajcocrav avrrjv olo/Jidvovs
TOLS iK€LVov avveTTLfieLSidv TrdOeoL koL irdXiv av

GVV€7TLGKv6paJ7Td^€LV, OJOTTep €Kfiay€LOV t) Kdr-

OTTTpov euKovas /cat etScuAa tcov iv aapKL yiyvo-
fievojv aluOrioecjJv dvaSexofievrjv. aAAots" re yap
TToXXots dXiGKeraL ipevSovs^ to d(f)LX6KaXov tov
Soy/xaro?, ev re rots ttotols^ ol daTeioi /cat X^P^~
€VT€S evdvs fJi€Td TO SeliTVov inl tov? Xoyov? wancp
SevTepas Tpane^a? ^epopievoi /cat Sta Xoycov ev(f)pai-
vovT€S dXXiqXovSy (x)V CTCtJ/xart /xerecrrti^ ovhkv tj

^ TTpoavefiovras or Trapaxcopovvras added by Hubert, qui con-
cedebant Xylander, elvai or v-napx^tv Tiirnebus.
* So Meziriacus : ipevBos.
^ So Basel edition : vorois.

372



TABLE-TALK

BOOK FIVE

What you now think, Sossius Senecio, about the
pleasures of the body and the mind I am not in a
position to know,

For between us lie
Full many a shadowy mountain and resounding sea " ;

but certainly we used to think that you had no great
sympathy or esteem for the opinion of those ^ who
suppose that the soul is without any special pleasure
or dehght or predilection of its own. According to
them the soul is simply the body's partner in life,
whose aspect is smiling or gloomy only as the body
rejoices or suffers. In other words, the soul is merely
a sort of stamp <^ or mirror, receiving the impressions
and images of the sensations that occur in the flesh.
This philistine view is refuted by many facts. For
instance, at parties men of wit and taste hurry at
once after dinner to ideas as if to dessert,** finding
their entertainment in conversation that has little or
nothing to do with the concerns of the body ; and so

" Homer, Iliad, i. 156f.

^ Epicureans: see H. Usener, Epicurea, frags, 410 and
429; Plutarch, N&n Posse Suaviter Vivi, 1088 e, 1092 d, 1096 c.
" Impression of a matrix.

<* Or, as at Mor. 133 e, " a second repast " (F. C. Babbitt).

373



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(672) ppCLX^ TTavrdiraoLV , Ihiov n rovro rfj ipvxfj rajjLL-
€LOV €VTTaBei(jL)v aTTOKeloBai yiaprvpovoi koI rav-
F ras^ TjSovas ixovas elvai rrjg j/^f X^^> e/cetVa? 8' dA-
Xorpias, Trpoaavaxpcovvvfievag rep crcu/Aart.

"Q.07T€p ovv^ at ra ^p^<j)ri e/fco^tjoucrat rpocjyol fiL-

Kpa iierixovoL rrjs rjSovrjg, orav 8' e/cetva KopeGoxn^

Kal KoifilGajGL Travadfjieva KXavdfjLVpLGfjLcov, tt]vl-

Kavra Kad^ iavrds yiyvofievaL rd 7rp6a(f)opa crtrta

673 /cat TTord Xafi^dvovGL /cat aTToXavovGLVy ovrcos rj

ipVX"^ TCJV 7T€pl TTOOLV KoL ^pOJOlV rjSoVOJV fJi€T€X€L

TOLS rod (Jiofiaros 6pi^€ai Slktjv rlrdrjs VTrrjperovGa
/cat ;\;a/3tJojLteVT7 Seofxdvo) /cat Trpavvovaa rds eVt-
dvpiias, orav S' cKelvo pLerpicxJS exj) /cat rjavxdarj,
TTpaypLdrojv dTraXXayeida /cat Xarpeias rjSr] to Aot-
TTOV irrl rds avrrj? 'qSovds rpeVerat, Aoyot? €vaj-
XovfMevT] /cat fiadijfJLaGL /cat laropiaLS /cat rep /^-qrelv

TL* TCtJV 7T€plTT(x)V. Kol TV dv TL? XiyOl 7T€pl TOVTCDVy

opwv on /cat ol cf)opTLKol /cat dc^tAoAoyot fierd to

SeiTTVOV €<f)' 7]hovds erepa? tov crcojLtaros' dTrajrarai

tt)^ Stctvoiav diTaipovaiv y atvty/xara /cat ypicjyovs

B /cat deoeis ovopidTOJV iv dpiBp^ols VTrocrvfjL^oXoLs"

% 7TpOpdXXoVT€� ; €K TOVTOV �€ /Cat p^lfJiOL^ /Cat oJ^O-

w \ Aoyot?^ /cat rots' MeVavSpov viroKpivopilvois rd arvfi-

^ So Wyttenbach, ravras ras Turnebus : ras.

2 So Turnebus : vvv.

^ So Turnebus : Kopeadwai.

* d/coueiv deleted after ti by Bases after Xylander.

^ So R. Foerster cited in RE i a, col. Ill, ^ vtto cwfi^oXov
Franke : vrroavfjL^oXa.

^ Kal MevavSpoj deleted after -qOoXoyois by Pohlenz.

<* Plutarch says much the same thing about the arts in
705 A, below.

* Or " inquiries."

374



TABLE-TALK V, 672-673

they make it clear that there is a private store of
dehghts set aside for the soul, and that these are its
only true pleasures," the others being alien and de-
rived from the body through contact.

Nurses feeding babies by hand get httle pleasure
from it at the time ; only when the children are fed,
put to sleep, and their crying quieted, do the nurses,
being left alone, help themselves to the food and
drink they want and enjoy them. In the same way
our soul partakes of the pleasures of eating and drink-
ing while attending, like a nurse, to the appetites of
the body, complying with its demands and calming
its passions ; but when the body is comfortable and
at peace, then at last the soul, released from care and
servitude, can devote itself to its own pleasures and
feast on ideas, learning, tales of the past,^ and specu-
lation about unusual questions. Actually, what need
is there to go iilto this, in view of the fact that after
dinner even common, unliterary people allow their
thoughts to wander to other pleasures, as far away as
possible from the concerns of the body ? They take up
conundrums and riddles,*' or the Names and Numbers
game.** Hence also, drinking parties have provided
occasion for the performance of mimes, impersona-
tions, and scenes from Menander,* not because such



* See REt s.v. " Ratsel." Athenaeus, x, 448 b, has a dis-
cussion with many examples of various types of riddles.

<* The letters of the alphabet were regularly used as nume-
rals, alpha being 1, beta being 2, etc. In a game called iso-
psepha the sum of the values of the letters of a name was
equated with the sum comprised in another name. Examples
in verse are to be found in Anth. Pal. vi. 321 ff.

� Readings of Menander and other poets of the New Co-
medy at banquets are mentioned also by Plutarch in vii. 8,
712 B infra, and in Aristophanes and Menander, 854 b.

375



/



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(673) TTOGta ;^6(>pav eScoKev, ovSe/jilav " dXyT]86va rod crcu-
fjuaro?^ VTre^aipovixivoLs" ovhe ttolovol^ " Xecav iv
aapKi Kal Trpoar^vrj KLV7]cnv," aAA' on ro (f)VG€L ^tAo-
deajjLov^ iv eKdorcp Kal (f)LX6GO(f)ov rrjs ^v^'^s ISiav
;^a/Dtv L,r]T€L Kal repipuv, orav rrjg irepl to cJcS/xa
depaTTelas Kal duxoXias aTraXXaycopLev .

C nPOBAHMA A

Aid ri rC)V fiifiovfievcov tovs opyL^ofievovs Kal Xvvovfxevovs rjBecos
aKovofiev, auroiv 8e tcov iv tols Trddeaiv ovtcov dr]8u>s

Collocuntur Plutarchus, Epicure!

1. Uepl cSv iyevovTo Xoyoi Kal gov Trapovrog iv
'A^T^vat? "TlpuVy ore Hrpdrojv 6 KcopLcpSos evrjfii-
pr]G€v (tJv yap avrov ttoXvs Xoyos), iGTLcopLevcov
rjpLCtJV rrapd Bot^^oj to) ^^iriKovpeico' Gweheiirvovv
S' ovK oXiyoi TCOV oltto rrj? alp€G€OJ9.^ eW* olov iv^

(j)LXoX6yOLS 7T€pL€Grr]G€V T) TTJS KOJ/JLCpSiaS flVqpLT) TOV

Xoyov els i,i^rr]Giv alrias hi rjv opytjo/xevojv rj
D XvTTOvpiivojv t) SeSiorajv (fxjjvds aKovovres dxOopieOa
Kal hvGKoXaivopi€Vy ol S' VTroKpivopLevoi ravra rd ird-
07] Kal fjiLfjioviievoL rds (f)ctjvdg avrcov Kal rd? Sta^eo-ets"
€V(j>paivovGLV Tjpids.

^ So Turnebus : ofifiaros.

2 So Aldine edition : ov8* emovai.

^ So Xylander, Anonymus : (f>iX69€afiov.

* diTO TTJs aipeaecos avrrjs Xylander : aTroSiaipeaccuS'.

^ OLOV €v Bernardakis : olovel.

<* According to Epicurus, Kyriae Doxae, no. 3 (Usener,
Epicurea, p. 72 ; Diogenes Laertius, x. 139), pleasure is
measured and consummated by complete removal of pain.
Cf. Cicero, De FinibuSy i. 11. 37, with Reid's note.

^ A definition (or mode) of pleasure according to Aristip-
pus and Epicurus. Cf. Usener, Epicurea, frag. 411, and Plu-

376



TABLE-TALK V. 1, 673

performances " remove any physical pain " " or pro-
duce " smooth and gentle motions ^ in the body,"
but because in each person a natural fondness for
s^eotacle.'' and thirst for knowledge in the soul seek
their own gratification and delight whenever we are
relieved of the endless task of taking care of our
bodies.

QUESTION 1

Why we take pleasure in hearing actors represent anger and
pain but not in seeing people actually experience these
emotions <*

Speakers : Plutarch, Epicurean friends of Plutarch

1. The views that I have mentioned were the subject
of discussion once when you were yourself with us at
Athens. It was at the time when the comedian
Strato * won his victory, for I recall that everybody
was talking about him. We were at dinner at the
house of Boethus ' the Epicurean with many others
of his persuasion. As was natural among people of an
inquiring turn of mind, the mention of comedy led us
into a discussion : why is it that, although we are
distressed and annoyed to hear the voices of people
in anger, pain or fear, we yet are greatly entertained
when mimics reproduce these emotions and copy the
tones and attitudes of the sufferers .'*

tarch, Adversus Colotem, 1122 e. See R. Westmann, Acta
Philosophica Fennica, vii (1955), p. 179.

" Or " speculation," Post.

•* This question is also raised in Plutarch, Quomodo Adu-
lescens Poetas Audire Debeat, 17 f — 18 c, and is suggested by
Plato {Republic, 605 c flf.) and Aristotle {Rhetoric, 1371 b 7,
and Poetics, 1448 b 10). * Apparently unknown.

^ An Epicurean friend of Plutarch's, according to several
of his essays. RE, s.v. " Plutarchos," col. 669.

877



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(673) 'E/cetVcov fiev ovv drravrajv ax^^ov cfs" "^v Xoyos'
€<f)aaav yap, €7T€LSr] Kpelrrcjov 6 ixip,ovii€v6s eon
rod Tracr^ovTO? dXrjdo)? /cat tw jjlt] neTTOvdevaL Sta-
<f)€p€i, avviivras r)[Jids rovro^ ripTreadai koX )(OLLp€iv.
(2) iyoj �€, Kalrrep iv dWorpicp X^P^^ TToSa rt^ets",
eiTTOv OTL <j)VG€i XoyLKol Kal ^iXorexvoL yeyovore?
TTpos TO XoyLKchs Kol T€xvLKa)s TTpaTTOfievov oIk€i-
(x)S 8LaK€Lfji€da Kal 9avfJid[,ofJL€V, dv iTnrvyxdvrjraL.

E " KaOdirep yap rj fxeXiTra rco ^iXoyXvKVS etvai ird-
oav vXrjv fj tl^ fteAtroiSe? iyKeKparat TrepteVet /cat
8lcl)K€l, OVTC09 6 dvdpoiTTOS, yeyovcos (/>iX6t€xvo5 kol
(fyiXoKaXos, Trdv dTToreXeofia /cat Trpdyfia vov /cat
Xoyov fxerixov dorrd^eodaL /cat ayaTrav 'iT€(j)VKev.

" Et yovv TratSto) puKpco irpodeiir] ris o/jlov* /xev dp-
ToVy ofJLOv Se TTeTrXaojievov €/c rchv dXevpojv kvvl-
8lov '^ ^olSlov, €7tI rovT dv l8ol9 <j)€p6pi€vov' /cat
ofJLOLwg €t Tis"^ dpyvpiov dornxov, erepos 8k ^cuStov
dpyvpovv Tj e/CTTcu/xa Trapaoratr] StSou?, tout' dv
Xd^oL fjidXXoVy <p TO rexviKov /cat Aoyt/cov ivopa

F KaraiJLefJLLyjjievov. ddev /cat rcov Xoyojv rolg fjviy-
fxevois ;\;atpoucrt fxdXXov ol rrjXiKovroi /cat rcov
TratStcDv rat? TrepLTrXoKT^v riva /cat Sucr/coAtav ixov-
oais' €.Xk€i yap ojs olKetov d8i8dKrojs Trjv <f)voiv

^ So Xylander, tovtov (" listening to him ") Stephanus :

TOV.

^ So Aldine edition : x'^PV'

^ So Xylander : tlvl.

* fiiKpov after o/xofJ deleted by Reiske.

^ €L Tis added by Turnebus.

<� In De Se Ipsum Laudando, 540 b this proverb is ex-
plained : anyone who set foot in another's chorus was a fool
and a meddler (De Lacy and Einarson's translation). Cf.
Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiogr. Graec. ii, p. 690.

378



TABLE-TALK V. 1, 673

The other guests were practically unanimous in say-
ing that, inasmuch as the imitator enjoys a superiority
and advantage over the actual sufferer by not having
suffered himself, awareness of that fact gives us
pleasure and delight. (2) But I spoke up, " setting
foot in another's chorus." ** I said that, since we are
naturally endowed with reason and love of art,^ we
have an affinity for any performance that exhibits
reason or artistry, and admire success therein. *' Just
as the bee, loving sweetness, seeks out and busies
itself with any object that contains a suggestion of
honey, so a human being, born with a love of art and
beauty, is by nature disposed to welcome and cherish
every product or action that bears the stamp of mind
and reason.

'* Certainly, if someone were to place in front of a
small child both a loaf of bread and a little dog or a
cow made of the dough, you would see the child ir-
resistibly drawn to the miniature figure. Likewise,
if one person presents to him a shapeless lump of
silver, while another brings him a little silver animal
or cup, the child vnW take by preference the second,
in which he perceives art and meaning. This ex-
plains why children like stories better that involve
riddles, and games that offer some complication or
difficulty. People require no instruction " to be at-

" " Art " {technS) includes *' artifice " or " ingenuity."
Similarly, panurpia, translated " cunning " below, basically
means " knavery."

* An effective point, because the Epicureans themselves
taught that one test of value is untutored instinct. Cf. Ad-
verms Coloten, 1122 e (Usener, Epicurea, frag. 411), and
Sextus Empiricus, Adversus DogmaticoSj v. 96 in Usener,
Epicurea, p. 274. In both passages language similar to that
of the above passage is used (" untaught," " without a
tutor ").

379



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(673) TO yXa(f)vp6v /cat iravovpyov. inel roiwv 6 fiev
aArjOoj^ opyil^oiievos ?) Xviro-uyievos €v tlol koivoZs
Trddeai /cat KLvrjfjLaaiv^ opdrai, rfj 8e /jLLpirjcreL nav-
ovpyia ns e/x^atVcrat /cat TTidavorr]? avnep cVt-
674 rvyxoLvrjraL, rovrois fJL€V rjheoBai Tre^u/ca/xey e/cet-
vois S' ax^ofieda.

Kat yap inl rwv deafidrajv ojjLOLa 7T€7T6vdap,ev
avdpcoTTOvs fjiev yap dTToOvrjOKOvras /cat vooovvras
dviapcos 6p6jfJL€V' rov 8e yeypapifievov OtAo/CTTyTTyv
/cat rrjv ireTrXaapiiviqv ^loKaonqv, 17? ^auiv et? to
TTpoGCOTTov dpyvpov Tt CTU/x/xtfat rov t€xvIt7)v, ottojs
eKXeiTTOVTOS^ dvdpcoTTov /cat fJLapaivofjLevov Xd^r)
7Tepi(f>dv€Lav 6 ;!^aA/cos", IhovTes^ TySo/xe^a /cat ^au-
jLta^o/xev.

iOVTO O , €L7TOVy aVOpES EjTTLKOVpeiOl, /Cat

TeKfxi^pLov ecrrt /xeya rots' Ku/JT^vat/cotS" Trpo? u/xd?

TOV flT) TTepl T7]V Ol/jLV €tVat flTjSe 7T€pL TTjV aKOTjV

B dXXd Trepl ttjv SidvoLav TjfjLOJv to* rjSofjLevov^ inl
ToZs dKovGjxaoi /cat dedpLaaiv. dXeKTOpl? yap /So-
coaa Gvvexcos /cat Kopcovrj Xvir-qpov a/coucx/xa /cat
drjSes €CTTtv, d Se fxifiovfievos dXeKTOpuSa ^ocoaav
/cat Kopcovrjv ev(j)paiv€i' /cat (^Ololkovs piev opcovTCS
BvGX€paLVopi€v, dvSpidvTas Se /cat ypa<f)ds <f>6iGiKa}v

^ So Salmasius : fiifn^fiaaLv.

2 So Bernardakis : e/cAiTrovros'.

^ i5oVt€9 added by Hubert from Mor. 18 a, opwvTcs after
iJSo'/Lte^a Vulcobius ; Wyttenbach and Wilamowitz reject any
addition here. * So Stephanus : rov.

^ So Aldine (according to Hutten), Basel editions: Sco/xevov.

" Philoctetes suffered extremely from a festering wound in
his leg, as in Sophocles's celebrated play. According to Plu-

380



TABLE-TALK V. 1, 673-674

tracted, as by some natural kinship, to subtlety and
cleverness. Under the influence of genuine anger or
pain a man always displays certain universal emo-
tions and gestures, whereas a successful imitation
manifests a cunning and authority of its own, so that
we take a natural delight in the performance, but are
distressed by the reality.

" We have a similar experience in relation to the
plastic arts. We feel acute pain at the sight of the
sick or the dying ; but a painting of Philoctetes � or
a statue of Jocasta ^ gives us pleasure and elicits our
admiration. They say that the artist added silver '^
to Jocasta's face in order to give his bronze statue
the appearance of a person on the verge of death.

" This, my Epicurean friends," I said, " is really
good evidence in favour of the Cyrenaics,"* who con-
tend in their dispute with you that it is not in our
sight or our hearing but in our minds that we receive
pleasure from sights and sounds. A hen that cackles
ceaselessly or a cawing crow is unpleasant and painful
to hear, but the imitator of noisy hens and crows
delights us. We are shocked to see consumptives,
but we contemplate statues and paintings of them

tarch, De Audiendis Poetist 18 c, Philoctetes was the subject
of a painting by Aristophon in the 6th century b.c.

" Mother of Oedipus, who hanged herself, or, according to
Euripides, stabbed herself to death. She was sculptured by
Silanion in the 4th century b.c. C/. Plutarch, ibid. 18 c; RE,
s.v. " Silanion," col. 3.

* That the Greeks did succeed in adding silver to bronze is
now known from the bronze head discussed by Homer A.
Thompson in the article " A Golden Nike from the Agora,"
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Supplementary vol-
ume i (1940), pp. 183 If.

** Cyrene, in Africa, was the home of the hedonistic philo-
sopher Aristippus and his school.

S81



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

) rjBeoJS decoiJieda rco rrfv Sidvoiav vtto tojv ixL/JLTj/jid-
Tojv dyeaOai^ Kara ro OLKetov.

" 'ETret Tt TrdoxovTes rj rivos e^oidev yevofievov
7rd6ov9 TTjv vv rriv^ Wapfxevovros ovtojs iOavyiaoav,
wore TTapoL/JLLcoBr] yeveoOai; Kairoi <f)aol rod
riapjaeVovTOS" evSoKifjLovvrog iirl rfj fXLii'qcreL, ^rj-
Xovvrag iripovs avremSeLKWodaL' TrpoKaTeiXrjfjL-

C [levcov 8e rcov dvdpcoTTCov /cat AcydvTcuv, * ev (lev
dAA* ovSev rrpog rrjv Ylapfjuevovros vv,' iva Xa^ovra
BeX^dKiov VTTO fidXrjs TTpooeXdelv irrel Se /cat rrjs
dXrjdivrjs <j)(x)vr\s aKovovres VTT€<j)6iyyovro, ' rt ovv
avrri vpog tyjv Uapfjidvovros vv; ' d^etvat^ to ScA-
(j)dKiov els TO fjLCGov, i^eXeyxovTa rijs Kpiaecjs
TO TTpos So^av ov TTpos dX'qdeiav. (L* fidXiora SrjXov
ioTiVy on TO avro rrjs aiGOtjaeaJS Trddos ovx ojLtot-
cog hiaridT^oi rrjv iljv)(rjv orav [jlt] TTpoofj Sofa rov
XoyLKoJs ^ (f>iXoTi^(x)s TrepaiveodaL to yiyvo^ievov."^



D nPOBAHMA B

"On TToXaiov ^v aycoviafia to rijs TTOirjriKTJs
Collocuntur Plutarchus, alii

'Ev nu^tots" iyiyvovTo XoyoL Trepl rcov iTTidercov
dyojvLOfxdTCjjVy cos dvaiperea. TrapaSe^dfjievoL yap

* KoX after dyeadai deleted by Wyttenbach.

^ vv rrjv added by Bernardakis, ttjv TLapfievovros vv Basel
edition.

^ vv, d^eivai Basel edition : avvojfxlvai.

* <L Basel edition : o. ^ So Bernardakis : yevoyievov.

� Or, " because of a fellow-feeling," E. H. W.
^ F. C. Babbitt's Index to Plut. Mor. i (LCL) identifies
Parmeno as a famous comic actor of the latter part of the 4th

382



TABLE-TALK V. 1-2, 674

with pleasure, because the mind, by its own** na-
ture, is attracted to imitations.

" What emotion or what external happening made
people admire Parmeno's pig so much that it has
become proverbial ? You know the story : one time
when Parmeno was already famous for his mimicry,
some competitors put on a rival show, but the popu-
lace, being prejudiced in favour of Parmeno, said,
' Good enough ! — but nothing, compared with Par-
meno's sow.' ^ Then one of the performers stepped
forward with a sucking pig concealed under his arm ;
but the people, even when they heard the genuine f /
squeal, murmured, * Well, what's this compared to 1/
Parmeno's pig ? ' Thereupon the fellow let the pig *
go in the crowd to prove that their judgement was
based on prejudice instead of truth. Tliis plainly
demonstrates that the very same sensation will not
produce a corresponding effect a second time in
people's minds unless they believe that intelligence
or conscious striving is involved in the performance."



QUESTION 2

That the poetry competition was ancient

Speakers : Plutarch and others

At the Pythian Games ^ there was a discussion
whether the newer competitions ought to be elimi-

century b.c, but the Paroemiogr. Graec. i, p. 412, surprisingly
makes him a painter and the pig a painted one so realistic that
everyone thought that his squeal could be heard.

" Plutarch was long an official at Delphi. Cf. An Sent Res
Publica Gerenda Sit^ 792 f, and J. J. Hartman, De Avondzon
des Heidendoms, i, pp. 17 f, and now R. H. Barrow, Plutarch
and his Times^ p. 31.



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(674) €7tI rpiGL rots Kadearojcnv ef dpxrjs, avXrjrfj 11 u-
Olkw Kal KidapiGTrj /cat KidapcoSw, rov rpaycphov,
cjGTTep TTvXrjg dvot^^^etcjT^? ovk dvreaxov ddpoois gvv-
eTTLTidefJievoLS Kal oruveiGLOvGL TravroSaTTols OLKpod-
pbaaiv V(j>^ (Lv TTOLKiXlav jxev ea^^v ovk drjSrj /cat
TTavrjyvpLGfJiov 6 dycjv, to 8' aixrrrjpov /cat /xou-

E GLKOV ov 8i€(f)vXa^ev, dXXd /cat Trpdyfiara rots' /cpt-
vovoiv TTapeax^v /cat iroXXd? d)s ct/cos" rjTTOJiJidvajv
TToXXcjv dTTexdetas .

Ovx TJKLOTa Se TO Tcov Xoyoypd(f)OJV /cat rroLTjTcov
eOvos o)ovTo Setv dirooKevdoaod ai rod dychvos, ovx
VTTO fjLLcroXoyLas, dXXd ttoXv Trdvroiv rcov dyojvi-
GTcJjv yvajpLficjordrovs ovras iSvGOJTTOvvro rovrovg
/cat rjx^o^'^^y Trdvras rjyovfievoL ;Yctpt^VTas', ov irdv-
ro)V he vt/cav Svvafievcov . rjfxeis ovv iv ro) ovv-
eSpLcp TTapepLvdovpieda rovs rd^ Kadeorcjra klv€lv
^ovXopiivovs /cat to) dyojvi KaOdirep opydvco ttoXv-
XopSlav /cat TToXvcjxjJviav iiTLKaXovvTas . /cat irapd

F TO SetTTVov, eoTtcuvTos" 'f]ixds Ylerpaiov rov dyojvo-
derov, irdXiv ofJLOLCOv^ Xoyojv TrpouireoovTajv, r^ivvo-

jLteV rfj [JLOVGLKfj- TiqV T€ 7TOL7]TiKr]V d7T€(f)aiVOfJi€V

OVK oifjifiov ovSe veapdv €7tI tovs Upov? dycovas
d(f)LyiJL€vr]v, dXXd TTpoTToXai orecfydvojv iTTLVLKLwv
Tvyxdvovoav. €viois pi€V ovv CTrtSo^os" rjfjLTjv eojXa
TTapaOrjoeiv TTpdyfiara, rds OloXvkov rov Qerra-

^ TO. added by Reiske.
^ So Turnebus : ofiolojs.

" Originally Apollo was said to be opposed to the aulos
(pipe), but from 586 b.c. on the aulos was introduced at Delphi
and gradually became so popular that the " Pythian noma "
came to mean exclusively an auletic melody. See von Jan in
RE, s.v. " Auletik," cols. 2404 f. A Pythian auletes (piper)
occurs in Inscript. Graec. vii. 1776.

S84>



TABLE-TALK V. 2, 674

nated. For, once having accepted the tragic com-
petitor as an addition to the original three (the
Pythian piper," the lyricist, and the singer to the
lyre), the authorities found that as if the gate had
been opened, they could no longer withstand the
massed attack and incursion of all manner of enter-
tainments addressed to the ear. This gave a pleasing
variety and popular appeal to the festival at the cost
of its severe and strictly musical character ; it also
made trouble for the judges and naturally created
much animosity because the defeated in the compe-
titions were many.

Some of our company thought that particularly
the tribe of prose writers and poets ought to be with-
drawn. This was not because of any bias against
literature, but because we were embarrassed before
those most celebrated of all the contestants and vexed
that not all of them could win a victory, though they
all seemed to us accomplished. During the Council
meeting I attempted to dissuade those who wished
to change established practices and who found fault
with the festival as if it were a musical instrument
with too many strings and too many notes. Later,
when this general subject came up again at a dinner
given us by Petraeus,* th e Director of the Gam es. I
once more defended the cause of the arts. I made
the point that poetry was not a late arrival nor a
novelty at the religious festivals, but had in fact
received the crown of victory in very ancient times.
Some of my friends expected me to cite well-worn
examples like the funeral ceremonies of Oeolycus '^

* Lucius Cassias Petraeus. RE, xix. 1179; De Pythiae
Orac. 409 c.

" Unknown. Not among the Oeolyci in RE,

VOL. VIII o 385



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

675 Xov ra(f)ag /cat ra? 'AjLt^tSctjLtavTos' rov XaAA<:tSecus'
iv ats "Ofjirjpov /cat 'HatoSov laropovoLV eVeat
hiaycoviaaGdai. Kara^aXcbv Se ravra rco Stare-
6 pvXrjod at TTOLvd^ vtto tcov ypafMixariKcov, /cat rou?
€7tI rats" narpo/cAof Ta<^ats" avayiyvwuKopbivovs vtto
Tivojv ovx " rjjJiova?" dXXa " pi^fjiovas," to? 5*^ /cat
Aoycov a^Aa rod ^Axt'XXiojs TrpoBivTOSy a^etV, eiTrov
on /cat HeAtav daTrrajv "A/cacrros" o t/to? aycDva
TTO tT^jLtaros" TrapdaxoL /cat St^SuAAa vt/CTjo-etcy. €7ri^u-
ofjLevcov Se ttoXXojv /cat rov jSe^atojTT^v a*? OLTTLorov
Kal^ TTapaXoyov rrj? laropias aTratrouvrcuv, eTTirv-
X^Ss" dvapLVYjGdels dire^aLVOv 'A/ceaavSpov ev to) Trcpt
B Al^v7]9 ravd^ loropovvra. " /cat rovro fiev,"
€(f)7]v, " TO dvdyvixyopia tojv ovk iv fxeocp eoriv
roZs �€ rioAe/xcovos' rof? ^Adrjvalov rrepl rcov iv
AeA^otS" drjGavpcbv olpiai ttoXXoZs^ vfjLcov ivrvyxd-
V€iv iiTiiieXis €(7Tt /cat XP''?^ iroXvpLadovs /cat oi5 vi�-
ardt,ovros iv rols 'EAAT^vt/cot? TTpdyfiauLV dvhpos'
€/c€t TOiwv evptjaere yeypajLt/xeVov, ct>9 cv toj
^ Koi added by Stephanus.

^ olfiaL TToXXoLS E, Ot/Ltai OTl TToXXols T.

" Hesiod (ITorA-^ and Days, 654> fF.) mentions the contest
but not Homer. The Contest of Homer and Hesiod (Hesiod,
LCL, pp. 570 if.) elaborates the story, and Plutarch, Septem
Sapientium Convivium, 153 r fF., gives further details.

* Iliad, xxiii. 886.

� King of lolcus in Thessaly, whom Medea killed under
pretence of rejuvenating him in a boiling cauldron.

<* Apparently some one of the large number of ecstatic
prophetesses known by this name. Possibly the " Thessalian
Sibyl," Manto, best suits the context here.

386



TABLE-TALK V. 2, 675

of Thessaly and those of Amphidamas ^ of Chalcis, at
which it is said that Homer and Hesiod contended in
epic verse. But I scorned all this hackneyed lore of
the schoolroom, dismissing also the " speakers "
{rhemones) in Homer, as read by some for " throwers "
(hemones) ^ at the funeral of Patroclus, as if Achilles
had awarded a prize in speaking in addition to the
other prizes. I merely mentioned that even Acastus
at the funeral of his father Pelias ^ held a contest of
poetry at which the Sibyl ** won. I was immediately
fastened on by many, who demanded my authority
for so incredible and paradoxical a statement ; luckily
I remembered and told them that Acesander * in his
Libya has the tale. " This reference," I went on, " is
not generally accessible,^ but I know that many of
you will be interested, as you ought to be, in consult-
ing the account of the Treasuries ^ at Delphi by
Polemon ^ of Athens, a man of wide learning, tireless
and accurate in his study of Greek history. In that
book you will find that in the Treasury of the Sicyo-

• Historian of the 3rd or 2nd century b.c. : Frag. Hist.
Graec. (C. Muller), iv. 285; Frag. Griech. Historiker (F.
Jacoby), iii b, 469 f 7. There was some connection between
Libya and the Sibyls. According to Varro, one of the
Sibyls was Libyan ; and Pausanias (x. 12. 1) cites " the
Libyans " as being somehow authorities on Sibyls. See RE^
s.v. " Sibyllen," col. 2096, no. 16.

f Or " this loook is not widely known."

� Buildings erected by many cities as repositories for
archives and other treasures at shrines like Delphi, where two
of them have been restored. On the Treasury of the Sicyo-
nians and its remains see P. de la Coste-Messeliere, Au
Musee de Delphes (Paris, 1936), pp. 56 ff.

* Famous antiquary, commonly called Polemon of Ilium
or of Pergamum. See Athenaeus, vi, 234 d, Sandys, Hist.
Class. Scholarship, vol. i, p. 154, and Esther V. Hansen, The
Attalids of Perganwn, p. 363.

387



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(675) TiLKVOJvlojv^ drjoavpcp ;\;pvCTOw ave/cetro ^i^Xiov
^ApLGTOfjidxr]? dvddr]fjia rrjs ^KpvOpaia? eTTiKcp^ ttol-
TyjLtart hls^ "\oOpLia vevLKrjKvlag.

Ov pirjv ouSe rrjv 'OAu/xmav/' €(f)rjv, " d^Lov
€GTLV a)07T€p €lfjiap[ji€vr]v dfJLerdararov /cat dfierd-
derov iv rols ddXripLaaiv iKTreTrXrjxdaL. rd fiev ydp*
C riu^ta Tcov fjiovGLKCov eo^^ Tpels tj rerrapas ineLao-
Slovs dycovas, 6 Se yvpuvLKos dn* ^PX^^ ^^ ^'"'^ '^^
TrAetcTTOv ovTOJS KareGrrj, rots S* ^OXvjjlttlocs Trdvra
TTpoadtjKT] ttXtjv tov SpofjLOV yeyov€V' TroAAa Sc /cat
Sevres eireir dvelXov, coGirep rdv rrjs KdXnr]? dydva
KoX TOV rrjs diT'^vy]?' dvrjpedy] Se /cat Tratat Trevrdd-
XoLS OTe<f>avos redeis' /cat oAco? TroAAa irepl ttjv
TravrjyvpLV vevecDrlpLorai. SeSta 3' elirelv^ on ird-
Aat /cat fMovofxax^OLS dycbv Trepl IltCTav jjyero jLte;^pt
(l)6vov /cat cr^ay^s rajv rjrrcofxevcov /cat VTTOTnTrrov-
rcx)v, pLTj pie irdXiv dTTaLrrjre^ rrjs laropias fie^ai-
D ajTTjv /cav ^ia(j)vyri r7]v pLVT^pL7]v iv olvoj ro ovo/xa
/caTayeAaCTTOS" yevcofJiaL."

nPOBAHMA r

Ti? aiTia Si' "^v 77 7TLTVS lepa ITocretSaivo? ivoyLiadr] kol Aiovvaov

Koi OTL TO TTpCOTOV iaT€(f>dvOVV TTJ TTLTVL TOVS "lod/Xia VlKCJVTaS,

€7T€iTa o-eAivo), vvvl Se TraAtv t^ ttltvl
CoUocuntur Praxiteles, Lucanius, Plutarchus, rhetor, alii

1. 'H TTLTUS H^rjrelro /ca^' ov Xoyov iv ^ladpiiois^

^ So Preller, Herwerden : aLKvcoviw.

^ eniKio or imKoi lac. 2 T.

' 77. Sts Bernardakis : TroirjfiaTLais.

* So Meziriacus : ye.

^ So Reiske : etTrej/.

� So Xylander : aTraraTe. ' So Xylander : ladfiots.

388



TABLE-TALK V. 2-3, 675

nians was deposited a golden tablet dedicated by
Aristomache � of Erythrae, twice victor in epic verse
at the Isthmia.

" Nor should we," I continued, " be overawed by
Olympia, as if its policies with respect to types of
competition were as undeviating and immutable as
fate. The Pythia acquired only three or four musical
contests as additions to the athletic competition,
which was established from the beginning largely as it
is now ; whereas at Olympia only the footrace is origi-
nal, everything else being in addition. Many events
were added and then dropped, for instance the trot-
ting race ^ and the four-wheeler.'' They abolished
also the award for the boys' pentathlon. In general,
many innovations have been made in the festival. I
hesitate to say that in older times the duels at Pisa ^
were carried to the point of manslaughter for the
defeated as they fell, for fear that you may again
demand authority for my statement and that, if the
name escapes my memory because of the wine, I
shall become an object of ridicule."

QUESTION 3

Why the pine was held sacred to Poseidon and Dionysus ;
originally the victor's crown at the Isthmia was of pine,
later of celery, but now again is of pine

Speakers : Praxiteles, Lucanius, Plutarch, a professor
of rhetoric and others

1 . The pine, and why it was used for the crown at the

<� Either a Sibyl or simply a poetess. It is not clear
which Erythrae is meant. The greatest of all Sibyls, Hero-
phil^, came apparently from the great city of Erythrae in
Ionia, though this was disputed (see Pausanias, x. 12).

" See Pausanias, v. 9. 1. " See Pausanias, ibid.

^ District in which the shrine of Olympia lay.

389



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(675) CTTe/XjLta yiyove- /cat yap rjv to SeZirvov ev KopLvOq),
ladjJLLOJV dyofjievcov iarLcJovros rjfxdg^ AovKavtov rod
E dpxt'€p€OJS. lipa^treXr]? fxev ovv 6 TTepirjyrjrrjs to
fjLvdcoSes €7Trjy€v, cLs Xeyopbevov evpedrjvat to crcbpLa
rod MeXiKeprov ttltvl irpoG^ePpaafJievov vtto rrjs
daXdrrr]?- /cat yap ov TTpoaoj Meydpcjv etvai
TOTTOV, OS " Ys.aX'rj's Spofxos " CTrovo/xafeTat, St* ov
(f)dvaL Meyapets" rrjv 'Ivca to Traihiov exovaav Spa-
fJi€LV iirl TTjv OdXaTTav. /cotvcD? S' vtto ttoXXcjv
Xeyofxevov cos l8l6v eoTi GTefifjua HoaeiBcbvos rj

TTLTVS, AoVKaVLOV 8e TTpOGTlOivTOS OTt /Cat TO) AtO-

vuaoj KadcooLOJixivov to ^vtov ovk (xtto Tpoirov

Tat? 7T€pl Tov MeAt/cepTT^v avvcoKeicjTai TLfials, avTO

TovTo l^'^TTjaiv Trapeix^Vy cLtlvl Xoyo) Y[og€l8cjvl

F /cat Aiovvaq) ttjv ttltvv ol iraXaioi Kadcoalojaav .

'ESd/c€t S' rjpuv^ jLtT^Sev etvat irapaXoyov dp^^o-

T€pOL yap ol deol ttjs vypds /cat yovlpLov Kvpioi

hoKovaiv dpxrjs etvat* /cat IloCTetScDvt ye OuTaAjLttoj

Alovvuo) Se AevSpLTT) irdvTes (hs erros eiTTelv

"EAAt^vcs" dvovuLV. ov {xrjv dXXd KaT IStav tw

676 HocreiScjVL (j)airi tls dv ttjv ttltvv TTpooriKeiv, ovx

(Ls ^ATToXXoScxjpos oL€TaL TTapdXiov <J)vt6v ovoav

oj58' OTt (fiiXrivepiOS eoTiv ojGTrep rj ddXaooa (/cat

^ So Turnebus : r^^uv.
^ 8' 170.11^ Bernardakis, he /xot Xylander : hi^iv.

" Praxiteles is again introduced later, Book VIII, Ques-
tion 4, 723 F ff., in another discussion on the crowns awarded
at the Games.

^ Or " interpreter." Cf. Parke and Wormell, The Delphic
Oracle, ii, pp. xiii if. Minar in the LCL translation at 723 f
takes the word in its other sense of " geographer."

* The young son of Ino, who was driven to leap with him



TABLE-TALK V. 3, 675-676

Isthmia, was the subject of a discussion at a dinner
given us in Corinth itself during the Games by
Lucanius, the chief priest. Praxiteles, � the official
guide,* appealed to mythology, citing the legend that
the body of Melicertes ^ was found cast up by the sea
at the foot of a pine. Not far from Megara there is, he
pointed out, a place named " The Beauty's Flight,"
along which, according to the Megarians, Ino rushed
down to the sea with her child in her arms. Many of
the company stated that according to common belief
the crown of pine belonged specifically to Poseidon ;
but Lucanius added that, because the tree was dedi-
cated also to Dionysus, it had quite appropriately
become a part of the cult of Melicertes. It was this
last remark that prompted our inquiry how the
ancients came to dedicate the pine to Poseidon and
Dionysus.

To us there seemed nothing illogical in this,
because both gods are by common acceptance sove-
reign over the domains of the moist and the genera-
tive. Practically all Greeks sacrifice to Poseidon the
Life-Giver** and to Dionysus the Tree-god.* Still,
one might well say that the pine is especially con-
nected with Poseidon, not, as Apollodorus ' believes,
because it grows by the sea, nor because it, like the

into the sea. He became the sea god Palaemon, to whom
according to some the Isthmian Games were originally dedi-
cated. Ino was an aunt, and one of the nurses, of Dionysus.

•* For Poseidon Phytalmios see Inscr. Grace, v?. 5051, xii
(1). 905 ; Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, iv, p. 6.

* For Dionysus Dendrites see Farnell, op. cit. v, p. 118.
Dionysus was a vegetation divinity, not merely a wine god.

^ Apollodorus of Athens, born c. 180 b.c, author of many
scholarly works including a mythological Bibliotheke and a
work On the Gods. Frag. Griech. Historiker (F. Jacoby), 244
F 123.

391



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(676) yap tovto riveg Xeyovoiv), dAAa hia ras vavTrrjylag
jLtaAtcrra. /cat yap avrrj /cat ra dSeA^a SevSpa,
vevKai Kal orpo^iXoi, roiv re ^vXojv rrapex^L ra
TrAot/xcorara TrtTTT^S" re Kal prjriv'qs dXoL(j)ijvy "^g
dvev rwv avpLTrayivrojv o^eXos ouSev iv rfj daXdrrrj .
Tip 8e Alovvgo) rrjv ttltvv dviipcxioav ojs i<l)r]Sv-
vovoav Tov olvov ra yap TnrvcoSr] ■)(OjpLa XlyovoLV

TjSvOLVOV TTjV d/XTTcAoV <j)ip€LV . Kal TrjV depfjLOTTjra

rrjs yrjg 0eo</)pao-Tos" alridrai' KadoXov yap iv
B dpyiXwheoi tottois (f)V€GdaL rrjv ttltvv^ efvat Se ttjv
dpyiXov depfX'qVy 8l6 Kal gvv€K7T€tt€iv tov otvov,
a)07T€p Kal TO vSiop iXacjiporarov Kal tJSlgtov tj
dpyiXo? dvaSiScocnv, en 8e Kal Karafxiyvvpiivrj Trpog
olrov eVtjLterpov Trotet Sai/jiXes, dSpvvovcra Kal 8t-
oyKovaa rfj depjJLOTT^TL rov Trvpov.

Ov fJLTjv dXXd Kal rrjs ttltvos avrrjs elKO? dno-
Xav€iv rrjv d/xTTcAov, ixovorjg CTrtTT^SctoTT^ra ttoXXtjv
TTpos ocjrripiav olvov Kal SiaiJLOvr^v rfj re yap
TTLTTr] Trdvres e^aXei^ovoL ra dyyela, Kal rr\s prj-
TLvrjs VTrofxiyvvovat ttoXXoI to) olvcp Kaddrrep EujSo-
ets" Tctjv 'EAAaSt/ccDv Kal rojv TraXiKcov ol nepl rov
C UdSov OLKovvreg, €k Se rrjs Trepi Btevvav TaXarlas
6 TTioraLrrjs otvos KaraKOfXil^eTat,, hia(f)€p6vrcjs tl-
fjicofxevos VTTO *V(jjfJLai(jjv. ov yap fiovov evojhiav rivd
ra roiavra TTpoohihiooiv, dXXd Kal rov olvov^ vap-
Larr]GL ra)(€a)s i^aipovvra^ rfj depfiorrjrL rov olvov
TO veapov Kal vSarojSes.

* ifinotel after otvov deleted by Hubert, €v(f>vr} Basel edition'
evTTOTov Wyttenbach. ^ So Madvig : e^aipcov.

<* Hubert calls attention to the totally different theory also
attributed to Theophrastus at 648 d supra ; the present refer-
ence has not been traced in the extant works of Theophrastus.

392



TABLE-TALK V. 3, 676

sea, loves the wind (for some argue to this effect) ;
but above all because of its use in shipbuilding. The
pine and kindred trees, like fir and stone-pine, pro-
duce the woods most suitable for shipbuilding, as well
as pitch and resin for waterproofing, without which
no hull is seaworthy.

On the other hand, the pine has been dedicated to
Dionysus because it is thought to sweeten wine ; for
they say that country abounding in pines produces
sweet-wine grapes. Theophrastus attributes this
effect to the heat in the soil,** saying that in general
the pine grows in clayey soil, and clay, being hot,
matures the wine, even as it also yields the lightest
and sweetest spring-water. Incidentally, if clay is
mixed with wheat, its heat considerably increases the
bulk by distending and thickening the kernels.

It is also probable, however, that the pine itself
contributes to the growth of the grapevine, since this
tree is rich in substances efficacious in preserving
wine and guaranteeing its quality ; pitch is always
used to seal wine-vessels, and many people mix wine
with resin. For instance, in Greece the Euboeans do
so, and in Italy those who live near the Po ; pitch-
flavoured wine ^ is imported from the region about
Vienna ^ in Gaul and is highly esteemed by the
Romans. These uses of pitch not only give the wine
a certain bouquet but add body '^ to it, because they
quickly remove by heat the insipidity of the new wine.

" For further discussion of the use of pitch in connection
with wine see Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiv. 124 fF., xvi. 22.53 ff. Com-
pare the modern retsinato.

* The modern Vienne in France. Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist.
xxiii. 24.47, on the near-by Helvian district.

** Or " potency " (vigorem)^ after Hubert, who cites Theo-
phrastus, he Causis Plant, vi. 16. 5-6. (Hubert's "v" is a slip.)
VOL. VIII o* 393



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(676) 2. *Q.s Se ravr ipp'qdr], rcov piqropajv 6 fJudXiara
SoKOJV avayvojopiaoLV €VTvy)(o.V€iv iXevOepioLS ,^ " c5
TTpo's d€Ci)v," etvrev, " ov yap ixO^s rj ttLtvs ivrav-
da Kal TTpcpTjv^ arefjifjia yiyove rcbv ^ladfjiLcov, irpo-
repov Se rot?^ creAtVots" €OTe<f>ovTo; Kal tovt €(ttl
/xev iv rij Kaijxcphia <j)iXapyvpov rivos aKovoai Ae-
yovTOS '

ra o iGupii aTTOOOLfjLTjv av rjoews ogov
D o TLov oeXivojv arecfyavos icrnv covto?.

LGTopel Se Kal Tt/xatos" o orvyypacfyevs, on Koptv-
diois,^ OTTrjviKa jjiaxovfJievoL TTpos Kapxr]SovLovs
c^aStJov V7T€p TTJs St/ceAta?, ive^aXov tlv€S ovoC'
creXiva Kopbit^ovres' olcovLGap.dvcov Se ra>v ttoXXcjv

TO GVp^^oXoV 60S" ov XRV^'^^^ ' ^'^^ SoK€L TO oiXlVOV

€7TLKrj8eLov'^ etvai Kal rovs^ €7TLO(j)aXa)S vooovvras
SelodaL rod aeXivov (jiafxiv, dXXcjs 6^^ 6 Tt/xoAecov
iddppvvev avrovs Kal dv€p.ipiV7]GK€ rcjv 'Icr^/Ltot ae-
Xiviov, ols dvaGT€(f)OVGL KoptV^tot Tov? viKCJvras.

" "Ert Toivvv Tj ^ AvTiyovov vavap^ls dva^vaaoa
irepl rrpvpivav avropbdrcos oeXivov ^ladfila Ittojvo-

^ 'EAev^epio? (usually a divine epithet) Reiske.

2 After this word a quaternion of T is lost, to 680 d [(n-opet-
rai 8e, but copies are preserved, which we cite from Hubert,
checked against the photostat of E.

3 g^ ^ojj Stephanus, yap toIs Turnebus according to Hut-
ten : avTOLS-

* So Xylander, Hubert : Koplvdiot.

^ So Reiske : ov {ov ov E), which Wyttenbach and Hutten
delete. In the Life of Timoleon, xxvi, rjfiLovoi.

� So Faehse (Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 78, see also Pliny,
Nat. Hist. XX. 113) : dvemnyScioi'.

' So Basel edition : to.

^ aXXois 6' Bases (c/. Life of Timoleon^ xxvi) : ws.

394



TABLE-TALK V. 3, 676

2. On hearing these remarks, a professor of rhe-
toric, who was reputed to have a wider acquaintance
with poHte literature than anyone else, said, " In
heaven's name ! Wasn't it only yesterday or the day
before that the pine became the garland of victory at
the Isthmia ? Formerly it was celery .** This is evi-
dent from the comedy where a miser says :

I'd gladly sell the entire Isthmian show

For the price at which the celery crown will go. ^

The historian Timaeus " records the following anec-
dote. During their campaign against the Cartha-
ginians in the war for Sicily, the Corinthians suddenly
saw some asses carrying celery. Most of the troops
interpreted the encounter as a bad omen, because
celery is regarded as a symbol of mourning,*^ and we
say of those who are critically ill that * a sprig of
celery is all you can give them now.' Timoleon,*
however, restored the spirits of his men precisely by
reminding them of the celery used as the crown of
victory at the Isthmus.

" And then there is the flagship of Antigonus/
which was given the name * Isthmia ' because celery

" Unblanched celery was more serviceable for garlands
than our modern table variety. See A. C. Andrews in Class.
Phil, xliv (1949), pp. 91 if.

" Com. adesp. 153 (Kock, Com. Att. Frag, iii, p. 438).

� Celebrated historian of Sicily, c. 356-260 b.c. See Trues-
dell S. Brown, Timaeus of Tauromenium (Univ. of California
Press, 1958), especially p. 87.

" So also Pliny, Nat. Hist. xx. 113. Cf. A. C. Andrews,
loc. cit. p. 98.

* Timoleon, a Corinthian general fighting for Syracuse,
defeated the Carthaginians at the Crimisus near Segesta in
341 or 339 b.c. See Plutarch, Life of Timoleon^ xxvi.

' King Antigonus Gonatas of Macedon, 283-240 b.c, or
Antigonus Doson, 227-221 b.c.

395



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA



^14 IJiaGdrj. /cat rovro 87] to gkoXlov e77typa/x/Lta SrjXoV
Kepafiedv^ d/xucrrtSa ^e^vofjidvrjv^ oeXivco' ovyKeirai



7] KcuAia? yrj^ TTvpl KarrjdaXwiJievr]
K€vdeL KeXaivov alfia Aiovvaov Ooov,'^
exovaa KXcovag ^ladfxiKovs dva orofxa.

ri ravr ," elTrev, " ovk aveyvcoKad* viiels oV rrjv
TTiTVV d)s OVK i7T€LoaKTOv ovSe vlov oXXo. TTarpiov
Kal TTaXaiov Sr] (rre/x/xa rcov ^ladfiiajv aefjivvvovres ;"
€KiV7]G€V ovv Tovs^ viovs (I)? civ TToXvfxadrj? aVTjp
Kal TToXvypapLfjiaros .

3. '0 fidvTOL AovKOLVLOS €1? €fjL€ ^Xdi/jas dfia Kal

fieLSicbv, " J) Il6(J€i8oV," €(1)7], " TOV TtXtjOoVS TCOV

ypaiipidrajv erepoL 8* Tjfjiojv r-:^? dpiaOias (hs lot/ce
F Kal TTJs dv7jKotas aTreXavov dvaTreidovres rovv-
avTLov, d)9 7] fjiev ttltus rjv orefip^a rcov dydivcjjv
TTarpiov, €K he Ne^ueas" Kara l,7jXov o* rod oeXivov
^evos a)v iTreiOTjXde St' 'Hpa/cAea /cat Kparrioas tj-
pLavpojaev €K€lvov cos tepov einriqoeLov . etra /Ltev-
Tot XP^^V TTaXtv dvaKT7]GapL€V7] TO TTarpiov yepas tj
TTirvs dvdei rfj rififj."

^ So Wyttenbach, Madvig : BijXov.

^ So Bernardakis, Kepafxdav Reiske, Kepafiiav Madvig: kc-
pafiea.

^ duvariBa ^ePvafxdvrjv Madvig : vo/xi^ei SiaPe^vaficvrjv.

* ovrco Madvig, ovTcos exov Wyttenbach : ovto) x^cbv.

^ 71 KcoXlcls yf] Winckelmann, Madvig (who cites " iam
interpretatio Latina "), (xdcov) rjhe vXaamj " this fashioned
earth " Wyttenbach, 17 IlaAAaSos yfj A. Junius, (xOwv) -f]
licXaayri Stephanus : 17 -naXas yrj.

* Warmington suggests deov (god) for doov (rushing).

' dveyvwKaO^ vp-els oi Franke : dveyvajKaTevfiai aoi (and
slight variations).



TABLE-TALK V. 3, 676

sprouted spontaneously on its stern. I can cite also
a scolion which mentions an earthen vessel closed with
celery. The words run as follows :

The Attic potter's clay," baked in the fire.
Conceals the rushing wine-god's dark red blood,
And bears the Isthmian sprigs inside its mouth.

Have you not read this, that you exalt the pine as
ancient crown of the Isthmia, and consider it not as a
new importation but as a heritage from our fathers ? "
The rhetorician, you may be sure, impressed the
younger men by his great learning and wide reading.
3. But Lucanius looked at me with a smile, and said,
" Poseidon ! What a parade of quotations ! It looks
as if other people have taken advantage of our un-
tutored ignorance to convince us, on the contrary,
that the pine was the traditional garland at these
games, and that the crown of celery was imported
more recently from Nemea because of rivalry with
Heracles.^ According to them, although the celery
prevailed as a fitting sacred symbol and caused the
pine to be forgotten, nevertheless in the course of
time the pine recovered its original prerogative, to
flourish now in high honour."

<* From CoHas, the promontory where fine clay was dug.

* According to Plutarch, Life of Theseus^ xxv. 4, the Isth-
mian Games were established by Theseus in emulation of
Heracles's foundation of the Olympic Games. Cf. infra., 677
B, in the quotation from Callimachus, where we further note
the mention of Nemea, which is also connected with Heracles.

* oiv Tovs Bryan according to Bernardakis, Reiske : ov.

* Stephanus added aT€<f)avos, but that may be simply im-
plied, cf. Hubert. ^� €K€lv7]v Wyttenbach.

^^ Upols eiriT^Seios Stephanus, rjpioi dverrn-qSciov Wyttenbach,
■fjpwov iiTiviKiov " an emblem of Heracles's victory " Kronen-
berg.

397



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

677 'Eycb yovv dveTreidofirjv Kal Trpoaelxov, axjre Kal
TCJV [jLapTVplcov iKfjLaOelv rroXXa Kal fivr^fioveveiv, Eu-
(j)opi(x)va fjLev ovro) ttcjs Trepl MeXiKcpTov Xiyovra-

KXaiovres Se re Kovpov eir* ayx^^oiXois^ TnrveGai
KarOeoaVy 6kk6t€^ Stj arecfxivcopL^^ ddXoLS <^opiov-

rat.*
ov yap TTCx) rprjx^la Xa^r] Karefi-qoaTo x^ipojv
Mt^vt]?^ TTolha ;)^a/D6ava Trap' ^Kocottov yeverelpr],
i^ore WKvd aeXiva Kara Kpord^iov i^dXovro,

KaAAtjLta;^ov 8c fidXXov Staaa^ouvra* XeycL S* o
*}lpaKXrjs avTcp^ rrepl rod oeXivov

B /cat pLiv 'AATyrtaSat, ttovXv yeyeiorepov

rovSe Trap" Alyaioivi deep reXeovre? dyajva,
OrjoovGLV VLKT]? ovpL^oXov 'IcT^/xtaSos",

tpTjXcp TCOV Ne/XCT^^e* TTLTW S' dTrOTLflT^GOVULV,

T] irplv dycuvLord? eorecfye rovs ^Ei(f>vpr).

"Ert S' otfjLaL UpoKXeovs^ ivTervxfJKevai ypa<f)fj
irepl rcov ^Iddfiiajv loropovvros, on tov rrpcjrov
dyd>v* eOeaav irepl ore^dvov ttltvlvov vorepov Sc,

^ So Meineke, Powell, alyiaXov Schneider : atAi'o-i.

2 oKKode " of which " Reiske, Powell.

^ So Bernardakis : are^dvoyv. * (f)opeovTo Scheidweiler.

^ So Meineke : fi-^fXTjs {f^Lfirjs E).

^ Perhaps Trap' aVTa> Post.

■^ So Turnebus : varpoKXeovs or -nepiKXiovs mss. except Paris
2074.

� Probably Euphorion of Chalcis, born c. 276 b.c, a poet
proverbially obscure in style and deviousness of mythological
reference. (See Powell, Collectanea Alexandrina, Euph. 84.)

^ The Nemean lion, son of the Moon (Mene or Selene),
according to Hyginus and Epimenides (Diels, Fraff. d. Vor-
sokratiker, Epimenides, frag. 2).



TABLE-TALK V. 3, 677

I for one was persuaded and gave the matter my
attention and have committed to memory many au-
thorities that go to prove Lucanius right. Eupho-
rion,<* for instance, wrote about MeHcertes somewhat
to this effect :

Weeping they laid the youth by the shore on boughs of

pine.
When still they bore them as the victor's crown.
Not yet had savage grip of hands brought down
Menu's fierce-eyed son * by Asopus' daughter's side. *
But ever since they've put full wreaths of celery on their

brows.

I remember Callimachus also,** who makes the point
clearer. In his poem Heracles says of celery :

The sons of Aletes, • keeping festival more ancient far than

this.
By god Aegaeon's shore this crown shall make the badge

of Isthmic victory ;
In rivalry with Nemea, but the pine they shall misprise
Which erstwhile crowned each champion thereat Ephyra.'

It seems to me that I have also read a passage on
the Isthmia by Procles,*' in which the author records
that the first contest was held for a crown of pine, but

� The stream Nemea named after the daughter (geneteira)
of Asopus, god of the river near the seat of the Nemean
Games. See Pausanias, v. 2-2. 6.

** This passage is from Aetia, iii, frag. 59 Pfeiffer (ed. Try-
panis, LCL, 1958 and 1968, pp. 44 f.), lines 5-9.

• National hero of Dorian Corinth. Pindar, Olympian
xiii. 14 (17) and Isthmian ii. 15 (22), with the scholia.

' Said to be the old name of Corinth, but the authenticity
of this very ancient identification is challenged by Lenschau
in RE, Suppl. iv. 1009. 3.

' Frag. Hist. Graec. (C. Muller), ii. 342 in a note to frag. 2
of Menecratcs the Academic, whose pupil Procles was. The
title of his work seems to have been On Festivals.

390



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(677) rod aywvog lepov yevofievov, Ik rrjs Nc/xca/c^S"
7Tavriyvp€OJS fier'qveyKav ivravda rov rod oe\ivov
(jr€(J)avov. 6 8e UpoKXijs^ ovro? rjv el? rcov iv
^ AKohr^ixia "EevoKpareL Gva)^o\aodvTO)v .

C nPOBAHMA A

Ilfpi rov " ^coporepov 8e /cepaic " ^
Collocuntur Niceratiis, Sosicles, Antipater, Plutarchus

1. TeXoLog iSoKet tlgl tcDv crvvSeLTTVOvvrcov 6
'A;\;tAAeus' aKparorepov iyx^lv rov HdrpoKXov k€-
XevcoVy elr alriav roLavrrjv iTTiXeyajv

ol yap cfyiXraTOL dvSpes ifio) vTreaai fxeXadpo).

Nt/CT^/Daros" jLtev gvv 6 iralpos r)pL6jv 6 MaKeSojv
dvTLKpvs d7TiG-)(v pilfer o^ fjLTj CLKparov dXXd depfjLov
elprjadaL to " t^copov " aTTO rod ^ojtlkov /cat ttJ?
t,€G€COS, o Sr] /cat Xoyov ^x^lv, dvSpcov iraipajv
TTapovTOJV viov e^ V7rapxrJ9 KepdvwoB ai Kparijpa'
jy /cat yap r)fid?, drav rols Oeols dTTOOirevheiv fxiX-
XcojJLev, veoKpdra iroLeiv. llcoGLKXrjs S' o TTOiriTrjs
rod *E/x7reSo/cA€ou9 eTTLpLvrjaOels elprjKOTOs iv rfj
KaOoXov fjLera^oXfj yiyveodai " l,ojpd re rd rrplv
aKp-qra " fxaXXov €(f)7] ro evKparov ^ to aKpaTOv
VTTO Tov dvSpos l,CL}pdv XeyeodaL /cat fx'qhev ye
KOiXveiv CTTt/ceAeucCT^at tco IlaTpo/cAa; tov ^ KyiKkia

^ So Paris 2074 : TrarpoKXrjs (ttpokXtjs E).

^ K€paip€ Vaticanus 1676, Athenaeus, x, 423 e, Ktpcpc E.

^ So Reiske : i'maxvpit,€Tai.

� Head of the Academy 339-314 b.c.

^ Athenaeus, 423 e, appears to be derived from this Ques-
tion or its source, cf. Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. pp. 26 if.

400



TABLE-TALK V. 3-4, 677

that later, when the contest was made sacred, they
adopted the celery crown from the Nemean Games.
The Procles I refer to was a fellow student of Xeno-
crates � in the Academy.



QUESTION 4 "

On Homer's " Mix the wine stronger "

Speakers : Niceratus, Sosicles, Antipater, Plutarch

1. At a dinner, some of the guests said that they
thought Achilles ridiculous in urging Patroclus to
pour stronger '^ wine and then adding as a reason,

These friends most dear are under my roof. **

Niceratus, our friend from Macedonia, went so far as
to maintain flatly that Homer's word zoros means not
" unmixed " but " hot," deriving it from zotikos (life-
giving) and zests (boiling). In his opinion it was right
to mix a new bowl when friends come, even as we
mix fresh wine when about to pour libations to the
gods. But Sosicles the poet, recalling that Empe-
docles * had said that in the universal evolution
" what was until then akretos (unmixed) became
z&ros,'' argued that zoros was used by the poet in the
sense of " well-mixed " (eukratos) rather than " un-
mixed " (akratos). Nothing hindered Achilles from
urging Patroclus to prepare well-mixed wine for drink-

* The guests here use akratoteron as a synonym for Homer's
zdroteron {Iliads ix. 203). See now Class. Rev. xvi, N.S.
(1966), pp. 135 f. M. L. West); xvii (1967), pp 245 f. (F.
Solmsen).

�* Iliad, ix. 204.

• Empedocles, frag. 35, line 15, in Diels's Vorsokratiker :
Aristotle's reading of the fragment {Poetics., 1461 a 23), if the
MS. is sound, would have robbed Sosicles of his argument.

401



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(677) 7Tapa(TK€vdl,€LV evKparov ets" ttoglv tov ohov el 8'
avTi rod t^ojpov " i^cuporepov " elireVy tooirep " Seft-
repov " avrl rod Se^iov /cat " drjXvrepov " avrl tov
drjXeos, ovK aroTTOv elvai' )(prJG9aL yap eineiKws
avrl rG)V a/nXGiv roZs GvyKpiriKols. ^ Avriirarpos 8'
o iralpo? €(f)rj rovs /xev eviavrovs apxcLLKOj?

E " a)povs " Xeyeudaiy ro 8e^ Ja fxeyeSos elcoSevai^
GrjpLaiveiV' 66 €V rov TToXverrf Kal TraXaiov olvov
V7t6 rov ^Ax^XXecDs t,cx)p6v (hvofidadai.*

2. 'Eyo) S' dveiiiixv7]OKov avrovs, on rip^ " t^po-
repov " TO depfjLov^ evioi' o-qpiaiveadai Xeyovai rep he
BeppLorepcp ro rdxiov wairep rjjjieis iyKcXevopieda
TToXXaKis roi9 SiaKovovGL Oeppiorepov aTTreadat rrjs
SiaKovlas. dXXa fi€LpaKia)8rj rr}v (fyiXoripLiav avrcbv
diri^aivoVy SeStorcov opioXoyeZv aKparorepov et-
prjadai ro t^wporepov, (hs iv drono) rivl rov 'A;^tA-
Xecos iaofjievov' Kaddnep 6 ^ AfJLcfyLTToXirTjs Za>tAo?^
VTTeXdjjL^avev y dyvocjv on irpcorov p,kv 6 ^AxiXXevs
rov OoLViKa /cat rov ^OSvaaia rrpeu^vripovs 6v-

F ra<s €t3cb�" ovx vSapel ;(;atpovTa9 dAA* dK par ore pep ,
KaSdirep ol dXXoi yepovres, einreZvai KeXevei rrjv
Kpdaiv.

"ETretra ^eipcovos cov fxadrjrr]? /cat rrj? vepl ro

acopia Siairrj? ovk direipos eXoyl^ero S-qnovdev, on

roLS dpyovoL /cat axoXd^ovui Trapd ro elcvOog croj/xa-

678 criv dveifxevrj /cat puaXaKCorepa Kpdois dppLO^et' Kal

yap rots Ittttois ipbPdXXei p,erd rcbv dXXc/jv x^pra-

^ 8e added by Turnebus.

^ So Reiske : etwdev.

^ TToXverrj Stephaniis : TToXvreXrj, which might be right.

* dvo/xa^ea^ai E.

^ So Stephanus : to.

^ depfjLOTipov Hubert. See Aristotle, Poetics, 1461 a 14-16.

402



TABLE-TALK V. 4, 677-678

ing, nor was it strange for him to use the comparative
form zoroteros for zoros just as he uses dexiteros for
dexios ("right hand") and thelyteros for thelys ("fe-
male "), because Homer is apt to use the comparative
forms interchangeably with the positive. Our friend
Antipater, however, said that in ancient times the
year was called koros, and that customarily the prefix
za had intensive force ; this explains why Achilles calls
wine that is many years old and aged zoros.

2. But I reminded them that some maintain that
the term zoroteros signifies " hot " (thermos) and that
ikermoteros (hotter) signifies " faster," as when we
urge our helpers and servants to apply themselves
" more warmly " (thermoteron) to their work. On the
other hand, I pointed out, their own gallant effort
was schoolboyish because they were afraid to admit
that zoroteron means " stronger " (akratoteron), as if
this would put Achilles in an awkward position.
Zoilus of Amphipolis � made just this mistake, not
realizing that, in the first place, Achilles told Patro-
clus to strengthen the mixture because he knew that
older men like Phoenix and Odysseus prefer their
wine strong rather than watery.

Secondly, Achilles, the pupil of Cheiron and there-
fore not ignorant of the principles of diet, must have
reflected that a weaker, milder mixture was suitable
for those (like himself and Patroclus) who were en-
joying unaccustomed leisure and idleness. For just
this reason he feeds the horses celery ^ along with

* Cynic philosopher and critic, famous as the " Scourge of
Homer," 4th century b.c. See Sandys, Hist. Class. Schol. 1,
pp. 108 ff. ' Iliad, ii. 775 ff.

' So Stephanus : ii'iois or evCovs-
8 ZiotXos Basel edition : l,i]\os.

403



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(678) (jfidrajv to aeXivov ovk aXoycos, aXX on ^Xoltt-
Tovrai fjiev ol^ CT;^oAaJovT€S" oLGW^dcog lttttol tov^
TToSas, ecjTi Se to-utov jjlolXigt^ Xafxa to ueXtvov
dXXoLS yovv OVK av €vpois Trapa^aXXofJievov lttttols
€V 'lAtctSt oiXivov 7] Tiva TOLOvrov ;\;tAov* dAA'
larpos (x)V 6 ^AxiXX€vs tojv 9^ lttttcdv rrpos rov
Kaipov OLKeiCJS CTrejiteAetro /cat rw awfiarL ttjv iXa-
(j)poTdTr)v hiaiTav, (hs vyLeLVordrrjV iv rw axoXd-
^€LV, 7Tap€aK€va^€V dvSpas S' iv fidxi) /cat dywvL
St* rjfjLepas yeyevqiiivovs ovx ofxolojg dftcDv Statrav
B TotS" dpyovuLV eirirelvai ttjv Kpdoiv e/ceAeuore. /cat
jLtTyv ovhk ^vaei ^atVerat <f>LXoivos dAA' aTrrjvrjs 6
^A^iXXevs '

ov ydp Tt yXvKvdvfjios dvrjp rjv ouS' dyav6(j)po)v,
dXXd pbdX ifjifjie flaws'

/cat 7TOV Trapprjaia^ofievos virep avroVy " TToXXds,"
<f)7]GLV, " dvTTVOvs vvKTas lavGai" • Ppaxv? S'
V7TV0S OVK i^apK€L TOL? p^/ooj^LteVot? d/cpdroj. Aot-
SopovfJi€vo5 Se Tip 'Aya/xe/xvovt TrpcoTOV avTov
** olvo^aprj " 7Tpoo€Lpr]K€Vy d)? /xdAtora rcDv voarj-
fidTcov TTJV olvocfyXvyiav TrpojSaAAojLtcvos". Std raura
807 TrdvTa Xoyov €t;^€v avTov ivvorjaai, tcov dvSpwv
€7Ti^avivT(XiV y fJL'q TTod^ rj ovvqdrjs Kpaais avTcp tov
o'ivov Trpos eKeivovs dveip^evq /cat dvdppiooTos ioTLV.

1 OL Palatinus 170, Basel edition : of?.



404



TABLE-TALK V. 4, 678

other fodder — quite rightly, because celery is the
specific remedy for horses that are lame from un-
accustomed idleness. At least there is no other case
where we find celery or any such green forage thrown
to horses in the Iliad. But like the good doctor he
was, Achilles gave exactly that care to the horses
which was proper to the circumstances, by providing
the lightest diet as the most healthful during idleness.
He did not see fit to treat alike those men who had
spent the day in combat and struggle and those who
had been idle ; so he ordered a strengthening of the
mixture. In fact, it is evident that Achilles by tem-
perament is no lover of wine but a rough, unsocial
character :

Not sweet of spirit was the man, nor gentle.
But in a passion ..."

He somewhere says, when talking freely about him-
self, that he " spent many sleepless nights " ^; but a
brief sleep will not satisfy a drinker of neat wine.
When he jeers at Agamemnon, the first epithet that
he hurls at him is " wine-sodden," '^ as if casting up
to him winebibbing above all other weaknesses.
There was every reason, therefore, why Achilles
should think, when Odysseus and Phoenix appeared,
that perhaps his usual mixture would be mild and in-
adequate for them.

- Iliad, XX. 467 f. " Iliad, ix. 325.

� Iliad, i. 225.



405



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(^'^^) riPOBAHMA E

Uepl Tiov TToXXovs inl ^clttvov KaXovvrcov

Collocuntur Plutarchus, Lamprias avus

1. To Trepl rag /caraAcAtcrcts" (j^aLVo/jLevov aroirov
TrXelova Xoyov Trapeo^ev €v rats' VTToSo^^ats", as"
iTTOielro rcov ^iXcjv eKaorog iarLCov rj/jidg rjKOvras
aiTO rrjg 'AAe^avSpetas" eKoXovvro yap del voXXol
rajv oTTCOGOvv rrpoGrjKeiv SoKorjvrajv, /cat rd gv/jltto-
oia dopv^a)8€LS elx^ rds ovyiTrepKJjopds /cat ret? Sia-
Xvaeig Ta;^eta?. iTreiSr] 8' ^OvrjGLKpdrrjg 6 larpog

D ov TToXXovs dXXd Tovg GcfioSpa ovviqdei's /cat oIk€lo-
rdrovs TrapeXa^ev irrl to SeiTrvov, €(l)dvrj jxoi rd
Xeyofievov vtto nAarajvos", " av^ofjL€vr]v rroXiv tto-
Aet?/ ov ttoXlv," GVjJLTTOGLCp SeSoodai.^ " /cat ydp
GVfJiTTOCJiov fxeyedos t/cavov eGnv, dxpi ov gvjjlttoglov
idiXei jLteVetv idv 8' VTrep^dXr) Sia TrXrjdog, ajg
fjLr]K€TL TTpoGiqyopov iavTO) fir^Se GvpLirade? etvai rats'
^iXo(j)poGvvais ijL7]8e yvcjpifjLov, ovSe gvjjlttoglov eGTL.
8et ydp ovx ojoirep iv GrparoTreScp ^LayyiXoLS ouS'
(ji)G7Tep iv rpLTipeL ^^pT^a^at /ceAeucrratS', aurous' Se
St' iavTOJV ivTvyxdveLV dXXijXoLg, a)G7T€p ^opov rod

GVJJLTTOGLOV TOV KpaGTTeSlrrjV TO) KOpVcjiaicp Gw/jKOOV

exovros."

2. 'EjU-ou 8e ravr elttovtos, elg jjl€gov rjSr] (f>d€y-
E ^d[jL€vo9 6 TTaTTTTOS rjfjLcijv AapLTTpias, " dp* ovv,"

etTrev/ " ov TTepl rd SelTTva jjlovov, dXXd /cat TTepl

^ av^o(j,€vr}v ttoXlv rroXeis Hubert, av^ofX€vr]v ttoXiv Reiske,
av^avofji€v7]v noXiv reXevTCjaav Turnebus, eV av^ofievrj ttoXci
Wyttenbach : av^o^xev-q TrdAei.

^ ovK irrl TrdAet ^laXXov •^ avfiTToaiu) AeAe;i^^ai Wyttenbach,
KaTTL avj-LTT. XcXexOai Hartman, els avfnroaLa OLTToSeboadai Mad-

406



t



TABLE-TALK V. 5, 678

QUESTION 5

On those who invite large numbers to dinner

Speakers : Plutarch and his grandfather Lamprias

1. The awkward problem that turns up of finding
places for guests at table was the subject of consider-
able discussion at the parties that each of my friends
gave me on my return from Alexandria. For on every
occasion many were included who had even the
slightest apparent claim to an invitation, and con-
sequently the gatherings were turbulent and broke
up early. But when Onesicrates the physician in-
vited, not a large crowd, but only some very dear
friends and close relatives, it struck me that you could
apply to parties the words of Plato <* : " An aug-
mented state is not one state but several." " For
the size of a party also," I said, " is right so long as it
easily remains one party. If it gets too large, so that
the guests can no longer talk to each other or enjoy
the hospitality together or even know one another,
then it ceases to be a party at all. For at a social
gathering there should be no need for aides-de-camp,
as in an army, or boatswains to set the stroke, as in a
trireme, but people should converse directly with one
another ; even as in a chorus the end man is within
earshot of the leader."

2. When I had said this, my grandfather Lamprias,
raising his voice so that everyone could hear, said,
" Do I understand that we must observe modera-
tion then, not only in eating, but in the number of

• Republic, 422 e — 423 d.

vig, avutroaui) KoXdis dnoSeBoadai Pohlenz, avymoau^ Kovcbv 8.
Kronenberg. ' ip* otJi/ ttirtv Xylander : dpa aweiirev.

407



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(678) ra? KX-rjaeLS^ SeofJieda rrjs eyKpareias ; eun yap
TLS OLfiai Kal (f>iXavdp(j)'JTLa� aKpaata, fji-qSeva Trap-
epxopLevT]? Tchv crupiTTOTcbv aAAa iravras iXKovo'qs ct>?
inl diav tj aKpoaaiv. efioiy^ ovv ovr dpros ovr
olvos iTnXeLTTOJV rolg K€KXr]fxevoLS ovtoj 8ok€l rov k€-
KX-qKora TTOieZv yeXoZov cb? X^jpa /cat totto?' wv Kal
fXTj K€KXr]fjievoLg aAA' iireXdovaiv avropLarcog ^ivois
Kal dXXorpiOLS del TrapedKevaGpLevrjv d<j)6oviav vtt-
dpx^LV Set. €Tt S' dprov fiev Kal olvov einXenTov-
F TO)V ecrrt /cat tovs OLKeras cos KXenrovras alridodai,
TOTTOV Se Trevia Kal KaravaXatGLS els TrXrjdos oXiycopia
TLS €GTL Tov KaXovvTos . evSoKLfJieL 8e davpiaoTcbs
Kal 'HatoSos" eliTCjjV'

rjroL fJLev irpuiTLora x^^os yiver '

Xcopav yap e8et /cat tottov TTpoiJTTOKelcjdai rots yiy-
679 vofxevoLS, ov^ d)S X^^^ ovfios vlos," ^(f>'q> " to
^ Ava^ayopeiov , ' rjv ofjiov navra xP'^l^^^a,* to ovv-
SeLTTVov irro 17] G€V.

Ov fJLTjv dXXd Kav TOTTOS VTrdpxzi x^l Trapa-
GKevTj, TO nXrjOos avTO <f>vXaKT€ov (hs dpuKTOv ttjv
ovvovoiav ttoiovv Kal dTrpoGi^yopov olvov yap dv-
eXelv TjTTOv €GTL KaKov t) Xoyov KOLVOJviaV €K SetTT-
vov Sto Kal SeocfjpaGTOS doiva GVfiTroGia TraLt^cov
e/caAct ra Kovpeia Sid ttjv AaAtav tcjv TrpoGKadit,-
ovTCov. Xoyojv Se Koivojviav dvaipovGLV ol ttoXXovs

^ So Palatinus 170, Xylander : /cAioret?.

" See below. Book VII, Question 6, and particularly
Plato's Symposiumy 174 a-b, which Plutarch cites there, on

408



TABLE-TALK V. 5, 678-679

guests that we invite ? It seems to me that there is
such a thing as going too far even in hospitality, when
you omit no possible guest but drag everybody in,
as ^f to some show or public recitatio n. The host who
runs out ot bread or wine is not so ridiculous, to my
way of thinking, as the one who fails to provide
room and place for his guests. There ought at all
times to be ample provision even for unin\-ited
guests," including total strangers who come of their
own accord. Besides, if bread and wine give out, it
is possible to lay the blame on thieving servants, but
if space gives out because it has been spent on too
great a crowd, then the host himself is guilty of a
kind of insult to his guests. Incidentally, this line of
Hesiod is amazingly popular :

Before all else in the world, void came into existence,''

simply because room and place were prerequisite to
all subsequent creation. Contrast that with the way
in which my son yesterday '^ converted the banquet
into the famous Anaxagorean plenum : ' All things
were one solid mass.' ^

*' However, if both space and the provisions are
ample, we must still avoid great numbers, because
they in themselves interfere with sociability and con-
versation. It is worse to take away the pleasure of
conversation at table than to run out of wine. Theo-
phrastus � in jest calls barbershops " wineless drinking
parties " just because of the chatter of those who
come to sit there. People who bring together too

these " shadows " as they were called, who were often brought
to the banquet by some invited guest.

" Theogony, 116. * Tahle-Talk, ii. 10, 644 c.

* Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, Anaxagoras, frag. 1.

* Wimmer, Theophrastus, frag. 76.

409



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(679) els ravTo aviJL<f)opovvT€9 , fidXXov S* oXiyovs ttolovglv

dXX'^XoLS Gvvelvat^' Kara 8vo yap r) rpelg aiToXapi-

B pdvovreg ivrvyxdvovcn koL TTpoaBLaXeyovrai, rovs

Se TToppoj KaraKeijJiivovs ouS' tcracrtv ouSe Trpoaopoj-

OIV L7T7TOV SpOfJLOV OLTTeXOVTaS

rjfjiev iiT* AiavTos KXioias TeAa/xcovtaSao
T^S' €77* 'A;^iAA^os'.

oOev ovK opdcjs ol ttXovoioi veavievovrai KaraGKev-
a^ovres" o'lkov? rpiaKovraKXivovs Kal fxetl^ovs' dfJLt-
KTiov yap avrrj /cat d(f>iXojv SetTTVcov rj TrapaaKeirrj
Kal 7Tav7]yvpLdpxov fidXXov tj Gvp.TTOUidpxov Seo-
fjievcov. dAA' €K€iVOLS pikv ravra avyyvwfirj TroieLV
aTrXovTOV yap otovrai rov ttXovtov /cat TV<f>X6v
dXrjdcj? /cat dvd^oSov,^ dv fjurj fjidprvpas exj] Kal^
Kaddirep rpaycpSla Oeards' r^pilv 8' dv tafia yevoiro
C rod TToXXovs ojJiov avvdyeiv to •rroAAa/ctS' /car*
oXtyovs TTapaXajx^dveiv , ol yap OTravicJS Kal * hi
" Appuaros ,' COS" ^acrtv, iartcovre? dvay Kdl,ovr ai rov
OTTOJGOVV €7TLT1^8eLOV "^ yvcopLfJiov KaTaypd(f)€iv' ol hk
avv€xecjT€pov Kara rpels ^ rerrapas dvaXapL^avovres

(x)G7T€p TTOpOp^ela TO, OVfJLTTOGLa KOV(f)6T€pa* TTOLOVGL.

ITotet 8e TLva rod ttoXXov rcbv ^iXojv ttXtjOovs
BidKpLGLV Kal 6 rrjs alrias SL7]V€Kr)s eTTiXoyiGpLos'

' KoX after avvelvat, deleted by Bases.
2 So Herwerden : ahU^ohov.
' Kol added by Wilamowitz.
* So Herwerden : Kov(f>d re.

<� Iliad, xi. 7 f.

" Cf. De Cupid. Bivit. 528 a-b. Wealth has been " blind "
since Hipponax : see frag. 29 Diehl.

" See Strabo, ix. 2. 1 1, p. 404. Certain Pythaistae watched
the sky three days in each of three months during the year

410



TABLE-TALK V. 5, 679

many guests to one place do prevent general conver-
sation ; they allow only a few to enjoy each other's
society, for the guests separate into groups of two
or three in order to meet and converse, completely
unconscious of those whose place on the couches
is remote and not looking their way because they are
separated from them by practically the length of a
race course. The distance is like that from the centre

Both ways, to the tents of Telamonian Ajax
And to those of Achilles ..."

So it is a mistake for the wealthy to build showy
dining-rooms that hold thirty couches or more. Such
magnificence makes for unsociable and unfriendly
banquets where the manager of a fair is needed more
than a toastmaster. However, in their case we must
forgive this display, for they consider wealth, unless
it has witnesses and, like a tragedy, spectators, no
wealth but something blind indeed ^ and cut off from
the world. But the rest of us can protect ourselves
against the risk of gathering too large a crowd by
entertaining frequently in small groups. Those who
give dinner parties as seldom as * the lightning
flashes over Harma,' " as the saying goes, are forced
to include in the guest list every acquaintance and
relative, however distant. People, on the other hand,
who entertain more frequently, three or four guests
at a time, keep their parties light and manageable as
a ferryman keeps his boat.

" A way to select among many friends which to
invite is to bear constantly in mind the purpose of

for lightning from this direction, to determine when to " send
the offering to Delphi." Harma is a rock near Phyle in the
Parnes range in northern Attica. Cf. R. E. Wycherley in
Am. Jour. Arch. Ixiii (1959), p. Ixiii.

411



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(679) COS" yap eirl ra? ;^/3etas' ov Trdvras dXXa rovg dpfior-
Tovras iKaarrj TrapaKaXovfjuev, ^ovXevofjuevoL fxev
Tovs <f)povLfjiov� SiKa^ofievoL 8e rovs Xiyovras oltto-
8r)[JiovvT€s Se rovs iXa(j)povs fxdXiora rots piajTLKolg
/cat axoXr)v dyovras, ovrojs €v rals vttoSoxous €/ca-
CTTore TOV9 iTTLrrjSeLOVS TTapaXyjTrreov . €7rtT7^Setot
Se Tip jjiev Tfyepiovo} h€nTvit,ovTi ovvheiTTveiv 61 t
dpxovT€�, idv ajGL (f)iXoL, /cat ol irpchroi rrj? tto-
Xecos' iv Se ydfiOLS t}^ yevedXlots ol Kara yivos
D TTpooriKovres /cat Ato? ofjLoyvtov Koivojvovvres' iv
Se rat? rotaurats" VTroSoxoug -^ iTpOTTopLTTals rovs^
c/cetVots"* fJidXiora K€-)(apiop.ivovs els ravrd ovv-
aKTeov.

" OvBe yap Oecp Ovovres Trdai roZs dXXoLS Beols,
dXXd^ fxdXiura^ ovvvdoLS /cat avfx^wfxoLg Kareyxop-e-
da, /cat' TpLOJV Kparripojv KLpvap^evcov rots jLt^v aTro

TOV 7rp(X)TOV G7T€v8op,€V Tots S' ttTTO TOV SeVTCpOV TOtS"

E S' aTTO rod reXevraiov * (fidovos yap e^oj ^ctou x^P^^
tcrrarat ' • ^etos" 8e ttov /cat o rcav c/iiXajv x^P^^ ^^'
yva)p.6va)9 Siavepiopievog iv rals avpLTTepicjiopals ."

^ So Franke : lyye/idvi.

2 /cat after tj deleted by Hubert.

^ So Vaticanus 1676 : toIs.

* So Bernardakis : eKeivcov.

^ d>Aa added by Hubert, 8e after /xaAiara Reiske.

^ Koi after ixaXiara deleted by Hubert, Reiske, Hutten.

' Koi Hartman, /cat a/xa Reiske : dXXa.



412



TABLE-TALK V. 5, 679

the gathering. For assistance in practical matters
we appeal, not to all our friends, but only to those who
are particularly competent to help. For instance,
when we desire advice, we call upon the wise ; when
we go to law, we summon pleaders ; and for com-
panionship on a journey we look to those who are at
leisure and unburdened by daily cares. It is equally
true that for our parties we must always be careful
to choose the right guests. The right guests for a
banquet in honour of a political leader are public
officials and civic leaders, if they are friends. At wed-
dings and birthday parties, it is relatives, those who
share in the worship of Zeus, Protector of the Family."
In parties like the present one to welcome home a
friend, or else to bid him farewell, the host should
gather together the persons most likely to please the
guest of honour.

" When we sacrifice to a god we do not offer prayers
to all the other gods but to those especially who share
the same temple or altar : having mixed three bowls
of wine,^ we offer a libation out of the first to some
gods, out of the second to others, and out of the last
to still others ; for ' Jealousy has no place in the
choir of the gods.' " Surely the choir of friends, too,
is divine, and can be divided wisely ^ into successive
social gatherings."

� A. B. Cook, Zetis^ Zeus, iii. 963 ; Farnell, Cults of the
Greek States, i, p. 53 with note 95, p. 156.

* Iloscher, Lexikon der griech. und rdm, Mythologie, s.v,
" Heroc," col. 2509.

' Plato, Phaedrus, 247 a.

" Or '* in a spirit of kindness."



413



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

^^"^^^ nPOBAHMA s'

Ti's alria rijs eV dpxfj aT€voxojplas ra)V henrvovvroiv
eld* varepov €vpv)(0}pias

Collocuntur Lamprias avus, alii

'PrjdevTOJV Se rovrwv, evdvg il,r]T€LTO irepl rrjs iv
apxjj orevoxojpias tojv /cara/cet/xeVcov etr' dveoeco?'
ov TOvvavTLov elKos rjv ovfi^alveLV Sia rr]v inl rod
SeLTTVOv TrXripcoaLV . evioi fiev ovv rjfjLOJV to Gxy]p^CL

F TTJs /cara/cAtcjeco? rjTLCovTO- TrXarels yap cL? inLTrav
KaraKeifxivovs ^enrvelvy are St] rrjv he^iav TTporei-
vovras iirl rds" rpaTrit^as- SeLTTV^aavrag S' dvaorpe-
(f)€iv avTovs fJLoiXXov iirl irXevpav, o^ij to axrjjJia
TTOLOvvras rod awfiaro? /cat ovKed^ cos ctVetv /caT*
eTTLTTeSov, dXXd Kara ypafjUfirjv rrjs x^P^^ clttto-
680 jLteVoi;?' axJTrep ovv ol dorpdyaXoL tottov iXdrroj
Karexovoiv dpSol TTiirrovres rj 7TpT]V€LS, ovrcos tj/jlcov
€Kaarov iv dpxfj />t€V iirl arofxa Trpoveveiv diro-
^Xenovra^ TTpog rrjv rpdire^av vorepov Sc pLeraoxr]-
fxartleiv iirl ^ddos e/c irXdrovs rrjv KaraKXioiv .

01 Se iToXXol TT^v ovvivhoaiv rrjs orpcjjpivrjs
7Tpo€(j)€povTO- ^AtjSojLteVT^v yoLp €V rfj KaraKXlaei
TrXarvveodai Kal Siaxojpelvy woTrep tojv inroSr]-
fidrcov rd TptjSo/xeva, Kara puKpov ivLSiSovra^ /cat
XO-Xojvra rols iropoLS, evpvxcoplav rw ttoSI /cat
dva(jrpo(f)r]v Trapexet. 6 Se Trpeo^vrrjs a/xa Trait^cov

B ^v €(f)r] ro avro ovfJLTTOOLOv dvofjLOLOVs €X€iv eTTiord-
ras T€ /cat rjyep^ovas, iv dpxfj fJi€V rov Xipiov w ra)V

^ So Stephanus : dTrojSAeTrovras'.
2 eVStSo'vra Hirschig (" yielding, giving, softening ").
414



TABLE-TALK V. 6, 679-680



QUESTION 6

Why there is lack of space for the diners at the beginning
of a meal and ample space later

Speakers : Grandfather Lamprias and others

Immediately after this discussion, we raised the
question why the space for the diners seems inade-
quate at the beginning of a meal, but later seems
comfortably ample. The very opposite would be ex-
pected because of the effect of the intake of food.
Some of the company sought the explanation in the
position of the diners on the couches ; in general,
each guest, while eating, assumes a posture � almost
flat, since he must stretch his right hand forward to
the table ; but after eating he turns back more upon
his side, forming a sharper angle with the couch and
occupying no longer a flat surface, but merely, one
might say, a line. Just as knucklebones occupy less
space if they come to rest on end instead of flat on
one side, so each of us takes up space at the beginning
of a meal by leaning forward to face the table but
later changes position on the couch so as to occupy
more space vertically than horizontally.

Most of our company, however, found the answer
to the question in the setthng of the cushions as they
are crushed by the weight of the diners ; they flatten
and spread like old shoes that by gradually widening
and becoming roomy because of the porousness of the
material provide space and play for the foot. But
the old gentleman playfully said that one identical
feast has two dissimilar presidents and directors : at
the beginning Hunger, who has nothing to do with

• Resting on the left elbow.

415



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(680) raKTLKcov ovSev ybireoTiv, varepov 8e rov Alovvctov
ov TTavres apiorov yeyovevai Grparrjyov ofJLoXoyov-
(JLV cjGTrep ovv 6 'E7ra/x€tvc6v8a?, et? rtva Sucr;^ai-
piav Tchv GTparriycjv vn aireLpias elo^aXXovrojv^ tyjv
(f)dXayya 7T€pL7TL7TTOvoav eavrfj /cat rapaaoopLivqv^
VTToAa^cov, i^eXvae^ /cat Karearrjcrev ct? rd^LV^ ov~
rojs rjjJLds ev dpxjj GVfi7T€(f)oprj{jL€vov? vtto rov Xifiov
KVvrjSov dpTL TTapaXafjL^dvojv 6 Avalos 9e6? /cat
Xo/oeto? et? rd^LV IXapdv /cat (j>LXdvdpa)7TOV Kad-
Lorr^GLV.

nPOBAHMA Z

Hepl TcHv Kara^aaKatviLV Xeyofxivcov

Collocuntur Mestrius Florus, Plutarchus, Patrocleas,
Soclarus, Caius

C 1. Ilept Tcjv /cara/SaCT/catVetv Xeyoixevcov /cat j3a-
GKavov ex€LV ocjidaXpLov ifjLTreGovro? Xoyov Trapd Sel-

TTVOV OL fl€V dXXoL TTavrdlTaGLV i^€(f)XaVpL^OV* TO

TTpdyjjia /cat KareyeXcov 6 8' €Gtl6jv vfJids MeW/ato?
^Xojpog €(f)rj rd fiev yiyvofieva rfj (f>rjfJir] davjJLaGrayg
^orjOelUf Tw S* atrtas" diTopeZv dTTLGrelGdaL rrjv lgto-
piav, ov St/catcos", ottov fivplcov ijJLcfyavrj rr)v ovoiav
ixovTOJV 6 TTJs alrias Xoyos rjfJids Sia7re<^€uy€V.

^ ela^aXovTcov Palatinus 170, Turnebus.

^ So Palatinus, Vulcobius : KarapaaaofjJvTjv " broken."

^ e'^e'Aeucre most Mss. including E, " stoned " (?).

* So Turnebus : €^€(f>\va.pit,ov.

" Dionysus's military expeditions " all over the world " are
cited in Diodorus Siculus, iii. 64. 6.

'' For details of the expedition against Alexander of Phe-
rae, which is probably referred to here, see Diodorus Siculus,
XV. 71. 5 if . During a battle on level ground the losing and
desperate troops made Epaminondas general.

416



TABLE-TALK V. 6-7, 680

military tactics, but later Dionysus, whom all admit
to be an excellent general." Epaminondas once
found that the generals had because of inexperience
led the army into a difficult ^ position where it was
thrown into complete confusion and disorder ; he
took charge, disentangled it, and reformed the ranks.
Just so, we who at the beginning of dinner were all
demoralized by hunger like a pack of yelping hounds,
have now been taken in hand by Dionysus, the
Releaser and Choral Leader, and reduced to a cheer-
ful and sociable co-ordination.



QUESTION 7
On those who are said to cast an evil eye "

Speakers : Mestrius Florus, Plutarch, Patrocleas,
Soclarus, Gaius

1 . Once at dinner a discussion arose about people who
are said to cast a spell and to have an evil eye. While
everybody else pronounced the matter completely
silly and scoffed at it, Mestrius Florus,<* our host,
declared that actual facts lend astonishing support to
the common belief. Yet the reports of such facts are
commonly rejected because of the want of an explana-
tion ; but this is not right, in view of the thousands
of other cases of indisputable fact in which the logical
explanation escapes us.*

� On the whole subject see RE, s.v. " Fascinum."

'^ See above, i. 9, 626 e, and ill. 3, 650 a ; the prominent

Roman to whom Plutarch seems to have owed his Roman

citizenship and his Roman name.

� Similarly Themistocles at 626 f and Agemachus at

664 c defend acceptance of unexplained facts. Cf. Septem

Sapientium Convivium, 20 (LCL Mor. ii, 163 d).

VOL. VIII P 4>17



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(680) " "OAcos" S\" elirev, "o ^7]t6jv ev iKaorco to ev-

Xoyov e/c ttolvtcov avaipeZ to dav^doiov ottov yap

J) 6 rrjg atrta? eTTtAetVet Aoyos", eKcldev dpX€Tat to

(XTTOpelv, TOVTeGTL TO <^LXoaO(f)€LV (x)(JT€ TpOTTOV TIVCL

(f)LXoGO(f)iav dvaipovoLV ol toZs davfjuaoLOLS olttl-
OTOvvTes. Set S'/' e^i^, " to fxev hid tl yuyveTai tco
Xoyo) jLteTtevat/ to S' OTt ylyveTai irapd ttjs lgto-
pias XapL^dveiv. luTopeiTai he TroAAa^ ToiavTa-
yiyvcjGKOixev yap dvOpcairovs Tip KaTa^XlireiV Ta
TTaihia jxdXiOTa ^XdnTOVTa?, vypoTr^TL ttjs c^ews
Kal dodeveia TpeTTOfjLevrjs vtt* auTOjy /cat KLVovfievrjs
€7tI to ^elpov, rJTTov he tcov GTepecov /cat TTeirr^yoTCxiV
7]hr] TOVTO 7Tao-)(6vTOJV . /catTot Tovs ye irepl tov
IlovTOV OLKovvTag TTCtAat �t/Set?^ TTpooayopevo-
fjLevovs loTopel ^vXap-)(os ov Traihiois p,6vov dXXd
/cat TeXeloLS oXedplovs etvat* /cat yap to ^Xefifia
E /cat TTjv dvanvorjv /cat tt^v hidXeKTOv avToJv rrapa-
hexopievovs TrjKeodai /cat voaelv rjodovTO h* cLg
eoLKe TO yiyvopievov ol paydhes* ot/ceVa? eKeWev
(hviovs e^dyovTes. dXXd tovtcov to pikv 'locos
TjTTOv eoTi davpLaoTOV T] yap e7Tacf)'rj /cat crvvavd-
Xpojois €X€L TLvd (fiaivopuevrjv irddovs apx^iv, /cat
Kaddirep TCt tojv aAAcov dpvecDV TTTepd toZs tov
deTov ovvTeSevTa hioXXvTai ifjiq^dpieva^ /cat diravdeZ

^ So Anonymus, Reiske : fierelvai.

2 T begins again with this word.

^ @L^€Ls or Sl^lovs Xylander, Salmasius, cf. Hesychius,
Stephanus of Byzantium, PUny the Elder : Q-n^fls.

* fiiydBas Valesius: "by those who brought half-Greek
slaves ..."

^ So Doehner : tpvxofieva.

� Wonder is the origin of philosophy, according to Plato^
418



TABLE-TALK V. 7, 680

" In general," he went on, " the man who demands
to see the logic of each and every thing destroys the
wonder in all things. Whenever the logical explana-
tion for anything eludes us, we begin to be puzzled,
and therefore to be philosophers .<* Consequently, in
a way, those who reject marvels destroy philosophy.
The right method," he maintained, " is to search out
the reason for facts by means of logic, but to take the
facts themselves as they are recorded. Now, many
instances of such unexplained phenomena as the evil
eye are on record. We know, for instance, of persons
who seriously hurt children by looking at them, in-
fluencing and impairing their susceptible, vulnerable
constitutions, but who are less able to affect in this
way the firm and established health of older persons.
And yet the so-called Thibaeans,^ who anciently
lived near the Pontus, were, according to Phylarchus,*'
deadly not only to children but to adults. He says
that those who were subjected to the glance, breath,
or speech of these people, fell ill and wasted away, a
phenomenon apparently observed by the half-Greeks
who brought slaves for sale from there. Now, one
element in this story will hardly surprise anyone, for
obviously enough an attack of illness may be due to
contact and infection. When the feathers of other
birds are put together with those of eagles, they rub
against them and are destroyed through putre-

TheaetetuSy 155 d ; cf. especially Aristotle, Metaphysics^ 982
b 12, in a discussion of the relation between causation (aitia)
or logical explanation and knowledge.

*� Phylarchus in Jacoby, Frag. Griech. Historiker^ 81 f 79
a ; for more about this mythical people see Stephanus of
Byzantium, s.v. " Thibais," and Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 2. 17.

* Historian of the 3rd century b.c. See RE^ Suppl. viii,
cols. 471-489.

419



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(680) rcov tttlXojv fivSa)vrojv , ovrcog ovSev dnex^L /cat

dv6p(x)7TOV ipavGLV rrjv fxev (hcfyiXijiov elvai rrjv 8*

F d7T7]V'rj Kal ^Xa^epdv to Se kol 7Tpoop\e(f)devra?

dSLKeladaL avfJU^aiveL [xev (LoTrep €ip7]Ka, to) 8e rrjv

alriav ex^iv hvodriparov dTnGrelraL."

2. " Kat jU-T^v," €<f>iqv eyo), " rpoirov rivd rrjg
alrias avrog^ t'x^'o? "T"! Kal rpi^ov dvevprjKag, ctti
TO,? dnoppoias tcjv oojixdrojv dcjiLKOfxevos' Kal yap
T) oGfJir] Kal 7] (ffcovrj Kal to pevfjLa rrjs dvaTTVorjg
diTo^opai TLves ^Iol rcov ^cocuv Kal fxipT) Kivovvra
rds alodrioeis y orav vtt* avrcov TTpooireoovrcjjv nd-
681 BiOGL. TToXv Se fxdXXov clkos ecrri tojv l^cpcov diro-
(j)€p€odaL rd TOiavra 8id ttjv OepfjLorrjTa Kal ttjv
KLVTjGLV, olovei TLva o(j)vyix6v Kal kXovov exovros
rod TTvevfiaros, V(f)^ ov to acofia Kpovofievov ivSe-
XexdJs e/c77e/x7r€t Ttvas" diroppoias . fidXiora he rovro
yiyveodai Sta ra)v o(f)daXfxa)v et/cds" cgtu' ttoXvklvt^-
Tos yap Tj oipLS ovaa fjuerd Trvevfiaros avyrjv^ d^i-
evTOS TTVpwSr) davfJLaarTjv riva hiaoTreipei Svvafiiv,
ware TroXXd Kal Trao^etv Kal TTOielv St* avrrjs rov
dvdpiOTTOV. rjSovalg re yap GViipierpois Kal drjSuaLS
V7t6 rcov oparcov rpeirofievos avvexerai.

" Kat rojv epcorLKOJV, a 8r] fxeyiara Kal o<f)ohp6-
^ So Xylander : avTols. ^ So Turnebus : avrrjv.

"■ The Greek here seems pleonastic, unless TrrtAa can
refer to the barbs or vane of a feather.

^ A similar device for building up a discussion is used
above in iv. 2. 2, 664 d.

'^ Empedocles, frag. 89 (Diels) : there are effluences from
all things. Cf. Democritus's e?8a>Aa below at 682 f f. The
present reference is to 680 e, above.

^ For emanations and the circumstances which favour their
reception see below, viii, 734 f ff. ( =Democritus, a 77 Diels,
and Epicurus, 326 Usener). Cf. also Lucretius's example of

420



TABLE-TALK V. 7, 680-681

faction." Just so, there is no reason to doubt that
contact between human beings may prove in some
cases beneficial and in others rough and harmful. It
also does happen sometimes, as I have said, that
people are injured by a mere look ; but because the
reason is hard to track down, the fact is not believed."

2. " Indeed," I answered, " in a way you yourself
have found the track and trail of the reason ^ at the
point where you came to effluences <' from bodies.
For odour, voice, and breathing are all emanations of
some kind, streams of particles from living bodies,
that produce sensation whenever our organs of sense
are stimulated by their impact. Living bodies are,
because of their warmth and motion,** far more likely
in reason to give off these particles than are inanimate
bodies, inasmuch as breathing produces a certain
pulsation and turmoil whereby the body is struck
and emits a continuous stream of emanations. In
all probability the most active stream of such emana-
tions is that which passes out through the eye. For
vision, being of an enormous swiftness and carried by
an essence * that gives off a flame-like brilliance,
diffuses a wondrous influence. In consequence, man
both experiences and produces many effects through
his eyes. He is possessed and governed by either
pleasure or displeasure exactly in proportion to what ,
he sees. i \

" Vision provides access to the first impulse to love, ^

the lion terrified by the emanations from the cock, De Rer. /

Nat. iv. 712 ff. ^

• Pneuma : " Something midway between the material
and the spiritual " (Parke and Wormell, Delphic Oracle, i, p.
23). Cf. the prophetic pneuma and other effluences in Plu-
tarch, De Defectu Orac. 432 d ff . ; and Milton's "bright
effluence of bright essence increate " in Paradise Lost, iii. 6.

421



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(681) „, .... , , , „,

-D rara Traurj/jLara ttjs ^^vxV^ earLV, apx^^ V oj/fis"

ivhi^ojGLV, woT€ p€LV Kal Xei^eodai rov ipojTLKov,

orav ifji^XeTrrj rots /caAot?, olov eKx^oixevov^ ctV

avTov?. 8l6 Kal davixaoeiev av ris ot/xat /xaAicrra

Tihv Trdax^LV^ /xev Kal KaKovadaL tov dvOpconov 8id

rrjs oi/jeojs olopiivcjjv, ovkItl he 8pdv Kal jSAaTrretv.

at yap avn^Xei/jeis rcjv iv wpa Kal to hid tojv

OflfldrCOV €K7TLTTTOVy clV dpa (f)CJS €tT€ peV/JLa, TOV?

ipcovTas iKT7]K€t^ Kal aTToXXvoi fjLed^ r)8ovrjg dXyr]-
86vL piepLLypLevrjs, tjv avTol yXvKVTriKpov dvopidt^ov-

OLV OVT€ yap dTTTOpiivOlS OVT dKOVovaiv ovtoj

C TLTpcjOKeodai ovp.^aiv€L Kal 7rao-;^€tv, cos" vpoG^Xc-
TTOfJLevoLg /cat iTpoG^XeTrovcji. ToiavTrj yap ytyvcrat
SidSoGLS Kal dvd<j)Xe^is diro ttj? oijjeojs, cocrre rravTe-
AcDs" direipdTovs epojTos rjyelodai tovs tov MtjSlkov
vd(f)6av davpidl^ovTas €k Stacm^jLtaros' vtto tov irvpos
dvacfiXeyopLevov at yo/a Tiov KaXcov oj/fet?, Kav irdvu
TTOppcodev dvTtjSAeTrojCTt/ Trvp iv rat? tcjv ipcoTLKCov

i/jVXClIs dvdTTTOVGLV .

" Kat pi-r^v TO ye TOiV LKTepiKWV Po'^dr]jjLa ttoX-
Aa/cis" lGTopovp,ev ipL^XdirovTes yap tw ;^apa8ptaj
depaTrevovTat' rotaurryv eot/ce to l,a>ov <I>vglv Kal

^ So Wyttenbach : ipxoyi^vov.

^ So Stephanus : aroLxeiv.

^ So Reiske, cf. Psellus : ivrrJKei,.

* So Reiske, cf. Psellus : avn^Xeipwai.

<• Sappho, frag. 81 (LCL Lyra Graeca, vol. i, p. 238).

'' Strabo cites Eratosthenes as saying that naphtha is found
in Susis (xvi. 1. 15, p. 743) ; see also RE^ s.v. " Asphalt," col.
1729. Plutarch describes a test of " naphtha " which cruelly
burned a lad who accompanied Alexander to Babylon, in
Life of Alexander^ xxxv. 1-5. This is reported also by Strabo.

" Cf. the scholium on Plato's Gorgias, 494 b, quoting

422



V



TABLE-TALK V. 7, 681

that most powerful and violent experience of the soul,
and causes the lover to melt and be dissolved when
he looks at those who are beautiful, as if he were
pouring forth his whole being towards them. For
this reason, we are entitled, I think, to be most sur-
prised at anyone who believes that, while men are
passively influenced and suffer harm through their
eyes, they yet should not be able to influence others
and inflict injury in the same way. The answering
glances of the young and the beautiful and the stream
of influence from their eyes, whether it be light or a
current of particles, melts the lovers and destroys
them, amid pleasure commingled with pain, a pleasure
that they themselves call * bittersweet.' " Neither
by touch nor by hearing do they suffer so deep a
wound as by seeing and being seen. Such are the
diffusion of effluences and the kindling of passion
through eyesight that only those unacquainted with
love itself could, in my judgement, be astonished at
the natural phenomenon that takes place when
Median naphtha ^ catches fire at a distance from a
flame. The glances of the beautiful kindle fire, even
when returned from a great distance, in the souls of
the amorous.

" Then again, we are often told about the remedy
used to help sufferers from jaundice, who are cured
by looking at a plover.^ The nature and bodily tem- j

perament of this bird is apparently such that it draws ^

Hipponax 48 (Diehl) : plovers were sold with their heads
covered to prevent loss of their commercial value. " Plover "
is now the common identification of the charadrios, but others
have been suggested, e.g., the golden oriole ; some yellow or
partly yellow bird would seem natural in the context. See
Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxx. 28. 94 on the " jaundice-bird." See
also Additional Note, on p. 516.

423



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(681) Kpdaiv €X€LV, wad^ cXkclv Kal hex^odai ro TrdOog

eKVLTTTOVy^ wGTTep pevfjia, Slol rrjg oi/jecos' oOev ov

TTpoo^XirrovGiv ol ^apahpLol rovg rov LKrepov €)(ov-

D ras ov8e KaprepovGLV, aAA' aTrooTpe<j)ovrai /cat ra

ojjLfxara ovyKXetoavreg exovacv, ov (f)dovovvT€g , ws

eViOi VO/JLL^OVGL, TTJ? O/U aUTcDv loLGeCOS aAA' 60(7776/3

VTTO rrXriyrjS TLTpcoGKOfjievoL. rcov 8' dXXcov voGTjpid-
Tojv pLoXiGra Kol rdxiora rds o^OaXpLias dvaXapi-
^dvovGLV ol Gvvovres' ovrco SvvapiLv ^x^i o^elav tj
oijjis ivSovvat Kal TTpOG^aXeiv irepco TrdOovs dpxriv."
3. " Kat p.dX\" €(f)r], " Xlyeis opOcos," 6 Ylarpo-
KXeas, '* iiTL ye rcov GcofjLariKCJV rd 8e rrjg ^XV^'
(Lv ion Kal to ^aGKaiveiv, riva rpoirov Kal ttco?
Sid rrj� oipeojs tt^v pXd^rjv els rov? opcopievovs
SiahihcoGiv ; " " ovk olg6^ ," e(f)rjv, " on irdoxovG*
7) ipvx'T} TO Ga)p,a GVvS caT Idr] G LV ; eTrlvoiai yap
d<f)po8LGLa>v eyeipovGLV alSola, Kal dvpiol kvvcov ev
E rats' TTpos ra diqpia yiyvopuevaLS dpiXXais dTTOG^ev-
vvovGL ras" opdoeis voXXdKi? Kal tv^Xovgl, XvTrai
he Kal <f>LXapyvpiai Kal tpriXoTVTriai ra ;Ypa)jLtaTa
TpeiTOVGLV Kal KaTa^aivovGL ra? e^eis' cov ovSevos
6 (j)66vos rJTTOV evSveodai ttj i/jvxfj Tre^vKCJS dva-
TripLTrXrjGL Kal to Gcopia TTOvrjplas, rjv ol ^coypdcfyoi

KaXcJS eTTLX^lpOVGLV dTTOpLipielGd ai TO TOV (j)66vov
TTpOGCOTTOV VTTOypd^OVTeS . OTaV OVV OVTCOS VTTO TOV

(l)dovelv Stare^eVres"^ direpeidaiGi Tds difjeis, at S*

eyyiGTa reray/xeVat tt^? ijjvx'^S GTrdoaGai^ ttjv

KaKiav cjGTTep 7Te<j>appLaypieva ^eXr] ttpogttltttcjgiv,

F ovhev ot/xat GvpL^aivei TrapdXoyov oOS' diriGToVy el

^ So Xylander : €kXlittov. Bernardakis eKXenrrov with E
(" shed," from ActjSw).
424



TABLE-TALK V. 7, 681

out and takes to itself the affliction, which passes Uke
a stream through the eyes of the patient. Con-
sequently, plovers cannot bear to face people who are
afflicted with jaundice, but turn away and keep their
eyes closed, not because they begrudge the effect of
their healing power, as some think, but because they
are wounded thereby, as if by a blow. Finally,
diseases of the eye are more contagious to those
exposed and more instantaneously so than other
diseases, so penetrating and swift is the power of
the eye to admit or communicate disease."

3. " You are indeed right," said Patrocleas, " so far
as the physiological effects go. But as regards the
psychical, including the casting of spells, how pre-
cisely can harm spread to others by a mere glance
of the eye ? " I answered : '* Don't you know that
the body is sympathetically affected when the mind
is subjected to any influence ? Amorous thoughts
will excite the sexual organs ; the frenzy of hounds
in their struggle with their prey often dims their
sight and even blinds them ; and pain, greed for
gold, or jealousy will cause a man to change colour,
and wear away his health. Envy, which naturally
roots itself more deeply in the mind than any other
passion, contaminates the body too with evil. This
is the morbid condition that artists well attempt to
render when painting the face of envy. When those
possessed by envy to this degree let their glance fall
upon a person, their eyes, which are close to the mind
and draw from it the evil influence of the passion,
then assail that person as if with poisoned arrows ;
hence, I conclude, it is not paradoxical or incredible

* So Aldine edition : btanOevres.
' So Meziriacus : airdaooai.

VOL, VIII p* 425



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(681) KLVovGi^ rovs irpooopcj^lvovs' /cat yap ra h-qyixara
T(hv Kvvcjv ■)^aX€7r(xiTepa ylyverai, ixer opyrjg 8aKv6v-
Tiov, Kol TO. OTrepjxaTa tojv dvdpwTrcvv fjidXXov dnre-
odai <f>aoLV orav epwvres TrXrjuLd^ajaL, /cat oAco? rd
Trddrj rd rrj? ^f^^? eTTippcLvvvoi /cat Troiet a(f)o8po-
repas rds rod craj/xaTOS" SwdfieLS. Sto /cat to tcov
XeyofxevcDV Trpo^auKaviajv yivos otovrat irpds rov
682 (j)66vov (hcjyeXelv eA/co/xeVi^s" 3ia Tr]V droTriav Trjg
6ijj€OJs, ojod^ rjTTov eTTepelSeiv rols Trd^xovcnv. av-
rai Goiy* eliTov, " c5 ^Xa)p€, ovfi^oXal rrjs euaj;^ta?
dTTripiOfiriGdcxjGav ."

4. Kat o Sco/cAapos", " dv y'," ^4*V* " "^pdrepov
rjfJieLS avrd^ 8o/ct/xacrct>/Lt€V ecrrt yap o rt tou Aoyou
Karacfyaiverai kl^StjXov. et yap a Aeyouat TroAAot
Trept rcov /SacT/catvo/xeVcuv cos" dX7]6rj Tidefxev, ovk
dyvoeZs ^rjirovdev on /cat (j>iXovs /cat oIk€lovs, evioi
he /cat Trarepas €;\;etv 6(f)daXixdv ^doKavov VTroXafx-
pdvovdiVy a)GTe fXTj Set/cvvVat ra? ywat/ca? aurot?
B TO, TTaihia jjLrjSe ttoXvv idv xpovov vtto rojv toiovtcov
Kara^XeTTeadaf ttcos ovv €Tl 86^€l (f)d6vov to irddos
elvai; ri S', a> Trpos" tou Ato?, cpets" Trcpt tcDv iav-
rovs /caTajSaCT/catvetv XeyofjLevojv ; /cat ydp tout'
aKrJKoas' et Se /xt}, Trdvrajs Tavr dveyvojKas'

^ ei KivovoL Meziriacus : eKeivovs o.
^ aura? Viilcobius, Reiske.

" Here again, a device comparable to iv. 2, 664 d : " I do
426



TABLE-TALK V. 7, 681-682

that they should have an effect on the persons who
encounter their gaze. The bite of dogs too is more
dangerous when they are angry ; and it is said that
in human beings the sperm is more likely to lay hold
and cause conception when union is accompanied by
love. In general, the emotions of the mind increase
the violence and energy of the body's powers. What
I have said shows why the so-called amulets are
thought to be a protection against malice. The
strange look of them attracts the gaze, so that it
exerts less pressure upon its victim. Count this,
Florus, as my contribution toward the expense of the
entertainment." "

4. " Very well," Soclarus replied, " if and when we
accept it as good coin, for I detect something counter-
feit in the argument. If we do set down as true what
many say about victims of the evil eye, surely you
are not ignorant that some people believe that
friends and relatives, and in some cases even fathers,
have the evil eye, so that their wives will not show
them their children nor allow the children to be
gazed upon by them for very long,^ How under those
circumstances can we still believe that this affliction
derives from envy ? And in Heaven's name what will
you say about those who are alleged to bewitch them-
selves ? You must have heard of that. If not, at any
rate you have read these lines ^ :

not wish to make you pay for the truffles " ; and to iv. 4, 668
D : " this is my contribution to you and the fishmongers."
See also iii. 1. 2, 646 e.

" Compare the Polish father who blinded himself to pro-
tect his children against his evil eye, and other examples from
Ireland, Naples, and Egypt in Encyc. Brit.., 11th ed., s.v.
" Evil Eye," pp. 21 f.

" Euphorion, frag. 175 (Powell, Collectanea Alexandrina),

427



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(682) KaXal [xev ttot ecrav, KaXal^ <^ojSat EureAtSao*
dAA' avTov^ ^doKaivev^ ISdjv dAo^cotos" dvrjp
hivTj €V TTorafMov*' Tov 3' avTLKa vovGos deiKijs —

o yap EureAtSas" Xeyerai, /caAo? iavrco ^avets" Kal

TTadoiV TL^ TTpOS TTjV OljjLV, €K TOVTOV VOGTJGaL Kal

rrjv eve^lav fxerd r-^S" a)pas diro^aXelv. aXX 6 pa
TTOJg e'x^iS" evpiqoiXoyias irpog ra? roiavras dro-
TTta?."

5. " "AAAco? fidv," e^iqv,^ " ov jxdX iKavujg- ttl-

C V6t�v S* CO? opas iK rrjs TTjXiKavrrjS kvXlkos, ovk
droXiJLCos Xeyoj Slotl rd pikv irddj] Trdvra, rat?
ipvxoLLS ifjifxeLvavTa ttoXvv xpdvov, e^et? evepydl^erai
TTOvTjpds- avrat 8\ orav loxvv (f>VG€OJS Xd^ojOLV,
VTTO rrjg tvxovgtj? Kivovjjievai 7rpo(f)do€a)S, ttoX-
XdKLS Kal CLKOvrag irrl rd otKela Kal ouvrjOr] Kara-
(f)€povGL Trddr]. OKOirei he rovs SeiXovs on Kal rd
Gcp^ovra (jyopovvraL, Kal rovs opyiXovs on Kal tols
(juXrdrois hvoKoXaivovai , Kal rovs ipojTiKovs Kal
aKoXdoTovs on reXevTCJvres ovSe tcov dyLCordrojv
direx^-GOai hvvavrai ocopidrcov. tj ydp ovvqdeia
Scivt) TTpds TO OLKeXov i^dyeiv Tr]v SidOeGLV, Kal tov

D dKpoo<j)aXa)s exovTa irdoi TTpooTTTaUiv dvdyKT] toIs

V7T07TL7TTOVGLV. OiGT OVK d^lOV OaVfxd^eLV TOVS

TTjV (f)dovrjTLK'r]v Kal ^aGKavTLKrjv direipyaGp^ivovs i
€v iavTois €^t,v, el Kal irpos ra oiKela /cara ttjv tov I
irddovs ISioTTjTa KLVOvvTar KLVovfxevoL S' ovtojs o
7Te<j>vKaGiv ovx o ^ovXovTat ttolovglv, oj? ydp rj

^ KoXai Meineke, Emperius : Kal.
2 So Xylander : aurov.
^ So Turnebus : ^aaKalveiv.

* SivT] €v TTOTa/Aou Xylandcr, 8ivq€iTt, pow Reiske, Sii'tJi't' cV
TToraficp Powell : BivTJevri, Trorafico.

428



TABLE-TALK V. 7, 682

Fair once were, fair indeed the tresses of Eutelidas ;
But he cast an evil spell on himself, that baneful man.
Beholding self in river's eddy ; and straight the fell di-
sease . . .

The legend is that Eutelidas, beautiful in his own
estimation, being affected by what he saw, fell sick
and lost his beauty with his health. See if you have
the ingenuity to account for extraordinary phenomena
like that."

5. " Well," I replied, " I haven't enough other-
wise ; but since I'm drinking out of this big cup, as
you see, I have the boldness to say that all emotions,
after having been a long time in the mind, produce
evil conditions. These evil conditions, when they
acquire the force of second nature, will under any
chance stimulus cause a relapse, even against the
person's will, into the habitual and familiar emotion.
Consider how the cowardly are afraid even of things
that would save their lives, and how the irascible are
peevish toM'ards even their dearest friends, and how
the lustful and licentious end by being unable to
refrain from assaulting the most sacred persons.
Habit is powerful to influence disposition according
to a set pattern, and it is inevitable that a man prone
to lapse will trip over every temptation that falls in
his way. Accordingly there is no reason for surprise
if those who have brought themselves into a state of
envy and malignity are activated even against their
near and dear as befits their special pathological
condition. In these circumstances they are acting as
their nature but not as their will directs. As a

^ rradwv ti Basel edition : -nadov Tt(?) T, iradovri, E.

* So Vulcobius, Xylander : €<f>r).

' ov Wyttenbach : /cat.

429



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(682) G<f)atpa KLveluOai G^aipLKO)? /cat KvXivhpiKOJS 6
KvXivSpos dvayAca^erai Kara rrjv rod o-)(r]piaTos
hia<j)opav y ovTCos rov^ (f)dov€p6v r) Stddecns cf)9o-
vrjTLKCog TTpos airavra Kivel. ov fxrjv dXXa /cat
/carajSAeVetv^ et/co? ccrriv avTov9 rd OLKela /cat
TToOovfjieva ixdXXov Sio /cat ^XdirrovuL {JidXXov.
" '0 Se ^eArto-ros" RvreXiSas^ /cat oaoi Xeyovrai

E Kara^auKaiveiv iavrovs ovk dXoycxJS fxoi Sokovgl
TOVTO irdox^i'V. G(f)aXep6v ydp rj en aKpov eve^la
Kara rdv 'iTTTTOKpdrrjv, /cat rd GWfJLara irpoeX-
dovra liixP^ "^V^ a/cpa? dKfxrjg ovx €Grr]K€V, dXXd
p€7r€L /cat TaAavreuerat Trpo? rovvavriov orav ovv
€7t18oglv ddpoav Xd^ojGi /cat* ^eXriov r^ irpoGe-
hoKcov e^ovras iavrovs iTTi^XirrcxJGLV, ujGre davfid-
Jctv /cat KaraGK07T€iv rd crcD/xa, ttJ? jjLerapoXrj?
eyyvs cIgl /cat ^cpojLtevot rat? €^€gl irpos rd ;^etpov
iavrovs Sokovgl^ /carajSacr/catVetv. rovro 8e yiy-
verai puaXXov aTTO rwv irpds vhaGiv tj riGiv aAAot?
eGOTTrpoLS ixfuGrafJLevojv pevfidrcov dvaTTvel ydp

F €7r' avrovs rovs opojvras, wgO^ ols irepovs e^Xan-
rov, avrovs /ca/coucr^at . rovro S' Igojs /cat rrepl rd
TTaihia yiyvopievov KaraifjevSerai TroAAa/ci? rrjv
alriav rcbv ivopcjvrojv."

6. 'EjLtou Se TTavGapiivov , rato? o ^Xojpov
yapL^poSf " roiv hi. Ar^jjiOKpirov/' e^^i], " etScoAajv,
WGTTep Alyiictjv 'q Meyapeojv, dpidpLos ovSels ov8e

^ ovToj after t6v deleted by Reiske.

^ So Wyttenbach : KaTa^Xd-rrTeiv E, KaTaj3A(a)7r(T)ea' T with
erasures. E lacks the last clause hi6 . . . /la/Uov.
3 o before koI deleted by Meziriacus.
* Koi added by Turnebus, \^ulcobius.
^ hoKovai, added by Xylander, Wyttenbach.

430



TABLE-TALK V. 7, 682

sphere by its distinctive shape is forced to roll like a
sphere, and a cylinder like a cylinder, so a man whose
disposition is envious has to act in an envious manner
in all things. Besides, it is natural for him to cast his
gaze oftener on those near and dear to him and
consequently to hurt them more than he does others.

" To my mind it seems reasonable enough that the
excellent Eutelidas and all others who are said to
have cast a spell on themselves should have encoun-
tered such a misfortune. For supreme good health is,
according to Hippocrates," precarious. When the
body reaches the pinnacle of health, it does not
remain there, but wavers and sinks towards the oppo-
site condition. Therefore, when people experience a
complete improvement in health and find themselves
better off than they had expected, they marvel and
look closely at themselves ; but actually they are now
near a reversal, and when their condition takes a sud-
den turn for the worse, they are thought to have put
themselves under a spell. Self-bewitchment is most
frequently brought about by the streams of particles
reflected from sheets of water or other mirror-like
surfaces ; these reflections rise like vapour and
return to the beholder, so that he is himself injured
by the same means by which he has been injuring
others. And perhaps when this happens in the case
of children, the blame is often wrongly fastened upon
those who gaze at them."

6. When I had finished, Florus's son-in-law Gaius
asked, " What, do we completely despise and leave
out of account the simulacra or shapes of Democritus,^
as the oracle of old left out the people of Aegium or

" Aphorisms, i. 3 ; and Celsus, ii. 2.
" Democritus, A 77 (Diels).

431



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(682) X6yo� ; d (J)r]aLV eKelvos i^iivai rovs (f)dovovvTas ,
683 ovT aiadnquecjg dfjLoipa TravraTTaoiv ovd^ opfJLrjs,
OLvdirXed re rrjs drro rwv TrpoXefievcov iio')(diqpias
Koi ^aoKavias i fieO^ rjs e/XTrAacrcro/xeva Kal rrapa-
pievovra /cat ovvoiKovvra rots ^aaKaLVOfievoLs iiri-
rapdrreiv koL KaKOVV avrcjv to t€ Gcofia Kal rrjv
SidvoLav ovTCos yap otpbal ttojs tov dvhpa rfj ho^ji,
rfj Se Ae^et Sat/xovtcas" Xeyecv Kal pLeyaXoTrpenaJS ."

Hdw {jL€V ovVy" €(j)rjv, " dXXd davpLdl,a), ttcos
eXaOov vpids ovSev dXXo rd)v pevpidrcjv tovtojv rj
TO epufjvxov d^eAcov /cat irpoaiperiKov Iva piT) /xe
So^T]T€ TToppco vvKTwv ovuiv^ vpXv eirdyovTa <f>da-
piara Kal etSatXa TreTTwpilva Kal ^povovvra p^op-
B pioXvrreGdai Kal Siarapdrreiv. ewdev ovv, idv

SOKTJ, 776/31 TOVTCjOV GK€lpCl)pL€da."



nPOBAHMA H

Ata TL TTjV fjiT]Xiav " dyXaoKapnov" 6 7roir]T^s eiTrev, 'E/HTreSoKATys
8' " VTTcp^Xoia" ^ ra fx-fjXa

Collocuntur Trypho, Pliitarchus, grammatici, Lamprias avus

1. 'EoTtco/xevcov r)picov ttot iv Xat/oojveta /cat
TTapareOelarjg TravroSaTri^s OTTiLpag, inrjXde tlvl rdjv
KaraKeipiivojv dvacf)6ey^aodaL rov gtlxov eKeivov

C ovKeat re yXvKepal Kal pLrjXeai dyXaoKapTtoi

^ So Reiske : ovaiov.
2 So Basel edition : vTT€p<f>vd.

" This is proverbial (Lentsch und Schneidewin, Paroe-
miogr. Graec. i, p. 19), based on an oracle delivered either to
Megara or to Aegium, informing them that they were no-
where in the reckoning. Aegium is a city of Achala on the

432



TABLE-TALK V. 7-8, 682-683

Megara ? " Democritus says that these simulacra are
emanations emitted not altogether unconsciously or
unintentionally by the malevolent, and are charged
with their wickedness and envy. According to him,
these simulacra with their burden of evil, adhering to
their victims and in fact permanently lodged in them,
confound and injure both their bodies and their
minds. So, I believe, runs his text and his intention,
expressed in language both lofty and inspired."

I answered, " Quite true, but I wonder how it
escaped you that the only things that I denied to the
emanations were life and free will. Don't think that
I want to make your flesh creep and throw you into
a panic late at night like this by bringing on sentient,
purposeful shapes and apparitions. Let's talk about
such things in the morning, if you like." ^



QUESTION 8

Why Homer speaks of the apple tree as " splendid in its
fruit " and Empedocles calls apples hyperphloia

Speakers : Tryphon, Plutarch, scholars, Grandfather
Lamprias

1. Once when we were banqueting at Chaeronea,
autumn fruit of every sort had been set before us, and
it occurred to one of the company to recite that
famous line,"

Both sweet fig trees and apple trees splendid in their fruit,

Corinthian Gulf. (See Parke and Wormell, Delphic Oracle,
ii, p. 1.)

" To such scholars as Hubert and Hartman this last state-
ment would seem more appropriate if placed next to the
rhetimata associated with mirrors on the preceding page.

" A combination of parts of Odyssey, vii, lines 115 and 116.

433



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(683) icat " cAatat rr^XedocoaaL." Iprjrriois ovv tJv, Sia
Tt ras fJLTjXeas 6 TTOLTjrrjg " dyXaoKapTrovs " ef-
aipercos TTpooeiTrev. kol Tpvcjxxjv fxev 6 larpos e-
Acye /caret tt^v Trpos" to SevSpov elprjodai ovyKpLOLv,
OTL fjLLKpov 6v KOjjLiSfj Kal TTjv oi/jLV cwTeAes" KaXov
Kal fjieyav €K(f)€pei rov Kapirov. aAAo? he tls €<f)r]
TO KaXov €K Trdvrcov avvredev^ fxavcp tovto) ra)V
CLKpoSpvcov opdv V7Tdp)(ov' Kal yap rrjv ifjavoiv e;^et
KaddpLov,^ cocrre fir] fioXvveLV dAA' cucoSta? dva-
TTifiTrXdvat Tov aTrropievov , Kal rrjv yevoiv rjSelav,
oo^paiveodai re Kal IheZv irrLrepTreorarov iarL'
D 8l6 Kal irdoas opiov tl rd? alad'qcreLg TrpoGayofievov
eLKOTOJS €7TaiV€lodaL.

2. Tavra fxev ovv €<f>aiJL€v 'qp.els fierplcjos Xeye-
odaL' TOV S* 'E/ATrcSo/cAcous" clprjKOTOs

ovv€K€v oiplyovoi T€ GiSaL Kal V7rip<j)Xoia /x^Aa,

TO pL€V TCOV GiScbv CTTt^CTOV VOelv OTL TOV (f)dlVO-

TTWpov Ar^yovTo? rjSrj Kal rcDi^ KavfidTcov ptapaivo-
fjieva>v iK7T€TTOVGL TOV KapiTov dodevi] yap avTcov
TTjV vypoT-qTa Kal yXloxpoLV ovoav ovk id Xa^elv
GVGTaGiv 6 rfXioSi ctv pLT] /xerajSaAActv o d'r^p inl to
i/jvxpoTCpov dpxrjTai' 8l6 Kal pLovov tovto (f)rjGiv
Seo^paoTos to SevSpov iv ttj gklo. ^^Xtlov €K7T€t-

T€LV TOV KapTTOV Kal Td^t'OV . TCZ Se pLTjXa Kad^

rjvTiva SidvoLav 6 cjo^o? " vnepcfyXoLa " TrpoGCLp-qKOL,

E SiaTropELV, Kal pidXiGTa tov dvhpos ov KaXXiypa<j)ias

eVe/ca rots' evrrpoGCOTTOTdTOLS tcov iinOiTcov, wGnep

^ So Turnebus : awridevra.
^ So Reiske : Kaddnep tov.

" These words are found in Odyssey, vii. 116.
434



TABLE-TALK V. 8, 683

adding the words � " flourishing oUve trees." This
made us wonder why Homer singled out the apple tree
as bearing splendid fruit. Tryphon,^ the physician,
said that this expression was intended to contrast
the fruit with the tree, which, though indeed quite
small and insignificant in appearance, produces fine,
big fruit. Someone else rejoined that, so far as he
could see, no other fruit unites the fine qualities of
all fruits as does the apple. For one thing, its skin
is so clean when you touch it that instead of staining
the hands it perfumes them. Its taste is sweet and
it is extremely deUghtful both to smell and to look at.
Thus, by charming all our senses at once, it deserves
the praise that it receives.

2. I remarked that this was a fair statement ; but
that I was puzzled by a line of Empedocles,"

Because late-grown pomegranates and succulent apples.

The epithet that he applies to pomegranates is clear :
it signifies that they ripen when the late harvest
season is coming to an end and the heat is becoming
less intense. The hot sun will not allow the weak
and meagre sap of the pomegranate to develop to a
proper consistency until the air begins to change and
grow cooler. That is why, according to Theophrastus,**
this is the only tree that allows its fruit to mature
better and more quickly in the shade. But what
puzzled me, I confessed, was what the philosopher
meant by calHng apples " succulent " {hyperphloia) ;
especially since he was not in the habit of tricking
out facts for the sake of elegant writing by using

* Trypho(n) is one of the speakers above in Table-Talk, iii.
1 and 2.

" ?>agment 80 (Diels).

•^ Apparently not in Theophrastus.

435



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(683) dvdrjpots -x^pwixaoL, ra TTpdyixara yavovv elojdoro?,
aAA' CKaGTOv ovalas tlvos '^ Suvct/xecos- So^Acu/xa
TTOLovvTOSy oiov " d}JL(f)i^p6T'r]v ■)(66va " TO rfj i/jvxfj^
TTepLKeipievov Gcopia, /cat " vecfyeXrjyepcTTjV " rov
depa Kal " TroXvaifiarov " to rJTrap.

S. EtTTOVTOS' ovv ipiov ravra, ypapLfiariKoi, tlv€?
€(f)auav " V'7T€p(f)Xoia " AeAe;^^at ra fJLrjXa 8ta rr]v
aKjJLrjv TO ydp dyav dKfjidl,€LV Kal TeO-qXivai
" (f)Xvei,v " VTTO Tcov 7TOL7]Ta)v Xcyeodai. Kal top
^AvTifJiaxov ovTO) TTCjJS " (jiXeLOvaav^ OTrwpais "

F €Lp7]KeVai TTjV T(X)V Ka8fX€La>V TToXlV OjJLOLOJS TOV

"ApaTov inl TOV Heipiov XeyovTa

Kal ra /xev €ppWG€V, rcuv^ Se (/)X6ov wXeae irdvTa

TTjv xXojpoTrjTa Kal to dvdos tojv Kapircbv " (f)X6ov "
TTpoaayopeveiv*' elvaL Se Kal tcov 'EAAt^vo^v Tivds,
ot OAetoj Alovvgo) dvovuiv. iirrel tolwv jJidXiOTa
TOiv KapTTOiv "T] yXiXipoTy]'^ Kal to TcOrjXevaL toj
fjLiqXa) TTapajjievei, " UTreya^Aotov " avTo tov <j)iX6-
oo(f)ov TTpooayopevoai.
684 AafJiTrpias S' o irdTTTTOs tjjjlcjv €(f)rj ttjv " vnep "
(jiOJVTjV ov fxovov TO dyav Kal to acfyoSpov SrjXovv,
dXXd Kal TO e^ojdev Kal to dvojdev ovtco ydp
" viripBvpov " Kal " vrrepcpov " KaXelv 'qpids, tov hk

^ rrj ifjvxfi Turnebus : rrjv tjjvxy)v.

^ So Hubert, (f)XoLovaav previous editors : <f>XLovaav (at
735 D (f)X€Lovaav). ^ So Salmasius, cf. Aratus : tov.

* So Basel edition : Trpoaayopevojv.

� Fragments 148-150 (Diels).

* Or according to the variant reading phloiehif " to swell."
" Thebes. Antimachus, born c, 444 b.c, wrote an epic

Thebaid, of which this is Fragment 40 (Wyss, Antimachus) or
Fragment 36, Epic. Graec. Frag. (Kinkel).

436



TABLE-TALK V. 8, 683-684,

grandiose epithets, "as if he were laying on gaudy
colours, but in every case aimed at simple description
of an essential fact or property. For instance, he
applies � the expression " earth that envelops a
mortal " to the body that clothes us, and " cloud-
gatherer " to the air, and " rich in blood " to the liver.
3. When I finished, some scholars who were present
said that the apples were described as " succulent "
(hyperphloia) because they were at their prime. For
the poets use the term " to bubble " (jphlyein) ^ to
mean " be at the height and flourish." Antimachus
also, they argued, in very much the same way, de-
scribed the city of the Cadmeians^ as "teeming with
fruit " (pkleiousati). Likewise Aratus,** speaking of
Sirius in the line.

To some he gives strength but of others he blights the bark
(phloan) utterly,

was calling the freshness and bloom of fruit " bark "
(pkloos). Then, the argument went on, there are some
Greeks* who sacrifice to Dionysus Phleios. There-
fore, since apples more than any other fruit retain
their freshness and bloom, the philosopher called them
hyperphloia (" abnormally luxuriant ").

But my grandfather Lamprias said that hyper meant
not merely " excessively " or " violently " but also
** outside " or "on top.'* In this way we use the
expression hyperthyron (" over the door ") for " lintel,"
and hyperoon for " upper story." Homer has the

** Phaenamena, 835. The translation is that of G. R. Mair
(LCL).

• Specifically, those of Prien^, Erythrae, Ephesus. See
Wilamowitz, Glauhe der Hellenen^ ii, p. 373, note 1. See also
Farnell's Cults of the Greek States, v, pp. 118 if., 281 ff., note
11, where the reading Phloios instead of Phleios is adopted,

437



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(684) 7roL7]Tr]v Kol " Kp€ V7T€pr€pa " ra e^co rod Upetov,
ojGTrep " ey/cara " ra evros. " opa tolvvv," €(j)r],
" pur] Trpos TOVTO pidXXov 6 'E/xttcSo/cA'^S" TreTTOLrjKC
TO iTTiderov, on, rcov dXXcxJV Kapncoi^ to e^wdev vtto
Tov <j)XoLov 7T€pLexopLeva)V Kal tcl KaXovpi€va Xeirv-
XOiva Kal KeXv^T) kol vpiivas kol Xo^ovs iTrnroXrjs
ixovTcov, 6 tov pLTJXov (fyXoLos evTos ioTi koXXwSt]?
B )(LTa)V Kal XiTTapoSy J) 7Tpooio-)(eTai to oneppia- to
S' iScoSipLov, e^ojdev avTcp TrepLKetpLevov, €lk6tojs
* VTT€p(j>XoLov ' (hvopbaGTai."^

nPOBAHMA

Tt's -ff alria, hi rjv rj avKrj hpi^vrarov ovaa SevSpov
yXvKVTOTOv TTapex^i tov Kapnov

Collocuntur Lamprias avus, alii

Mera Se TavTa Trepl rcDv ovkojv SLrjTTopi^dr], rt
8l^7TOT€ TTLCjOV Kal yXvKVS OVTOJS KapiTOS aiTO 8eV-
hpOV (f)VeTaL TTLKpOTOLTOV TtJs" yap GVKTJS Kal TO

<f>vXXov hia TTjv TpaxvT7]Ta Opiov (hvopiaoTai, Kal

TO ^vXoV OTTCoSeS ioTLV, (x)GT€ Kai6pL€V0V pL€V EkSl-

C 86vaL BpLpLVTaTov KaTTVov KaTaKavdkv^ he ttjv e/c

T-^S" Te<f>paS KOviaV pVTTTLKWTOLTrjV 7Tape-)(€LV VTTO
8pipLVT7]TOg . O 3' €CTTt daVpiaGLCOTaTOV, dvdovvTOJV

diravTcov ooa ^e^XaGTjjKe Kal KapTToyovei, piovov
dvavdes ioTi to ttjs gvkt^s <f)VT6v' el S', cSs" <f>aGLv,
ov KepavvovvTaty Kal tovt dv tls dvaOeir] ttj
TTLKpoTrjTL Kal Ka)(€^t,a TOV GTeXe^ovg- roiv yap
TOLOVTCov ov 80KOVGLV eTTLdiyyaveiv ol Kepavvoi,

^ So Turnebus : <ljvop,dadaL. ^ 17 added in Aldine edition.
^ So Turnebus : KaraKavdelaav.

<* See, e.g.^ Odyssey, iii. 65. ^ See, e.g., Iliad, xi. 176.

438



TABLE-TALK V. 8-9, 684

expression kre hypertera " (" outside pieces ") in speak-
ing of the sacrificial animal, just as he uses enkata^
(" inwards ") for the inside pieces. " So," he went
on, " consider whether Empedocles did not employ
the term rather with this intention : whereas other
fruits are encased by a pkloios (' husk ') on the outside
(that is, they have what is called a rind, pod, capsule,
or shell on the surface), apples have their pkloios
inside as a shiny, glutinous coat to which the seed is
attached, so that the edible part surrounding all this
on the outside is with good reason called hyperphloion
(* outside the rind ')."

QUESTION 9

Why the fig tree though extremely bitter produces
extremely sweet fruit

Speakers : Grandfather Lamprias and others

Next the question was raised why so mellow and
sweet a fruit as the fig grows on the bitterest of trees.
The leaf of this tree is even called from its roughness
thrion <^; the wood is full of an acid sap and produces
a very acrid smoke when burned,'* and the powder
derived from its ash is most detergent because of its
causticity. But what is most astonishing is that,
though all plants bud and produce fruit, the fig alone
is without flowers. If, as they say, a fig is never
struck by lightning, this too could be attributed to
the bitterness and poorness of its trunk. For it is
held that lightning never strikes objects of that

� Thrion and trachys (" rough ") are here evidently con"
sidered cognate.

^ The bitterness of the tree is again pointed out at Table-
Talk, vi. 10, 696 F ff. below.

439



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

Kaddnep ovSe ttJ? ^cx)Ky]s rod Sepfxarog ovSe rrjg
vaivrjg.

'YTToXapwv ovv 6 7rp€GpvT7]� e^'�7, oGov av ivff
TO) (f)VTw yXvKVTr]Tog, dirav rovro GwdXi^opuevov
els Tov KapTTOV eLKorcjs SpLpuv TroLelv^ /cat aKparov ro
D XeLTTOfjievov' waTrep yap to rjirap, els eva roirov rod
XoXco8ovs OLTTOKpLdevTos, avTo yiyverai yXvKvrarov,
ovroj rrjv avKrjv els to ovkov dirav to Xirrapov /cat
voGTLfJLov d(f)LeLGav avTTiv dfioipov elvai yXvKVTTjTos.
" errely otl ye /xere;^et tlvos eu%i;/xta? to ivXov,
eKelv* J' e(j)r],^ " TTOLOVfjLaL G^qpLeiov, o XeyovGiv ol
KTjTTOvpoL- XeyovGL Se TOV 7T7]ydvov TO (f>v6iJLevov
VTT* avTjj /cat 7Tapa(j)VTev6iJievov tJS lov etvac /cat tco
X^fJi^ fiaXaKcoTepoVy a)s dv aTToXavov^ tlvos yXv-
KVTTjTos, fj KaTaG^evwTai to dyav ^apv /cat
KaTaKopov y el /jltj vrj Ata TOVvavTiov rj gvktj
TTepLGTTcoGa TTjv Tpo(j)'rjv i^aipeZ tl^ ttjs SpipLVT-qTOS ."

nPOBAHMA I
E TtVe? ol TTepl oAa /cai Kvafiov^' eV a) /cat Sta ti tov oAa "Oelov"

6 TTOlTjTTjS eiTTCV

Collocuntur Florus, Apollophanes, Plutarchus, Philinus

1. 'E^T^ret OAcDpos", eGTicoixevcov rjixatv irap* av-
TO), TLves dv elev " ol irepl dXa /cat KvafjLov "" iv Trj



^ OGOV av evfj added by Bernardakis, cf. Psellus, De Omni-
faria Doctrina, 152.

2 So Turnebus : Trotei. ' So Vulcobiiis : €^-qv.

^ av auoXavov Vulcobius : avairavov.

^ Ti Meziriacus : to.

^ So \'^ulcobius : KVfiivov " cumminseed."

440



TABLE-TALK V. 9-10, 684

description, just as it never strikes sealskins or hyena
pelts .�

The old gentleman, however, countered that since
whatever sweetness is in the plant is concentrated
entirely in the fruit, it naturally leaves the rest bitter
and undiluted. As the liver itself is sweet to the
taste when the bile has been drawn off into its proper
place, so the fig tree, discharging all its oily and
succulent matter into the fruit, is itself robbed of all
sweetness. " For," he said, " I base my belief that
the wood partakes of some latent sweetness on what
the gardeners say about rue. According to them,
rue has a sweeter and milder taste if it grows under
or is planted ^ beside a fig tree, as if it derived from
that a certain sweetness that counteracts its strong,
heavy flavour ; — unless, on the contrary, bless my
soul, the fig reduces the bitterness by drawing off the
nourishment in the soil."



QUESTION 10

Who " salt and bean friends " are ; and, incidentally,
why Homer calls salt divine

Speakers : Floras, Apollophanes, Plutarch, Philinus

1 . During a dinner given us by Florus, he asked who
are meant by " salt and bean friends " * in the pro-

" For the relation between lightning and biology cf. above,
iv. 2, especially 664 c.

^ Or " grafted " ? Cf. Pseudo- Aristotle, Problems, 924 b
35 fF. See also Theophrastus, De Causis Plant, v. 6. 10 and
Dioscorides, iii. 45. 1.

* See above, iv. 1, 663 f, and Paroemiogr. Oraec. i, pp. 8
and 188, where the explanation is offered that priestly hospi-
tality to consultants of oracles consisted of salt and beans.
Compare the different proverb on salt, ibid. p. 24, no. 62.

441



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(684) TTapoLfjLta Xeyofievoi. /cat tovto fi€V €k irpoxeipov
SieXvcrev ^ A7ToXXo(f)dv7]9 6 ypafjifxariKos' " ol yap
ovTco owTjOeisJ' €(j)rj, " tojv (filXajv, coorre /cat irpog
F aAa SeLTTvelv^ /cat Kvafiov,^ vtto rrjs Trapot/xtas"
TTpopdXXovraL." T17V Se rcDv dXcov nfirjv d<f)* orov
yevoLTo SLrjTTopovfiev, 'Ofji'qpov p,ev dvriKpvs Xd-
yovros '

TTaaae 8* aAos" deloiOj

UXdrcovos 8e^ rcjv dXcjv acJofxa Kara vopiov dvOpcj-
TTOiv ^eo^tAecrrarov* cti^at ^doKovros' inercLve Sc
TTjv diTOpiav TO rovs AlyvTrriovs lepias dyvevovras^
dirix^odaL to TrdfjiTrav dXcov, ware /cat rov dprov
dvaXov TTpoGcfyepeadai' ttcos ydp, el ^eor^tAes" /cat
delov, d<f)(jJGi(x)Gavro ;^

2. OAcupo? p,€V ovv idv e/ceAcue rovg AlyvTrrtovg,
685 *EAAT]vtc7Tt S* avrovs etVetv rt Trpos to V7TOK€l-
fxevov. iyd) S' €^17^ ovSe Tovg AlyvTTTLov? p^d^e- %
odai ToZs "EAAi^o-tv at ydp dyvelai /cat 7rat8o7rottav I
/cat yeXcoTa /cat otvov /cat TroAAd rcuv aAAco? d^icov
GTTOvBrjg wjiaLpovoL' tovs S' aAa? ra;^a p,€V cos inl
ovvovaiav dyovTas vtto depp^OTrjTos, cos evioi Xi-
yovGL, <f)vXdTTOVTai KadapevovTes' ct/cos" Se /cat cLs
oi/jov 7]8LaTov TTapaiTeiodaL' kiv8vv€vovgl ydp ol dXes

^ avvSeLTTvelv Reiske, Hubert.

* So Vulcobius : Kvfjuvov "cumminseed."

^ be TO Meziriacus. * ^eo^iAe? Plato, Timaeus^ 60 e.

^ So Wyttenbach : dyvovs ovras.

^ So Reiske : dcfxvaicoaav.

" To take potluck : either to take a meal of salt and a bean
or to take a meal that costs only the value of salt and a bean.
Cheapness is connoted by the phrase Trpos dXa (" for the price
of salt ") in Menander, 805 (Kdrte), according to Zenobius

442



TABLE-TALK V. 10, 684-685

verb. The scholar Apollophanes had a ready answer
for this, saying, " The proverb refers to friends who
are so close to us as to be content to dine with us on
salt and a bean." " Then we raised the question why
salt is so highly esteemed.^ For Homer goes so far
as to say,

He sprinkled with salt divine, "

and Plato •* says that by the custom of mankind salt
is regarded as of all substances the one most favoured
by the gods. The question was complicated by the
fact that the Egyptian priests made it a point of
religion to abstain completely from salt,^ even eating
their bread unsalted ; how, if it is god-favoured and
divine, did they come to avoid its use on religious
grounds ?

2. Florus then told us to leave the Egyptians out
of it, and to find a good Greek answer to our own
question. But I said that actually the Egyptians
were not here in conflict with the Greeks. Strict
religious observances prohibit, at certain times, pro-
creation, laughter, wine, and many other things which
usually deserve approval. So perhaps the Egyptians
from motives of purity avoid salt on account of the
aphrodisiac properties sometimes attributed to it
because of its heat/ But it is just as probable that
they protest against salt because it is delicious as a

and Diogenianus, who give us this fragment, and Pollux,
among others cited by Korte.

� Cf. above, iv. 4. 3, 668 e if. ' Iliad, ix. 214.

�* Timaeus, 60 e, but Plato uses only the positive degree :
" a god-favoured substance."

• Cf. below, viii. 8. 2, 729 a, and De hide, 352 f (LCL
Mor. v). These passages speak of the priests only " during
their periods of holy living."

f Cf. below, 697 b and above, 651 b.

443



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(685) Tcjv dXXojv oi/jcov oi/jov etvat Kal r^Svafxa, Sio /cat
" -^apira's " evioi irpouayopevovGLV avrovs, on rrjs
Tpo(f)'rJ9 TO avayKOLOV rjSv rroiovaiv.

3. " ^Ap' ovv/' 6 ^Xojpos '^<t>y}, " Sta TovTo
B delov elprjadai rov dXa (pcofxev; " " eari fiev 8ij,"
etTTOv/ " ouSe Tovr eAa;^KTTOV. ol yap dvdpojTTOL
rd Koivd KoX Sii^KOvra ratg ^pctats" €ttl to TrActcrrov
iKdeid^ovGLVy (x)s to v8ojp, to (j)dj�, Tct? wpag-
Trjv Be yrjv ov jxovov Oelov, dXXd /cat deov VTToXapL-
pdvovoLV CUV ovSevog AetWrat XP^^^ '^^ '^^^ dAcDv,
dpiyKCOfia TTJs Tpo(f)rjg yiyvofjievov et? to Gcofia^
/cat Trapexov evappLOOTuav avTrj irpos ttjv ope^iv.

" Ov fJLTjv dXXd /cat cr/coTret, (jlt) /ca/cetvo delov
avTcp (TVfJipePrjKev, otl tcov oajfjidTCov ra veKpd
SiaTrjpovv dGTjTTTa /cat fiovcfxa ttoXvv ^povov dvTi-
TdTT€TaL T^ OavdTO) /cat ovk id TravTeXojs i^oXe-
C CT^at /cat d(f)avLcr6rjvaL to Ovtjtov aAA' ojOTrep rj
i^^XV> OeioTaTOV ovaa tcov rjfJLeTepwv, ra fo)a
Gvvex€L /cat peiv ovk id tov oyKov, ovtojs yj tcov
dXcov ^vois ra veKpd irapaXapi'^dvovoa /cat pLifxov-
fjLevTj TO TTJs ipvxT]? €pyov avTiAajLtjSaverat (f)€po-
fxivcov inl ttjv <f)dopdv /cat KpaTel^ /cat laTTjOLV,
dppLOviav TTapexovoa /cat (j>iXiav Trpos dXX'iqXa to is

[JL€p€GL. 8l6 /cat TCJV TtTOJLKCOV €VLOL TT^V UV* odpKa

v€Kpdv^ yeyovevai Xiyovcrt, ttjs ^vxrjs, cuCTTrep
ctAcov, 7rap€G7TapiJL€vr]s vnep tov Sta/xeVctv. opds
8' OTL /cat TO KepavvLov TTvp lepov rjyovfjLeda /cat
delov, OTL ra GcofxaTa tcov Slo^Xt^tcov da7]7rTa irpos
TToXvv dvTexovTa XP^V^^ opcofxev. rt ovv dav-

^ hrj eiTTov Xylander : Seirn'ov.

^ els TO acofia] evoroyilq. Kronenberg. ^ Kparvvei Hubert.

* So Xylander : vvvl ^ So Doehner, c/. 669 a : Kpea.

444



TABLE-TALK V. 10, 685

seasoning, for salt is very nearly a seasoning and con-
diment to other seasoning ; some even call it charites
(joys), because it makes needful food enjoyable.

3. " Shall we say then," asked Florus, " that this
is a reason why salt has been termed divine ? "
" Indeed it is," I answered, " and not the least
important one, either. For men consider divine the
common things which most completely supply their
practical needs, like water, light, and the seasons,
and they conceive of the earth as not merely * divine '
but as actually a goddess. Salt is inferior to none of
these in usefulness. It serves as a kind of finishing
touch or coping to the meal for the body, and adapts
the food to our appetite.

" Consider also whether this other property of salt
is not divine too : preserving bodies uncorrupted for
a long time, it is the opponent of death, and does not
allow the dead to decay completely and vanish. As
the soul, our most divine element, preserves life by
preventing dissolution of the body, just so salt, when
bodies are laid in it, closely parallel in its effect,
intervenes, controls and checks the process of de-
cay, by harmonizing and reconciling the constituent
parts." That is why some of the Stoics say that the
sow at birth is dead flesh,^ but that the soul is im-
planted in it later, like salt, to preserve it. You
observe also that we consider the fire of lightning as
sacred and divine because we find the bodies of those
struck by it preserved for a long time against decay."

<• Macrobius {Saturnalia, vii. 12. 3 ff) rephrases the
passage.

* Von Amim, Stoic. Vet. Frag. i. 516 ; ii. 722, 723 and
1154. Cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 207, and Chrysippus in
Cicero, De Natura Deorum, ii. 64. 160 with Pease's note.

� Cf. above, iv. 2, 665 c.

445



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

•j^ fxaGTOV, €L Kal rov dXa, ttjv avrrjv e^ovra rco delco
SvvafjLLV TTvpi, delov vneXa^ov ol TToXaioi; "

4. SicoTTTjaavTos- S* €/xo{5, OtAtvo? VTroXa^wv, " to
Se yovLjJiov ov SoKel gol," e(f)r], " Oelov elvai,
€L7T€p dpx'q^ deos rravrcov; " ofioXoyrioavros S*
€p,oVy " /cat jJLTjv," €<f>r], " rov d'A' ovk oXiyov irpos
yeveoLV avvepyelv olovrai, KaOdnep auro? ijjivrjodr]?
Tcjv^ AlyvTTTLcov. OL yovv rds Kvvas ^iXorpo-
(f)ovvT€s, orav dpyorepat irpos avvovoiav coglv, dX-
XoLS re PpajfiaGLV aXfivpols Kal rapL)(€vroLS Kpeaoi
KivovoL Koi irapo^vvovGLV ro GTrepfxariKov avrojv
rjGVxd^ov. rd S' dXr]yd irXola TrXrjdog €K(f)V€i fivcov
dnXerov, cos" [jl^v evLoi XeyovGi, rcov drjXeLOJV Kal

E Slxcl GvvovGias kvovgcjv, orav rov dXa XetxojGLv'
ecKOS Se fidXXov ifiTTOLeiv rrjv dXpLvpioa roZs {xopLOLS^
o8a^r]Gfjiovs Kal Gvve^oppidv rd foia Trpos rovs gvv-
SvaGfJLOvs. 8id rovro 3' tcrcos" Kal KaXXos* yvvaiKog
ro fJL'qr^ dpyov fi'qr* diridavoVy dXXd jiCjJLiyiJLevov
xdpin Kal KLVT^riKov, dXfivpov Kal Spifiv KaXovGiv.
oifxai Se Acat rrjv ^ K^pohirriv dAtyevTj rovs Troirjrdg

7TpOGayop€V€LV Kal fJLvdoV €7T* avrjj 7T€7rXaGfl€VOV

€^€V€yK€LV, COS" dno daXaGG^qg ixo'UGrf ttjv yev€GLV,
els ro rcov dAcuv yovifjLOV alvirrofxevovs . Kal ydp
avrov rov YioGeLScjva^ Kal oXcos rovs TreXay toys'
F deovs TToXvreKVovs Kal TvoXvyovovs d7TO<f>aLVOVGLV
avrcov Se rojv ^wcuv ovSev dv ^^epcratov "^ Trrrjvov
446



TABLE-TALK V. 10, 685

What wonder, then, that the ancients considered salt
to be divine also, since it has the same property as
the divine fire ?

4. When I stopped speaking, Philinus took up the
thread : " Don't you think that generation is divine,
since the beginning of anything is always a god ? "
I said yes, and he went on : " Well, people hold that \

salt contributes not a little to generation, even as you ^ ]
yourself have said in talking about the Egyptians. ' S/
Dog-fanciers, at any rate, whenever their dogs are
sluggish towards copulation stimulate and intensify
the seminal power dormant in the animals by feeding
them salty meat and other briny food. Ships carry-
ing salt breed an infinite number of rats, because,
according to some authorities, the females conceive
without coition by licking the salt. But it is more
likely that the saltiness imparts a sting to the sexual
members and serves to stimulate copulation. For
this reason, perhaps, womanly beauty is called
* salty * and * piquant ' when it is not passive nor
unyielding, but has charm and provocativeness. I
imagine that the poets called Aphrodite " born of
the brine " and have spread the fiction of her origin
in the sea by way of alluding to the generative
property of salt. For they also represent Poseidon
himself and the sea gods in general as fertile and
prolific. Even among the animals you cannot find
one species of land or air that is so proliferous as are

^ So Amyot : apx^i. 6 after it deleted by Hubert.

2 cVi Twv Reiske, Hartman.

* So Leonicus : fxvpiois.

* KoXrjs Stegmann.

' So Hubert : ixovcrqs.

• oAAa before koX deleted by Wyttenbach.

' So Reiske, TrcAaytKous Basel edition : mXaayi-KovS'

447



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(685) CLTrelv exoLS ovtoj yovLfiov, ojs iravra ra} daXdrTia'

TTpOS O Kol 7T€7rOL7]K€V 6 ^^fJLTTcSoKXrjg'

^vXov dfjLOvaov dyovaa iroXvoTTepiwv Kafjbaarjvojv ."

^ TO. added by Faehse.

" Fra^. 74 (Diels); agousa (leading) may refer perhaps to
Aphrodite.



448



TABLE-TALK V. 10, 685

all the creatures of the sea. This is the point of
Empedocles's <* line :

Leading the mute tribe of fruitful * fish."

^ The translation here is in accordance with Plutarch's
context, but elsewhere the word is applied to men and means
simply " multitudinous."



VOL. VIII Q 449



TABLE-TALK

(QUAESTIONES CONVIVALES)
BOOK VI



686 ZYMnOSIAKaN

BIBAION EKTON

Tifjiodeov Tov Kovcovos", c5 Eocrcric Scve/ctcov,
COS" €K T(x)v TToXvreXcjv /cat GTparrjyiKOJv^ Sclttvcuv

B dvaXapojv 6 IlAaTcov i^eiirvLoev iv 'A/caS7y/i,ta
fjLOVGLKios Kal d(j)€Xa)s " rat? d^X€yyidvTOisJ' cSs"
(fyrjGLV 6 "lojv, " TpaTrit^ais,*' als vttvol re KaOapol
Kal ^paxv6v€LpOL <f>avraoLaL, rod owpLaros evSlav
Kal yaXi^v7]v exovros,^ eVovrat, (led^ rjjjLepav^ 6
Ttfxodeos alodopievos rrjg Siacfyopds €<f)ri rovs irapd
YlXdrcovL SeLTTin^aavras* Kal rfj vorepaia KaXajg
yiyveodaL. fxeya yap cos" dXrjdojs evrjpLcpLas €^6-
Stov evKpaaia uiLixaros dpairriarov Kal iXacfypov
Kal 7Tap€OT<jL)Tos dvuTTOTTTOjg €7tI TTacjav ivepyeiav.
dXX €T€pov ovK eXarrov virijpx^ tovto tols irapd

C riAarcovt henrvrjaaaLV f rj rdjv XaXridivTCnv irapd
TTOTov dvadecjprjGLS' at jxev yap rcov iTodivrcjjv^
ri ppcodevTCov^ rjSoval ty]V dvdjjLvrjGLV dveXevOepov

* So Turnebus, cf. Athenaeus, 419 c, Aelian, Varia Hist. ii.
18 : OTpaTicoriKajv.

^ So Xylander : cxovres.

2 ovv after rifxepav deleted by Bernardakis.

* Tots . . . SeiTrnycraai Turnebus, Vulcobius. But cf. Athe-
naeus, 419 c.

^ TTodevTcov Wyttenbach, KaTaTToddvrojv Reiske : TTodovvrmv.
^ rj ^po)d4vTU)v added by Doehner ; cf. Xylander.

452



TABLE-TALK
BOOK SIX

Plato, dear Sossius Senecio, once got Timotheiis," the
son of Conon,<� away from the sumptuous officers'
messes he frequented, and entertained him at dinner
in the Academy with simplicity and respect for the
Muses. It was the sort of table that Ion ^ called
" unfevered," " a table that is followed by undis-
turbed sleep and only light dreams, because the body
is in a state of calm and tranquilhty. In the morning
Timotheiis was conscious of the difference and ob-
served that Plato's dinner guests felt well even on
the day after. It is truly a great contribution to our
health and happiness to have our bodies in a good
state of balance, not sodden with wane, but light and
ready unhesitatingly for any activity. Another and
not less valuable privilege guaranteed to Plato's
guests was that of recalUng afterwards what had been
said over the drinks. Remembering past delights in
food and drink is an ignoble kind of pleasure and one

" Both celebrated Athenian generals of the 5th and 4th
centuries b.c, whose lives are to be found in Nepos.

•* Ion of Chios, historian and poet, c. 490-c. 421 b.c, ac-
quaintance of many of the prominent Athenians of the period.
Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii, p. 257.

' Or " not heating," " not inflaming," even " not filling."
For the anecdote see also Cicero, Tusc. Disp. v. 100, with
Dougan and Henry's note ; Athenaeus, x, 419 c-d ; Aelian,
Varta Hist. ii. 18. Hegesander is quoted as source by
Athenaeus (as on the opsophagi) : RE^ vii. 2600, no. 4.

453



PLUTARCH'S MOEALIA

(686) exovoLV /cat aAAco? i^irr^Xov, wairep oajjLrjv ewXov
T) Kvluav iva7ToX€L7rofi€vr]v, TTpo^Xrjixdrojv �e /cat
Xoyojv (j)iXoG6(f)ajv VTroOeoreis avrovs re^ rovs fiefivr]-
fjievovs €V(f)paLVovaLVy det TT-pocr^arot Trapovuai, /cat
TOWS' a7ToX€L(j)devTas ovx rjrrov earidv^ TrapexovGL
ToZs avToZs, OLKovovras /cat /xeraAa/xjSavovras" ottov
/cat vvv Tcbv YiCJKpariKCjv avfjLTTOGiOJV puerovoia /cat
aiToXavoLS eon rols <l)LXoX6yoL�, axjTrep avTols
D €K€ivoLS Tols Tore SeLTTVovGL. /catVot, €t^ ra
croi^art/ca ra? rjSovas Trapet^^ev, e8et /cat Sevo-
<f)CL)vra /cat IlAaTcova /xt) tcDv XaXr^divrojv dAAa
TcDv TTapareOevTOJV ev KaAAtou /cat 'Ayddcovos
oi/jojv /cat TrepLp^drajv /cat Tpayr)p.dra)v diToypa^riv
dTToXiTTelv vvv S' e/cetva jLtev ovSeTTore, /catVcp cos"
€LKos €K 7rapa(TK€vrj? yevd/xeva* /cat SandvY]?, Xoyov
Ttvos" rj^LCodr], rd Se <j>iXoao(f)7]6€VTa puerd TratStas"
crTTOuSd^ovres' cts" ypa(f)r]v dTTerWevTo, /cat /care-
AtTTOv TrapaSety/xara rou /Lti) pLovov cruveZvai 8 id
Xoyojv dAATJAot? Trapct ttotov dAAct /cat pLepLvrjadat
Tcbv XaXrjdevTCOv.

nPOBAHMA A

E TtV 17 alrla, St* "^r ot vrjaTevovres hn/jcoai /ioAAov •^ Treivcoatv
Collocuntur Plutarchus, alii

"E/CTOy OW TOUTO cot TTepLTTCJ TCOV HvpLTTOGiaKCOVf

^ re added by Reiske. ^ iaridv Wyttenbach : els alriav.

^ KaiToi el Basel edition : koX rolai.

* So Reiske : yiyv6[X€va.

" The wealthy Callias and Agathon the poet were the
hosts in Xenophon's and Plato's Symposium, respectively.
^ Plato speaks of his writing and speculation as TraiSia

454



TABLE-TALK VL 1, 686

that is, besides, as unsubstantial as yesterday's per-
fume or the Ungering smell of cooking. On the other
hand, the topics of philosophical inquiry and dis-
cussion not only give pleasure by remaining ever
present and fresh to those who actually recall them,
but they also provide just as good a feast on the same
food to those who, having been left out, partake
of them through oral report. In this way, it is even
to-day open to men of" literary taste to enjoy and
share in the Socratic banquets as much as did the
original diners. Yet if pleasure were purely physical,
the proper thing would have been for both Xenophon
and Plato to leave us a record, not of the conversa-
tion, but of the relishes, cakes, and sweets served at
Callias's house and Agathon's." As it is, they never
deign to mention such matters, for all the expense
and effort these presumably involved ; but they pre-
serve in writing only the philosophical discussions,
combining fun ^ with serious effort. Thus they have
left precedents to be followed not only in meeting
together for good conversation over wine, but in re-
cording the conversation afterward.

QUESTION 1"

Why those who fast are more thirsty than hungry

Speakers : Plutarch and others

Here, then, is the sixth book of my Table-Talk, in

" play " in Phaedrus, 265 c, Timaeus^ 59 c. Xenophon,
Symp. viii. 41, implies that serious discourse must be restricted
at symposiums. Plutarch in his extensive discussion of
humour at banquets in Table-Talk, ii. 1, especially 634 e-f,
quotes Plato's Laws to much the same effect.

* The discussion is closely imitated by Macrobius, Satur-
nalia^ vii. 13. 1-5.

4>55



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(686) €V CO Trpcorov €ori to rrepl rov Snjjrjv fidXXov rj
Treivrjv rovg vr]Gr€vovrag .

"AXoyov yap €<j)aiv€ro Sii/jrjv fjuaXXov ^ Trecvrjv
Tovs €Kvr]GT€VGavras' rj yap evheia Ti]s irjpds
Tpo(f>rjs dvaTTXrjpcooLV OLKclav eSd/cet /cat^ /caret
<l>vaiv CTTt^T^Tetv. eXeyov ovv iyoj rols vapovaiv,
on Tojv iv rjixiv rj fxovov t) fidXiara Setrat rpo<f)rjs
F TO depfjLov^' " a)G7T€p dfjLeXeL ^Xirrojiev efa>' jirjT
depa fjLTjd* v8wp jirjre yrjv i(f>L€fJL€va rov rp€<f)€GdaL
fjurjS^ dvaXioKovra to TrXrjOidl^ov, dXXd jjlovov to
TTvp, fj Kal ra vea ^pcoTiKcoTepa tojv TTpeGr^VTepcov
VTTO BepjxoTrjTOS' Kal TovvavTLOv ol yepovTC? paoTa
vrjGTelav <f)€povGiv, dfi^Xv yap iv avTols Kal jjLiKpov

TjSrj TO depfJLOV €GTlVy WGTTep iv TOLS dvaijlOlS TiOV

^(pwv, a 8rj Kal Tpo<f)rJ� rJKLGTa TrpoGSeLTai St'
687 evSeiav OepjxoTrjTOS' avTov 6^ eKaGTOv avTov* yvfi-
vaGia Kal Kpavyal Kal ocra tw Kivelv av^€L to
Bepjiov rjSiov <f>ayelv TTOiel Kal TrpodvjioTepov.
Tpo(f)rj Se Tcp depfJLWj KaOdrrep vopbit^oj, o vpc^Tov^
/caret (fiVGLV jidXiGTa, to vypov iGTiv, ojs at re
^X6y€s av^avojievai Ta> iXalo) BrjXovGLV Kal to
TrdvTOJV ^rjpoTaTov etvai T€<f)pav' e/c/ce/caurat yap
TO voTepov, TO 8e yecoSes eprjjxov iKjidhos AeAetTrrat*
/cat ofioLOJS^ huGTrjGi' Kal hiaipel ret GcojJiaTa to

1 Kcu added by Bernardakis.

* For punctuation see Bolkestein, Adv, Crit. p. 118 on
635 D.

3 6^a> Psellus, Stephanus (Turnebus according to Wytten-
bach) : e^ <Lv.

* So Bernardakis : avrov. ^ v-pwrov twv Reiske.

� So Stephanus : oyxa>?. ' So Stephanus : hk lanjai.

456



TABLE-TALK VI. 1, 686-687

which the first subject of discussion is why those who
fast suffer thirst more than hunger. It appeared il-
logical that those who have starved themselves should
suffer thirst more than hunger, because we thought
that according to nature the want of dry food would
call for a corresponding kind of replenishment. I
therefore argued to those present that, in our bodies,
it is solely or chiefly the hot element " that demands
nourishment ; " just as we see in fact that outside
ourselves it is not air nor water nor earth, but only
fire, that requires to be fed and consumes anything
within reach. Thus, young animals are more raven-
ous than adults because of the heat in their bodies ;
conversely, aged men endure fasting most easily, for
the fire in them is by now blunted and reduced, like
that of bloodless animals which require less food than
all other animals precisely because of their lack of
heat. Exercise, shouting, or anything that by motion
increases heat will always cause a man to eat with
greater pleasure and a better will. Moisture, prob-
ably the most primary substance in nature, in my
opinion, is the element that provides nourishment for
heat.*' This is proved by the fact that flames increase
whenever oil is added, and that ashes are the driest
of all substances, because the dampness has been
burned away and the earthy residue is left without a
trace of moisture. Similarly, fire opens and tears

" A reference to the theory of four elements (fire, air,
water and earth) as applied to physiology. See Hippocrates
(LCL), i, p. xlix. C/, for instance, Table-Talk, ii. 2, 635 c.

" Or, as T. C. (in the edition by Several Hands, London,
1684-1694) : " The most natural and principal nourishment
of heat is moisture." There is perhaps an allusion to Thales,
for whose theory Aristotle tries to account in language that
seems reflected here. See Metaphysics^ 983 b 22 if. Plu-
tarch returns to the point below, in Table-Talk^ vi. 9. 2, 696 b.
VOL. VIII Q* 457



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(687) TTVp TO) i^aipelv^ rr^v KoXXaxrav vyporr^ra /cat
ovvSiovaav . orav ovv vrjorevacoiJiev, Ik tcDv vtto-
Aet/Xjuctrcov ttJ? €V tco GWfxart rpocjirjg aTTOOTrdrai
B j8ta TO vypov vtto rod depfxov to irpchrov, elr ctt'
avrrjv jSaStJet rrjv GvpicjiVTov Aij3a8a ttJ? aapKo?
7) TTVpcoGig SicoKovaa to vorepov^' yevopLeviqs ovv
cocTTrep iv tttjXo) ^rjporrjTOS, ttotov /xaAAov to crcD/^a
SelodaL 7T€(f)VK€V, oixpt' ov TTLOVTOJV avappojoOkv /cat
to-;(;ucrav to depfiov ipu^pidovs Tpo(f)rjg ope^LV ipyd-
GrjTai."

nPOBAHMA B

HoTcpov evheia Troiei to ttclvtjv /cat 8nffrjv rq nopcov
CoUocuntur Philo, Plutarchus, alii medici

1. A€xd€VTCJV Se TOVTCxJV ol 7T€pL OlAoJv' laTpol

TTjv TTpcoTTjV OloiV eKivovv ivSeta yap ov yiyveadai
C TO Sli/jos, dXXa TTopcov TLVcov ixeTaaxqpLaTLGpLip .
TOVTO [jL€v ydp ol vvKTOJp Sn/jojvTeg, dv €7ri/caTa-
SdpdojGL, TravovTai tov Siifjrjv fir] tnovTes' tovto
8' ot TTVpcTTOVTes, ivSooeoJS yevofjievrjs ^ TTavTCiTracrt
TOV TTVpeTOV XojcfyrJGavTog, dfia KaV tov Siipijv
diraXXdTTovTaL' ttoXXoZs he XovoafJiivois /cat vtj At'
e/xeoaotv iTepoig Arjyei to Slipos. cuv utt' ovSevos
aufcTat TO vypov, dXXd [jlovov ol iropoi rrapixovoL,
TrdaxovTcs* Tt Toi fjLeTaGXfJp-CLTL^eGdai, Taftv eVepav
/cat SiddeGLV.

^ So Madvig : e^alpeiv.

2 TO vorepov Basel edition, cf. Psellus : rov erepov.
^ a/xa Kal Bernardakis : koI a/xa.

* Trapexovm, irdaxovres Hutten ; Trdaxovres Turnebus, Ste-
phanus ; -napeaxov, irdaxovres Wyttenbach : Trapaaxovr^s.

458



TABLE-TALK VI. 1-2, 687

apart any solids by drawing off the moisture that
cements and holds them together. So, when we fast,
the moisture is first abstracted forcibly by the heat
from any remnants of food left in the body. Then
the burning process, seeking moisture, goes on to the
natural juices of the body. Accordingly, since this
produces dryness (compare how mud dries in the
heat), it is natural for the body to want drink more
until, reinvigorated and fortified by our drinking, the
hot element arouses an appetite for sohd food."

QUESTION 2

Whether hunger and thirst are caused by deficiency
or by a change in shape of the passages

Speakers : Plutarch, Philo and other physicians

1 . At this point in the discussion, Philo and the other
physicians attacked the original premise, saying that
thirst arises, not from a deficiency, but from a change
of shape " in certain channels in the body. For one
thing, those who suffer from thirst at night lose their
thirst without drinking, if they fall asleep ; for
another, those who have a fever are also freed of thirst
as soon as the fever subsides or entirely ceases. Many
are relieved of thirst after a bath, others, surprisingly,
after vomiting. In these cases the moisture in their
bodies is not increased by anything ; it is only that
the channels, being subjected to a change of shape,
exhibit a new posture and condition.

" There is a discussion of shapes or " structures " in
Pseudo-Hippocrates, On Ancient Medicine, 22. 1. Cf. 649
D, supra, where the word poroi, here translated " passages "
or " channels," is used to refer to " vessels of the vascular
system " in plants. See now Sandbach in LCL Plut. Mor.
xi, p. 141.

459



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(687) KKSTjXorepov Be rovro ytyvcrai TTCpl ttjv Trelvav.
€vo€€Lg yap dfjua ttoXXoV^ yiyvovrai /cat dvopeKTOL
T(x)V vooovvTcov ivLOLS 8* c/XTTtTrAa/xeVot? ovhe ev at
D 6p€^€LS x^^^djGLV, dXXd /cat KarareivovoL /cat napa-
ixivovoiv. rj8r] 8e ttoXXol tcov aTroCTtrcov, iXaiav
dA/xaSa XafjL^dvovres ^ Kdmrapiv, ycvadfievoL ra-
X^^S dviXa^ov /cat irapeorrioavTO ty]v ope^iv. cS
/cat fidXiora SrjXov €gtlv, otl Trddei tlvI TTopwv ov^
V7T* ivSelas iyylyverat ro 7T€Lvrjv r^puv rd ydp tol-
avra ^pcjpLara rrjv /xev evSeuav iXarrol Trpocrrt^c/xe-
vrjs rpo(f)rjs, * ♦^ ttolovglv, ovtcos at tcov €(f>dXfjm)v
^pcxjfxdrojv evarofitat, /cat SpifJLvrrjres iiriorpi^ovoai
/cat TTVKvovoai rov aropuaxov ri rrdXiv dvoiyovoai
/cat x^Xcjoai SeKTLKijv riva Tpo(f>rJ� evapfioarlav
Trepieipydoavro Tvepl avrov, rfv dpe^iv KaXovfiev.

2. 'ESo/cet 8r) jjlol ravra Tndavcjs /x€v iyKe-
XeiprjadaL, TTpos Se to fieyLGTOv ivavriovadai rrjs
E cf)va€a)s reXog, €^' o rrdv dyei t^cpov ope^is, dva-
TrXripojoLV rod ivSeovg TToBovoa /cat ro^ iKXeZirov
del rod oiKeiov Sico/covcra' " to ydp w 8ia(f)€p€L
jjidXtara to i,cpov rod di/jvxov, rovro firj (f)dvaL
TTpos Gwrrjplav /cat 8tafxovr)V vndpxeiv rjfilv, woirep
ofjLfxa, rctjv* ot/c€tct>v rep oajp^ari koX Se-qrdJv^ iy-
yeyevqpLevov,^ dXXd irddos etvau /cat rpo7n]v riva

* So Xylander : rroXv.

2 Turnebus indicated a lacuna and supplied <to SinetvTJvy,
changing the following notovai to noiet Hubert believes that
more is lost, suggesting <,7T€lvav 8e Troiei* co? yap al arvipeis
460



TABLE-TALK VL 2, 687

This is more obvious in the case of hunger. Many
of the sick are in need of food and yet lack appetite ;
whereas some eat their fill, yet have appetites not
only unabated but actually intensified and persistent.
In fact, there have been many cases of loss of appetite
when a taste of pickled olive or caper has brought
prompt recovery and restored the appetite. This
proves conclusively that our hunger springs from
some modification of the passages and is not caused
by deficiency ; for this kind of food diminishes the
want since nourishment is added, yet causes hunger.
So the sharpness and pungency of salted food either
twists and contracts the stomach or, conversely, by
opening and relaxing it again, produces a kind of
adjusted receptivity in it to nourishment, which we
call appetite.

2. This seemed to me a plausible theory, but one
that contradicts the most insistent purpose of nature,
toward which appetite leads every creature ; for ap-
petite craves to fill every need and always pursues
whatever is lacking to its own proper satisfaction.
" Not to admit," I went on, " that appetite, one of
the things that particularly differentiate the animate
from the inanimate, is a means provided us for our
protection and survival, one of the things that are
implanted in us as needful and proper to our body,
like an eye, but instead to imagine that appetite is
some peculiar condition or modification of the chan-

ras odovas BcKTiKcoTipas rfjs pa<f>ijs'> ttoioiJctiv, from the last sen-
tence of the Question and the immediate context here.
' Kal TO Xy lander : avro.

* ofifia Tcov Reiske, oxqyLo. Faehse : ofiudroiv.

^ BerjTwv suspect since Stephanus, who preferred Se/crtSv,
defended by Reiske, SeovrcDv Madvig : Sct; t6jv.

• So Doehner, eyytvofifvov Reiske : eyyeyevrjfievwv.

461



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(687) TTOpoyv o'UadaL /xeye^eat /cat fJUKporrjcrL avfjif^au-
vovaav els ouSeV rfv \6yov airXaJS ridefievcov rrjv

(f>VULV.

" "ETretra piyovv jxev^ ivSela depjJLorrjros OLKelas
TO Gcofia, firjKerL Se^ Suprjv fxrjSe Treivfjv vypoTrjrog
ivSela rrjs^ Kara (J)vglv /cat rpocjyrjs, dXoyov iari'
F TOVTOV S' aXoyuyrepov, et Kevcoaeojs /u.ev e^terat
5ta rrXripcoGiv rj (^ucrts", TrXr^pcnoeaJS 8' oi) Sta
KevojGLVy dAA' irepov TLVog TraOovs iyyevofxevov.
/cat /XT]V at ye Toiavrai irepl ra Joia ;^petat /cat
dvaTrXrjpa)G€L9 ovSev n rcov Trepl ra? yecupylag
yiyvofjLevojv hia^ipovGiv 77oAAa yap o/jboia TrdG^^i
/cat porjOelraL' irpos fJiev yap rds ^r]p6r7]Tas
688 apSetats" TTorit^oixev,^ /cat ijjvxofJLev^ fierpicos orav
(f)Xeyr]TaL, piyovvra S' ai^rd daXneLV Tietpco/Lte^a /cat
cr/ceVetv ttoAA' drra^ TrepL^dXXovres' /cat ocra /xt)
Trap' T^/xa? iGTiv, evxofxeOa rov Oeov StSovat, 8pd-
aou? fjiaXaKas /cat etATJcrets" ev nvevfJiaGL pLeTpioiSy
(hs del rod dTToXeiiTOVTOS dvairX-qpajGLV rj ^vgis
€^01^ SLarrjpovGa rrjv KpaGLV. ovra> yap otfJLaL
/cat rpo(f)rjV (LvofidGdai to rrjpovv ttjv (f)VGiv
rripevrai he toZs puev (f)vrols dvaLGdrjTCOs e/c rod
TTepiexovTos i cos" <j)r)GLV 'Ep-TreSo/cATJS", vhpevofxevois
TO TTpoGcfyopov rjfjids 8' tJ op^f^S" ^rjrelv StScto/cet
/cat 8tcjj/cetv to eKXelirov rrjs KpdGeojs.

^ /i.€v added by Hirschig, Hartman, /ncv ^avai Reiske.

2 8e added by Xylander.

3 TT^j Anonymus : rrji.

* So Xylander, Madvig : TroTi^ofieva.

^ So Xylander, Madvig : ipvxofieva.

^ TToXX arra Turnebus : TroAAoara (TToAAacrTa \'enetus).

462



TABLE-TALK VL 2, 687-688

nels brought about by differences in size — that, I say,
is worthy of someone who simply leaves nature out of
account.

" Further, it is illogical to hold, on the one hand,
that the body is cold through a deficiency of proper
heat, and, on the other hand, to refuse to say that it
suffers thirst or hunger through a deficiency of natural
moisture or nutriment. Still more illogical than this
is the notion that although nature seeks evacuation
because there is repletion, it seeks replenishment not
because there is an emptiness, but on account of
some other condition that supervenes. Moreover,
these needs of animal life with their satisfactions
differ in no respect from those that occur in agri-
culture ; many of the conditions and their remedies
are similar. For instance, in the case of drought we
irrigate ; when anything is scorched, we make it
moderately cool, and when the plants are cold, we
try to warm and protect them by many sorts of
covering. What is not in our power to provide we
pray the god to grant, such as gentle dews or sun-
shine with mild breezes, so that nature may always
have a replenishment of what is lost and thus preserve
the balance of elements. I think that this is how the
word trophe (nurture) originated ; it is that which
preserves nature {terei physin) . Plants preserve nature
unconsciously, because, according to Empedocles,*
they draw as much water from the atmosphere as is
needful. But in our case, it is appetite that teaches
us to seek and pursue any element wanting in our
balance.

� Fragment 70 (Diels).

' So Wyttenbach, yxrpLas Reiske : iierpiuts.
* exo Hubert after Bernardakis, who also adds av after tuj.

463



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(688) " Ov fjLTjv dXXa Kal rcjv €lpr]fjL€vajv eKaorov
B iSwfjLev d)S OVK dXrjdes €ori. rd jikv yap evaro-
fjLiav exovra Kal 8piiivrr]Ta rd-)(OL /xev ovk ope^iv,
dXkd hriyjJLOv ifiTroLel rots 8€ktlkols^ pLcpeoi rrjs
rpo<jyr]s, olov Kvrjcpiol^ Kara Ol^lv ivlcvv dfivo-
GOVTWV el Se Kal rovro rd Trddos opeKriKov
ioTiv, eiKos ioriv vtto tcjv toiovtcjv jSpcu/xctrcuv
AeTTTWo/xeva hiaKpiveodai rd TrpoiJTTovra,^ Kal
TTOielv fJL€V eVSeiav, ov pL€Tappv6iiil,opiivo}v Se* tcuv
TTopcov dXXd Kevov/JLevcov Kal KadaipopLlvwv rd
ydp d^ia Kal Spifiea Kal dXpivpd dpVTrrovra Trjv
vXrjv hLa(l)opeV' /cat OKL8vr]GLVy wore veapdv TTOieiv
rrjv dpe^LV iKOXi^opbivajv^ rcov ecoAcov /cat )(dLl,cov.
rojv 8e Xovofievcov ov pLerao-)(ripLarLt,6pLevoL rravov-
C oiv ol TTopoL rd hiiljos, dXX i/c/xaSa 8ta' ttJ?
aapKos dvaXafipdvovres Kal dvaTTLfivXapLevoL vore-
pds drfilSog.

"01 8' epLeroL rd dXXdrpiov CK^aXXovres dird-
Xavoiv rfj <f)voeL rod olk€lov 7Tapeo\ov. ov ydp
drrXcbs rov^ vypov rd Slipos, dXXd rod Kard (j)voLV
Kal oIk€lov' Slo, Kav ttoXv Trapfj rd dXX6<f)vXov,
ivSerjs d dvdpojTrds ionv evtWarat� ydp rots' Kard
(f)VGLV vypoLS, (hv Tj dpe^is eart, /cat ov SlSojolv
dvdfii^LV ovSe /cara/cpaatv, d)(pL dv eKarfj Kal
d7TO')(OJ prior)' rdre 8' ol TTOpoi rd avfi(f)vXov dvaXap.-
pdvovGLV. ol Se TTUperol rd vypdv els ^dOos

^ So Aldine edition : StjKTLKols.

^ KvrjafMO) Hubert, Kvrjafiov Emperius, KVT^afiov kol (for Kara)
Reiske.

^ So Doehner : irpeirovra " the proper constituents."

* 8e added by Meziriacus.

^ So Stephanus, cf. 669 b : bia<f)€p€i.

* So Reiske : eladXiPofievcov.

464



TABLE-TALK VL 2, 688

" Not only that, but let us see in detail how false is
each of the arguments offered. First, sharp and pun-
gent foods perhaps produce not appetite but a sting-
ing effect on the members which receive them, an
efi'ect much like the irritation caused by touching
certain prickly things. Now if this is actually what
excites appetite, it is probably because the eating of
such things causes the comminution and disintegra-
tion of food already present in the system, and creates
a deficiency, not because the passages are forced to
adopt new shapes, but because they are emptied and
purged. Sour, pungent, or salty foods break up, dis-
tribute, and disperse the crude stuff, and thus renew
appetite because in the process the previous day's
stale residue is squeezed out. Secondly, in the case
of the bathers, thirst is abated, not through the re-
shaping of the channels, but by their absorption of
liquid through the flesh and by their being thus re-
filled with moist steam.

" Next, vomiting, by expelling foreign matter, en-
ables nature to benefit by its proper food. Thirst is
not merely desire for liquid without qualification ; it
is desire for drink that is natural and suitable. Ac-
cordingly, even if there is an abundance of the vn*ong
kind of nourishment, a man is still in want. Such
abundance blocks the natural liquids craved by thirst,
and permits no mixing or blending of food and drink
until it is removed and passes off ; then only can the
channels receive their kindred " food. Fevers force

� On " kindred " food cf. TabU-Talk, iv. i. 2, 661 e.

' 8id added by Faehse (Bolkestein, Adv. Crit. p. 78), Doeh-
ner.

* airXios rov Meziriacus : aTrAi^arou.

* So Reiske : €<f>i(rraT(u.

465



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(boo) ancjOovcnv, /cat rcov /JLecrcov <f)\eyo yievwv €KeZ irdv
D a7TOK€xojpy]K€v Koi KparelraL 7T€7n€GjjL€vov' odev

€jJi€LV T€ TToXXoVS dfJia C7U/Xj8atVet, TTVKVOTTJTL TWV

ivTos dvadXipovrojv^ rd vypd, koi Sulirjv^ St' cVSctav
/cat ^rjporrjra rod Xolttov CTcu/xaros". orav ovv
dveais yev-qrai /cat to OepjjLov e/c rcov ixeocjv dTTir),
GKihvdpievov avdis VTTOVoarei^ koX 8ttov/ ws Tre^v/ce,
TTavrrj to vorepov^ dfxa rots' re fieGois paarcjvrjv
TTapeux^v /cat rT^v adpKa AetW /cat aTraAi^v dvrt
rpaxelas /cat avxfJicoSovs yevofievrjv e/JidXa^ev, ttoX-
Aa/cts" Se /cat tSpcoras" eTTT^yayev o^ev 7^ TTOLovaa
Siiprju cVSeta Ai^yet /cat Trauerat, r-^s" vypOTrjros
E 0,770 ro�> ^apvvofjievov /cat Svaava^Xvorovvros^ inl
Tov Seojjievov /cat nodovvra fiedLarafjievrjs tottov.
0)S ydp iv KT^TTCp, (fypdaros d(f)dovov vSojp e^^VTOS,
€t jLtT^ rts" €7TavrXoZ /cat dpSoL rd ^vrd, Sli/jtjv /cat
drpo(j)€Zv dvayKOLOv eariv, ovtojs iv o-co/xart, rcDv
vypctjv els €va /carao-Trw/xeVcov roTTov, ou ^av/xa-
arov eV8etav etvat Trept ra AotTra /cat ^-qporrjTa,
pLexpt ov irdXiv iiTLppor] /cat 8ta;^uo-t? yeVryrat*
Kaddnep /cat eTvt rcuv Trvperrovrcov, orav dveddjui,
CTUjLtjSatVet /cat rcuv iyKaraSapdavovrajv rep Bli/jtjv'
/cat yap rourot? o vttvos €/c [xeaajv iiravdyajv rd
vypd /cat hiavepaov rrdvrrj roZs jLtepeotv ofJuaXtafiov
ipiTroLeZ /cat avaTrAT^pcoatv.

" *0 yap S-)) AeyojU-evos" ra>v iropcxiv fieraaxr]-

^ So Meziriacus : dvadXi^evTcov.

2 So Basel edition : Sii/rav.

^ So Basel edition, Turnebus : v-novoaTelv.

* So Turnebus : tSiov.

^ TO voTcpov Basel edition : tov erepou.

466



TABLE-TALK VL 2, 688

moisture downward, so that as the middle area is in-
flamed, the moisture withdraws to that one place and
is subjected to violent pressure. In consequence, it
is true that many men both vomit, because the con-
densation of matter inside by its pressure forces all
liquids upward, and at the same time are thirsty
because of deficiency and drought elsewhere in the
body. Therefore, when the fever subsides and the
heat leaves the central parts of the body, the moisture,
as it spreads, returns to its level, and permeates the
whole body, in keeping ^^^th its nature. At the same
time, it provides relief to those central parts, and
softens the flesh which has now become smooth and
tender instead of rough and parched. This often even
brings on sweating. Thus the deficiency that has
caused thirst ends, and its effect is lost, as moisture
shifts its position from the region where it causes
distress and stoppage of the flow to the region where
it is needed and missed. In a garden, even if there is
an excellent well, the plants inevitably wither from
thirst unless someone draws the water and irrigates ;
so, in our body, if all the liquid is drawn off to one
spot, it is no wonder that there is deficiency and
drought in the rest of the system until the flow and
diffusion of moisture are restored. Similar also is the
experience of patients after a fever and of those who
fall asleep while thirsty. In those cases, too, sleep
draws up the liquids from the central area and passes
them on, thus bringing about a uniform distribution
and a proper supply to all parts of the body.

" What sort of change of shape in the passages is it

• So Hubert after Duebner and Doehner : SvaavapXaarovv-
Tos " growing: with difficulty."
' Ta <f>VTa. Xy lander : avra.

467



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(DOo) x t ir\ ^•rtxo/��/

' fiarLGfios ovTOSy to to 7r€tV7]v 7] TO oupiqv eyyiy-
V€Tat/ TTotos Tts" ioTLV ; iyoj jxev yap ovx 6pa>
Trepl TTOpovs^ Sta<^opa? a'AAa?* Kara rrdOos^ r] ro

GVpLTTLTTTeLV Kal TO hduTaoBaL' /cat GVfJLTTLTTTOVTeS*

fjiev ovT€ TTOTOV ovT€ Tpo(f)r]v hi')(eodai hvvavrai, 3t-
LGTOLfievoL 8e KevoTrjTa /cat x^P^^ ttolovuiv, evSeiav
ovoav Tov Kara (f>'uoLV /cat oIk€lov. /cat yap at
GTVi/jcis, (L peXrLGTe, rcbv ^aTrrofjuevaJV," €(j)7)V,
689 ** TTOKCJv' €xovai to Spt/xu /cat pvtttlkov, w tcov

7T€pL(7GCOV €KKpl,VOfX€Va)V /Cat dTTOTrjKOfJLeVOJV ol TTOpOL

SexovraL fxdXXov /cat ariyovoi^ Sefa/xevot Tr]V jSa-
^•i^v vtt' ivSelas /cat /cevoTTyTos"."



nPOBAHMA r

Aid Ti Treiroii'Tes' /icV, edv Triwai, •navovrai, hitJftx>VT€s 8', e'di'
<f)dyojGiv, eViTeiVovTai

Collocuntur convivator, Plutarchus

1. *P7]d€VTa)V Se TOUTCov o iariojv rjpids /cat
TauT* e^T] fji€TpLOjg Xiyeadat /cat Trpo? aAAi^v aTTo-
B ptotv Tcts" Tojv TTopajv K€va)(j€Lg /cat dvaTrXripojueis
^orjdeZv, hid ri rois fJi^v ttclvcogiv, idv ttlcjjoi,
TTaverai ro ttcivtjv^ iv rco TrapavriKa, rols he St-
ifjcJjcjL TovvavrioVy^^ idv e/x^ayojatv, iirireiveiv avp,-
j3atVet TO Siipos. " TOVTO h-rf^^ to TrdBos ol tovs

^ So Basel edition : ovtws.

^ So Reiske : eyyevTyrai.

' TTopovs Bernardakis, tovs iropovs Doehner : nopov rj nopcoVf
where the scribe was in doubt, cf. Gulick in Am. Journ.
Philol. lx(1939), p. 493.

* So Basel edition : oAAd.

^ Trddo? Bernardakis, to irddos Doehner : TrXrjdos.

^ So Basel edition : avfimTTTovTos.
468



TABLE-TALK VL 2-3, 688-689

to which you refer, by which hunger and thirst are
occasioned ? / cannot conceive any kind of contrast
brought about by change in the condition of the
channels, except contraction and expansion. When
they contract, they cannot receive either food or
drink ; when they expand, they create emptiness
and space, which is simply the want of some natural
and proper substance. Observe also, my friend," I
said, " that the steeping in astringent solution of
fabric to be dyed involves the use of penetrating
detergents to remove and dissolve extraneous matter
in the channels or pores of the fabric, that they may
better receive and hold the dye in the spaces thus
provided and requiring to be filled."



QUESTION 3 �

Why hunger is appeased by drinking, but thirst
increased by eating

Speakers : Plutarch, his host

1 . At this point in the discussion our host said that
this was a fair statement, and besides, the theory of
the emptying and filling of passages might help us to
answer another question : why does hunger cease
immediately upon drinking while, on the contrary,
those who thirst actually become thirstier on eating ?
" This strange effect is," he went on, ** accounted for

* Cf. Macrobius, Saturnalia, vii. 12. 18 f.

' TTOKiov Bernardakis : toitov.

* So Meziriacus : arepyovai.

• fiorfdelv, . . . -rreivrjv added by Hubert after Madvig.

^" So Emperius : evavriov.

" ^ Wyttenbach : bt.

469



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(689) TTopovs vTTOTidijxevoi^ paora /cat TndavcoTard jjloi
SoKovoLV, el /cat /xi^ TroAAct fiovov TndaPcjg, at-
TtoAoyetv. Tracrt yap ovtcdv TTopojv, aAAas" Trpog
aAAa^ GVfJLjJLerpLas i)(6vTajv,^ ol fiev evpvrepoL ttjv
^rjpav a/xa /cat rr^v vypav Tpo(f)'rjv dvaXajji^dvovGLV,
ol 8' lox^orepoL to jjiev* ttotov TrapahixovTai, to
he aiTLOv ov irapaSexovraL .^ iroieX he ttjv fjuev
Siipav Tj TOVTCOV Kevojoig, r] S' eKeivcxJV rrjv TreZvav.
C odeVy edv jxev cf)dyajOLV ol StipwvTeg, ol fiev ov
Po7]6ovvraL, rcov jropojv hid XeTTTorrjra ttjv ^iqpdv
Tpo(f)r)v fXTj hexofJievayv dAA' eTTiheajv rod oiKeiov
hiayievovTiov ol he rreivcovTes edv ttivojglv, ivhvo-
fjLeva rd vypd rdls /JLell^ocn nopoLS /cat dvaTrXrjpovvra
rds" Kevonqras avrcJov dvi-qGL to O(f)ohp6v dyav ttJ?
TTeivqs."

2. 'E/xot he TO jjLev ovfi^alvov dXrjOeg e<j)aiveTO,
rf] S' VTTodeoeL ttjs atrta? ov Trpoaelxov. " /cat
ydp el TOLS iropois rourots"," ec/^rjv, " cLv evioi
TTepUxovTai /cat dyaTrdjOL, KaraTpijcTeLe Tig ttjv
odpKa, TrXahapdv /cat Tpop.ojhrf /cat oaOpdv dv'
TTOLiqueLe^ • to re fxrj raurd tov ocofxaTos fjiopia to
TTOTOV TTpoohex^crO ai /cat to oltlov dAA' cjOTrep tjO-
[JLOLS KaTappeioOai /cat dTTOKpiveodai Kopuhfj TrXa-
D GfiaTwheg /cat dXXoKOTOV. aur?^ ydp rj Trpog to
vypov dvdfJLi^LS, OpvTTTovaa rd crtrta /cat avvepyd
XafjiPdvovoa to depfidv to evTos /cat to Trvevfia,
TrdvTOJV opydvojv d/c/)tj8eWaTa Trdoais rofjidls /cat
hiaipeaeGL XeTTTVveL ttjv Tpo(f)ijv, oiGTe irdv fiopiov
avTTis TTavrl fioplcp yiyveodaL ^iXov /cat ot/cetov,

^ So Turnebus : imrideiievot..
^ dXXas 77/30? oAAa Kronenberg : dXXos -nopos dAAa?.

470



i



TABLE-TALK VL 3, 689

most easily and most convincingly, in my opinion, by
the advocates of this theory of passages, although it
isn't often that they are even so much as plausible.
There are channels for everything, varying in capacity
according to their purpose ; the wider passages
receive both solid and liquid matter, but the narrower
only the liquid. Emptiness in these latter causes
thirst ; in the former it causes hunger. Hence, if
those who are thirsty eat, they do not benefit, because
the channels, being narrow, do not admit the dry
food, and continue to miss what they require. On
the other hand, if people who are hungry take a drink,
the liquid does enter the larger passages, fills them,
and alleviates the more violent pangs of hunger."

2. To my mind, the fact was clearly true, but I did
not agree with the reason suggested for it. " For if
you were to perforate the flesh," I said, " with these
passages that certain people so fondly cling to, you
would make it weak, quivering and unsound ; to
believe that both wet and dry food are not received
into the same parts, but are filtered and separated
as if through a strainer — that is unrealistic and ab-
surd. The blending in our bodies of solid food with
liquid, breaking it up with the help of the internal
heat and vital spirit, reduces the food by every pro-
cess of division and dissection in more accurate fashion
than any instrument. This renders every particle
adaptable and homogeneous to every other, not as

^ €X^i Stephanus, tx^i- Jiv Duebner.

* TO fjLev MS., fxovov TO Wyttenbach.

^ TO �€ aiTiov ov TrapaBexovrai added by Madvig, rov Se
oiTov ov Ileiske.

* aiToyywSr) Herwerden.

' av added by Herwerden.

* So Herwerden after Basel edition and Reiske : iroi-qaas.

471



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(689) ovK ipapfjLOTTOv axmep ayyeiois^ /cat rprjixacLv aXX*
ivovfievov Kal 7TpoG(f)v6ix€vov. dv€v 8e rovrcov
oifSe XeXvrai rrjs aiTopias to p^iyiorov ol yap
€fjL(f)ay6vT€S, av IjLTj ttIojglv, ov fiovov ov Xvovaiv
dXXa Kal 7TpoGe7TLT€LVovai TO Slipos' TTpos Tovro S'
ovhev €Lpr)TaL.

2^KOTT€L be Kai ra Trap rjfJLOjv, €(f)rjv, et
(f)aLVO[ji€vas V7ro6eo€LS Xafi^dvofxev, Trpcorov fxev
XapL^dvovres ro vypov vtto^ rod $rjpov hia^deipeadaL
8a7rava)fJi€voVy rw 8* vypcp to ^rjpov ^pe)(6iJL€vov
Kal fjLaXaaoofjLevov SiaxvcreL? lg-)(€lv Kal dvadvpud-
o€LS' hevrepov Se /x-)) vop.it,ovres eKdXn/jLV ehat,
TTavrdTvaoLV fxi^TC rrj^ ^rjpds rpocjyfjg Tr]v^ TreZvav
fjLTjre rrjs vypds Trjv SLtjjav, dXXd rov (xcrplov Kal
dpKovvTos evSetav ols ydp oXojs av iXXLTrrj Odre-

pOV, OVT€ 7T€LvdjGLV OVT€ 8n/j<JL)Gl.V dXX* €vdvS ttTTO-
dvTjGKOVGLV. V7TOK€LfJL€Va)V Sc TOUT60V OV ;(aA€7rOV

tJStj rrjv* air lav cruviSeLV. rj {xev ydp Slipa Tots" </>a-
yovaiv iTTLrelveraL tojv oltIcjjv rfj ^TjporrjTi, et
Tt^ SieoTrapixevov vypov Kal dTToXenrofievov doOevks
F Kal oXlyov iv rw GWfxarL, avXXeyovrojv Kal npoo-
e^LKfjLal^ovrwv' cooirep efcu yr\v opcofxev Kal kovlv
Kal ipdfjifxov^ rd pnyvvpieva rcov vypcov dvaXajx-
pdvovoav els eavrrjv Kal d^avll,o^onv . rrjv 8e
TTeZvav av ttoXlv dvayKaiojg ro TTorov dvlrjaLV rj
ydp vyporrjs rd virovra oirla TrepLcrKeXrj Kal
yXlaxpoL ^pe^aaa Kal Sia;^eaoa, ^vfidjv iyyevo-
690 fxevcov Kal drp^ajv, dva^epei rovrois^ els to odjjjia
Kal TTpoarldrjOL rots SeojxevoLS' odev ov KaKcos

^ So Stephanus : darelots.
^ So Stephanus : diro.
' T-qv added by Reiske.
472



TABLE-TALK VL 3, 689-690

fitting into vessels and apertures, but as being
amalgamated and brought into organic agreement.
Otherwise, the most difficult part of the problem
isn't actually solved, the fact that those who take
food without drinking anything actually increase in-
stead of relieving their thirst ; nothing has been said
to explain that.

" Consider also,*' I went on, ** whether we accept
as evident two points which I have to make. The
first is that moisture is consumed and destroyed by
dryness, while dryness is saturated and softened by
moisture so that it is dissolved and vaporized. My
second point is that hunger and thirst result not from
the total expulsion of dry or wet food, but from a
lack of the proper and sufficient amount of either ;
because those who are totally deprived of either do
not suffer hunger or thirst, but simply die. These
premises granted, it is already easy to perceive the
explanation that we seek. When we have eaten,
thirst is aggravated because solid food, by its dryness,
concentrates and draws off such scant and feeble
moisture as is left scattered in the body. So outside
the body we see earth, dust, and sand absorb any
moisture that is mixed with them and make it dis-
appear. However, on the other hand, drinking does
necessarily relieve hunger. For the liquid drenches
and dissolves such hard, tough remnants of food as are
present in the system, and by means of the juices and
vapours that are generated conveys them through
the body and delivers them to those parts that need

* ^87; TTiv Basel edition : -fjSrifiev.

^ €1 TL added by Reiske.

" ipdnfiov or fiaXXov " wool " Wyttenbach : /xaAAov.

^ So Kronenberg : rovrovs.

473



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(690) 6x7]ixa T7J9 Tpoc/yfjg to vypov 6 ^KpaGLcrrparos
TrpoGclirev' ra yap vtto ^riporr^ros tj ttolxovs^ dpya
/cat ^apea fJULyvupievov avaTrepiTTei /cat crwefatpet.
TToAAot Se /cat /X17 TTLOvres aAAa Aovo-a/xevot fJLOvov
eTTavoavTo avvrofxcos^ G(f)68pa jreivojvres' ivSvo-
fievrj yap e^cjdev rj vypor-qg evxvp^OTepa TTOiei /cat
rpo(j)ipiojT€pa TO) iyxoXo-odai ra ivrog, (Lare rrjs
7T€Lvrjg TO G<f)68pa TTiKpov /cat drjpiCjSeg ivSuSovaL
/cat TTapriyopeZodai. Sto /cat ttoXvv t^cjoiv evioi
rwv aTTOKaprepovvrojv ;)^pop'ov, av vhojp piovov
B XapL^dvcoaiv y dxpi d-v oP ttolv i^LKpLaodfj to rpe^eiv
/cat TrpOGTideodai tw o-co/xari Swdfievov."

nPOBAHMA A

Ato Ttv* alriav to (^peartatov* uStup apvadiv, eav ev avrw tco
Tov (fypearos depi vvKT€p€V(rr], ipvxporepov yiVerai

Collocuntur hospes, Plutarchus, alii
1. WvXpOTTOTJ) ^eVCp TpV(f)a)VTl 7Tap€GK€vaGav ol

depdnovTeg tov €k^ (jypiaTos vScop i/wxpoTepov'
apvodfJievoL yap dyyelo) /cat KpepidoavTeg to dy-
C yetov iv tco <j)piaTi ttjs Trrjyrjs^ (jlt] aTrrojLtevov'
etacrav einvuKTepevGai, /cat irpos to Setvrvov e/co-
Ixit^eTO tov 7Tpoo(f)dTov i/jvxporepov. rjv S' o ^e-
vos cfyiXoXoyog CTrtet/co)?, /cat tout* €<^t7 AajSctv €/c
Tcuv ^ ApioTOTeXovs pi€Td Aoyou K€ifJL€vov elvai 8€
ToiovSe TOV Aoyov. Trdv vSojp TTpod^ppuavdev ipv- 1

^ So Reiske, Madvig : TrdOovs.

2 So Reiske : ctuvtovojs. ^ oi5 Xylander : ou.

* <f>p€aTt.aiov Stephanus, Lex., cf. Helmbold, Class. Phi hi.
xxxvi (1941), p. 85 : ^peariStov T.

^ TOV eV Reiske : eV rot;. ^ So Leonicus : yfj^.

' /Ln7 oLTTTOficvov Leoiiicus : fxaXaTTOfievov T.

474



TABLE-TALK VL 3-4, 690

them. Therefore Erasistratus appropriately called
water the vehicle of nourishment, since it combines
with the food that is heavy and inert because of
dryness or bulk and helps lift and carry it away.
There are even many cases where, without drinking,
but merely by bathing, men have found quick relief
from extreme hunger. For the external moisture
penetrates to the inward parts and, by causing relaxa-
tion, makes the food that is there more nourishing
and more productive of healthy humours. The effect
of this is to overcome and soothe the savage, bitter
pangs of hunger. Therefore, some who are starving
themselves to death survive even for a long time, if
they merely keep on drinking water until everything
is absorbed that can nourish and be added to the
body."

QUESTION 4

Why water drawn from a well becomes cooler if it is kept
overnight in the very air of the well"

Speakers : a guest, Plutarch and others

1 . For a guest who indulged in the luxury of cold
drinks the servants procured water which was colder
than that which came from the well by drawing it
in a vessel and suspending the vessel all night long
in the shaft of the well, but not in contact with the
water below ; thus it was brought to dinner cooler
than newly drawn water. The guest, who was a fairly
well-read man, said that he had found this in the
writings of Aristotle,^ where the reason was explained.
The explanation was as follows : all water will get

� Cf. Plut. Be Primo Frigido, 12, 949 c-f.
" Frag. 216 Rose (1886).

475



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(690) ;)^€Tat fJLoiXXov, wurrep ro rolg jSacrtAeuat napa-
(7K€va^6fi€vov' orav yap i^r]Ofj fiexpi ^ecreajs,
TTepLGOjpevovoL Tw ayyeio) ;^tova ttoXXtjv Kal yiy-
verai ifruxporepov woirep dfieXei Kal ra rjfJL€T€pa
Gcofiara Xovaapiivwv TTepupvx^rai pLaXXov rj yap

VTTO TTJg depfJLOTTJTOS aV€OlS TToXvTTOpOV TO GCJfJLa^

D Kal (xavov aTreipyaafJievT] ttoXvv Se;^€Tat rov e^ojOev
depa Kal ^uaLorepav vroiet Tr]v {jberapoXrjv orav
ovv aTTOcmaadff rrjs Trrjyrjs^ to vSojp, iv tw depi,
TTpodepfJLavddv, TTepn/jvx^TaL rax^ojs.

2. Tov fJLev ovv ^Ivov eTrrjvioapi€V (hs dvSpLKOJS
KarajJiV7]iJiov€VGavTa*' irepl Se rod Xoyov 8Lr]7ropov-
fiev. 6 yap dijp, iv w Kpejiar ai to dyy^lov, et
pbev i/jvxpo? ian, ttcjs Bepiiaivei to vhojp; el Se
depjJLos, 7TCO? TTepLipvx^L irdXiv; dXoyov yap vtto
TOV avTOV TO avTo ndax^i'V tgl ivavTca, fjLrjSefjLLag
hiaijiopds y€vofX€vrj9. glcjottcjvtos S* auTou Kal
hiaTTOpovvTos y ovhkv e^r]v^ Setv irepl tov dipos
hiaiTOpelv rj yap aloSriois Xeyei otl i/wxpo? ioTi,

E Kal fidXiOTa y' o^ iv ^ddei ^peaTCUV coctt' dpirixa-
vov VTT* dipos i/jvxpov Oepixaiveodai to v8wp- dXXd
[jidXXov 6 ^vxpos ovTos drjp t-z^i^ /xev Trrjyrjv Sid
TrXrjdos ov SvvaTai jxeTa^aXXeiv , dv hi tls d(f)aipfj
KaT dXiyov, fiaXXov KpaTcov^ irepiijjv^ei.



^ ro aojfia Stephanus : ra aaj/xara.
2 So Meziriacus, cf. 949 c : vTTOTrXaadij vtto {vtto deleted by
Benseler).

? So Frankfurt edition : ttXtjytjs.
* So Reiske : koI jjLVTj^ovcvaavra.
^ So Turnebus : €<f>T).



476



i



TABLE-TALK VL 4, 690

cooler if it is preheated, like that provided for
royalty <*; it is the practice, after the water is heated
to the boiling point, to pack snow abundantly around
the container, and the result is cooler water. Analo-
gously, as is well known, our bodies too cool off more
completely after a warm bath, because the relaxation
caused by heat opens pores all over the body and
makes it loose-textured, so that it lets in a flood of
air from outside and causes a more drastic change
from hot to cold. So, then, water withdrawn from
the well cools quickly in the air, if preheated.

2. We applauded the stranger for his valiant feat
of memory, but continued to puzzle over this theory.
For how can the air in which the vessel hangs, if cold,
heat the water ? On the other hand, if it is hot, how
can it cool the water ? It is illogical for opposite
effects to be produced in the same object by the same
cause, if no difference has been introduced. When
our friend was silent and puzzled at this, I said that
there was no need to worry about the air, for our
senses tell us that air is cold, especially deep in a well.
It is, then, impossible to think that water is heated
by cold air. Rather, this cold air cannot change the
temperature of the well-water because there is too
much of it ; but if you draw off a little water at a time,
the air gains the advantage and will cool it.<*

" Or " the Emperors " Warmington.

'' Plutarch says {De Primo Frigido^ loc. cit.) that air is the
cause of coldness. He fails to identify the effect of evapora-
tion, which is multiplied by the use of porous jars. Cf. Helm-
bold's note 6 in LCL Mor. xii, p. 251.

* Y* ^ Hubert, o tujv Reiske : ratv.
' So Basel edition : ipdTwv.



477



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(^^^) nPOBAHMA E

Ata TtV alriav ol ;)^aAi/ces koX at iioXi^hihes e/i^aAAd/xevat
ijjvxpoTepov TO vbojp TTOiovaiv

Collocuntur Plutarchus, hospes

F " 'AAAct /JLTjv 7T€pL Tcjjv ;^aAt/<:cL>v," €^r]v, " rj tcjv
aKfjiovojv,^ ovs ifJipaXXovreg els to vScop i/jvxeLV
avTO /cat GTOjjiovv Sokovglv, €lpr)[jLevov 'AptcrroreAet
jjLvrjiJiov€V€LS ; " " avro rovr ," €(l>7], " fjLovov cv
TTpo^hqixaGLV eipriKe to yiyv6pi€VOV' elg Se r7]V al-
riav €7rLX€Lp'qGOlJL€V^ T^/XetS" €GTL yoLp fidXiGTa 8vG-

d€cx)py]Tos."

riaj^ jLtev ovvj' e^^v/ " /cat davixaGaLfx av,
el jJiT) 8Lacf)vyoL 6 Xoyos r]ixds' opa 8*^ opLWS.^ vpco-
Tov ov SoKel GOL Trepn/jvx^crGoLi^ p-^v vtto rod aepog
691 TO vScop e^cjdev epLTTiiTrovTOS,^ 6 S' a'r]p p,dXXov
Igxv€lv^ TTpos Tov? Xldovg Kal Tovs a/c/xova?^ avre-
peiSop^evos ; ov yap eojGiv avrov wGTrep ra ;^aA/ca
/cat Tct Kepapied rcbv ayyeiwVy 8te/c7rtWetv, dAAa rfj
TTVKVOTTJTL GTeyovTes ava/cAcootv^" els to v^cop cxtt'
avTOJV, a)Gre St* oAot> /cat to;^fpav^^ yiyveGdai^^ ttjv
TTepixjjv^iv . Sto /cat ;^€tjLtcovos' ot irorap^ol ijjvxporepoi
yiyvovrai rrjs daXdrT7]S' Igx^^^ ydp ev avrols 6
ifjvxpos drjp dvaKXwpievos ^^ ev he rfj daXdrrrj Sia
pddos c/cAueTat Trios' p^rjSev dvrepeihcov .

^ aKovojv Junius, Stephanus.

2 iinx^Lpriao)p.€v Stephanus. ^ 1^77 E, perhaps rightlj'.

^ opa K Wyttenbach : opdre, ^ So Reiske : oAa>s.

* So Reiske : Trpo^vx^odai.

' So Anonymus : €kttl7ttovtos.

^ So Wyttenbach : laxvei.

^ ras oLKovas Stephanus.

^" So Doehner from Psellus : dvaXovaiv.

478



TABLE-TALK VL 5, 690-691



QUESTION 5 �

Why pebbles and lumps of lead thrown into water
serve to make it cooler

Speakers : Plutarch and a guest

" Yes, and do you remember," I said, " a statement
by Aristotle ^ about pebbles or lumps of metal,<'
which people are said to drop into water to cool and
temper it ? " "About that," he answered, " he men-
tioned only the phenomenon itself as you've stated
it, as one of a number of problems. It is up to us to
try to explain the cause, which is extremely hard to
discover."

" Quite so," said I, ** I should really be surprised
if it did not elude us ; but look into it, anyway.
First of all, don't you think that the water is cooled
by the outside air that assails it, and that the air has
more effect if it comes down against stones and lumps
of metal ? For these objects do not allow it to escape,
as the bronze or clay vessels do, but by their density
keep it and reflect it back into the water, so that the
cooling pervades the whole and becomes thorough.
That is why in fact rivers in winter are colder than
the ocean ; in them the cold air is effective because
it is reflected from the bottom, whereas in the ocean
it is dissipated, since because of the depth it comes
against nothing solid to stop it.

" Excerpted by Psellus, Be Omni/aria Doctrina^ 154.

* Frag. 213.

* akmones : the common meaning of this word, " anvils,"
seems unsuited here. Cf. below on " whetstones."

^^ So Basel edition : laxoaav.
^* So Bernardakis from Psellus : yeviadai.
^' So Doehner from Psellus : avaXuiyxvos.

479



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA ^



(691) " Kar' aAAov Be rpoirov €lk6? ion ra AeTrrorepa
Ta>v vSarcov Trepufjvx^c^doLL jjidXXov^ vtto rod ifruxpov'
B Kparelrai yap hi aadeveiav. at 8' d/covat /cat ot
XolXik€S XeTTTVvovcn TO vSojp, 6 Tt doXepov /cat
y cesses' dva/xc/xt/crat, tovto ovvdyovreg /cat /cara-
CTTTOj^'Tes' citt' auTou, cjare AeTrrorepov /cat aadeve-
orepov TO vSojp yevofxevov fidXXov vtto Trepupv^eoj?
KpareZodai. /cat /xt^v o re jU-oAtjSSos" tcov <j)Voei ifjv-

XPCOV €(7TtV, OS" y€ Tpi^6p,€VOS 6^€L TO IpVKTLKiOTa-

Tov Tcbv davaGLjJia)v (lyapfiOLKCDV i^avlrjai ipLpLvdiov
OL re ;^dAt/c€S' TTVKVorrjTL to ipvxpov Std ^dSovs
TTOLOVGLV TTO-S /xcv yctp At^o? Karei/wyfievr]? /cat
TTeTnXrjfjLevrjs vtto Kpvovs yrjs TTayos iorivy /xaAAov

S* O fJidXXoV 7T€TTVKV(jO[JL€VOS' cjgt ovk droTTov, el

TTjv ipvxpoTTjra rod vharos avrepelScov ovveTnreivei.
C /cat o At^o? /cat o fioXi^Sog."

nPOBAHMA S'

Aia TtV atrtav dxvpois koI Ifiariois ttjv xi-ovo. 8i,a(f)v\dTrovai
CoUocuntur hospes, Plutarchus

1. Mt/cpov ovv 6 ^evog hiaXiTTwy, " ot epajvreg,"
6(^7], " fjidXiora {lev avrols roig TratSt/cot?, el 8e
fxrj, 7T€pl avToJv eTTidvpLOVGi hiaXeyeaOar rovro^
TTeTTOvda TTepl ttJs" x^^^^S". €77€t yap ov TrdpeoTLV
ouS* exojJLev,^ eTrt^v/xco^ fiadelv, ris alria 8t' rfv

1 ^ after iiaXKov deleted by Basel edition.

^ Tovro Basel edition, toutou ravro Doehner : rovrois.

* ovhk Xafi^dveLv TTodkv exofiev Reiske : ouSc cxofiev.

* So Leonicus : eirtdvfiiap.

480



TABLE-TALK VI. 5-6, 691

" In another way also it is probable that thinner
water is more easily refrigerated ; it is overpowered
by cold because of its own weakness. Whetstones "
and pebbles thin the water ; they collect and pre-
cipitate any mud and solid matter that is carried in
it. This makes the water thinner and weaker, and
consequently more subject to cooling. Moreover,
lead is a naturally cold substance. For if triturated
with vinegar, it gives off the most refrigerant of
deadly drugs, lead acetate.'' Pebbles too are dense
enough to cool water all through, for any stone is a
compact solid of earth, chilled and compressed by
icy cold, the denser the colder. It is not surprising,
then, if both stone and lead by their solidity help to
increase the coldness of the water."



QUESTION 6 •

Why snow is covered with straw and cloth to preserve it

Speakers : Plutarch and a guest

1. After a pause the guest said, " Lovers desire
above all to talk directly to the boys that they're
fond of ; if they cannot, they desire at least to talk
about them. That is my case now with reference to
snow. Since there is no snow here and we can supply
none, I have a desire to be informed why it is pre-

* Or " pigs of lead " : Aristotle apparently, according to
Plutarch, uses the term similarly. Cf. De Primo Frigido, 11,
949 c (LCL Mor. xii, pp. 248 flF., and notice particularly note
a on p. 250).

" See Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxiv. 175 with Warmington's
note (LCL vol. ix), where the process of manufacture is de-
scribed.

* Excerpted by Psellus, De Omni/aria Doctrina, 155.

VOL. VIII B 481



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(691) VTTO Tcov depfJLordrojv (fyvXaGaerai. /cat yap dxvpois
J) OTrapyavovvres avrriv /cat TTepicrreXXovres IfiarloLS

dyVOLTTTOLS €7TL TToXvV ')(p6vOV dTTTaiOTOV StaTT^pOU-

crtv. BavpiaoTov ovv, €t cruveKTiKd rd OeppLorara
Tojv i/jvxpordrcov eori."

2. " Ko/xtS^ y'," ^ff>'^v, " etVep dXiqOes ioriv ovk
€X€L S' ovTOJSy dXX avrovs 7TapaXoyil,6p,€da, dep-
pLov evdvs^ etvai to deppLolvov vTroXapL^dvovreg- /cat
ravd^ opcjvres on ravrov IpbdrLOV iv ;^et/xcovt dep-
pLalv€LV^ iv S' rjXLO) ipvx^i'V yiyovev^' woirep tj rpa-
yLKT] rpo(f)6s iKetvYj rd rijs Nto^i^? reKva nQrivel-
rai'

XeTTTOOTTaOi^TOJV* ;)(AavtStcov ip^nrioLS
ddXiTOVoa /cat ipvxovGa.

TeppLavol pL€V ovv Kpvovs 7Tp6pX7]pLa TTOiovvraL rrjv
E iudrJTa piovov, AWloTres Se ddXirovs pLovov, rjpLeLS
8* dp.<f)oZv. coCTTC Tt pidXXov, et ddXirei, OeppLTjv
•^ ipvxpdv 0,770 rod Trepupyx^LV XeKreov; et Se Set
rfj alodrjoei reKpiaipeodai, pidXXov dv ijruxpd ye-
votro- /cat yap o ;YtTa>v ipvxpos rjpLLV TrpoCTTrtVret
TO TTpcbrov €v8voapL€Vois /cat TO, orpojpLara Kara-
/cAtvctCTtv etra pbivroL ovvaXealveL rrjs dc/)*^ rjpLCJV
TTLpiTrXdpLeva OeppLaalas /cat a/xa ^ev TTepiareXXovra
/cat Karexovra to deppLov dpia 8* direipyovra to
Kpvos /cat Tov e^cjjOev^ depa rod acLpLaros. ol pL€v
ovv TTVperrovres ?) /cau/xaTiJo/xevot CTwe;^^)? aA-
AaTTOVOt Ta t/xctTta Toi' ijjvxpdv elvai rd inipaX-

^ So Stephanus : evdv.

2 So Basel edition : depixaivei,

^ So Duebner : Xeyofxcv.

* So Turnebus, Vulcobius, and, according to Wyttenbach,
y, Anonymus : XeTrros Trddr) twv,
482



TABLE-TALK VL 6, 691

served by the hottest of materials. People swathe it
like an infant in straw, and wrap it in cloth of un-
fulled wool to keep it for a long time intact. It is
certainly astonishing that the warmest things should
be capable of preserving the coldest."

2. " Very much so, indeed," I answered, *' if it is
true. But it isn't so, and we mislead ourselves if we
assume that anything that warms is by the same to-
ken hot, especially when we see that the same gar-
ment can keep us warm in winter and yet cool in the
sun. Witness in tragedy the way the celebrated nurse
takes care of Niobe's children,"

With fragments of fine-woven little garments.
Both warming and cooling them.

The German tribes use clothes for protection only
against cold, the Ethiopians against heat, and we
against both. So why must we say that clothing is
" hot " if it warms, rather than " cold " because it
cools ? If we are to judge by sense-impression, it
would rather be proved cool, for when we first put
on our undergarments, or lie down in the blankets,
their touch is cool. Afterwards, to be sure, they help
to warm us, after they have absorbed our body heat,
not only by enclosing and retaining the warmth, but
also by excluding the outer air with its chill. Sufferers
from fever or heat continually change their clothes
because of the momentary coolness of a fresh garment

" Author unknown ; Nauck, Trag. Gr. Frag., p. 839, frag.
7. Quoted more fully in Mor. 496 e ; but note that the emen-
dation in LCL Mor. vi, p. 350, is inconsistent with the present
passage.

' So Psellus, Doehner : v0.

• So Benseler : e^ca.

' So Basel edition : to.

48S



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

^ J, Xojjievov, av S* ctti^At^^^, Trapa^prjlJia ytyveodai^
depfiov VTTO rod ocofiaros. (Larrep ovv rj/Jidg dep-
jjLaLVOfjievov deppLaivei to IpLdriov, ovrcog T'r]v x^ova
ijivx^ofxevov dvTLTrepufjvx^L' i/jvx^raL S* vtt' avrijg
d(f)L€LGr]�^ TTvevfia Xeirrov rovro yap Gvvex^i rrjv
TTTJ^LV avTTJg iyKaraKeKXeLGjjievov^' OLTreXdovTos Se
Tov TTvevfiaros, vScop ovoa pet /cat StarTj/cerat, /cat
(iTrav^et to XevKov onep rj rod TTvevfiaro? Tipos to
vypov dva/xtfts" a^pcoS?^? yevofievr] Trapelx^v a/xa
t' ovv TO ijjvxpov iyKarex^rai TrepLureyopLevov rco
692 tjLtaTto), /cat o e^ojOev drjp diTeLpyopLevog ov ripLvei
TOV Trdyov owS' dvlrjoLV. dyvdiTTOis he tovtols
Xpo^VTai, Tols t/xaTtotS"* rrpos tovto 8ia ti^v Tpa-

XVTTJTa /cat ^TjpOTTJTa TTJS KpOKvhoS OVK iaXJT]^

eTTLTreoeZv ^apv to IpidTiov ovhe ovvdXi^ai ttjv
XOLVVoTTjTa TTJg ;^tdvos" cjoTrep /cat to dxvpov Sid

KOV(f)6T7]Ta fJLaXaKWg TTepiTTlTTTOV ov dpVTTTei TOV

TrdyoVy dXXoJS he ttvkvov eoTi /cat OTeyavov, ojoTe^
/cat T^v^ deppLOTT^Ta tov depos dTreipyeiv /cat ttjv
ifjvxpoTrjTa KcoXveLV dinevaL Trjs ;\;toyos'. oTt S' 7]
TOV TTvevpiaTO? SidKpLCTLS ipLTTOLet TTjv TTJ^iv, e/x^a-
ves" icJTL TTJ aloSriaeL' T7]Kop,evr] yap rj x^'djv 7Tvevp,a



^ yiveodai Hubert : yiverai.

2 So Psellus, Doehner : d<j)€icrr)�.

^ So Psellus, Doehner : iyKaraKeifievov.



484.



TABLE-TALK VL 6, 691-692

as it is first put on, though it immediately becomes
hot from the body." Accordingly, a garment or piece
of cloth, just as it warms us while being warmed by
us, will like^\dse cool snow, while being cooled by it.
The cooling by the snow is due to a fine vapour that
is given off. This vapour, while locked in, maintains
the frozen condition of the snow, but as soon as it has
departed, the snow, being only water, becomes fluid
and melts away, losing the whiteness produced by
the frothy effect of the vapour mixed with water.
When snow is WTapped in cloth, the cold is held in by
the insulating effect of the cloth, which at the same
time excludes the outer air and prevents it from
breaking up and melting the frost. Unfulled material
is used for this because the roughness and dryness of
the nap keeps the weight of the cloth from bearing
down and compressing the loose structure of the snow.
Likewise, the straw, having no weight, makes a light
covering which does not crush the ice, yet is packed
close and tight enough to exclude the heat of the air
and prevent the escape of cold from the snow. That
the escape of vapour is the cause of melting is obvious
to the senses, for snow as it melts gives off steam."

" Cf. Mor. 100 B.

* Xpohnax rots Ifiarlois added by Xylander.
' So Basel edition : wcnrcp.
• rifv added by Leonicus.



485



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(^^^ nPOBAHMA Z

El Bet Tov olvov ivBi-qOelv
Collocuntur Niger, Aristio

1 . Ntypos^ o ttoXlttjs rjfjiojv oltto oxoXijs d(f>lKTO
Gvyyeyovcbs ivSo^ct) ^iXoGocfxx) y^povov ov ttoAw,
aAA' €v ooco ret rod avhpos ov Karakafx^dvovres^
dveTTii-iTTXavro rcov eTraxOcov dir^ avrov iJLLiJLOvfJL€VOL^
TO iTTLTLiJiTjTLKOv Kal iXeyxovTes* €7rt TTavrl irpdy-
fxari Tovg cruvovrag. ioTLOJVTOs ovv rjfJLds 'Apt-
GTiOJVOS,^ rrjv r dXXr^v xopr^ylav cos TToXvreXrj /cat
7T€pUpyov iiJi€[ji(f)€TO Kal TOV olvov ovK e(f>rj Selv
€yx€.iudai^ hnqd-qiiivov,^ dAA', ojcmep ^Yioiohos
C €KeX€Vuev, diro rod ttlOov TTiveodai ttjv (tvijl(I)vtov
exovra pcofjirjv Kal Svvafiiv. " r) be roiavrr] KdOap-
GLS avrov TTpcjrov fxev iKrefxveL rd vevpa Kal ttjv
depfJLorrjra Karaofiivwoiv i^avdel yap Kal dnoTTveZ

8L€pO)fJLeVOV^ TToXXdKLS.

" "FiTTeira Trepiepyiav Kal KaXXoiTnapiov €jLt<^atVet
Kal Tpv<jyr]v els ro rjSv KaravaXioKovoa ro xP'^^^^fJ^ov.
WGTTep ydp TO rovs dXeKrpvovas eKrepiveiv* Kal
rovs x^i'povs, dnaXr^v avrojv irapd (f)VGLV rrjv adpKa
TTOLOvvras Kal Oi^Xeiav, ovx vyiaivovrcov eorlv
dvdpcoTTCOV dXXd bie^dapixevcjv vtto Xixveias, ovrojs,
el Set iiera(j>opa ;)^/0T7o-a/x.€vov Aeyctv/" i^evvovxl-

^ So Xylander from 3for. 131 a : NiVpos-.

^ So Reiske : KaToXafi^dvovros.

* So Basel edition : ^ifioviievov.

* So Basel edition : Xiyovros.

^ So Xylander : 'ApiCTxcovo?. * So Turnebus : iXeyxeadat.

' So Doehner : rjdrjfxevov. * So Xylander : Biewpaijxcvov.

* So Bernardakis : iKTifj^lv.

1� So Xylander, eAeyxfi" Budaeus, Turnebus : exetv.

486



TABLE-TALK VL 7, 692

QUESTION 7

Whether it is right to strain wine

Speakers : Niger, Aristion

1 . My fellow-townsman Niger <* had returned from
a brief course of instruction under a noted philoso-
pher. The time had been long enough, however, for
students, though they might not take hold of the
man's teaching, to catch some of his annoying habits.
They would reproduce his censorious manner and
take the company to task on every possible occasion;
so, when we were entertained at dinner by Aristion,
Niger began to find everything too costly and elabo-
rate. Specifically, he told us that -wine ought not to
be filtered, but ought to be drunk straight from the
winejar, according to Hesiod's prescription,^ with all
its natural power and strength. "Purifying it like
this," said he, " cuts out its sinew and quenches its
fire. There is a loss of bloom and a dissipation of the
bouquet from the repeated straining.

" In the second place, this practice reflects a
tendency to over-refinement, vainglory, and luxury,
and sacrifices the useful in favour of the pleasurable.
To castrate pigs and cocks, making their flesh un-
naturally soft and effeminate, is typical of men whose
health and character are ruined by gluttony. Just
so, if I may use the metaphor, do people caponize

* Niger or Nigros is known only from this passage and the
De Tuenda Sanitate (hCL Mor. ii, pp. 260-261) where there is
an account of his death in Galatia on a lecture tour. The
present passage seems to prove that he came from Chaeronea,
as Ziegler thinks {pp. cit. 679).

'' Works and Days^ 368 : " when the jar is first opened."
But this is far from close.

487



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(692) l,ovaL^ Tov aKparov /cat airodr^XvvovGiv ol 8l7]-
D Sovvres, ovr* d(f)dovov^ vtt* dadeveias ovre Triveiv^
fjuerpiov SwdixevoL Slol rrjv aKpaoiav aXXd crocfyLUfxa
rovT iarlv avrois koI pLrj^divr^iJia TroXviroolas'
i^aipovai,^ Se rod olvov to epL^pidis, to Xelov^
diToXiTTOVTes , a)G7T€p ol roZs aKparaJS exovoL irpos
ipvXpOTTOoiav appcoGTOLS d^€ipr]ixivov^ hi^ovres' o rt
ydp GTopLOifxa rod olvov /cat Kpdros^ iarlv, rovr
iv rw 8lvXlI,€(,v e^aipovGL^ /cat diroKpivovGi. /xeya
Se� reKfuqpiov vrj Ata <j)dopds^^ ro [jltj SiafieveiV aAA'
i^LGraGdai /cat /xapatVeo-^at, Kaddrrep diro pitpqs
Kovevra rrjs rpvyos' ol Se TraAatot /cat rpvya rov
OLVOV dvriKpvs eKdXovVy (LGvep i/wx'^v /cat /ce^aA-j^v
E rov dvdpcoTTOV elwdapiev (xtto r&v KVpLCjrdrcov
V7T0Kopit^€Gdaiy /cat rpvydv Xeyofiev rovs Speno-
fxevovs rrjv dpLTTeXtvrjV oTTwpav, /cat * Siarpvyiov '
7TOV ^OpbT^pos €ipy]K€v, avrov Se rov olvov ' aWoira '
/cat ' ipvdpov ' etcode /caAetv ovx cvs ^ApiGrlcov
TjiMV (hxpi'dJvra /cat ;^Aa)/)oy vtto rrjs TroXXrjs Kad-
dpoeo)? TTapexerat."

2. Kat o ^ApLGrLOJV yeXdaas, " ovk wxpidjvr^ ,"
etVrev, " cS rdv, ou8' avat/xov', dAAa jLtetAt;;^tov /cat
TjfjLepLSrjv, dwo rrjg dipecxjs avrrjs irpchrov. gv S
d^tots" rov vvKrepLVov /cat jLteAavatytSos" ifKJiopeiGdaL,

^ So Leonicus : c^owx^^ovm.

^ So Hubert, ^ipeiv Wilamowitz, <f)op€lv Xylander : j>pov€.iv.

3 rov after mVeiv deleted by Hubert.

* So Duebner : i^aipovm.

^ TO Xelov Stephanus : re'Aeiov.

^ So Basel edition : d(f)r)iljafievov.

' So Basel edition : aKparos.

^ So Duebner : f^alpovm. � Se added by Basel edition.
^"^ V17 Ata (f>dopds Reiske, rrjs Sia^^opds Basel edition : rj 8ia-
(f>6opa' Koi.
488



TABLE-TALK VL 7, 692

and emasculate wine, filtering it because they are too
poor in health to drink hard and too intemperate to
drink in moderation. Why, this is nothing but a
trick, a contrivance that enables them to drink on
and on, since it takes the heaviness out of wine and
leaves it smooth. It reminds me of the way that
water is boiled for patients unable to control their
thirst for cold liquids. Some substance that consti-
tutes the edge and power of the wine is removed and
lost in the process of filtering. Now a positive indica-
tion of the destructive power of this process is that
filtered wine does not keep its quality, but weakens
and fades as if cut off from its root, that is, the lees.
The ancients even went so far as to call ^vine * lees,' "
just as we affectionately call a person * soul ' or ' head '
from his ruling part. So we use trygdti ^ of those
who gather the harvest of the vine, and Homer some-
where has the expression diairygios, ' yielding trygS
throughout the season,' and is accustomed to apply
to wine itself the adjectives ' fiery-looking ' (aiikops)
and * red,' and not — as Aristion serves it — ' pale ' and
* bilious-looking ' from excessive purification."

2. Aristion laughed and said, " Not bilious-looking,
my dear fellow, nor bloodless, but mellow and sunny,*
as appears first of all in its face. But you want us to
fill up on wine dark as night and sable-palled,'* and

� The same word {tryx) is used for " lees " and " fresh
wine " or " must."

* Plutarch takes this as meaning " to gather lees," but
Tpvyrjt the immediate source of the verb, is used of harvested
grain as well as of vintage, not specifically of must.

* P>oni TJfiepos (tame, cultivated) ; the form used signifies
a cultivated vine, but is taken here as the opposite of noc-
turnal," as if from -qfifpa (day).

•* Used bv Aesch. Sept. 699, of an Erinys ; literally '* of
dark aegis.

VOL. VIII R* 489



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(692) /cat ijjeyeis rrjv KaBapaiv cjorrep x^X-qixeoiav St'

F '^s^ TO papv /cat fiedvGTLKov d^iets"^ /cat voGotSe?

€Xa(j)p6s /cat dv€v opyrjs avapLiyvvraL rjfJLLV, olov

"OfiTjpos (jir^GL 7TLV€LV Tovs 7]pcoas' aWoTTa yap ov

/caAet Tov l,o(j)€p6v, dAAd rov Siavyrj /cat XapLTrpov

ov yap dv, co <j)i\e, rov^ ' eviqvopa ' /cat ' vcLpona

XolXkov ' 'aWoTra ' TTpoarjyopevev.

" "Qonep ovv 6 ao(f)6g ^ Avdy^apois dAA* drra

693 Tcjv 'EAAtJvcov ix€ix(j)6pievos iirrivei rr)v dvdpaKel-

av* oTt rov Kairvov efa> /caraAiTrovrcs" ot/caSe Tiup

KOjjLL^ovGLV, ovTcus 'qfj-d? icj)^ irlpois dv i/jeyoLre

jxdXXov ol ao(f)OL vfjL€L�' el Se rod otvov to rapa/c-

Tt/cdv /cat d;^Ac(jSes' i^codovfjLevoi /cat aTroCT/ccSdcjav-

res", avrdv Se (jyaihpvvovTes^ ov KaXXcDTrioavres , 07)8'

a)G7T€p Gihripov GTOfjLWfjia /cat dKfj.rjv aTroKoipavreg,

dXXd fJidXXov wGTrep lov t] pvirov aTTOKaddpavres

TTpoG^epopLeda, rl 7rAi7/x/>t€Aou/xev; ' ort vrj Ata

TrXeov Igxv€i firj hirjOovpievos '' /cat yd/) dvOpcjiros,

o) ^iXe, (fypeverl^cov /cat fiaivofxevos' dAA' orav

iXXe^opo) ;^pT7crd/x€Vos' "^ 8tatT27 KaraGrrj, ro fiev

B G(l>oSp6v €K€LVO /Cat crwTovoi' ol^^TaL /cat yeyovev

i^LTTjXoVy 7j S' dXyjOivrj Swa/xts" /cat Gco^poGvvr]

^ 8t' tJj Meziriacus : eis (s in erasure).
^ So Stephanus, d^eis Basel edition : a^tct.
^ av, tS ^t'Ae, rov Pohlenz, av o Ae'ycoi' Wyttenbach : avco-
(f>X€yiov.

* dvdpaK€Lav Hubert : avSpaKidv.

^ he (fiatBpvvovres Reiske, -avres Wyttenbach : 8* €v<f>paivov-

T€S.



TABLE-TALK VL 7, 692-693

you find fault with purification in terms that suggest
the purging of bile ; actually, it is a means to rid
the wine of heavy, intoxicating, morbid elements and
make it light in the mixture and free from anger, as
Homer " says the heroes drank. For aithops in Homer
doesn't mean ' murky ' ^ but * translucent * and

* gleaming '; otherwise, my dear friend, he wouldn't
have called bronze aithops as well as * manly ' and

* flashing.'

* Wise Anacharsis,'' while objecting to other traits
and customs of the Greeks, praised their use of char-
coal, by which they left the smoke out of doors and
brought only the fire into the house. Similarly, you
learned people might better find fault with us on
other grounds. No, even if we do extract and banish
from wine its disturbing and offensive element,
brightening without bedizening it,** not taking off the
fine temper of its edge as from steel or iron, but
rather cleaning away corrosion and dirt before we
partake of it, why are we wrong in doing that ?
' Why, because,' you say, * wine is stronger unfil-
tered.' Yes, my friend, so is a madman stronger in
his frenzy. But when he recovers, after a dose of
hellebore or some curative regimen, his violence and
tension are eradicated and disappear, while genuine
strength and soundness of mind return to his sys-

" See below, Table-Talk^ ix, 736 d : an interpretation of
Achilles's invitation to the single combatants at the funeral
feast of Patroclus as implying that Achilles desired them to
lay aside any anger or ill will that might have arisen between
them {Iliads xxiii. 810). Another possibility is that in Iliad
ix. 2;24 (c/. 1^60) the drinking symbolizes the attempt to re-
concile Achilles and Agamemnon.

'> In some late authors aithops means " black."

* A Scythian wise man who travelled in Greece c. 630 b.c.
** Or, " removing the dirt without adding rouge," Post.

491



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(693) TTapayiyverai rco ocjjfxari' ovtoj 8r) /cat rj KaOapois
rod oivov to ttXtjktlkov d^aipoucra /cat fiavLKOv,
els TTpaelav e^iv /cat vyiaivovoav KadicrrrjoL.

Uepiepylav S' ot/xat TrdfiTToXv Sta^epeiv Kada-
piorrjTos^' /cat yap at ywat/ces" ^VKovpuevai /cat
pLvpit^opLevai /cat xpvcrov (f)opovaai /cat irop^vpav
TTepUpyoL SoKovoLv, Xovrpov 8e /cat dXeLfjLfjia /cat
KOjJLTjg pvipLV^ ovSels atriarat. )(apL€VTOJS Be rrjv
Siacjyopdv 6 7roL7]rrjg eTTiSeLKWOiV inl ttjs koo-
fjLovjxevrjs "Upas,

dfJL^poairj jJL€V Trpcorov oltto xP^os ddavdroio^
Au/xara rravra Kadrjpev, dXelipaTO 8e AtV iXalto •

[Jiexpi Tovrcjv cTTijiteActa* KadapioTTjTo? iariv orav
Se ras" xpucrd? vepovag dvaXafi^dinj /cat ra SirjKpi-
^ojfJLeva rexyrj iXXo^La /cat TeAeuTcocra tt]? Trcpt
Tov /cecTTov aTrrrjraL yo7]Teias, rrepLepyia to xPVI^^
/cat XajjLvpla firj TTpenovGa yafxerfj yeyovev. ovkovv
/cat Tov ot^-ov ot fjL€V aAoats" ;)(;pa)rtfovTes' "^ /cty-
vafXcofiOLS /cat KpoKois i(l)r]8vvovr€S oioirep yuvat/ca
/caAAcoTTtfouCTtv ets" ra orupnTooLa /cat 77poaya>yeu-
ouCTtv ot S' d(f)aLpovvT€S TO pvirapov /cat dxprjorou^
€^ avTOV depairevovGL /cat Kadaipovaiv. eirel Trdvr
D av etTTOtS" ravra irepLepyiav, dp^dfxevos diro rod
OLKOV Tt yap ovTCJS /ce/covtarat ; rt 3' dveojye rou
TTepiexovTOS oOev av fidXiora Trvevfia XapL^dvoL /ca-
dapov /cat Tou cfxxJTos dnoXavoL Trepuovros^ em rd?
SuCTCts'; Tt Se TcDv e/cTrcu^LtaTcov eKaorov e/CTeVptTTTat
/cat SteojLLT^/cTat 7ravTa;!^d^ev cocTe XdjiTreiv /cat rrepi-
oriX^eiv; t) to /x€V eKTTOjfJL^ eSct /Lti) pvirov iirjSe

^ So Reiske : KaQapoT-qro^. ^ So Doehner : dpwpiv.

492



TABLE-TALK VI. 7, 693

tem. Just so, clarifying removes the violent, insane
element and brings the >vine into a gentle, whole-
some state.

" Being finical is to me a far cry from being clean.
When women wear rouge, perfume, and gold and
purple, they are considered too showily dressed ; but
no one takes exception to bathing, the use of oil, or
shampooing. Homer brings out the difference very
neatly in his lines on Hera adorning herself <* :

First with ambrosia she cleaned all soil from her person.
Then with sleek oil she anointed herself.

So far she is showing concern for cleanliness, but when
she picks up those gold brooches and finely \^Tought
earrings, and, lastly, turns to the witchery of Aphro-
dite's magic band, it is plainly a case of overdoing
things and of wanton conduct unbecoming to a wife.
Even so, those who colour wine v^ith aloes or sweeten
it with cinnamon or saffron are adorning it like a
woman's face in preparation for a gay party, and are
acting as a kind of pander ; those who draw off the
impurities and unpalatable elements are simply tend-
ing and cleaning it. You might speak of everything
we have here as overelaboration, beginning with the
house. For why is it stuccoed as it is ? And why is it
open to catch the pure air of heaven and enjoy the
light as the sun moves round to its setting ? Why is
each cup scoured and polished so as to gleam and
glitter all over } Must the cup be free of fusty, vile

� Iliad, xiv. 170.

' ifjLtpotvTos Homer.

• KoX after eVi^cAfta deleted by Hubert.

• So Basel edition, E, and a corrector of T : axpicrrov.

• So Reiske : Trfpiovro^j which may stand, as from the
compound of cf/u, see LSJ.

498



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(693) ^o')(B'r]piag oScuSos" elvai, to S' €^ avrov ttlvoiicvov
evpcjTos rj K-qXiSojv avair eirXriod ai ;

" Kat ri Set ra aAAa Xeyeiv; rj yap avrov rov
Twpov hiaiTOV-qois^ els rov dprov, ovSev erepov rj
KadapoLS ovGa, diaoai /xe^' ocri^s" yiyverai Trpayfia-
reias' ov yap fiovov viroGKa^iopiOL /cat StarrT^crets'^
E /cat dTTO/cptoret?^ /cat hiaKpio€L<s etcrt rcDv oltlcov
/cat Tcov dAAoTptcuv* dAA' 'vj rplipLS eKdXi^ovoa rov
^vpdpiaros ro rpa^v /cat 7^ Treipis e^iKpidt^ovoa ro
vypov^ KadaipovGL /cat ovGreXXovoi rrjv vXrjv els
avro ro ehajhijiov. ri ovv droirov, el /cat rov otvov
ro rpvycoSes OJS Kpip,vov r] GKV^aXov rj hirjdrjGis
e^aipel^ p,rjre harrdvrjs rivos rfj KaddpGei \irjr
aG^oXlas TToXXrjs TrpoGovorjs ; "



nPOBAHMA H

Tls alria ^ovXifiov
Collocuntur Plutarchus, Soclarus, Cleomenes, alii

1. GvGia ris eon rrdrpios, rjv 6 fiev dp^wv eirl
rrjs KOLvrjs eorias Spa rcjv S' dAAcuv eKaoros err
OLKov KoXelrai he " ^ovXifxov cfeAaai? "* /cat rcbv
F olKercov eva rvrrrovres dyvivais pd^hois Std Ovpcjv

^ So Basel edition : SiaTrvo-qms.

^ So Anonymus, Stephanus : Stat-n/aeis.

^ So Stephanus : a7TOKpova€Ls.

* So Turnebus, dxvpcov Pohlenz : dXcTpiuiv.

* Koi after irypov omitted in g.

* So Duebner : i^aipei.

" Excerpted by Pselliis, D^ Omni/aria Doctrina^ 156. Plu-
tarch seems to refer to our discussion in Life of Brutus, xxv
Jin.
494



TABLE-TALK VL 7-8, 693

odours, while the drink that we take from it is con-
taminated mth scum and filth ?

" What need to go on with the list ? Observe how
much activity is required merely to make wheat into
bread, though the process is nothing but one of puri-
fication ; it involves more than merely the winno>\'ing
and sifting, the extraction and separation of the grain
from the foreign matter. The grinding which crushes
out the bran, and the baking which dries out the
moisture further purify and reduce the material to
its proper edible form. What wonder then if the lees
of vnne are removed too by filtering, like any sedi-
ment or refuse, especially since the process involves
neither extra expense nor any great trouble ? "



QUESTION 8 •

The cause of bulimy *

Speakers : Plutarch, Soclarus, Cleomenes and others

1 , There is a traditional rite of sacrifice, which the
archon performs at the public hearth but everyone
else at home, called the driving out of bulimy. They
strike one of the servants \%ith wands of agnus castus

^ jSouAt/io?, ^ovXifiia : often translated " ox-hunger " or
" voracious appetite " ; rf. Paulus ex Festo, De Significatu
Verbor. 32 M " bulimam Graeci ma|i^nam famem dicunt."
From the present passage we see that the meaning is not
altogether clear, and Wilhelm Schulze {Kuhns Zeitschrift^
xxxiii (1895), p. 243), has shown that the etymology from
hous " ox " is doubtful. Cf. " vim quandam famis non tolera-
bilem " in Aulus Gellius, xvi. 3. 9 f., where a quotation from
Erasistratus on the subject is introduced. On flagellation
and evil geniuses cf. G. Soury, La Demonologie de Plutarque,
p. 53.

495



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(693) i^eXavpovGLV, iinXeyovTes " efco BouAijLtov^ eaco �e
WXovTov Kol *Tyt€tav." dp\ovro'S ovv iixov
694 nXeloves Ikoivojvovv rrjs dvoias' Kad* ws inoL'qoa-
fJLev ra vevo/JUGfieva /cat ttolXlv fcare/cAtVi^/xev, €^7^-
relro Trpcorov virep avrov rod ovoixaros , eneira
ttJs" <j)Cx)vr\s Tjv €7TiXiyovoi rep SiajKOfievcp, pLdXiara
S' VTTep rod rrdOovs kol tcov Kar* avro yLyvofidvojv.
TO fJL6V ovv Xipov iSoKeu fjiiyav rj Stj/jloglov oltto-
arjiJiaLveLV, Kal /xaAtcrra rrap rjfjuv roZ<s AloXevoiv
dvrl rod ^ rep tt ;(pce;ju,eVois" ov yap f^ovXipov, dXXd
TTOvXipiov,^ otov TToXvv ovTa Xipiov ^ ovo/xci^o/xev.

iSoKCL 8* 9^ ^OV^pCJOTLS €T€pOV* etvaL' TO �6

reKpLTjpLov iXapL^dvopLev €K rcov MrjrpoScopov *Icu-
viKCJV' LGTopel ydp, on Tjp^vpvaloL ro iraXaiov
B AtoAets" 6vT€s dvovoL lBovppa)GT€L ravpov /leAava
Kal KaraKoipavres avroSopov oXoKavTovoiv. cvret
he TTas p>€V €OLK€V^ Xipios voao), pidXiGra 8* o
^o-uXipLos, OTL yiyverai^ iraOovros irapd ^volv rod
ao)p,aros, eiKorajg avrirdrrovaiv (hg pL€V ivheia
rov TrXovrov d>s Se vooco rrjv vyUiav ojs he. vavndv
(Lvopbdadr) /xev irrl rcov iv vr]t Kara ttXovv rov aro-
piaxov €KXvopi€VCx)V, edet 8' taxvKev rj8r] Kal Kara
rcjv ottcjogovv rovro iraaxovrtov ovopta rov Trddov?
etvat, ovrcos dpa Kal ro ^ovXipudv CKeWev dp^d-

^ Capitals due to Wilamowitz.
2 So Turnebus, Xylander, cf. Psellus : iroXvXiyLov.
' TToXvv ovra Xifiov Reiske, ttoXvv ovra ttoXiv g : ttoXvvov tto.-
Xlv T.

* ovx irepov Madvig, Hartman, erepov toiovtov Pohlenz.

496



TABLE-TALK VL 8, 693-694-

and drive him out of doors, chanting, " Out with
Bulimy, in with Wealth and Health." When I was
archon," a larger number than usual participated in
the public rite. After we had completed the ritual
acts and returned to our places at table we discussed
first the term bulimy (bulimos), then the formula
which they repeat as the servant is driven out, and
especially the affliction itself and the particulars of a
case of it. The name, we thought, signified a great
or general famine, especially among us Aeolians who,
in our dialect, use p for b ; we pronounce not bulimos
hut pulimos as if to say poh/s limos (famine multiplied).
We decided that bubrostis (ravenous appetite) is differ-
ent, on the evidence of Metrodorus's ^ History of
lonia.'^ Metrodorus records that the people of
Smyrna, originally Aeolians, sacrifice to Bubrostis a
black bull, which they cut up and burn entirely, hide
and all, on the altar. Now, since any kind of starva-
tion, and particularly bulimy, resembles a disease, in-
asmuch as it occurs when the body has been affected
by an unnatural condition, people quite reasonably
contrast it with the normal state, as they do want
with wealth and disease with health. Nausea got its
name with reference to those whose stomachs are
upset on a ship (naus) at sea, but by dint of usage the
term is now applied to any similar case of upset, no
matter how it comes about. Just so, the term buhmy,
originating as I have said, has developed to its present

� Tahle-Talk, ii. 10. 1, 642 f.

" Probably Metrodorus of Chios, REy s.v. (no. 14), cols.
1475 f.

� Frag. Griech. Ilistoriker (Jacoby), 43 f 3.

^ d before \iyuos deleted by Herwerden, Hubert.
• oTi ytVcTai Hubert, eViyu'eTot Turnebus : itnyLvtadai..

497



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(694) fievov ivravda 8l€T€lv€V. ravra /xev ovv epavov
KOLVov €K TTOLVTCOV crvveTrXiqpovfxev^ XoycDV.^

2. 'E7retSi7 8'^ rjTrrojJieda rrjg alrias rod nddovs,
C TrpcjTov fJLev rjnop'qdr] to fxaXiGTa fiovXipLidv rovs

hia x^ovos TToXXrjg jSaStJovras", warrep /cat Bpovros
€K Avppax^ov TTpos ^ AiToXXcjJviav tcov* eKivhvvevuev
VTTO rod Trddovs' rjv 8e vl(J>€t6s rroXvs Kal tojv to.
oiTia KOfJLL^ovTOJV ovSels i^rjKoXovdeL' XnrodvfJLovv-
TOS" OVV avTOV Kal dTToAtTrovTOS", rjvayKaad'qGav ol
UTpaTLwraL TTpoohpapLovres roZs reix^oiv dprov
alrrjaai irapd rcov T€i')(0(j>vXdKOJV TroXep^LCOv ovtojv^'
Kal Xapovres evdv? dveKTrjaavro rov Bpovrov 8l6
Kal <f)iXav9pix}TTix)S ixprjaaro Trdai Kvpios ttj? tto-
Aco)? yevojLtcvos". Trdaxovui 6e tovto Kal lttttol Kal
ovoi,^ Kal jLtaAtCT^' orav' tcr;^aSa9 r^ fjLrjXa KOfit-
D ^coGLV. o Se davjxaoicjTarov ianv, ovk dvOpcjirovs
fjLovov dXXd Kal kt'^vt] yudXiora Trdvnov eSojSt/xojv
dvappayvvuoLV dpros' uiurey Kav iXd^Kyrov €pi(f)d-
yctioiv^ luravTai^ Kal ^ahit,ovGi.

3. Tevojxevqs Se GLOJTrrjs, iyoj crvvvocov on rd
roiv 7rp€GpVT€pa)v iTTLX^LprjiJiaTa rous" jLtev dpyovs
Kal d^vels oTov dvairaveL Kal dvaTTijX7rXr]Gi, rots Se
<f)iXoTipLOLS Kal <f)LXoX6yois dpxrjv iv8l8a)GLV OLKelav

^ So Amyot, aweirXi^povv Meziriacus : awe-nX-qpov.
2 So Turnebus, Xylander : Xeyojv.
2 eVeiST) 8' Benseler : eirel 8e S17.

* ia;v added by Madvig.

^ ovTOJv added by Paton, Castiglioni.

^ rjfiLovoi Psellus (Migne, Patrol., but koI ovoi koI rj^i. ace.
to Hubert). ' ^ after orav deleted by Psellus, Doehner.
^ So Stephanus : iav <f>dyojaiv.

* laravrai Doehner {evdvs laravTai Psellus) : libvrai.

� Cf. the stylistic device at iv. 4. 2, 668 d, supra.
498



I



TABLE-TALK VL 8, 694.

meaning. This was the picnic of argument to which
we all brought our share."

2. But when we undertook to account for the cause
of the affliction, the first question we considered was
why bulimy attacks especially those who walk
through heavy snow,'' like Brutus " on the way from
Dyrrachium to Apollonia, when his life was en-
dangered by this affliction. There was a heavy snow,
and none of the provision train kept up vnth him, so
that when he grew faint and lost consciousness, the
troops were forced to run up to the walls and beg
bread from the guards on the enemy side. When
they got it, they immediately succeeded in reviving
Brutus. <* This explains why he treated all the in-
habitants humanely when he gained possession of the
town. Horses and donkeys also suffer from bulimy,
especially when transporting dried figs and apples.
The most astonishing thing of all is that bread re-
stores strength not only to man but to beast better
than any other food ; so much so that if sufferers take
even a morsel of it they get on their feet and go on.

3. There was a silence during which I reflected
that to the idle and dull the solutions of their pre-
decessors * to such questions provide only a chance
to imbibe and be content ; to an eager scholar, how-
ever, they present an opening and incentive for

" Cf. the quotation from Erasistratus referred to in the
note on bulimos above : the affliction is commoner in cold
weather.

� See The Life of Brutus, xxv f. (LCL vol. vi, pp. 180-183).

* This experience closely resembles that of Xenophon's
men who suffered from bulimy as reported in Anabasis, iv.
5. 7-8.

• The reference may be to " the older men " who partici-
pated in the discussions at Plutarch's school. RE, s.v. " Plu-
tarchos," col. 663, 11. 50 f.

499



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(694) /cat roXfiav inl to ^r^relv Kal dvi)(V€V€iv ttjv aXij-
^etav, ifMV^cjdrjv rcov ^ApicrroreXiKajv, iv olg Xdye-
rai, OTL, TToXXrjs Trepufjv^eo)? yevofJLevqg e^ojOev,
iKdepfxaiverai G(j)68pa ra ivros Kal ttoXv ovvr7]yp.a

E TTOieZ' rovro 8*, iav {xev iirl ra GKeXr] pvfj, kottovs
oLTTepyd^eraL /cat papvrrjTag, idv S* 67rt ra? rrj? kl-
vrio€0}s /cat ttJ? dvaTTVor]? apx^s, dipv^iav^ /cat
dudiv€iav.

"Oirep ovv eLKog, rod Xoyov Xexddvros eirepaiverOy
rcov fxev e7n(f)VOfji€VCov rw Soy/xart rcov S' vnepSL-
Kovvrojv. (4) HcoKXapos Be ttjv dp^rju 'i^-q rod
Xoyov KaXXiora /ceta^at* Trepiipvx^odaL yap t/cavcu?^
/cat TTVKvovodai rd ucofiara rcov Pahil^ovrcjv hid
)(i'dvos' TO Se ovvTiqyixa rrjV deppLonqra 7roL€LV /cat
rovro KaraXapL^dveLV rdg dpxds rijs dvaTTVorjg
alrr}piarcx)h€S etvat* jLtaAAov ovv hoKeiv avrco rrjv
6€pp.6rr]ra ovoreXXopiivriv /cat irXeovdl^ovoav iv-
ros dvaXi(jK€iv rrjv rpo(j)riv, elr iTTiXenrovor]? /cat

F avrr]v^ cooirep rrvp drropiapaiveodai' 8i6 ttclvwgl
G(j)68pa /cat ppo-X^ iravreXws ifi(f)ay6vr€9 evdvs
dvaXdfjiTrovuL- y iyver ai ydp ojoirep vrreKKavfia^ rrjs
depfjioriqros rd 7Tpoo<j)€p6pLevov .

5. K.X€opi€V7]s 8' o larpds dXXcos €(jirj rep ovopLari

rdv XipLov avvreraxdau St;^a rov TrpdypiaroSy ojoirep

695 Ta>^ Kara7TLV€LV rd TTiveiv /cat rcp^ dvaKvirr^iv rd^

Kvirreiv ov ydp elvai Xip.6v, a)07T€p So/cet, rrjv

1 Tj before /cat deleted by Reiske.

2 laxvpcos Psellus, Doehner. ^ So Bases, Capelle : avrijs.

* So Xylander, Junius : vTT€KXvfia.

^ Tcp Basel edition : rot.
^ TtS . . . TO Turnebus : to . . . to).



� Pseudo-Aristotle, Problems, 888 a 1 ff. Cf. 884 a 13 and
500



TABLE-TALK VL 8, 694-695

boldly seeking and tracldng down the truth, on his
own. Then I brought up the Aristotelian passage "
in which it is stated that when there is great cold
outside the body the inward parts become exceed-
ingly heated and produce a great deal of morbid
liquefaction. Now if the liquefied matter collects in
the legs it causes fatigue and heaviness ; if it gathers
at the roots of motor energy or of respiration, it causes
fainting and weakness.

Naturally enough, when I had said that, the dis-
cussion continued, some attacking and others defend-
ing Aristotle's theory. (4) Soclarus said that the
first part of the argument was sound. It was true
that the bodies of those who travel through snow
are quite chilled and congealed ; but to argue that
heat produces abnormal liquefaction which clogs the
centres of respiration was to beg the question, accord-
ing to him. He preferred the view that the heat is
contracted and too much concentrated internally, so
that it uses up the supply of food ; and then, like fire
when the fuel gives out, the heat itself dies down.
This explains both why, in the cold, people suffer
severe hunger, and why, when they eat the slightest
morsel of food, they have a quick flare-up of energy.
The food consumed acts as a kind of fuel to rekindle
the heat.

5. Cleomenes the physician, however, said that the
word limos (hunger) in the compound signifies noth-
ing as to the facts, just as the word katapinein (to
swallow) differs from the simple verb pinein (to drink),
or anakyptein (to bob up) differs from kyptein (to lean
forward). Bulimy is not, as people think, hunger

889 a 36. Below at 696 d Plutarch seems to consider this
work authentic.

501



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(695) povXijxiaVy dAAa TrdOos iv rco^ Grofjidxcp 8td ovv-
Spojxrjif depiiov^ Xnroifjvxi-o.v ttolovv. (Lonep ovv
rd 6o(f>pavTd Tvpos rds XuTroOvfJilag ^orjOeZv, /cat
Tov dpTov^ dvaXafx^dveiv^ rovg ^ovXipLicJovTas , ovx
on Tpocf)rj? ivSeels elai, {fXLKpov yovv TravraTraoLV
Xa^ovres^ dval,oj7rvpovGLv) , aAA* on to TTvevjJLa /cat
TTjv SvvafJLLV ava/caActrat Kara^epop^ivriv . on S'
eon XiTTodvjjLLa /cat ov Trelva, pnqvvei, to rcx)v viro-
t,vyici)V' 7) ydp^ rcov la^dScov d7ro(f)opd /cat rj tcov
fjLijXcov eVSetav fiev ov TTOiel, KapSiwypiov Se Tit'a
fxdXXov /cat vr) At" et'Atyyov.'
B 6. *HjU.tv Se /cat ravra fierpLCos eSo/cet XiyeoOaL,
Koi^ (XTTO ttJ? ivavTias dp^rj? Svvarov elvai, firj
TTVKVcjGiv aAA' dpaiojoLV viroQepiivoLS, SiaacoaaL to
TTidavov. TO ya/3 dnoppeov nvev/JLa rrjg ^tdvo? ccTt
)Ltev otov aldrjp tov Trdyov /cat iprjyiia XeTrrofiepe-
orarov, e^ei he n rofjLov /cat hiaipenKov ov oapKos
fjiovov dXXd /cat dpyvpcjv /cat ;^aA/c6t)v dyyeicDV
opajfjiev yap ravra firj oreyovra rrjv x^ova- TTveo-
fievTj yap dvaXioKerai /cat rr^v eKros e7TL(f)dvei,av
rod dyyeiov vorlSos dvaTTLfjLTrXrjOL Xeirrrjs /cat Kpv-
oraXXoeiSovs, 7]v^ aTToAetVct to rrvevjJLa hid rdv
TTOpwv dSrjXwg drrepxipievov . rovro Srj rols ^ahi-
C t,ov(JL Sta ;^tdvos" d^v /cat (f>Xoyoei8e9 TTpooirlTTrov
eVt/catctv 8o/cet to, a/cpa rep refjLveiv /cat TrapeXQelv^^
rfj oapKiy Kaddnep rd irvp' oOev^^ dpaicjjois yiyverai
rrepl rd ccD/xa ttoAAo^ /cat pel rd Oepfjidv e^oj /cat
Sta^^ rrjv ijjvxporrjra rod irvevpiaros irepl rrjv ein-

^ TO) added by Doehner from Psellus.

^ So Psellus, Doehner : Ai/aou.

^ So Basel edition : avTov.

"• Kat before tou? deleted in Basel edition.

� AajSoWes Wyttenbach : avaXa^ovrcs.

502



TABLE-TALK VI. 8, 695

{limos), but a pathological state of the stomach that
causes fainting by concentration of heat. Just as
smelling-salts are useful in cases of fainting, so bread
revives those suffering from bulimy ; not because
they are starved (for the very slightest morsel re-
kindles the spark of life), but because the bread
summons back the sinking energy and vital breath.
That it is a fainting weakness, not hunger, is indicated
by the case of draught animals ; the exhalations from
dried figs and apples do not produce a deficiency but
rather a sort of heartburn, yes, and dizziness.

6. We found this reasonable enough, yet felt that
it was possible to make out a good case on the
contrary hypothesis that what occurs is not condensa-
tion but dilation. The vapour emitted by snow is, as
it were, an aura of frost or a very fine dust. It has
a piercing, separative effect not only on flesh but on
vessels of silver and bronze ; we know by observa-
tion that these vessels are not impermeable to snow,
which exudes and evaporates, covering the exterior
surface ^vith a fine, icy dew that is deposited by the
vapour as it passes impeceptibly through the vessel's
pores. When people travel through snow, this
vapour, with its sharp and flamelike touch, seems to
bum the extremities, cutting and biting " into the
flesh like fire. Hence considerable dilation occurs in
the body ; its heat escapes and, because of the cold

" The MS. has " entering." See textual note.

* So Meziriacus : ra.

' vTj At* etAiyyov Reiske, lAiyyov Meziriacus ; StctAty/ioj'.

* icai added by Reiske. • ffv Basel edition : ff.

^� rrapeaOUiv ttjs aapKos Hubert, perhaps trapdaeXdf.Zv
" penetrate." " -nvp- odiv Turnebus : Twpwdkv.

^' 8ta for KoX Anonymus, koX 8td Turnebus : koX.

503



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(695) (j)dv€Lav G^evvvfxevov ISpaJra SpoacoSr] hiarixit^ei
Kol Xenrov, cocrre r'qKeadaL Kal avaXiuKeoBaL^ ttjv
SvvafJLiv. iav fxev ovv rjcjvxoL^r) rts", ov ttoXXtj rod
awfiaro? aTrep^erai depfJiOTiqs' orav 8e ttjv fiev
Tpo(f)rjv rod GCL)fJLaro? rj klvtjgl? elg to Oepfiov
o^ecos" {jLera^aXXr) to Se depfjLov e^w ^epi^rat,
SLaKpLVOfjievrj? rrjs aapKog, ddpoav dvdyKrj ttjs
D Svvdixeojs iTTiXen/jLV yeviaOaL.

"Ort Se TO €Ki/jvx€GdaL ov Tn^yvvdiv (jlovov dXXd
KOL rrjK€L rd GCJfJiaTa, SrjXov iariv iv pikv yap rdls
fieydXoLS ;!^etjLta)CTtv aKovat (jloXl^Sov hiar-qKopievaL

TO T€ T-^S" d(f)L8piOG€C0S Kal TO TToXXols [JLTj 7T€LV(JjaL

GViXTTLTTreiv TTjv ^ovXifxiaGLV dpaicoGLV^ Karrjyopel
fjidXXov /cat pvGLV r^ ttvkvojglv rod GoypLaro?.
dpaiovvrai Se •)(€L[xa)vo9 fjiev, WGTrep eiprjraL, rfj
Tov TTvevfjiaTos^ XeTTTorrjrL, dXXco? Se rod kottov
Kal ttJs" KLvi]G€CjtJS diTO^vvovG-qs rrjv* iv rep GcLpLan
deppLOTTjra*' Xeirrr^ yap yevopLevrj Kal KoinojGa pel
ttoXXt] Kal SiaGTrecperaL Sid rod GwpLaTos. rd he
pLTjXa Kal rd? iGxdSa? ecKog diroTTvelv ri roiovrov,
E a)Gr€ rcjv vrrot^vyiiov rd depfjLov diroXeTTrvveiv Kal
KaraK€ppiaTL^€LV' dXXa ydp dXXoLS coGrrep dvaXapi-
^dveiv Kal KaraXveodai Tre^u/cev.

^ Kal before rriv deleted by Meziriacus, who added koX be-
fore TTepl TTJV iTTL(f>dv€iav above.

^ dpaitoaiv added by Reiske here, read below in place of Kal
pvaiv by Meziriacus.



504



TABLE-TALK VL 8, 695

vapour from the snow, is diminished at the surface
and gives off a fine, dewy sweat, so that energy is
dissolved and expended. If a man is inactive, not
much is lost of the body's heat ; but when the move-
ment of the body causes quick conversion of food into
heat, and the heat flows off as the flesh opens, then
it is inevitable that a complete collapse of strength
should occur.

That chilling may not only freeze but melt bodies
is manifest : the melting of lead whetstones ** in
severe winters, the phenomenon of sweating, and
the fact that bulimy attacks many when they are not
hungry indicate porosity and liquefaction rather than
compression in our bodies. During winter, as has
been said, bodies are made porous by the fineness of
the cold vapour, especially when fatigue and motion
make the heat in the body more intense ; attenuated
and weakened,*' it overflows and is dispersed through
the body. It is probable that dried figs and apples
give off an exhalation of a sort that causes extreme
attenuation and fragmentation of heat in pack
animals. For by nature different creatures are so to
speak revived or collapse from different causes.

� Cf. Helmbold in Plut. Mor. xii (LCL), note on p. 250 :
" Tin [rather than lead] is reduced to powder by severe cold."
" More literally " fatigrued."

* Tov nvevfiaros added by Meziriacus.
* rrjv . . . depfiOTTjra Basel edition : r^j . . . depfjLo-njTos.



505



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA



/g95\ nPOBAHMA

Am tL 6 7TOir]rr)s em /xev roiv dXXcov vypcov rots ISi-OLS imd^TOis
XprJTai, fMOvov 8e to eAatov vypov KoXel

Collocuntur Plutarchus, alii

1. *}i7ropi]dT] TTore Kal Sia rt noXXcov vypcov
ovTOJV ra fjiev d'AAa rols tStots" eiridirois 6 TTOLrjrr)?
etcode^ KOCTfieZv, to ydXa re XevKov /cat to /LteAt
xXcopou Kal TOP olvov ipvdpov KaXcov, to S' eXaiov

OLTTO^ KOLVOV^ TOV TTOiOi GVfJL^e^rjKOTOS flOVOV €7n€lKCOS

F vypov TTpoaayopevei. els tovt iXex^r], ort cLs^
yXvKVTaTov ccrri to 8t' oXov yXvKV Kal XevKOTaTov

TO St' oXoV XeVKOVy St' oXoV Se TOIOVTOV^ €0TIV, CO

fjL7]8€V ifjifiefjiiKTaL T-^? IvavTias <f)VGecx}<s, ovtcx) St)^
/cat' vypov /xaAtcrra p7]T€ov, ov firjSev fxepos ^r)p6v

€GTL' TOVTO �€ TO) iXaiCp GVfJi^€^r]K€V.

2. npctJTOV /xev -I] XeioTTjs avTOV ttjv o/xaAdrT^ra
696 Twv fjiopLcov iTnSeiKVVTai' St' oAou yap avTco avfji-

TTadel TTpos TTJV ipavaiv.^ eVetra ttj oipeL irapex^t
KaOapcoTaTov ivoTTTpiaaadai' Tpa^o yap ouSev eV-
€OTLV^ WGT€ hiaoTTav TTjv dvTavyeiav, aAA' dno
TTavTos fiepov? St' vypoTTjTa Kal ofXiKpoTaTOV dva-
kXS, to (j)ws errl ttjv oi/jlv cLoirep av TovvavTiov
TO ydXa Tcbv vypcov [jlovov ovk €G07TTpil,eL,^^ ttoXXtj?
dvaix€iiiyiiivy]s avTco yecoSov? ovuias}^ €tl Se kl-
vovfievov 7]KiGTa j/fo^et tcov vypajv vypov ydp €gtl
St' oXov TCOV S'^^ aAAcov iv Tip p€iv Kal (f>€p€G6ai rd

1 So Hubert : elcoOei. ^ So Reiske : vtto.

* Hartman would delete koivov. * So Reiske : Kal.

^ So Xylander : tolovtos. * So Reiske : Se.

' TO after Kal deleted by Hubert. ^ So Xylander : tpv^iv.

8 So Hubert : ianv. ^� So Basel edition : iaoTrrpiCeiv.

^^ ovaias added by Turnebus, avardaews Stephanus.

506



TABLE-TALK VL 9, 695-696



QUESTION 9

Why Homer uses special adjectives for other liquids
but calls only olive oil " liquid "

Speakers : Plutarch and others

1. Once the question was raised why, when there
are many liquids, Homer is accustomed to embellish
most with specific adjectives, calling milk " white,'
honey " yellow," and wine ** ruddy," but to use of oil
alone the adjective " liquid," � which properly refers
to the quality common to them all. To this the
answer was given that, just as the sweetest substance
is one that is sweet through and through, the whitest
one that is white through and through — and " through
and through " means that there is no admixture of
the opposite quality — just so the expression " liquid "
should be used particularly of anything which has no
ingredient of dryness in it ; and that is the case
with oil.

2. In the first place, its smoothness demonstrates
the uniformity of its parts ; it is at all points consis-
tently the same to the touch. Further, visually it is the
clearest reflector, having no unevenness to distort the
reflection. From every part of itself, on account of
its liquidity, it reflects even the minutest Hght to the
eye. Just so, on the contrary, milk is the only liquid
that does not mirror objects, because there is in it a
great admixture of the earthy. *• Besides, oil, when
stirred, is the most silent of all liquids because it is
liquid throughout ; whereas, when other liquids flow

• e.g., Odyssey, vi. 79, 215 ; Iliad, xxiii. 281.
' See Aristotle, Meteorologica, 383 a 14, 22.

" 8* added by Tumebus.

507



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(696) (JKXrjpa Kal yecoSrj ^epr]^ TrpooKpovoeis XapL^dvovra
/cat TrXrjya? ijjo^el 5ia rpaxvrrjra.^ Kal firjv fxovov
B aKparov^ SiafxeveL Kal apuKrov eon yap rrvKVora-
Tov ov yap e^^i fJiera^v rcov ^r]pa)V Kal yeojScjv iv
avTcp fJLepojv Kevcofiara Kal iropovs, ols hi^erai to
TrapefJiTTLTTTOv, dAAa* St' ojjLOiorrjra rcbv fJLepcjv ev-
dpfjLoaTov^ icTTLv Kal avve)(€�.

"Orav S' d(f)pL^rj ro eXatov, ov Sex^rai to nvevfia
Sid XeiTTonqra Kal uvvex^Lav. rovro 8* atVtov /cat
rod rpecfyeodaL to TTvp vtt* avrov' Tp€(f)€raL fiev
yap ovSevl TrXrjv vypw, Kal rovro jjlovov Kavarov
ear IV ' €/c yovv rcbv ^vXojv 6 fiev drjp ctTretat Kajrvo?
yevofievos, ro Se yecoSes €Kre(f>p(jjdev VTroXeiirerai,
fxovov S' VTTO rod irvpos ro vorepov dvaXovrai,
rovro) yap rpi<j)€odai 7T€(f)VK€V' vSojp fxev ovv Kal
C otvos" /cat Ta AotTra, ttoAAoi; ixeri^ovra rov doXepov
Kal yecoSovs, ipLTTLnrovra rrjv (fyXoya hiaorra /cat
rfi rpaxvrrjn Kal rw pdp€L dXi^ei Kal Karao^ivvvoi,
rd S' eXaiov, on pidXiGr elXiKpivcjs vypov iari, 8id
XeTrrorrjra piera^dXXei Kal Kparovfjuevov €K7Tvpovrai.
3. MeytCTTOV S' avrov rrjs vyporTjro? reKfjajpiov
Tj^ errl rrXelorov i^ oXiyiorov SiavofJir) Kal ■)(vols'
ovre ydp fxeXiros ovd^ vSaro? ovr aAAou Ttvos"
vypov ppaxvg ovrcus oyKos^ eTrihoaiv Xafipdvec
rooavrrjv,^ aAA' evdv? iinXeiTTajv^ KaravaXiGKerai^^

^ So Basel edition, Turnebus : /xeVpa.

2 go Turnebus : ^paxvrrjTa.

^ dh-parov Basel edition, aKporarov E : dKpaTrjTov.

* So Anonymus, Turnebus : dfia.

^ So Stephanus : dvapfioarov.

* 77 added by Meziriacus.

' So Wyttenbach : otto j " juice."

� So Bernardakis : roiavT-qv.

508



TABLE-TALK VL 9, 696

and rush along, their hard, earthy parts suffer blows
and collisions that produce sound because of the ir-
regularity of their shapes. Moreover, oil alone re-
mains pure and undiluted, for it is the most compact
and has no empty spaces or passages between dr}'^,
earthy particles to which it could admit intrusive
elements. The uniformity of its particles produces
smoothness and coherence in it.

When oil foams, it does not admit air, because of
its fine texture and coherence. This accounts also for
the fact that fire is fed by it. Fire is fed only by
moisture, and moisture alone is combustible.'* At any
rate, when wood is burned as fuel, the air is given off
as smoke and the earthy element is left reduced to
ash ; only the moisture is consumed by fire, for fire
naturally feeds on liquid. Now when water, wine, and
the other liquids with their high proportion of muddy,
earthy matter encounter fire, they rend it apart and
by their roughness and weight crush and extinguish
it ; while oil, because it is a superlatively pure liquid,
has such minute particles that it suffers change and
is overpowered and reduced to flames.

3. A supreme proof of its liquidity is the fact that
the least quantity of it spreads and flows over the
most space. Neither honey nor water nor any other
liquid in such slight mass spreads so far ; instead,
they immediately disappear, being consumed on ac-

• This theory Is found in Aristotle in his discussion of
earlier philosophers. See Metaphysics^ i. 3, 983 b 23, and
Meteorological ii. 2, 354 b 33 ff. ; W. Jaeger, AristoUUs^ p.
153, n. 2 ; Plut. De Prima Frigido, 954 e (LGL Mor, xii, pp.
280 f.). Cf. supra, p. 457, note b.

• So Bernardakis, ^iriXeinti Stephanus, trnTToXd^tAtv I'aton :
cViTrAfioToi'. *• So Bemaraakis : kox avaXiaK€Tai.

509



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(696)

J) 8ia ^rjporrjra' to 8' eXaiov, 6Xkl[xov rravra^ri /cat
fjLaXaKov, dyerai vepl to Gajfia y^pLOfiivoLS /cat

GVV€7Tipp€L TTOppaJTOLTCx) St' VypOTTJTa TCOV }X€p(x}V

[jirjKVVOiJievajv, cocrre /cat Trapapieveiv SvGe^irrjXov.
vSan jjLev yap^ j8pe;^^ev t/xartov aTTO^-qpaiverai
pahicos, iXalov 8e /cT^AtSas" ov rrjs tvxovgtjs €gtI
TTpaypLareias^ e/c/ca^apat* fidXiGra yap ivSverai tw
/.taAtcrra Xenrov /cat vypov elvai' /cat ya/3 otvov
KeKpafJuevov SvGX€peGT€pov e^aipovGi^ rcov lixariojv,
(hs ^ ApiGToreXrjs (f)7]Giv, on XeTrrorepo'S* €gtl /cat
pLoXXov ivSverai rot? iropois.



nPOBAHMA I

E Ti? alria, St' rjv ijjadvpa. ytverat Ta;^u ra tV aw/c^? Kpefxav-
vvfM€va Tiov lepeiojv

Collocuntur Aristio, Plutarchus, alii

*0^ ^ AplGTLCJVOS €Vr]lJL€p€L^ TTapOL TOtS" SeLTTVOVGl

pidyeipos, d)S rd r aAAa yapiivTOiS oifjOTTOLrjGas
/cat Tov a/DTt' Tip 'Hpa/cAet redvfxivov dXeKTpvova
Trapadels aTraXov wGirep y^dit.oVy^ veapov ovra /cat
7Tp6G(f)arov. elrrovTOS ovv rod ^ KpiGricovos , otl
rovTO yiyverai rax^ojg, et cr^aycts" evdvs aTTO
GVKTJs KpepLaGdeirjy ttjv air Lav e^T^rou/xev. on piev
8rj 7TV€Vjjia rrjs gvktjs aTreiGiv LGXVpov /cat G^ohpov,

^ So Reiske : yc.
^ So Leonicus : ypa/x/Liareia?.

^ So Duebner : c^alpovai.

* So Meziriacus : AeTTrorepdv.

^ d added in g, according to Wyttenbach.

^ So Turnebus : evrjfiepel.

' So Doehner, tov veoiarl Basel edition : rov on.

510



TABLE-TALK VL 9-10, 690

count of their own dryness. But olive oil, which is
soft and ductile to any extent, is spread over the body
when we anoint ourselves, and is carried farther than
any other liquid as its particles grow longer on account
of their liquidity. Accordingly, it also resists evapora-
tion and does not easily disappear. When a garment
happens to be soaked with water, it dries easily, but
an oil stain requires more than ordinary effort to re-
move . Oil stains enter deepest into the fabric because
the refinement and liquidity of oil is greatest. As
Aristotle � says, wine is also more difficult to remove
from cloth when mixed, because it is then of finer
grain and settles more deeply into the pores.

QUESTION 10 �

Why sacrificial meat when hung from a fig tree quickly
becomes tender

Speakers : ArLstion, Plutarch and others

Aristion's cook made a hit with the dinner guests
not only because of his general skill, but because the
cock that he set before the diners, though it had just
been slaughtered as a sacrifice to Heracles, was as
tender as if it had been a day old. Aristion said that
meat cures rapidly if, immediately upon kiUing, it is
hung on a fig tree ; and we went on to discuss why
this should be so. Two things indicate that a strong,
intense exhalation '^ is given off by the fig tree ; first,

� Problems, 874 a 30.

'' Excerpted by Psellus, De Omni/aria Doctrinal 157.

* G. Soury connects this with Stoic theory (pneuma is the
word used) in Revue ]�t. Or. Ixi (1949), pp. 322 f. Cf. supra,
642 c.

• X^t^di' E : xtCw T.

511



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(696) � . V , 1 , <, X , ^ ^

-p, 17 T oaqip-qoLS eKjJbaprvpeL Kat to rrepu rojv ravpojv
XeyofJbevoVy (Ls dpa gvktj TTpoaSeOelg 6 ;)^aA€7ra>TaTos"
rjavx^'OLi' dyei /cat ipavaecos dve^^erai koL oXcjs d(j>i-
rjoTL Tov dvfjiov a>a7T€p dTTOfjLapaLVOfjLevov. rr^v 8e
TrXeLGTrjv alriav /cat SvvajjLLV r) SpLfivrrjs etx^v to
ydp ^vrov diravrayv oircjjhiorarov , ojore /cat to
GVKOV avTO /cat to ^vXov /cat to OpZov^ dva7T€7rXrja-
697 ^at' Sto Kaiofxevov t€ to) Kairvcp SaKvei pudXioTa
/cat KaTaKavdevTOS rj T€(f)pa pvTTTLKOJTdTTjv TTapex^i
Koviav.^

TauTct^ Se TvdvTa 6€ppl6t7]tos' /cat Trjv tttj^iv
ifjLTTOLetv Tip ydXaKTL tov ottov o'iovTai Tives ov
OKaXrivia oxrjP'dTCov TreptTrAe/covTa /cat KoXXdJVTa
rd Tpa^ea^ f^^PV "^^^ yaAa/CTo?, €K6Xifiop.iviov im-
TroXrjs Tcjv Xeicjjv /cat TrepLcftepcoVy dXXd^ vtto 6ep-
[xoTT^TOS CKT'qKOVTa TOV vypov TO dovoTaTov /cat
uSaTcoSe?. T€Kfji7]pLOV Se /cat to dxprjdTov^ yXvKvv^
elvai TOV dpov,^ dXXd irofxaTajv <f)avX6TaTov' ov
ydp TO Xelov vtto tcjv GKaXrjvcjv, dXXd to i/wxpov
B i^aveoTrf^ /cat aTreTTTOV vtto ttjs OepfioTTjTos' /cat
TTpog TOVTO GvvepyovGLV ol dXeSy OeppLol ydp etVt,
TTpos �€ Tr]v Xeyopiivriv TrepiTrXoKTjv /cat avvSeciLV
dvTiirpdTTOvaiy^^ hiaXveiv ydp fxdXiOTa 7T€(j>VKaoL.

Sepp^ov ovv TTvevpLa /cat 8pLp.v /cat TfJLrjTLKov dcf)-

^ So Wyttenbach : oipis.
2 So Amyot : epyov.
^ So Xylander : koviv.

* So Hubert : ravTa.

^ rpaxea added by Hubert.

^ KOL after oAAa deleted by Xylander, Wyttenbach.
' ov xp^oTov Reiske, Bernardakis.

^ So Reiske, Doehner, Paton (all with other changes that
conflict with our interpretation) : yXvKv.

* So Doehner : ottov. ^� So Hubert : lorry.

512



TABLE-TALK VL 10, 69&-697

)ur sense of smell, and second, the alleged fact that
:he fiercest of bulls, if tied to a fig tree, becomes
ijuiet, lets people touch him, and completely abandons
lis rage, as if the spirit were withering within him.
rhis effect is mainly due to the bitterness of the
plant, for the fig is the richest in sap of all plants, not
Dnly the fruit but the wood and the leaf too being full
3f it. Wherefore, too, the smoke of burning figwood
s especially acrid and the ash from it provides a most
detergent lye.

Yet the very same effects all come from heat.
Therefore, some think that fig juice curdles milk
through heat, not because the rough particles, owing
to their irregular shape, combine and stick to each
other, while smooth," round particles are forced to
the surface ; but because the particles under the in-
fluence of heat melt out the uncohesive, watery
element in the moist compound. A proof is that
sweet whey is unusable, in fact is the vilest of drinks.
Evidently it is not a case of smooth particles being
expelled by rough, ** but of cold and unconcocted ele-
ments being dislodged by heat. Salt will also con-
tribute to this process, for it is hot and counteracts
the so called interlocking and binding together of
particles, since it is a powerful natural solvent.

So we infer that the fig gives off a hot, bitter, in-

" Lucretius, iv. 622 ff., explains the effect of smooth atoms
in producing sweetness to the taste, while rough atoms pro-
duce pungency and the like. This theory is derived from
Democritus (Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker^ Demo<^ritus, a
135) as reported in Theophrastus, De Sensu, 65. For the
alternative theory here cited Aristotle, Meteorologica^ 384 a 22
and Pseudo- Aristotle, Problems^ 924 b 39 lend some support.

"* Or " irrcfriilar," cf. aKaXt)vt4 above.

^^ hiaXvaiv before StoAu'eiv deleted by Xylander.
VOL. VIII s 513



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA

(697) LTjGLV rj GVKTJ, Kal rOVTO OpVTTTCL Kal 7T€7TaLV€L TTjV

odpKa rod opviOos. to avro he rrdoxei Kal irvpayv
ivreSeis^ ucopco^ Kal virpoj GvvrjiJLfjLevos,^ vtto Oep-

jJLOTTjTOS. on 8' O TTVpOS €^€1 Tt depflOV, TeKfJLai-

povrai roLS dixcfyopevGLV, cov ivridepidvajv els oipov*'
e^avaXioKerai raxeojs 6 olvos.

^ evreOds defended by Hartman as referring to tov Spvidos
rather than r-qv adpKa.

2 oipw Doehner. Note also awrjfifjLevos in same line.

' So g, Stephanus, afj,r]x6fi€vos Reiske, avfiveiracTixevos Doeh-



514



1



TABLE-TALK VI. 10, 697

cisive vapour which cures the flesh of the bird by mak-
ing it friable. The same effect is produced by heat
if you store the bird in a pile of wheat-grains with**
sodium carbonate. That wheat is by nature some-
what hot is attested by the fact that when wine jars
are placed in the wheat pits, their wine is quickly
evaporated.

" Or, " when it has been treated (laced) with *' S.
Warmin^on.

ner : ainnnUvos {rj in erasure with space on each side) T, ow-

€lfJL€VOS E.

* So Doehner : alrov " grain."



515



ADDITIONAL NOTE

(editorial )

p. 422, 681 c : ^apaSio?- I had suggested grey wagtail,
which haunts gullies and hill-streams and has a yellow breast.
But more likely is the stone-curlew, which, though in Britain
it inhabits heaths, brecks and downs, has large eyes with
yellow " irises." See the scholars cited by E. R. Dodds,
Plato : Gorgias, p. 306, on Gorgias, 494 b 6. — E. II. War-
mington.



INDEX



Academy, 6, 7, 59, 134, 203, 401,

453 ; the school of philosophy

founded by Plato in Athens
Acastus, 387 ; son of Pelias
Acesander, 387 ; historian, third

or second century B.C.
Achaean(s), 113, 119 ; the Greeks

of the heroic period
Achaia, 339, 432
Achilles, 37, 127, 163, 297, 387,

401, 403, 405, 411 ; Greek hero

in the Trojan war
Adonis, 359, 361
Adrastea, 271 ; nurse of Zeus
Aedepsus, 337
Aegaeon, 399 ; eponym of the

Aegean or epithet of Poseidon
Aegium, 431 ; in Achaia
Aeolians, 497
Aeschylus, 21, 65, 99 ; quoted,

47, 81, 129; Athenian play-
wright, circa 525-456 B.C.
Aesop, 19, 201 ; the writer of

Fables, sixth century B.C.
Africa (Libya), 387
Agamemnon, 33, 189, 343. 405 ;

the Greek commander-in-chief

at Troy
Agamestor, 59, 61 ; Academic

philosopher
Agathon, 13, 125, 137, 203, 205,

455 ; Athenian playwright,

circa 447-400 B.C.
Agemachus, 317, 319; friend of

Plutarch
Agenorides, 211 ; one of the first

two practitioners of medicine
Agesiiaiis, 191 ; Spartan king,

444-360 B.C.
Agora, 125

Aiantis, 95 ff., 109 ; Attic phyle
Ajax, 411 ; son of Telamou

VOL. VIII S



Alcaeus, quoted, 215 ; lyric poet

of Lesbos, born circa 620 B.C.
Alcibiades, 57, 125 ; Athenian

politician and general, circa

450-404 B.C.
Alcinous, 33, 115, 165; king of

the Phaeacians
Alcman, 251 ; quoted, 279 ; lyric

poet of seventh century B.C.
Aletes, 399 ; hero of Corinth
Alethea, 271 ; Apollo's nurse
Alexander, 69, 71, 219, 225 ; the

Great. 356-323 B.C.
Alexander, 145, 147; the Epi-
curean, friend of Plutarch
Alexandria(ns), 75, 407
Alexidemus, 24
alkanet, 17
All Souls' Day, 258 ; the Pithoigia

so identified
almonds, 75, 77
amber, 175
amethyst, 213
Ammonius, 203, 205, 217, 221 ;

Plutarch's teacher
Amphias, 137 ; of Tarsus
Amphictyons, 159 ; a religious

league of peoples centred round

Thermopylae and later Delphi ;

amphictyonic decrees, 39
Amphidamas, 387
Amphipolis, 403
Anacharsis, 491
Anaxagoras, 193, 409 ; Ionian

philosopher, circa 500-428 B.C.
Ancaeus, 165 ; an opponent of

Nestor in boxing
Androcydes, 325, 343 ; the

painter
animals, 87, 145 ff. (hen or egg

first ?), 157. 175 ff., 209 : — and

certain beliefs, 351 f., 423 ; —

* 617



INDEX



diet of, 299, 307 f., 403 f.,
457 ; — , skins of seals and
hyenas, 319 ; — and thunder,
331, 353 f., 357 ; see also
" anthias," ass, bark-beetles,
bees, boar, butterfly, cater-
pillar, " charadrius," cicadas,
cock, conger-eel, crane, croco-
dile, daws, deer, dogs, echene'is,
eel, elephant, field-mouse, fish,
fox, frogs, goats, hare, hedge-
hog, hen, herald-fish, horses,
ibis, lice, lion, lizards, locusts,
mice, mullet, mussels, pigs,
purple-mollusc, scorpion, sheep,
shrews, snakes, sucking-fish,
tiu-tles, viper, vole, wolves,
woodworms

Antagoras, 343 ; epic poet, third
century B.C.

Anthesterion, 259

"anthias" fish, 341

Antigonus I, 131, 133; Alex-
ander's general, one of the
"Successors" of Alexander;
prob. 382-301 B.C.

Antigonus Gonatas, 343, 395 ;
king of Macedon

Antilochus, 37 ; Nestor's son

Antimachus, 437 ; of Colophon,
epic and elegiac poet

Antipater, 403 ; friend of Plu-
tarch

antipathies, 319 ; resistant prop-
erties

Antisthenes, 13, 127 ; friend of
Socrates and founder of the
Cynics, circa ibb-circa 360 B.C.

Aphidna, 99

Aphrodite, 251, 255, 447, 448, 493

Apollo, 271, 273

Apollodorus, 391 ; of Athens

Apollonia, 499 ; in lUyria, 40
miles south of Dyrrachium

Apollonides, 231 ; taktikos, friend
of Plutarch

ApoUophanes, 443 ; a scholar

apple(s), 169, 243, 433 ff.

Aratus, 437 ; of Soli, author of an
extant poem on astronomy and
meteorology translated by
Cicero and others

Arcesllaiis, 135, 137, 341 ; Aca-
demic philosopher, circa 315-
241 B.C.

518



Archias, 47 ; Theban polemarch

Archilochus, quoted, 273 ; lyric \
poet, probably of the seventh i
century B.C. f

Archippus, 131, 133 ; Athenian
politician

Argives, 363

Argos, 119

Aridices, 137 ; pupil of Arcesilaiis

Aristaenetus, 259, 261 ; of Nicaea,
a friend of Plutarch

Aristides, 127 ; Athenian states-
man and soldier, circa 520-468

Aristion, 267, 269, 487 f., 511 ;

friend of Plutarch
Aristodemus, 205 ; friend of So-

Aristomachg, 389 ; a " Sibyl," or
a poetess

Aristomenes, 299 ; of Messenia,
seventh century B.C.

Ariston, 9 ; friend of Plutarch

Aristotle, 7, 31, 89 fiF., 141, 227 f.,
235 flF., 261, 263, 279, 475, 479,
501, 511 ; the philosopher, 384-
322 B.C.

Arsinoe, 138 ; wife of Lysima-
chus, later of Ptolemy Kerau-
nos (her half-brother) and
finally of Ptolemy II Phila-
delphus (her full brother), circa
316-270 B.C.

art and artists, 325, 381, 425

Artemis, 277

Asclepius, 71

Asopus, 399 ; river near Nemea

asparagus, 313

ass, 357

Assyrians, 61

astronomy. 111

Athena, 35, 253

Athenian(s), 53, 101, 131, 361

Athenodorus Cordylion, 139 ;
librarian at Pergamon, first
century B.C.

Athens and Attica, 9, 95, 203,
259, 337 ff., 377, 397

Athletics, 159 ff., 163 flF.; see
Games

Athr>itus, 231, 235, 237 ; physi-
cian friend of Plutarch

Atreus, 119; father of Aga-
memnon

Attica, see Athens



INDEX



Aufidlus Modestus, 43, 123 ;

friend of Plutarch
Autobulus, 25, 179, 259, 263,

267 ; father of Plutarch
Autobulus, 331 ; son of Plutarch

Babylon, 219, 225

Bacchants, Bacchi, 365 ; Bac-
chic, 69, 255

Bacchus, 363 ; see also Bacchants,
Dionysus

banquets, symposia, feasts, 9 ff.,
25 ff., 49 ff., 183 ff., 203 ff.,
267 ff., 295, 331 ff., 337 ff.,
373 ff., 407 f., 415, 453, 455 ;
see Plato, Table- Talk, Xeno-
phon

bark-beetles, 149

basil, 175

beans, 137, 145

beer, 221

bees, 171

belladonna, 239

berries, 217, 221

Bias, 29 ; of Priene, one of the
seven wise men

biology, 317, 447 ; see animals,
plants

birds, see animals

blood, 77, 155, 233 ff.

boar, 271

Boeotian, 141, 255

Boethus, 377 ; the Epicurean

Bolus, 175

boxing, 73, 159 ff., 163 ff.

bread, 143, 185 ff.. 261, 499

Brutus, Marcus Junius the
"Liberator," 499

bulimy, bubrostis, ravenous ap-
petite or famine, 497

butterfly, 149

Byzantium, 131

Cahiri. 129 ; the deities

Cadmeian8 = Theban8, 437

cakes, 191

calendar, 368 f.

Callias, 13, 107, 455; wealthy

Athenian, friend of Socrates
Callimachus, 101 ; polemarch at

Marathon
Callimachus, quoted, 255, 399; of

Cyrene ; Alexandrian scholar

and poet



Callisthenes, 71 ; of Olynthus,
historian

Callistratus, 337, 351 ; a sophist,
friend of Plutarch

Candaules, 65 ; Lydian king

Caria, 145

Carthage, Carthaginians, 395

Cassander, 131 ; son of Antipa-
ter, circa 358-297 B.C.

cassia, 71

caterpillar, 145, 149

Cato the Elder, 343

celery, 395, 397 ff., 403 f.

Celeus, 337 ; king of Eleusis

Cephissus River, 169

Chaeremon or Chaeremonianus,
175 ; of Tralles ; a friend of
Plutarch

Chaeronea, 433 ; birthplace of
Plutarch and site of battle of
338 B.C.

" charadrius," 423 ; commonly
translated "plover"

Charmides, 13 ; Plato's uncle

chaste tree, 177

cheese, 261

Cheiron, 211, 297, 403 ; the
centaur, one of the first two
practitioners of medicine

Clu^'sippus, quoted, 89 ; Stoic
philosopher, circa 280-207 B.C.

Chthonic Goddesses, 211

cicadas, 153, 297

Cicero, 121 ; the Roman orator,
10&-43 B.C.

cider, 221

Cimon, 337 ; Athenian general

Cithaeron, 101

Clearchus, 63 ; Spartan officer
with Xenophon's Ten Thou-
sand, lived circa 450-401 B.C.

Cleinias, 249 ; Pythagorean

Cleomenes, 501 ; physician, friend
of Plutarch

Clymenfi, 325

Clytomedeus, 165 ; Nestor's op-
ponent in boxing

cock, 43, 65, 253, 355

coition, 71, 239 ff., 243 ff.

Colias, 397 ; promontory in At-
tica

comedy, 327, 333, 377, 395

Concerning Drunkentiess, 227 ;
work by Aristotle

conger eel, 343

519



INDEX



Conon, 453

consonants, 13

Corinth, Corinthians, 391, 395

Corone, 159

corpses, 153, 233 ff.

Corythalea, 271 ; Apollo's nurse

cosmetics, 493

Council, 341 (at Athens) ; 385
(at Delphi)

crane, 19, 21

Crates, 127 ; Cynic philosopher,
circa 365-285 B.C.

Cratinus, 137 ; Athenian play-
wright of the fifth century B.C.

Crato, 9, 13, 49, 55, 169, 171, 349 ;
relation of Plutarch by mar-
riage

Creon, 127 ; brother-in-law of
Oedipus

Critobulus, 123 ; friend of Soc-
rates

crocodile, 151, 353

Ctesiphon, 341 ; of Athens, fourth
century B.C.

cucumber, 97 ff.

Cyclops, 63

cypress, 39, 171, 173, 219

Cyprus, 361

Cyrenaic philosophers, 381

Cyrus the Elder, 109, 125, 131,
135 ; ruled 559-529 B.C. ;
founder of the Achaemenid
Dynast5f in Persia

Cyrus, 51 ; the Younger, son of
Darius II of Persia

dancing, 9, 19, 57 ff., 67, 199,
253

darnel, 275

date-palm, 221

daws, 43

days of the week, 368-369 (titles
of lost Questions)

deer, 271

Delphi, 387 ; see Pythian Games

Demeter, 345

Democritus, 175, 327, 431, 433 ;
quoted, 19, 87, 99, 189, 257; of
Abdera ; philosopher, circa
460-370 B.C.

Demophontidae, 185

Demosthenes, 129, 341, 365 ; At-
tic orator, 384-322 B.C.

Dendrites, 391 ; the tree-god,
epithet of Dionysus

520



desiccants, 75 ff., 213

dialectics. 111

Dicaearchus, 23, 291 ; philoso-
pher, pupil of Aristotle

diet, 295 ff., 297, 299, 301, 303,
307 ff., 337 ff. (sea-food, etc.),
347 (of Homeric heroes), 349 f.
(of the Jews), 351 ff., 369 (title
of IV. 10), 403 f., 453, 457,
461 f.

dining customs, 407 ff. ; 415
(couches)

Dio, 7 ; of Alexandria ; Academic
philosopher, first century B.C.

diobleton, diosemia, 318-319, 325,
327, 445

Diogenes, 127 ; founder of the
Cynic sect, circa iOO-circa 325

Dionvsia, 363

Dionysus, 5 ff., 21, 73, 151, 211,
219, 221, 225, 253, 267, 271,
359, 361, 363, 365, 367, 391,
393, 397 ("the rushing wine-
god "), 417 ( Releaser- Z/|/a<'M�
and Choral Leader), 437 (Dio-
nysus Phleios) ; cf. Bacchus

Dioscuri, 152

dogs, 117

Dog-star, 273 ; Sirius

Dominants, 31 ; work by Thrasy-
machus

Dorians, 5

Dorotheas, 323 ; a rhetor

drama (and "stage antiquities"),
machinery, 327 ; — , mimes,
Menander, etc., 375 ; — , " imi-
tation," 377 ff.

drinking habits, 11, 69 ff., 77 ff.,
293 f., 301, 347, 401 ff., 405,
409, 453 ff. ; see intoxication

drugs, 17, 77, 239, 243, 265, 275,
279 ; see also plants

Drusus, 75 ; son of Tiberius
Caesar, 13 b.c.-a.d. 23

Dyrrachium, 499 ; on the Adriatic
east coast (Durazzo)

echeneis, 175 ff.
ecstasy, 67 ff.
eel, 157
egg, 145 ff.
Egypt, 17, 153

Egyptians, 7, 150, 350, 353, 355,
357, 443, 447



INDEX



Eileithyia, 277 ; epithet of Ar-
temis

elephant, 175

Eleusis, 141

Elis, 317

Elpistics, 345 ; philosophers of
hope

emanations (effluences), 421 f.,
425, 431, 433 ; rheumata

Empedocles, 225 ; quoted, 39,
209, 223, 311, 401, 435, 439,
449, 463 ; philosopher, fifth
century B.C.

envy, 425 ff.

Epaminondas, 41, 133, 417 ;
Theban statesman and general,
circa 420-362 B.C.

Ephemerides, 71 ; royal Journal
of Alexander the Great

Ephyra, 399 ; identified with
Corinth

Epicurean, 141, 145 ; — philoso-
phers, 373, 377, 379, 381

Epicurus, 7, 141, 237, 243 ff., 255,
257 ; the philosopher of Samos
and Athens, 342-271 B.C.

epifhymides, 215

Erasistratus, 313, 329, 475 ; of
Ceos, eminent physician and
scientific researcher, third cen-
tury B.C.

Erato, 203, 207. 217, 221 ; young
musical friend of Plutarch

Eryximachus, 13 ; a friend of
Socrates

Eryxis, 343

Ethiopians, 207, 483

etymology and linguistic usage,
23, 159 ff., 179, 211 ff., 217, 229,
301, 321, 325, 331, 339. 353,
363, 365, 387. 401 ff., 433 ff.,
437 f., 439. 445, 447, 463. 489,
491. 497. 501 f.. 507 ff.

Euboea. 271 ; Hera's nurse

Euboea, Euboeans. 337, 393

eulogies, 65

Eumelus, 37 ; the Homeric hero

Euphorion, 399, 427 f. (quoted) ;
the poet

Eupolis, quoted, 307 f.

Euripides, 15 ; quoted. 7. 25. 61.
63. 113. 115. 189, 193. 299. 303.
325. 331 ; Athenian play-
wright, circa 484-406 B.C.

Eutelidas, 429. 431



Euthydemus, C. Memmius, 271 ;
a friend of Plutarch

evil eye, 417, 421 ff.

Evius, 363 ; god of the cry = Dio-
nysus

fast(ing) or " feast " : — of the

Jews, 363 f.
fennel, 5

Festivals, see Games ; cf. 363. 365
field-mouse, 353

figs, 13, 169, 175, 341, 439, 511 f.
fine arts, 325, 381 f.. 425
fir, 169 ff.. 219
fire. 329
Firmus, 145. 147, 151 ; friend of

Plutarch
fish. 89, 174, 175, 189, 337 ff. ; see

animals
Florus, Mestrius, 87, 227, 231,

233. 237, 417, 427, 431. 441 ff. ;

influential Roman friend of

Plutarch
flour. 277
flowers, see plants
food, see diet
foot-race. 161. 163 ff.
Forum Romanum. 291
fox, 19, 21, 77
frankincense, 71
friendship, 291
frogs, 153
fruit(s). 141. 143, 173, 207. 243 ;

see also plants
fuels, 275

Gaius, 431 ; son-in-law of Mes-
trius Florus

Games (see also Isthmian. Ne-
mean, Olympia, Pythian) : 375
(entertainment at table, etc.).
379 (for children), 383 ff., 387
(funeral games)

garlands, 203 ff.

garlic, 175

Gaul, 393

Genius, 259

German tribes, 483

Glaucias. 95, 99. 101, 141 ;
Athenian rhetor and friend of
Plutarch

goats. 217. 307

Gobryas. 109. Ill ; friend and
relative by marriage to Cyrus
the Elder

521



INDEX



God, of the Jews, 361 ff. ; who
he is

Good Genius, 259 ; chthonic spi-
rit and guardian of the house

Government, 247 ; a work by Zeno

Graces, 11 ; the Charites

grafting, 169 ff.

grapes, 177, 209, 221, 273

Greece, 7

Greek(8), 33, 45, 53, 219, 307, 367,
387, 391, 393, 437, 443, 491

Hades, 351

Hagias, 183 ff., 189, 259 ; friend
of Plutarch

Half-Greeks, 419

hare, 357

Harma, 411

Hamaodius, 99 ; Athenian tyran-
nicide, killed 514 B.C.

Harpalus, 219 ; Macedonian no-
ble and friend of Alexander,
circa 355-323 B.C.

harp-girl, 27, 185, 193

hazel, 211

hazelwort, 213

Health (personified or deified, ac-
cording to Wilamowitz), 497

Hebrews, 361 ; see Jews

Hecataeus, 333 ; of Abdera, philo-
sopher

Hector, 273

hedgehog, 355

hekatomphonia, 299

Helen, 17, 152 ; wife of Menelaiis

hellebore, 93, 265

Hellespont, the Dardanelles, 345

hemlock, 243

hen, 145 ff. (hen or egg first?)

henbane, 59, 223

henna, 213

Hera, 271, 493

Heraclea Pontica, 45

Heracleitus, 347 ; philosopher of
Ephesus

Heracles, 28, 341, 397, 399, 511

Heraclides, 73, 75 ; a boxer

Heraclitus, quoted, 199 ; the
Ionian philosopher of the sixth
and fifth centuries B.C.

Heraclous (Heraclus), see Hera-
clides

herald-fish, 39

herb(8), 213 ff., see plants

Hermes, 253 ; the god

522



Hermogenes, 13 ; son of Hippo-

nicus, friend of Socrates
Herodotus, quoted, 151 ; the

historian
Hersa, 279 ; dew personified
Hesiod, 387, 409, 487
hiccupping, 217
Hieronymus, 7, 85 ; Peripatetic

philosopher, beginning of third

century B.C.
High Priest, 365 (Jewish)
Hippocrates, 431 ; of Cos or the

Hippocratic corpus (medicine)
holidays, of the Jews, 363 f.
Homer, 37, 41,89, 187, 309, 335,

339, 343, 345, 387, 401 ff., 435,

437, 443, 489, 491, 493, 507 ;

quoted, 13, 17, 27, 33, 35, 77,

93, 113, 115, 119, 163, 165, 183,

191, 199, 201, 255, 261, 273,

279, 347, 373, 405, 411, 433
honey, 97 ff., 237, 243, 261 ;

honey offerings (melisponda),

367
horse(s), 27, 37, 65, 113, 167, 179,

245, 405
humour, 15, 33, 59, 109 ff., 119
hunchbacks, 131 ff.
hunger, 141 ff., 187, 205, 249,

261, 415, 495 ff. ; —and thirst,

455 ff., 459 ff., 469 ff.
Hyades, 270 ; nurses of Dionysus
Hyampolis, 295 ; in Phocis
hppothymides, 215
Hypsipyie, 303

ibis, 355

Ida, 269 ; nurse of Zeus

Iliad, 405 ; see Homer

Ino, 391

intoxication, 49, 55, 65, 199, 21 Iff.,
227 ff., 241, 259 ff., 263 ff., 301,
405, 453 ; see also drinking
habits ; wine

Ion, 273, 497 ; of Chios, play-
wright of the fifth century B.C.

Ionia, 497

Iphicles, 165 ; twin brother of
Heracles, Nestor's opponent in
the foot-race

iriskepta, 321

Ismenias, 125 ; presumably mem-
ber of a Theban family

Isocrates, quoted, 9 ; Athenian
orator, 436-338 B.C.



INDEX



Isthmia, flagship of Antigonus,

395
Isthmian Games (the Isthmia),

389, 391, 395, 397, 399
Italy, Italians, 189, 393
ivy, 211, 217 ff., 243

Jews, 349, 351, 355 f.. 361, 363,

365. 367
Jocasta, 381
justice, 11, 15, 193, 251

karua, 211

Lacedaemon(iaDs), 51, 123, 167,

191
Laconian, 39, 127
Lamprias, 25. 37, 81, 83, 85, 141,

143, 183, 189, 349, 357, 361 ;

brother or uncle of Plutarch
Lamprias, 407, 437 ; Plutarch's

grandfather
Laomedon, 35 ; legendary king of

Troy
laurel. 203, 209. 219
leek, 65
Legends of the States, 97 ; a work

by Neanthea of Cyzlcus
Leo, 355 ; the constellation
Leon, 131 ; of Byzantium; fourth

century B.C.
Lcontis, 95
lettuce, 369
Leuctra, 167
Levitcs. 363
Libya, 121, 387
lice, 181
lightning and thunder. 317 ff.,

411. 439 f.
lion, 355
lizards. 151
loadstone, 175

Locheia, 277 ; epithet of Artemis
l0CU8t<8), 151. 153
Lot, 191, 193 ; personified
love. 41 ff., 63 ff., 117, 133 ff.,

245