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vossiev mniBSB ov thb vbsvch ivititutb,











J. HE present grammar, which is chiefly intended for beginners, is
believed to contain all the information that a student of Sanskrit
is likely to want during the first two or three years of his reading.
Bules referring to the language of the Vedas have been entirely
excluded, for it is not desirable that the difficulties of that ancient
dialect should be approached by any one who has not fully mastered
the grammar of the ordinary Sanskrit such as it was fixed by PAnini
and his successors. All allusions to cognate forms in Greek, Latin,
or Gothic, have likewise been suppressed, because, however inter-
esting and useful to the advanced student, they are apt to deprive
the beginner of that clear and firm grasp of the grammatical system
peculiar to the langua^ of ancient India, which alone can form a
solid foundation for the study both of Sanskrit and of Comparative

The two principal objects which I have kept in view whUe com-
posing this grammar, have been clearness and correctness. With
regard to deamess, my chief model has been the grammar of Bopp ;
with regard to correctness, the grammar of Colebrooke. If I may
hope, without presumption, to have simplified a few of the intricacies
of Sanskrit grammar which were but partially cleared up by Bopp,
Benfey, Flecchia, and others, I can hardly flatter myself to have
reached, with regard to correctness, the high standard of Colebrooke's
great, though unfinished work. I can only say in self-defence, that it
is far more difficult to be correct on every minute point, if one endea-
vours to re-arrange, as I have done, thie materials collected by P4nini,
and to adapt them to the grammatical system current in Europe,
than if one follows so closely aa Colebrooke, the system of native
grammarians, and adopts nearly the whole of their technical termi-
nology. The grammatical system elaborated by native grammarians
is, in itself, most perfect; and those who have tested P&nini's work,
will readily admit that there is no grammar in any language that

a 2


could vie with the wonderfiil mechanism of his eight books of
grammatical rules. But um-ivalled as that system is, it is not
suited to the wants of English students, least of all to the wants .
of beginners. While availing myself therefore of the materials
collected in the grammar of PS^nini and in later works, such as the
PrakriySrKaumudl, the SiddhSnta-Kaumudl, the Sirasvatl Prakriyft,
and the MMhavlya-dh&tu-vritti, I have abstained, as much as pos-
sible, from introducing any more of the peculiar system and of
the terminology of Indian grammarians* than has already found
admittance into our Sanskrit grammars; nay, I have frequently
rejected the grammatical observations supplied ready to hand
in their works, in order not to overwhelm the memory of the
student with too many rules and too many exceptions. Whether
I have always been successful in drawing a line between what
is essential in Sanskrit grammar and what is not, I must leave
to the judgment of those who enjoy the good fortune of being
engaged in the practical teaching of a language the students
of which may be counted no longer by tens, but by hundreds f.
I only wish it to be understood that where I have left out rules

* The few alterations that I have made in the usual terminology have been made
solely with a view of facilitating the work of the learner. Thus instead of numbering
the ten classes of verbs, I have called each by its first verb. This relieves the memory
of much unnecessary trouble, as the very name indicates the character of each class ;
and though the names may at first sound somewhat uncouth, they are after all the only
names recognized by native grammarians. Elnowing from my experience as an examiner,
how difficult it is to remember the merely numerical distinction between the first, second,
or third preterites, or the first and second futures, I have kept as much as possible to the
terminology with which classical scholars are familiar, calling the tense corresponding to
the Greek Imperfect, Imperfect; that corresponding to the Perfect, Reduplicated Perfect;
that corresponding to the Aorist, Aorist; and the mood corresponding to the Optative,
Optative. The names of Periphrastic Perfect and Periphrastic Future tell their own
story; and if I have retained the merely numerical distinction between the First and
Second Aorists, it was because this distinction seemed to be more intelligible to a
classical scholar than the six or seven forms of the so-called multiform Preterite. If it
were possible to make a change in the established grammatical nomenclature, I should
much prefer to call the Fii-st the Second, and the Second the First Aorist; the former
being a secondary and compound, the latter a primary and simple tense. But First
and Second Aorists have become almost proper names, and will not easily yield their
place to mere argument.

t In the University of Leipzig alone, as many as fifty pupils attend every year
the classes of Professor Brockhaus in order to acquire a knowledge of the elements of
Sanskrit, previous to the study of Comparative Philology under Professor Curtius.


or exceptions, contained in other grammars, whether native or
European, I have done so after mature consideration, deliberately
preferring the less complete to the more complete, but, at the same
time, more bewildering statement of the anomalies of the Sanskrit
languaga Thus, to mention one or two cases, when giving the
rules on the employment of the suflixes vat and mat {� 187), I have
left out the rule that bases ending in m, though the m be preceded
by other vowels than a, always take vat instead of mat. I did so
partly because there are very few bases ending in m, partly because,
if a word like kimr-vdn should ' occur, it would be easy to discover
the reason why here too v was preferred to m, viz. in order to avoid
the clashing of two m's. Again, when giving the rules on the
formation of denominatives (J 495), I passed over, for very much
the same reason, the prohibition given in P4n. in. i, 8, 3, viz. that
bases ending in m are not allowed to form denominatives. It is
true, no doubt, that the omission of such rules or exceptions may
be said to involve an actual misrepresentation, and that a pupil
might be misled to form such words as kimr-mdn and kim-yati.
But this cannot be avoided in an elementary grammar ; and
the student who is likely to come in contact with such recon-
dite forms, will no doubt be sufficiently advanced to be able to
consult for himself the rules of P^nini and the explanations of his

My own fear is that, in writing an elementary grammar, I have
erred rather in giving too much than in giving too little. I have
therefore in the table of contents marked with an asterisk all
such rules as may be safely left out in a first course of Sanskrit
grammar*, and I have in different places informed the reader
whether certain portions might be passed over quickly, or should
be carefully committed to memory. Here and there, as for instance
in � 103, a few extracts are introduced from F&nini, simply in
order to give the student a foretaste of what he may expect in
the elaborate works of native grammarians, while lists of verbs
like those contained in J 332 or J 462 are given, as everybody
wiU see, for the sake of reference only. The somewhat elaborate
treatment of the nominal baaes in t and 4, from $ 220 to $ 226,

* In the second edition all these paragraphs are printed in smaller type.


became necessary, partly because in no grammar had the diflFerent
paradigms of this class been correctly given, partly because it
was impossible to bring out clearly the principle on which the
peculiarities and apparent irregularities of these nouns are based
without entering fully into the systematic arrangement of native
grammarians. Of portions like this I will not say indeed, fia>n^<r€TaL
Tty fiaWov ^ fiin^(r€Tai^ but I feel that I may say, ^ ^ ^ ^ ftwflr
'ft'W ^: ; ' and I know that those who will take the trouble to
examine the same mass of evidence which I have weighed and
examined, will be the most lenient in their judgment, if hereafter
they should succeed better than I have done, in unravelling the
intricate argumentations of native scholars *.

But while acknowledging my obligations to the great gram-
marians of India, it would be ungrateful were I not to
acknowledge as fully the assistance which I have derived from
the works of European scholars. My first acquaintance with the
elements of Sanskrit was gained from Bopp's grammar. Those
only who know the works of his predecessors, of Colebrooke,
Carey, Wilkins, and Forster, can appreciate the advance made
by Bopp in explaining the difficulties, and in lighting up, if I
may say so, the dark lanes and alleys of the Sanskrit language.
I doubt whether Sanskrit scholarship would have flourished as
it has, if students had been obliged to learn their grammar from
Forster or Colebrooke, and I believe that to Bopp's little grammar
is due a great portion of that success which has attended the study
of Sanskrit literature in Germany. Colebrooke, Carey, Wilkins,
and Forster worked independently of each other. Each derived
his information from native teachers and from native grammars.
Among these four scholars, Wilkins seems to have been the first
to compose a Sanskrit grammar, for he informs us that the first
printed sheet of his work was destroyed by fire in 1795. The

* To tbose who have the same faith in the accurate and never swerving argumen-
tations of Sanskrit commentators, it may be a saving of time to be informed that in
the new and very useful edition of the Siddh&nta-Kaumudi by S^rt TMnitha-tarkav&r
chaspati there are two misprints which hopelessly disturb the order of the rules on the
proper declension of nouns in t and il. On page 1 36, 1. 7, read *fl<C^ instead of ^pfNl^;
this is corrected in the Corrigenda, and the right reading is found in the old edition.
On the same page, 1. 13, insert •! after f^RT, or join f^i^mpfHftV^Vi^.


whole grammar, however, was not published till 1808. In the
mean time Forster had finished his grammar, and had actually
delivered his MS. to the Council of the College of Fort William
in 1804. But it was not published till 18 10. The first part of
Colebrooke's grammar was published in 1805, and therefore stands
first in point of time of publication. Unfortunately it was not
finished, because the grammars of Forster and Carey were then
in course of publication, and would, as Colebrooke imagined, supply
the deficient part of his own. Carey's grammar was published in
1806. Among these four publications, which as first attempts at
making the ancient language of India accessible to European
scholars, deserve the highest credit, Colebrooke's grammar is
facile princeps. It is derived at first hand from the best native
gmmmars. a^d evinces a familiarity with the most intricate pro-
blems of Hindu grammarians such as few scholars have acquired
after him. No one can understand and appreciate the merits of this
grammar who has not previously acquired a knowledge of the gram-
matical system of P&nini, and it is a great loss to Sanskrit scholar-
ship that so valuable a work should have remained unfinished.

I owe most, indeed, to Colebrooke and Bopp, but I have derived
many useful hints firom other grammars also. There are some por-
tions of Wilson's grammar which show that he consulted native
grammarians, and the &ct that he possessed the remaining portion
of Colebrooke's * MS., gives to his Ust of verbs, with the exception
of the BhA class, which was published by Colebrooke, a peculiar
interest. Professor Benfey in his large grammar performed a most
useful task in working up independently the materials supplied by
P4nini and Bhattojidikshita ; and his smaller grammars too, pub-
lished both in German and in English, have rendered good service
to the cause of sound scholarship. There are besides, the grammars
of Boiler in German, of Oppert in French, of Westergaard in Danish,
of Flecchia in Italian, each supplying something that could not be
found elsewhere, and containing suggestions, many of which have
proved useful to the writer of the present grammar.

But while thus rendering foil justice to the honest labours of
my predecessors, I am bound to say, at the same time, that with

* See Wilson's Sanscrit and English Dictionary, first edition, preface, p. xlv.


regard to doubtful or difficult forms, of which there are many in
the grammar of the Sanskrit language, not one of them can be
appealed to as an ultimate authority. Every grammar contains,
as is well known, a number of forms which occur but rarely, if ever,
in the Uterary language. It is necessary, however, for the sake of
systematic completeness, to give these forms ; and if they are to be
given at all, they must be given on competent authority. Now it
might be supposed that a mere reference to any of the numerous
grammars already published would be sufficient for this purpose,
and that the lists of irregular or unusual forms might safely be
copied from their pages. But this is by no means the case. Even
with regard to regular forms, whoever should trust implicitly in the
correctness of any of the grammars, hitherto published, would never
be certain of having the right form. I do not say this lightly, or
without being able to produce proofs. When I began to revise my
manuscript grammar which I had composed for my own use many
years ago, and when on points on which I felt doubtftil, I con-
sulted other grammars, I soon discovered either that, with a strange
kind of sequacity, they all repeated the same mistake, or that they
varied widely from each other, without assigning any reason or
authority. I need not say that the grammars which we possess
differ very much in the degree of their trustworthiness ; but with
the exception of the first volume of Colebrooke and of Professor
Benfey's larger Sanskrit grammar, it would be impossible to appeal
to any of my predecessors as an authority on doubtful points.
Forster and Carey, who evidently depend almost entirely on
materials supplied to them by native assistants, give frequently
the most difficult forms with perfect accuracy, while they go wildly
wrong immediately after, without, it would seem, any power of
controlling their authorities. The frequent inaccuracies in the
grammars of Wilkins and Wilson have been pointed out by
others ; and however useful these works may have been for
practical purposes, they were never intended as authorities on
contested points of Sanskrit grammar.

Nothing remained in fact, in order to arrive at any satisfactory
result, but to collate the whole of my grammar, with regard not
only to the irregular but likewise to the regular forms, with P4nini
and other native grammarians, and to supply for each doubtful case,


and for rules that might seem to differ from those of any of my
predecessors, a reference to P4nini or to other native authorities*
This I have done, and in so doing I had to re -write nearly the
whole of my grammar ; but though the time and trouble expended
on this work have been considerable, I believe that they have not
been bestowed in vain. I only regret that I did not give these
authoritative references throughout the whole of my work*, because,
even where there cannot be any difference of opinion, some of my
readers might thus have been saved the time and trouble of
looking through F&nini to find the Stitras that bear on every
form of the Sanskrit language.

By this process which I have adopted, I believe that on many
points a more settled and authoritative character haa been imparted
to the grammar of Sanskrit than it possessed before ; but I do by
no means pretend to have arrived on all points at a clear and
definite view of the meaning of P4nini and his successors. The
grammatical system of Hindu grammarians is so peculiar, that rules
which we should group together, are scattered about in different
parts of their manuals. We may have the general nile in the last,
and the exceptions in the first book, and even then we are by no
means certain that exceptions to these exceptions may not occur
somewhere else. I shall give but one instance. There is a root
ffP| jdgrii which forms its Aorist by adding ^ isham, ^ <A, fi(^ it.
Here the simplest rule would be that final ^ ri before ^ isham
becomes ^ r (P&n. vi. i, 77). This, however, is prevented by another
rule which requires that final ^ fi should take Guna before ^ isha/m
(P4n. vn. 3, 84). This would give us wirmfic?i ajdgar-isham. But
now comes another general rule (P&n. vn. 2, i) which prescribes
Vriddhi of final vowels before ^ isham, i. e. v^uiiM ajdgdrisha/m.
Against this change, however, a new rule is cited (P&n. vn. 3, 85),
and this secures for irnj jdgri a special exception from Y^iddhi, and
leaves its base again as wn^jdgar. As soon as the base has been
changed to "mn^jdgar, it Mia under a new rule (P&n. vn. 2, 3), and
is forced to take Vjiddhi, until this rule is again nullified by PAn. vn.
2, 4, which does not allow Vfiddhi in an Aorist that takes interme-
diate ^ i, like iiHN(M cydgarisham. There is an exception, however.

* They have been given in the second edition.



to this rale also, for bases with short i� a, beginning and ending
with a consonant, may optionally take Vriddhi (P&n. vn. 2, 7). This
option is afterwards restricted, and roots with short m a, beginning
with a consonant and ending in ^r, like wx^jdgaVy have no option
left, but are restricted afresh to Vjiddhi (Pfijgi. vii. 2, 2). However,
even this is not yet the final result. Our base ymn^jdgar is after
all not to take Vriddhi, and hence a new special rule (P4n. vn. 2, 5)
settles the point by granting to WPlJdgri a special exception from
Vriddhi, and thereby establishing its Guna. No wonder that these
manifold changes and chances in the formation of the First Aorist of
^OJiJdgri should have inspired a grammarian, who celebrates them
in the following couplet :

" Guna, Vriddhi, Guna, Vriddhi, prohibition, option, again Vriddhi
and then exception, these, with the change of ri into a semivowel
in the first instance, are the nine results.'^

Another difficulty consists in the want of critical accuracy in
the editions which we possess of Pd^nini, the Siddhinta-Kaumudl,
the Laghu-Kaumudl, the SArasvatl, and Vopadeva. Far be it from
me to wish to detract from the merits of native editors, like
Dharantdhara, Kdiin&tha, T4rd.n^tha, still less from those of
Professor Boehtlingk, who published his text and notes nearly
thirty years ago, when few of us were able to read a single line of
P&nini. But during those thirty years considerable progress has
been made in unravelling the mysteries of the grammatical literature
of India. The commentary of Sd.yana to the Rig-veda has shown us
how practically to apply the rules of P&nini ; and the translation of
the Laghu-Kaumudl by the late Dr. BaUantyne has enabled even
beginners to find their way through the labyrinth of native grammar.
The time has come, I believe, for new and critical editions of Pdiiini
and his commentators. A few instances may suffice to show the
insecurity of our ordinary editions. The commentary to Pftn. vn. 2,42,
as well as the SArasvatl n. 25, i, gives the Benedictive Atmanepada
^^Nif vartshtshta and n6^ startshishta ; yet a reference to P&n. viL
2, 39 and 40, shows that these forms are impossible. Again, if
P&nini (vni.3,92) is right — and how could the InfalliUe be wrong? —


in using ^npnfNftr agragdmini with a dental n in the last syllable,
it is clear that he extends the prohibition given in vin, 4, 34,
with regard to Upasargas, to other compounds. It is useless to
inquire whether in doing so he was right or wrong, for it is an article
of faith with every Hindu grammarian that whatever word is used
by P&nini in his SAtras, is eo ipso correct. Otherwise, the rules
affecting compoimds with Upasargas are by no means identical with
those that affect ordinary compounds ; and though it may be right to
argue a fortiori from wmftfftf pragdmini to ^iirnfMH agragdmini, it
would not be right to argue from ^Rpvpr agraydna to hutt praydna,
this being necessarily inmrr praydna. But assuming ^npnftrftf agron
gdmini to be correct, it is quite clear that the compounds laiH i fttifl
svargakdminau, yjufaiut vrisha^dminaUy ^rmH i fti harikdmdni, and
gfil^iit^ harikdmena, given in the commentary to viii. 4, 1 3, are all
wrong, though most of them occur not only in the printed editions
of P&nini and the Siddh&nta-Kaumudi, but may be traced back to
the MSS. of the Prakriy4-Kaumudl, the source, though by no means
the model, of the Siddhd^nta-Kaumudi. I was glad to learn from
my friend Professor Groldstlicker, who is preparing an edition of the
K&Sik4 -Vritti, and whom I consulted on these forms, that the MSS.
of Yimana which he possesses, carefrdly avoid these faulty examples
to P&n. vni. 4, 1 3.

After these explanations I need hardly add that I am not so san-
guine as to suppose that I could have escaped scot free where so many
men of superior knowledge and talent have failed to do so. All I can
say is, that I shall be truly thankful to any scholar who wiU take
the trouble to point out any mistakes into which I may have fallen ;
and I hope that I shall never so far forget the regard due to truth
as to attempt to represent simple corrections, touching the declension
of nouns or the conjugation of verbs, as matters of opinion, or so far
lower the character of true scholarship as to appeal, on such matters,
from the verdict of the few to the opinion of the many.

Hearing from my friend Professor Btihler that he had finished
a Sanskrit Syntax, based on the works of Pdnini and other native
grammarians, which will soon be published, I gladly omitted that
portion of my grammar. The rules on the derivation of nouns, by
means of Krit, TJn&di, and Taddhita suflBxes, do not properly belong
to the sphere of an elementary grammar. If time and health permit,



I hope to publish hereafter, as a separate treatise, the chapter of
the PrakriyfirKaumudl bearing on this subject.

In the list of verbs which I have given as an Appendix,
pp. 244-285, I have chiefly followed the PrakriyA-Kaumudl and
the S&rasvati. These grammars do not conjugate every verb that
occurs in the Dh&tup&tha, but those only that serve to illustrate
certain grammatical rules. Nor do they adopt, like the Siddh&nta-
Kaumudl, the order of the verbs as given in P&nini's Dh4tup&tha,
but they group the verbs of each class according to their voices,
treating together those that take the terminations of the Parasmai-
pada, those that take the terminations of the Atmanepada, and,
lastly, those that admit of both voices. In each of these subdi-
visions, again, the single verbs are so arranged as best to illustrate
certain grammatical rules. In making a new selection among
the verbs selected by B&machandra and Anubh{itisvardp&ch&iya�
I have given a preference to those which occur more frequently
in Sanskrit literature, and to those which illustrate some points
of grammar of peculiar interest to the student In this manner
I hope that the Appendix will serve two purposes : it will not
only help the student, when doubtful as to the exact forms
of certain verbs, but it will likewise serve as a useful practical
exercise to those who, taking each verb in turn, will try to
account for the exact forms of its persons, moods, and tenses by a
reference to the rules of this grammar. In some cases references
have been added to guide the student, in others he has to find by
himself the proper warranty for each particular form.

My kind friends Professor Cowell and Professor Kielhom have
revised some of the proof-sheets of my grammar, for which I beg to
express to them my sincere thanks.


5th April, 1866.



i. HE principal alterations in the new edition of my Sanskrit grammar
CQnsist in a number of additional references to F&nini^ in all cases
where an appeal to his authority seemed likely to be useful, and in
the introduction of the marks of the accent I have also been able
to remove a number of mistakes and misprints which, in spite of all
the care I had taken, had been overlooked in the first edition. Most
of these I had corrected in the German translation of my grammar,
published at Leipzig in 1868; some more have now been corrected.
I feel most grateful to several of my reviewers for having pointed
out these oversights, and most of all to Pandit B&j&rftmaiiftstrl,
whose list of notes and queries to my grammar has been of the
greatest value to me. It seems almost hopeless for a European
scholar to acquire that familiarity with the intricate system of
P&nini which the Pandits of the old school in India still possess ;
and although some of their refinements in the interpretation of
P&nini's rules may seem too subtle, yet there can be no doubt that
these living guides are invaluable to us in exploring the gigantic
labyrinth of ancient Sanskrit grammar.

There is, however, one difficulty which we have to contend with,
and which does not exist for them. They keep true throughout to
one system, the system of P4nini ; we have to transfer the facts of
that system into our own system of grammar. What accidents are
likely to happen during this process I shall try to illustrate by
one instance. B&j4r&mai^trl objects to the form fi^ pun^u as the
locative plural of jin9( pumdn. From his point of view, he is perfectly
right in his objection, for according to P&nini the locative plural has
Anusv&ra, |f purhsu. But in our own Sanskrit grammars we first
have a general rule that ^^ is changed to i^^^ after any vowel
except m and wi d, in spite of intervening Anusvfija (see � 100);
and it has even been maintained that there is some kind of
physiological reason for such a change. If then, after having laid


down this rule, we yet write ^ pvmsu^ we Biinply commit a gram-
matical blunder ; and I believe there is no Sanskrit grammar, except
Colebrooke's, in which that blunder has not been committed. In
order to avoid it, I wrote fi^g[ punsu, thus, by the retention of the
dental �( n, making it grammatically and physically possible for
the ^^ to remain unchanged. It may be objected that on the same
ground I ought to have written Instr. j^m punsd^ Gen. 5^^ punsdh^
&c. ; but in these cases the \s i& radical, and would therefore not be
liable to be changed into 1^ sh after a vowel and Anusv&ra (PAn. vin.
3, 59). Professor Weber had evidently overlooked these simple
rules, or he would have been less forward in blaming Dr. Keller
for having followed my example in writing 511 punsu^ instead of
^ pumsu. In P4nini's grammar (as may be seen from my note
appended to $ icx)) the rule on the change of ^5 into 1^ sh is so care-
fully worded that it just excludes the case of jj purhsu^ although the
^su of the loc. plur. is preceded by an Anusv^. I have now, by
making in my second edition the same reservation in the general
rule, been able to conform to P&nini's authority, and have written
^ pumsuj instead of fif punsu, though even thus the fact remains
that if the dot is really meant for Anusv&ra, and if the ^ ^t^ is the
termination of the locative plural, the ^ s would be sounded as
1^ shy according to the general tendency of the ancient Sanskrit

I have mentioned this one instance in order to show the peculiar
difficulties which the writer of a Sandcrit grammar haa to contend
with in trying to combine the technical rules of P&nini with the
more rational principles of European grammar ; and I hope it may
convince my readers, and perhaps even Professor Weber, that where
I have deviated from the ordinary rules of our European grammars,
or where I seem to have placed myself at variance with some of the
native authorities, I have not done so without having carefully
weighed the advantages of the one against those of the other



August, 1870.


CHAPTER I.— The Alphabet
The DevanSgari letters .
� I. The Devandgar! alphabet .

2. Direction of Sanskrit alphabet

3. How to write the letters .

4. Sounds represented hj the De-

yandgari alphabet

5. Number of letters .

6. The letter It .
f • Jihydmiilfja and UpadhmSntja

8. Signs of nasals and their substi

tute ....

9. The three nasal semivowels

10. Consonants without correspond

ing nasals .

1 1. Anusv4ra before /, sh, b, h
>l^i2. Names of letters

13. Vowel signs, initial, medial, and

final ....

14. Consonants followed by vowels

15. Yir&ma ....

16. Combination of consonants
1 7^ The sign for r

18. The Virdma used as a stop-gap

19. The signa for a pauae .

ao. The Avagraha. List of com
pound consonants

21. Numerical figures .

22, Rules of pronunciation .











CHAPTER II.— Rules of Sandhi.
� 23. Object and use of Saudhi . .11
24. Distinction between External

and Internal Sandhi . .11
2$. Classification of vowels, long,

short, protracted . • .12

�26. Monophthongs and diphthongs .

27. Nasalized vowels

28. Light and heavy vowels •

29. Acute, grave, and circumflexed

vowels . . . .

30. Guna and Yriddhi .

31. Guna of <X, d .

32. Combination of vowels at the

end and beginning of words.
No hiatus ....

33. Vowels meeting the same vowels

34. Vowels & and <i, followed by

di�ferent- vowels .

35. Vowels d and d, followed hy

diphthongs. .

36. Voweb i, A, ri, followed by dis-

similar vowels

37. Vowels e and o, followed by any

vowel except d .

38. Voweb at and cm, followed by

any voweb . • . .

39. Treatment of final y and v

40. The hiatus occasioned by Sandhi

41. Vowels e and before d •

42. Unchangeable or Pragrihya

voweb ....

43. Irregular Sandhi; prepositions

ending in <X or ^, followed by
6 or o

44. Prepositions ending in <X or ^

followed hj fi ,
^ 45. The of oahfha^ and otu^
^ 46. Irr^^lar compounds
:^ 47. The final of indeclinable words
:)t 48. Monosyllabic indeclinable words
:^ 49. Sandhi of the particle d •















:^�5o. Particlee unaffected by Sandhi
:^ 51. Protracted vowels unaffected by

Sandhi ....
g2. Table showing the combination

of final with initial vowels .

53. Combination of final and initial


54. The eleven final consonants

55. No word ends in two consonants

56. Classification of consonants, ac-

cording to their place

57. Classification of consonants, ac-

cording to their quality, i. e.
contact^ approach, opening .

58. Surd and sonant consonants .

59. Aspirated and unaspirated con-

sonants ....

60. Changes of place, and changes

of quality . . . .

61. Changes ofplace affect Dentals,

Anusvdra, and Yisarga

62. Final t before Palatals ch, chh,

63. Final n before /^A, fl, /•

64. Final t before f, fA, ^, 4K ?

(not ah) ,
6g. Final n before d^^k^n (not sK)

66. Changes of quality

67. Final ^ f, <, jp before nasals

^ 68. Final k, f, <, jp before maya or

^ 69. Initial h after final kft,t,p .
f o. Final t before I . * •
f I. Final n before I . .
fa. Final �, n, n after a short vowel

73. Final n before the firsts and

seconds ....

74. Final n and n before i, eh, a .

75. Final n before i or a (not ah) .

76. Final ( before �...

77. Anusv^ and final m

78. M in pcmady and before conso-

nants ....

79. Final mheioTehn,hmfhf/, hi, hv

80. Sam before fyi, acmakjri .

81. Sam heiore rdf, aamrdij .
8a. Yisarga and final � or r •



The only final sihTlantinpauady


Yisarga, and itsmodifications



84. Yisarga before a sonant letter

changed to r, and exceptions




Final radical r . .



Final r before initial r .




Pronouns aah and eahah, af/cbh




Bho^ .....




Exceptions in compound words



Nouns ending in radical r .




Initial chh and medial chh



Initial i changeable to chh •



Final h, gh, dh, dh, bh, throw-


ing their aspiration back on


initial g, 4> ^t^*



Table showing the combina-


tion of final with initial con-

sonants ....




yatif or change of n into n,

and a into ah ,




Change of n into n



TfipnoH and kahvbhndH







Change of n into n in a com-

pound ....




Optional changes of n into n in


the preposition ni




Change of a into ah




Change of a into ah in the re-

duplicative syllable .




Change of a into ah after pre-


positions ....



% 103.

Extracts from P&nini on cer-


tain changes of a into ah



* 104.

Change of a into ah in com-

pounds ....



* 105.

Change of e^ into fh .




RiTT^KH OF Internal Sandhi



% 107.

Final vowels. No hiatus .



4c 108.

Final d and d, followed by


vowels ....


* X09.

Yerbal bases md



�c "O.

Final t, t,u,d,fi changed to


y,v,r; finalt,�,t�,4,rt,r�


changed to iy, uv, ri, ir .



4c I".

Final ft, before consonants,


changed to ir or l^ .






* "7-

:yb�ii2. Final eyai,o,<m changed to
ay, dy, av, dv; roots ending
in diphthongs .

Final consonants, only eleven

Two consonants at the end of
a word impossible

Sonant and surd initials require
sonant and surd finals

Final aspirates lose their aspi-
ration • . . •

Final gh, dh, dh, hh, followed
by tj th, lose their aspiration
and change t, ih into dh
^ 118. FmsA gh,dh,dh,bh,f oWowedhj
dhv, hh, and 8, or final, lose
their aspiration and throw it
back on initial g, d, d,b .

Final chj,jh changed to ^ or ^

Final $h changed to f .

Final $h before 8 changed to k

Final sk before t, th, changes
them to t,th ,

Final 8h changed to t before
other consonants

Final^' in certain roots treated

like �4 . . . .

Final i, chh, Juh, 4ch treated
like 8h .

Final 4 changed to A; .
Final h before 8 treated like gh
Final h treated like gh or dh.
Final A optionaUy treated like

gh or 4h .
Final h of nah treated like dh
Final 8 changed into t in cer-
tain nominal bases
^ 132. Final 8 before 8 changed into t
in verbal bases ; 8 dropt be-
fore dhi; optionally changed
into t , . . .
^ 133. Final n or m before sibilants

changed to Anusv&ra
4t 134. ilTunchangedbef ore semivowels
:y^ 135. If imchanged before y,r, I .
^ 136. If changed to n •

137. The five nasals abbreviated
into the Anusvdra dot











































� 1 38. Annsv&ra before i, 8h, 8, h .

4t 139. i\r after ch orj changed into H
140. Chh changed to chchh .

:)t 141. (7AA before norm changed to/

^ 142. Final y and v dropt before
consonants, except y .

i/t 143. Final iv, ir, wr lengthened if
followed by consonants

% 144. Final vr and ur lengthened if
ending a word .

% 145. Radical if or t^ at the end of
nominal bases lengthened .

^ 146, 147. Doubling of consonants •
148. Explanation of some gramma-
tical terms used by native










CHAPTER m.— Declension.

49. Gender, number, and case . 64

50. I. Bases ending in consonants;

II. bases ending in vowels . 64

51. I. Bases ending in consonants;

no bases mn,fi,y . . 64

52. Terminations . . .64

53. Li. Unchangeable and L 2.

Changeable bases . 65

54. I.i.Unchangeablebases;�u^ais^ 65

55. S<vrva4dk . . .66

56. Chitralikh . . . .66

57. HarU,agnimcAh,8uhfid,hvdh,

gup, hakvhh . .67

58. Jalaanuch . . . .67

59. Special bases in ch; hnmch,

prdfich, vfUch . .68

60. Prdchh .... 68

61. Ruj, Hrj . . .68

62. Bases in j, changeable to ^y

8a/mrdj, vibhrdj, deoej,vUv(j^
8iij,par{vrdj,vUvardj, hhfijj 68

63. Irregular nouns vaj; kkamj,

cwaydj .69

64. Bases in r; gvr, vdr,pur, dvdr,

kir 70

65. Bases in �/ A.basesformedby

cu, 18, U8; sumcmtM, 8ujyott8 "71

66. Jaras ajudjard . . .72

67. Nifjarca and nvrjara • • 73






AnehaSf purudamhs . 74

:yb�i94. Optional feminine compounds



^ 169.

Uianaa ....


:)^ 195. Pathin, ribhvkahiuy mathin .


* 170-

Bases in ; B. bases endiDg in

196. Aham, .....


radical s; pindagraSf supis.

;yb 197. Aham at the end of compounds


9UtU8 ....


ifc 198. Ahan at the end of compounds


^ 171-

Pipathis . • .


199. Svan, ywoam,


% 172.

Mia, sajus; list of bases in a .


^z 200. Maghaman ....


^ 173-

DhvaSy sras ....


^ 201. PUshan, aa^amam


^ 174-

Bases ending in /, sh, chh,ksh,h


^ 202. Uan


I. 2>{/, dWY, 8prU


203. Bases in in, dhanin


a. i^ai ....


204. Participles in vas .


3. FiV ....


205. Participles in iva,8


4. Dkrish ....


206. Bases in tyaa, gariyas .


5. Z>w�^ ....


^ 207. Miscellaneous nouns with

6. Pr^cAA ....


changeable bases, pdd


7. Taksh ....


^ 208. Vdh


8. Lih, guh


ifc 209. JSvetavdh ....


9. DieA, ushnih .


:yb 2ia Anaduh ....


10. Druh, muk, snih, snuh .


211. Ap


II. i^o^ ....


:^ 212. Pums


^ 175.

Tv/rdsdh ....


;jt 213. Div, dyu ....


^ 17^.

Pwroddi ....


^214. Asoffh and other Metaplasta .



Ukthaida ....


215. II. Bases ending in vowels,

^ 178.

Praidm ....


subdivided . .



I. 2. Nouns with changeable

216. II. I . Bases ending in an^r vowel

bases; A. nouns with two

except d .


bases, a(2a<


217. Bases in ai and om





2 1 8. Bases in .



B. Nouns with three bafies,

ifc 219. Dyo


pratyach ....


^ 220. Bases in i and i2 .



Bases in at and amJt; adat


I. Monosyllabic bases in t and


The nasal in the nom. and ace.

t2, being both masc. and fem.


dual of neuters, and in the

A. By themselves ; dhi, krt, M


feminine base .


:)i^ 221. R At the end of compounds .


* 184.

The nasal in [Participles of re-

:|^ 222. 2. Polysyllabic bases in t and ^,

duplicated verbs


being both masc. and fem. .



Brihat, pfishat


% 223. The five fuller feminine termi-




nations ....



Bases in mat and vat


224. I. Monosyllabic bases in i and

% 188.

Bhavaty Your Honour .


^ being feminine only, dhi,

^ 189.

ArvcU and arvan .




^ 190.



225. 2. Polysyllabic bases in i and


Bases in an, many van; rdjan.

4, being feminine only, nadt,

ndma/n ....


vadhil ....



Brahman, dtvan .


^226. Compounds ending in mono-

^ 193-

Feminines of bases of nouns in

syllabic feminine bases in t

an, voffi, ffion .


and 4, mbhrU .

























Compounds ending in poly-
syllabic feminine bases in t
and Hy bahuireyast . . 107

Strt 108

AtisM . . .108

Bases in t and u, masc. fem. neut 109
Kati . .111

Skikhi Ill

Pad 112

Akahl, asthi, dadkif sakihi . 112
Bases in fi, masc. fem. neut.,

naptfiy pUfi .112
Krashfu .113
NH 114

IL 2. Bases ending in a and d,
kdntah, tdf tarn . .114

Bases in d, masc. and fem.,
vUva/pd .... 116

Hdhd 116

CHAPTER IV.— Adjectives.

�241. Declension of adjectives . 116

242. Formation of feminine base . 117

243. Priyah, fem, priyd .117
:)t 244. Fdchakah, pdchikd .117

245. Feminines formed by $ . . 117
^ 246. Exceptional feminines in i . 117
ij/t 247. Irregular feminines .117

;yb 248. Formation of feminine sub-
stantives . . .118

249. Degrees of comparison . . 118

250. Tara and tama, how added . 118

251. lycM and ishfhaf how added . 118

252. Exceptional cpmparatives and

superlatives . .119

CHAPTER v.— Numerals.

�253. Cardinals and declension of

cardinals, eka . . . 120

254. Dvi , . . . - . 124

255. Tri, tisfi .... 124

256. Chatwr, chaUuri . . . 124

257. Fanchan, Bhash, ctahfan . 124
2^ 258. Construction of cardinals • 124

259. Ordinals . . .125

260. Numerical adverbs and other

derivatives . . .126


CHAPTER VI.— Pbohouhs.
�261. Personal pronouns . . 127
262. Sah, sdytat . . . .128
:yb 263. Syahj syd, tycU . . . 128

264. Possessive pronouns . .128

265. Reflexive pronouns, waycan . 129

266. Atman . . .129

267. Svahy ivd, svcMn . 129

268. Demonstrative pronouns^M^/^,

e8hd, etat . . .129

269. Ayamy iyam, idam .129
;|^ 270. �nam, endm, eruU .130

271. AsaUf cacMy adah . . . ISO

272. Tah, yd, yat . 131

273. Xah, kd, him . . .131
:i^ 274. Pronouns modified by o^ . 131

275. Compound pronouns, f<ie^p/<bc. 132

276. Tdvat &c. . ... 132

277. KcUchU Ac. .... 132

278. Pronominal adjectives, aortw,

vUvtty Ac. .... 133

279. Anyah, anyd, cmycU .134

280. Ubhau, ubhsy tubhe . .134

281. Ubhayah, yt, yam .134
:^ 282. FUrva and its optional forms . 134
;yb 283. Fraihar}$a and its optional

nominative plural .134

:yb 284. Bvittya and its optional forms 135
2f: 285. Adverbial declension . .135


�286. Active and passive .137

287. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada 137

288. ParasmaipadaandAtmanepada

in derivative verbs . .138

289. Passive . . . .138

290. The thirteen tenses and moods 138

291. Signification of tenses and

moods . . . .139

292. Numbers and persons . .140

CHAPTER Vin.— The Ten Classes.

� 293. Special and general tenses, in

the ten classes . . .140

294. Special or modified, general or

unmodified tenses . .140

295. Division of verbal bases . .141

C 2


�296. I. First division; Bhft, Tud,

Div, Chur classes . ,141

297. II. Second division, and sub-

divisions .... 142

298. Ha, Sn, Tan, Eri classes . 143

299. II 5. Ad, Hu, Rudh classes . 143

CHAPTER IX. — ^Augment, Reduplica-
tion, AND Terminations.

�300. Augment and reduplication . 145

301. Augment a . . . 145

302. Reduplication in the perfect,

and in the Hu verbs . .145

303. Qeneral rules of reduplication 146

304. Aspirated initials . . .146

305. Guttural initials . . .146

306. Double initials . . . 146

307. Initial sibilant followed hj a

tenuis .... 146

308. The vowel of the reduplicative

syllable is short . . .146

309. Medial e and ai are redupli-

cated by t, and cmhj u , 146

310. Final e, oi, are reduplicated

by a 146

311. Irregular reduplication by

Samprasftrana . .147

312. Short initial a . . . 147

313. Initial a followed by two con-

sonants . .148

314. Initial ri . . . .148

315. Short initial i and u . . 148

316. Special rules of reduplication. 148
^ 317. Nij, vij, vUh . .148
^ 318. MA,hA .148
^319. Hcm,hifji,chi , . 148

320. Terminations . . . 149

321. Terminations of first and se-

cond divisions . . .149

322. Regular conjugation . .150

CHAPTER X.— General Tensed

�323. General or unmodified tenses . 159

324. Reduplicated perfect . , 169

325. Verbs which may form the re-

duplicated perfect . .159

326. The periphrastic perfect . 159


�327. Strong and weak termina-
tions 160

328. Weakening of base . . 160

329. Bases ending in d and diph-

thongs, how changed . . 161

330. Bases ending in t, C, ft, w, ^ fi,

how changed . . .161

CHAPTER XL— Intermediate i.

�331. When it nrnat be omitted,
when it may be omitted,
when it rrmst be inserted . 162

^332. List of verbs in which the inter-
mediate i mitst be omitted . 163

^t 333. Verbs in which the interme-
diate i mtist be omitted in
certain tenses . .165

^ 334' Special rules for the redupli-
cated perfect . . .167

^ 336* Special rules for the 2nd pers.

sing. Par. of the red. perf. . 167

^ 33^- Table showing when interme-
diate i must be omitted . 168

^ 337� Optional insertion of t . . 168

^ 338. Necessary insertion of i .170

339. The intermediate % never liable

to GuQa .... 171

340. Insertion of long i . .171
^341. Optional insertion of long t .171

34a. Periphrastic perfect . . 172
^ 343� Periphrastic perfect of inten-

sives and desideratives . 172
Paradigms of the reduplicated
perfect .... 172

CHAPTER XII. — Steengthening and


�344. Two classes of terminations,
strengthening or weakening
a verbal base . . 175

^ 345- Special forms of strengthening

and weakening certain bases 177


�346. First and second aorist . . 179

347. Four forms of the first aorist . 179

348. Rules for the first form . . 180




^�349- Stales for desideratives, inten-

Bives, &c .... 181

350. Bules for the second form . 181

351. Terminations b^inning with

St or 9th . . . . 181

352. Boots in d and diphthongs . 181
^353* Mt,mi,dtyU . . .181

^ 364. E(m ' 181

^ 355. Gam 181

^ 356. 7am 181

357. Bules for the third form . 182

ifc 358. Mt, mi,ll. . . 182

^ 359* 7a^ny ramiy nam . . . 182

360. Bales for the foarth form . 182

jyt 361. iSUah 182

2^ 362. Btth, dihf lihy gvh • 182

Paradigms .... 182

363. Second aorist . . . 186

364. Boots ending in 4, 0, i, ri; dfii 187

365. Boots with penaltimate nasal . 187

366. Irr^alar forms • . . 187
iff 367. Verbs which take the second

aorist .... 187
^ 368. Verbs which take the second

aorist in the Par. only . 188

^ 369. The Tan verbs . .188

370. Beduplicated second aorist . 188

iff 371. Sriy drUf sruy ham; M^ dhe . 189

372. Shortening of bases ending in

ay 189

373. Bases that cann6t be shortened 189

374. Compensation between base

and redaplicative syllable . 189

375* Vowelsof redaplicative syllable 190
% 31^' Verbs beginning and ending

with doable consonants • 190

^377. Verbs with penaltimate H, r^ . 190

378. Verbs beginning with vowels . 191

:||lr 379. Irregular reduplicated aorist . 191

Paradigm .... 191

380. When the diiOTerent forms of

the aorists are used . . 191

CHAPTEB XIV.— Future, Conditional,
Pesiphsastic Futube, and Benedictivb.

�381. Future .... 192
382. Changes of the base . . 192


�383. Conditional . . . .193

384. Periphrastic future^ . .194

385. Benedictive . . . .195
;yb 386. Bases ending in ay . . 195

387. Weakening in benedictive Pa-

rasmaipada^ strengthening in
benedictive Atmanepada . 195

388. Intermediate i . .195
^ 389. Weakening of base before y . 196
^ 390. Verbs ending in i, u, ft, ft .196
:)t 391. Verbs ending inn . , 196
^ 392. Verbs ending in d. . 196
^ 393* ^erbs which take Samprasi-

rana 197

^ 394. Other verbs which take Sam-

prasirana .... 197

^ 395. iSds changed to Hsh . 197

396. Benedictive Atmanepada . 198

CHAPTEB XV.— Passive.

�397. Atmanepada terminations . 198
398. Special tenses of passive . 198
% 399 Causative, denominative, in-
tensive bases . . .198

400. Weakening of base. Paradigm 199

401. General tenses of passive . 199

402. The aorist passive . . . 200

403. The 3rd pers.8ing. aorist passive 200
^ 404. Aorist of verbs ending in d . 200
:yb 405. Aorist of verbs ending in ay . 200
;yb 406. Aorist of intensive and desi-

darative bases . . . 200
^ 407. Irregular forms . • .201
% 408. Verbs ending in am .201

409. Paradigm . . . .201

410. Future, conditional, and bene-

dictive passive . . .201

411. Their optional forms . .201
:jl^ 412. Aorist passive of intransitive

verbs .... 203

^413* Optional forms . . . 203

CHAPTEB XVI.— Participles, Qbbunds,
AND Infinitive.

�414. Participle present Parasmai-

pada. .... 203
415. Participle future Parasmaipada 204




�416. Participle of reduplicated per-
fect Parasmaipada . 204
^ 41'j, Participle of reduplicated per-
fect with i, . . . 205

418. Participle of reduplicated per-

fect Atmanepada . .205

419. Participle present Atmanepada 205

420. Participle future Atmanepada 206

421. Participle present and future

passive .... 206

422. Past participle passive and

gerund .... 206

423. Gerund in tvd . . . 206
:)t 424. I. The terminationB tah and

^df with intermediate i . 207
4t 425. Penultimate u with optional

Guna .... 207
:)t 426. Tvd with intermediate i and

Guna .... 207
4t 427. Tvd with intermediate i and

without Guna . . .207
:^ 428. Nasal lost before ^A,j9A;vancA^

Itmch .... 207
:)^ 429. II. The terminations tah and

tvd, without intermediate i . 207
2^ 430. Final nasal dropt before tah

and tvd . . , . 207
:)^ 431. Final n dropt and vowel length-
ened ; final chh, v, rchh, and rv 20S
:)^ 432. Boots changing t^ to 1^ . . 208
2^ 433. Final at changed to d or i . 208
3/c 434. Bo, 80, md, athd, dhd, M change

their final into i . , 208
^ 435. JSo and chho take iot d. .• 208
;|t 436. Exceptional forms . 208

^ 437. Verbs which take Samprasi-

rana 208

3/c 438. Verbs which lose penultimate

nasal .... 209

439. Causal verbs . . . 209

440. Desiderative yerbs . . 209

441. Intensive verbs . . . 209

442. Participles in TiaA . . . 209
;|t 443. Adjectival participles . .210

444. Vat added to participles . 210

445. Gerund in ^a . . . 210

446. Gerund in tya . .210

^�447. Gerund of causatives .
2f^ 448. Ghu verbs, md, sthd, gd,

hd, 80, take final d
;yb 449. Verbs ending in nasals
^ 450. Verbs ending in rt
^ 451- Ve,jyd,vi/e,
% 452. Mt, mi, di. It




CHAPTER XVII.— Verbal Adjectives.

�453' Verbal adjectives, JTrifya .211

454. Adjectives in tavya . .212

455. Adjectives in aaitya . .212

456. Adjectives in ^a . .212
^ 457. Exceptional verbal adjectives

in ya and tya . . . 214
^ 458. Verbs changing final ch and^

into k and g . . . 214

459. Infinitive in inim . .214

460. Verbal adverbs in a/m . .214

CHAPTER XVIII.— Causattvb Verbs.

�461. Causal bases, how formed . 215
;yb 462. Gupa or V|iddhi . . . 215

463. Exceptional causative bases, I.

^11 217

464. Conjugation of causative verbs 219

465. Passive of causative verbs . 219

466. General tenses of the passive . 219

CHAPTER XIX.— Desiderative Verbs.

�467. Desiderative bases, how formed 220

468. Desiderative bases, how con-

jugated .... 220

469. Desiderative bases, with or

without intermediate i . 220
^ 470. Strengthening of base . . 220
;yb 471. Exceptional strengthening or

weakening. . . . 220:
^ 472. Desiderative bases, treated as

BhA verbs. . . .221
473. Reduplication of desiderative

bases .... 222

if^ 474. Bases in av and dv . . 222

^ 476� Sru, iru, dm, pru, plu, ckyu . 222

476. Internal reduplication . .222

:)^ 477. Exceptional forms .222




CHAPTER XX.— Intbsksivb Vbbbs.

�478. Meaning of intensive or fre-
quentative verbs .223

479. Verbs which may form inten-

sive bases .... 223

480. Two kinds of intensive bases.

Atmanepada . . .223

481. Intensive bases in ya, how

formed and conjugated .223

482. Parasmaipada bases, how form-

ed and conjugated . .224

483. Conjugation of Parasmaipada

bases .... 224

484. Beduplication of intensive bases 224
if^ 485. Verbs which insert nt . . 225
ifc 486. Verbs ending in nasals . .225
iy^ 487. Jap, jabh, dah, dcmUy hharij,

pai 225

He 488. Char, phal .... 225
ifc 489. Verbs with penultimate ri . 225
^ 490. Verbs ending in ft .226

:^ 491. Exceptional inten3ive bases . 226
492. Secondary and tertiary bases . 226

CHAPTER XXI.— DbnominativbVebbs.

�493* Character of denominative

verbs .... 227

494, 495. Denominatives in ya, Pa-
rasmaipada . . 227
;yb 496. Changes of base . . . 227
497. Denominatives in ya, Atmane-

pada 228

% 498. The Kandvfidi verbs . . 228
:yb 499. Denominatives in sya . .229
ifc 500. Denominatives in kdmya . 229
501. Conjugation of denominatives 229
s/^ 502. Denominatives in aya . . 229
^ 503. Denominatives without affixes 230

CHAPTER XXIL— Pbbpositions and


�504. Prepositions, Upaaon-ga , . 230

505. Prepositions, Gati, . . 230

506. Prepositions, Karmapravacha"

niya. .... 231

507. Adverbs . . . .231

�508. Conjunctions
509. Interjections


. 233
. 233

CHAPTER XXIIL— Compound Words.

�510. Manner of compounding nomi-
nal bases .... 233
^511. Treatment of feminine bases . 234

512. Six classes of compounds . 234
I. Tatpurusha, determinative

compounds . . . 234
lb, Earmadhdraya, apposi-
tional determinative com-
pounds - . 234
Ic. Dvigu, numeral deter-
minative compounds . 234
II. Dvandva, collective comp. . 235

III. Bahuvrihi, possessive com-

pounds . . 235

IV. Avyayibhdva,adverbialcom-

pounds . . 235

513. I. Determinative compounds . 235
;)t 514. Exceptional determinative

compounds . . .237
i)^ 515. Inverted determinative com-
pounds .... 237
>lt 516. Determinative compounds end-
ing in verbal bases .237
517. Ih. Appositional determinative

compounds . . 237

:yb 518. Inverted determinative com-
pounds . . . .238
519. Ic. Numeral determinative

compounds . .238

:)^ 520. Modifications of the final letters

of determinative compounds 238
521. 11. Collective compounds, Ita-

retara and Sam^ira . . 240
2ft: 522. Precedence of words . . 240
:)^ 523. Nouns ending in ri . . 240
:yb 524. Names of deities <&c. . . 240
:it 525. Modifications of the final letters
o^ collective compounds in
the singular . .241

:)^ 526. Idiomatic expressions . .241
527. III. Possessive compounds . 241
:yb 528. Modifications of the final letters

of possessive compounds . 241





�529. lY. Adverbial compounds
4t 530. Exceptional compounds . 243

i)^ 531. Modifications of the final letters

of adverbial compounds . 243




List of Verbs .
Bhii Class (Bhv&di, I Class)
L Parasmaipada Verbs
IL Atmanepada Verbs
in. Parasmaipada and Atman
Tud Class (TudSdi, VI Class)
L Parasmaipada and Atman

IL Parasmaipada Verbs
m. Atmanepada Verbs
Div Class (Dividi, IV Class)
I. Parasmaipada Verbs
IL Atmanepada Verbs
III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada
Chur Class (Churddi, X Class)

Parasmaipada Verbs only
Su Class (SvSdi, V Class)

I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada

IL Parasmaipada Verbs
III. Itmanepada Verbs






. 269
. 270
. 270
. 270


Tan Class (TanvSdi, VILE Class) . 272

Parasmaipada and Atmanepada

Verbs . . . .272
Eri Class (Kry^, IX Class) . . 273
I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada

Verbs . . . .273

IL Parasmaipada Verbs . . 274

III. Atmanepada Verbs . .274

Ad Class (Ad^, II Class) . . 275

I. Parasmaipada Verbs .275

IL Atmanepada Verbs . . 279

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada

Verbs . . . .280

Hu Class (Juhoty&di, LEI Class) . 281

L Parasmaipada Verbs . .281

II. Atmanepada Verbs . . 282

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada

Verbs . . . .283
Rudh Class (Rudh&di, VII Class) . 284
I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada

Verbs . . . .284

n. Parasmaipada Verbs . . 284

nL Atmanepada Verbs . . 285



Ok the Accent in Sanskjkit . 286-292

Index of Notjnb
Index of Vebbs

• 293-297
. 297-300





Initial. Medial.

Initial. Medial.


^ -

























?. f










#% ^







t ^






ch (or *)




^ �










^ �^






jh (or^A)




^ *.
^ �










t (or

8 (or �)

^ �



th (or th)
4 (or tl)




^ <i






4h (or dk)





If. (or n)





^ "









m (or f�)









m (orlfe)








1)1 (or h)





(JihvimMya), x








^ Sometunes represented in the Veda by ^S� SS* \ (<>' 0*
3 Sometimes represented in the Veda hy oSS^ 59^9 1^ (o^ ^)'



� I. Sanskrit is properly written with the Devanftgari alphabet ; but the
Bengali, Grantha, Telugu, and other modem Indian alphabets are commonly
employed for writing Sanskrit in their respective provinces*

Note — Devandgari means the Ndgari of the gods, or, possibly, of the Br&hmans. A more
ouirent style of writing, used by Hindus in all common transactions where Hindi is the lan-
guage employed, is called simply Ndgari. Why the alphabet should have been called Ndgari,
is unknown. If derived from nagara, city, it might mean the art of writing as first practised
in cities. (P&9. iv. 2, 128.) No authority has yet been adduced from any ancient author for
the employment of tlie word Devandgari, In the Lalita-vistara (a life of Buddha, translated
from Sanskrit into Chinese 76 a. d.), where a list of alphabets is given, the Devandgari \a
not mentioned, unless it be intended by the Deva alphabet. (See History of Ancient
Sanskrit literature^ p. 518.) Albiruni, in the nth century, speaks of the Nagara alphabet
as current in Malva. (Reinaud, M^oire sur I'Inde, p. 298.)

Beghr&m {bhagdrdma, abode of the gods) is the native name of one or more of the most
important cities founded by the Greeks^ such as Alexandria ad Caucasum or Nicsea. (See
Mason's Memoirs in Prinsep's Antiquities, ed. Thomas, vol. i. pp. 344-350.) Ck>uM
Devanftgart have been meant as an equivalent of BeghrlUni ?

No inscriptions have been met with in India anterior to the rise of Buddhism. The
earliest authentic specimens of writing are the inscriptions of king Triyadarii or A4oha, about
-^'250 B.C. These are written in two different alphabets. The alphabet which is found in the
inscription of Kapurdigiri, and which in the main is the same as that of the Arianian coins,
is written frt>m right to left. It is clearly of Semitic origin, and most closely connected with
the Aramaic branch of the old Semitic or Phenician alphabet. The Aramaic letters, how-
ever, which we know frt)m Egyptian and Palmyrenian inscriptions, have experienced further
changes since they served as the model for the alphabet of Kapurdigiri, and we must have
recourse to the more primitive types of the ancient Hebrew coins and of the Phenician
inscriptions in order to explain some of the letters of the Kapurdigiri alphabet.

But while the transition of the Semitic types into this ancient Indian alphabet can be
proved with scientific precision, the second Indian alphabet, that which is found in the
inscription of Gimar, and which is the real source of all other Indian alphabets, as weU as of
those of Tibet and Burmah, has not as yet been traced back in a satisfactoiy manner to any
Semitic prototype. (Prinsep's Indian Antiquities by Thomas, vol. 11. p. 42.) To admit,
however, the independent invention of a native Indian alphabet is impossible. Alphabets were
never Invented, in the usual sense of that word. They were formed gradually, and purely
phonetic alphabets always point back to earlier, syllabic or ideographic, stages. There are no
such traces of the growth of an alphabet on Indian soil; and it is to be hoped that new
discoveries may still bring to light the intermediate links by which the alphabet of Gimar,
and through it the modem Devan&gart, may be connected with one of the leading Semitic

B 2



^ 2. Sanskrit is written from left to right.

Note — Samskrita (li^il) means what is rendered fit or perfect. But Sanskrit is not called
so because the BriLhmans, or still less, because the first Europeans who became acquainted
with it, considered it the most perfect of all languages. Samskrita meant what is rendered
fit for sacred purposes ; hence purified, sacred. A vessel that is purified, a sacrificial victim
that is properly dressed, a man who has passed through all the initiatory rites or samskdrasj
aU these are called samskjrita. Hence the language which alone was fit for sacred acts, the
ancient idiom of the Vedas, was called Samskrita, or the sacred language. The local spoken
dialects received the general name of prdkfita. This did not mean originally vulgar, but
derived, secondary, second-rate, literally ' what has a source or type/ this source or type
(prakfiti) being the Samskfita or sacred language. (See Vararuchi's Pr&krita-Prak&sa, ed.
Cowell, p. xvii.)

The former explanation ofprdkrita in the sense of the natural, original continuations of
the old language {hhdshd),' is untenable, because it interpolates the idea of continuation.
If prdkfita had to be taken in the sense of ' original and natxiral,' a language so called would
mean, as has been well shown by D'Alwis (An Introduction to Kachch&yana's Grammar,
p. Ixxxiz), the original language, and samskrita would then have to be taken in the sense of
refined for literary purposes.' This view, however, of the meaning of these two names, is
opposed to the view of those who ^med the names, and is rendered impossible by the
character of the Vedic language.

^ 3. In writing the Devan&gari alphabet, the distinctive portion of each
letter is written first, then the perpendicular^ and lastly the horizontal line.
Ex. •!, 4, W*/ ^, �9 ^kh; I, *i, ilff; ♦, M, "^ffh; ^, V^i, &c.

Beginners will find it useful to trace the letters on transparent paper, till
they know them weU, and can write them fluently and correctly.

� 4. The following are the sounds which are represented in the Devanagari
alphabet :

Hard and

Soft and













Short, Long. Diphthongs.

I. Gutturals,








^a ^d

Ijc ^at

2. Palatals,








^i %n

3. Linguals,








^ri ^ri


4* Dentals,


^th ifrf





-^{i Wi)

5. Labials,


HI/?A ^b





9ti -mH

Unmodified Nasal or Anusv&ra, * m or ^ iJi.
Unmodified Sibilant or Yisarga, : i^.

^ In the Veda 7 4 and 7 4^, if between two vowels, are in certain schools written
35 / and oS^ fh.

^ 7 A is not properly a liquid, but a soft breathing,

' 7 1? is sometimes called Pento-labial.

* The signs for the guttural and labial sibilants have become obsolete, and are replaced
hy the two dots t J.


Students should be cautioned against using the Roman letters instead of
the Devan&gari when beginning to learn Sanskrit The paradigms should
be impressed on the memory in their real and native form, otherwise their
first impressions will become unsettled and indistinct. After some progress
has been made in mastering the grammar and in reading Sanskrit, the Roman
alphabet may be used safely and with advantage.

^ 5. There are fifty letters in the Devanagari alphabet, thirty-seven
^consonants and thirteen vowels, representing eveiy soimd of the Sanskrit

^ 6. One letter^ the long i{ ft, is merely a gnunmatical invention ; it
never occurs in the spoken language.

^ 7* Two sounds, the guttural and labial sibilants^ are now without
distinctive representatives in the DevanSgari alphabet. They are called
JihvdmUliya, the tongue-root sibilant, formed near the base of the tongue ;
and Vpadhmdniya^ i. e. afflandus, the labial sibilant. They are said to have
been represented by the signs X (called Vajrdkjiti^ having the shape of the
thunderbolt) and % (called Gajakumbhdkriti^ having the shape of an
elephant's two firontal bones). [See Yopadeva's Sanskrit Grammar, i. 18 ;
Histoiy of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 508.] Sometimes the sign X �
called Ardha-visarga, half-Visarga, is used for both. But in common
writing these two signs are now replaced by the two dots, the Dvivindu, :,
{dvi^ two, vinduj dot,) properly the sign of the unmodified Visarga. The
old sign of the Visarga is described in the Katantra as like the figure d 4 ;
in the Tantr&bhidhftna as like two 7 f A's. (See Prinsep, Indian Antiquities,
vol. T. p. 75.)

^ 8. There are five distinct letters for the five nasals^ ^'f^�^n,Janf^n^
i(^97�, as there were originally five distinct signs for the five sibilants. When,
in the middle of words^ these nasals are followed by consonants of their own
class, {h by *, *A, ^, gh ; n by ch, chh, j\ jh ; n by /, /A, ^, 4h ; n by t, th^
dy dh ; m by p^ ph^ by bhy) they are often, for the sake of more expeditious
writing, replaced by the dot, which is properly the sign of the unmodified
nasal or Anusvfira. Thus we find

iffvilT instead of ^rf^piT ankitd.

ivf^HT instead of ^rfvWT anchitd,

jAnrr instead of ^f^ITT kuiiditd.

fff^TT instead of ^ffi^^ nanditd.

^ftniT instead of ivf^inrr kampiid.
The pronunciation remains unaffected by this style of writing, itf^nrr
must be pronounced as if it were written ^rf^piT aitkitOy &c.

The same applies to final n m at the end of a sentence. This too,


though firequentlj written and printed with the dot above the line^ is to

be pronounced as H m. ^^9 1^ is to be pronounced ^v^ aham. (See Preface

to Hitopadesa, in M. M/s Handbooks for the Study of Sanskrit, p. viiL)

Note — According to the KaumlLras final ^^ m tn pausd may be pronounced aa Anusvfira;
cf. Sarasvatt-Prakriyll, ed. Bombay, 1839*, pp. la and 13. W\ I <l VI^TOm 5 ^^Hi Xi^HM^H I
^^Rn% ^ I WTOT% >V^R^T�}^li) ^^fw ^^. I ^>T I ^^'^H The Kaumftraa are the
followers of Kumftra^ the reputed author of the K&tantra or Kalipa grammar. (See
Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, Preface ; and page 315, note.) S'ftrvavarman is quoted by
mistake as the author of this grammar, and a distinction is sometimes made between the
Kaum&ras and the followers of the Kalllpa grammar.

^ 9. Besides the five nasal letters, expressing the nasal soimd as modified
by guttural^ palatal, lingual^ dental, and labial pronunciation, there are still
three nasalized letters, the ^^^ 7^, ^, or t^, w, ^, y, 7, v, which are used to
represent a final 1^972, if followed by an initial ^^9 c^ /, ^t;, and modified
by the pronunciation of these three semivowels. (Pa^, viii. 4, 59.)
Thus instead of TT infir taTh ydti we may write nxqrfir tay ydti;

instead of w cwi tarn labhate we may write l^k^ ted labhate ;
instead of 7 ^^flT tarn vahati we may write ll^^flc tav vahati.
Or in composition^

'^ijlff samydnam or m6\\'A sayydnam;
^Ib^ samlabdham or ^r^Tf sallabdham;
HH^rm sathvahati or ^rl^^fw savvahatu
But never if the 1^ m stands in the body of a word, such as 1KI9^ kdmyah �
nor if the semivowel represents an original vowel, e.g. Rig-veda x. 13a, 3.
^ ^ 'WR'^^ sam u drauy changed to ||%|K�^ 8am vdran.

^ 10. llie only consonants which have no corresponding nasals are t r,
�^ <, T^^ ^A, ^ �, 7 A. A final i^^ m, therefore, before any of these letters at
the beginning of words, can only be represented by the neutral or immodi�-
fied nasal, the Anusv^.

A xs(hi tarn rakshati. Or in composition, ^t^fir samrakshati,

t ^mftfir tarn Srinoti. ^BWlfrfir samiriw>^i*

W ^nirt tarn shakdram, ^Whlfw samshthivati.

a ^Rfir tath sarati. ?mflr sarhsarati.

a fxflr tarn harati. ll^iOl samharati.

J II. In the body of a word the only letters which can be preceded by

* This edition, which has lately been reprinted, contains the text — ascribed either to Vi^l
herself, i.e. Sarasvatt, the goddess of speech (MS. Bodl. 386),orto AnubhAti-svarApa-Ach&rya,
whoever that may be — and a commentary. The commentary printed in the Bombay editions is
caUed ^tl^, or in MS. Bodl. 383. thfPa^ i.e. ^i^h^nft. In MS. Bodl. 382. Mahtdhara or
Mahidftsabhatta is said to have written the Sdrasvata in order that his children might read it,
and to please fs'a, the Lord. The date given is 1634, the place Benares, (Sivarljadhant.)

-$ l6. THE ALPHABET, 7

Anusvftra are ^iJ '^sh, ^s^ ^ h. Thus wy: athia^, v^^ dhandmshi, if^^tftr yaid^m,
tifp simha^. Before the semivowels i^y, \r,T9l9\v^ the i^ m, in the body
of a word, is never changed into Anusvfira. Thus '^m^ gamyatey tf^ namral^^
hit: amlal^. In i^ifh iamyoh (Rv. i. 43, 4, &c.) the rh stands 'padlnte/ but
not in ^rnrflr idmyaii, (See � 9.)

^12. With the exception of Jihvdmitltya ^ ;( (tongue*root letter), Upadh*
mdntya X <f> {tohe breathed upon), Anusvdra * fh (after-sound), Visarga : i^
(emission, see Taitt.-Br^m. iii. p. 23 a), and Bepha r (burring), all letters
are named in Sanskrit by adding kdra (making) to their sounds. Thus
V a is called W^ilTt cAdraff. ; w ka, 'WWTKl kakdrahy &c.

� 13. The vowels, if initial, are written,

^, ^5 x> %y ^1 ^K ^> (^� '. ^f ^f ^, ^>* ^ ;
a, 4, �, r, ri> K /�> (/0� �*> <*> ^� �� ^� ��;

if they foUow a consonant, they are written with the foUowing signs-

a, a, f, /, fi, rU Ih {lf)y �� dj �. �*� o> ��• '
There is one exception. If the vowel ^ ft follows the consonant ^ r, it
retains its initial form, and the r is written over it. Ex. f^^fln nirfiii^.

In certain words which tolerate an hiatus in the body of the word, the
second vowel is written in its initial form. Ex. nt^RQ ffoagra, adj. preceded
by cows, instead of ntsu go 'gra or T^lfr gavdgra ; ^ftil^ goaivam, cows and
horses ; Tfm praiigay yoke ; f)nr9 iUaii, sieve.

^ 14. Every consonant, if written by itself, is supposed to be followed by
a short a. Thus ii is not pronounced k, but ka ; iK not y, but ya. But li k
or any other consonant, if followed by any vowel except a, is pronounced
without the inherent a. Thus

-mkdy fmki, irtHf *r�, ^ *r/, f *?�, (]f �o, f *�, 7| w, **^i%*fl�,

ij^ koy 4t Aatf .
The only peculiarity is that short f t is apparently written before the con-
sonant after which it is sounded. This arose from the fact that in the
earliest forms of the Indian alphabet the long and short V% were both
written over the consonant, the short $ inclining to the left, the long %
inclining to the right Afterwards these top-marks were, for the sake of
distinctness, drawn across the top-line, so as to become f% and iA, instead
of % and 4. (See Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, ed. Thomas, vol. 11. p. 40.)

{ 15. If a consonant is to be pronounced without any vowel after it, the
consonant is said to be followed by Virdma^ i. e. stoppage, which is marked
by ^^. Thus ak must be written W| ; kar^ nr^ ; iky ^.

j 16. If a consonant is followed immediately by another consonant, the
two or three or four or five or more consonants are written in one group


{samyoga). Thus atka is written ^cm i alpa is written 'W^ ; kdrtmya is
written iEn^� These groups or compound consonants must be learnt hj
practice. It is easy, however, to discover some general laws in their forma*
tion. Thus the perpendicular and horizontal lines are generally dropt in
one of the letters: ^ + ^='�**a; W + ^ = ^�rffl/ i^4-^=W/va;. ^+5ir

mktva; ^^h\+'^ = m ^^y^'

^17. The t r following a consonant is written by a short transverse
stroke at the foot of the letter; as 1(^ + ^=111 or '%kra; T + T = g^A;
1^+T:=?r orir/ra; ^ + T:='5rfra; H^+T + x:=I ^A^ra.

The ^ r preceding a consonant is written by *^ placed at the top of the
consonant be&re which it is to be sounded* Thus ^+ 9= V% arka ; ^+
i^+iT=:^r^ varshma. This sign for ^r is placed to the right of any other
marks at the top of the same letter* Ex. ^ arkam ; iR^^r arkena ; ^sXx

^ k followed by i^ sh is written t^ or ^ ksha,

i^j followed by If ^ is written Tfjna.

^jh is sometimes written ff^jh.

^ r followed by 7 ti and 9 1� is written ^ ni, ^fH.

Z d followed by 7 1� and if^His written 7 du, \^^'

l^i, particularly in combination with other letters, is frequently written '^

^18. The sign of Virdma ^ (stoppage), which if placed at the foot of a
consonant, shows that its inherent short a is stopped, is sometimes, when it
is difficult to write (or to print) two or three consonants in one group, placed
afler one of the consonants : thus W^ instead of ^ yunkte.

^19. The proper use of the Yir&ma, however, is at the end of a sentence,
or portion of a sentence, the last word of which ends in a consonant.

At the end of a sentence, or of a half-verse, the sign \ is used ; at the
end of a verse, or of a longer sentence, the sign 11.

{ %o. The sign s (Avagraha or Arddhdkdra) is used in most editions to
mark the elision of an initial V a, afler a final ^"V or ute. Ex. ^sf^ so 'pi
for irt ^rfl? 80 apiy i. e. H^ irf^l saa apt ; irsftl te 'pi for i^ mfq te api.

List of Compound Consonants.

II *-*a, mr k-kha, nm k'Chay is k-ta^ ^ k-t-ya, ^ k-t-ra, ^ k-t-r-ya,
K k-t-va, n k-na, ^ k-nrya^ W k-ma, m k-ya, n or n k-ra^ gsf orifSf k-r-ya^
9 *-to, V k'Vaj fsr k-v-yGf ^ k-sha^ W k-sh-ma^ ^ k-sh-yay w k-sh-va ; —
W kh-yay ?f kh^a; — nj g-ya, u g-ra, ijf g-r-ya ; — K gh-na, 9 gh-n-ya,
TR gh-ma^ Tflr gh-ya^ ir gh-ra ; — ^1 �-*�, |f w-*-/a, |p[ n-k-t-ya, ^ ii^k-ya,


^^ ^^ ^ ^9

nr 9-ya, ^ 9-t^a.

T ^dOy II cT-dAa, � d-bhrya^ ir �f-ma, v <f-ya> "^ ^a, S d^-^O'y T ^-^^i
ir rf-t^-ya ; — M dh-nOf iff dhr-nrya, nr dh-ma^ m dh-ya, H rfA-ra, 9 dh-r-^a^
�9 dh^a; — ^ n-/a, iw n-t^a^ w n-t-ra, ^ nwfo, Hf n^d-ra, ^ n-dha,
•^ n-dhrtaj w �-��, ^ �^a, 5p n-jHray 'm n-ma, a| n-yo, ^ n-ra, iir �-^a.

H p-ta^ m p-t-ya, jf p-nCy tq ji-pa, ^ j7-ma, "■! p-ya, m p-ra, jf p4ap
vf p-va^ ^ p^Qy 1^ p-a-va ; — ^ai b-gha^ "m Ihfa, ^ 4-da, v b^AOf |f 4-na,

V d-ia^ ^ ft-Ma, 99 b-bhryOj v| d-ya, n ^a, V A-va ; — "li bh'-nay v^ bhrya^

V iA-ra^ )^ bhrva; — ^V m-mi^ �iT m-^a,' IV m-p^a, if m-ia, nr m^bha^
m m-ma, vq m-ya, ^ m-ra^ j[ tih-la, if m-va.

�l y-ya, ^f y-�a ; — ^9 l^ka, W l-pa, m IrmOy -gi ^ya, V ^to, ^ f-ra ; —
U tMta, �| t^^a, tf v-ra, if tM?a.

^ i-choy VI i-ch-ya, v ^na, ^ ^a, W i-ra� ^ i-r-yOy ^ ^Ja^ iff ^a�
�| f-v-^a, "9 <-ia ; — ^? �A-^a, w sh-f-ya^ 1 sh-t-ra, w sh-f-r-^Oy f sh-f-^a,
W ih-thay W sh-^y iqn sh-n-yay tq �A-^a, ig sh-p-ray ^ M-ma^ v| ^A^a,
H �A^a '~r:?? *:*S ■* *-*Aa, ii| #-/a, iRq ^/-ya, ^ ^/-ra, ^ ^/-ra,
W s-thay m s-noy W( *-�-ya, W *^a, n #^Aa, 9 s-ma, W{ s^m-yay ^ •-ya,

"Ci ^*9^� K ^"^^^ V A-mo, W A-ya, f A-ra, n A-fo, 3( A-i;a.

Numerical Figures.
^ 21. The numerical figures in Sanskrit are


These figures were originally abbreviations of the initial letters of the Sanskrit numerals.
The Aiabs, who adopted them from the Hindus, caUed them Indian figures ; in Europe,
where they were introduced by the Arabs, they were caUed Arabic figures.



Thus ^ stands for^ e of ^Wt ekah, one.

^ stands for W dv ai ^ dvau, two.

^ stands for I' tr of IRt tray aft, three.

d stands for ^ cA of ^i�IIO chatvdrah, four.

M stands for ^i? of '^^ paHcha, five.
The similarity becomes more evident by comparing the letters and numerals as used in
ancient inscriptions. See Woepcke, ' M^moire sur la Propagation des Chif&es Indiens/
in Journal Asiatique, vi s^rie, tome i ; Prinsep's Indian Antiquities by Thomas, vol. ii.
p. 70; Chips from a German Workshop, vol. 11. p. 289.

� %%. The Sanskrit letters should be pronounced in accordance with the
transcription given page 4. The following rules, however, are to be
observed :

I. The vowels should be pronounced like the vowels In Italian. The short W a,
however, has rather the sound of the English a in * America/

%. The aspiration of the consonants should be heard distinctly. Thus W Kh
is said, by EngUsh scholars who have learnt Sanskrit in India, to sound
almost like kh in 'inkhom ;' ^ th like th in * pothouse,-^ ^ph like/^A
in ^ topheavy ;' ^ gh Uke gh in ' loghouse ;^ V dh Uke dh in
* madhouse ;' ^ bh like hh in * Hobhouse.' This, no doubt, is a
somewhat exaggerated description, but it is well in learning Sanskrit
to distinguish from the first the aspirated from the unaspirated letters
by pronouncing the former with an unmistakable emphasis.

3. The guttural l? it has the sound of n^ in ' king.'

4. The palatal letters ^ ch and ^j have the sound of ch in 'church' and

of J in 'join/

5. The lingual letters are said to be pronoimced by bringing the lower

surface of the tongue against the roof of the palate. As a matter of
fact the ordinary pronunciation of /, �f, n in English is what Hindus
would call lingual, and it is essential to distinguish the Sanskrit dentals
by bringing the tip of the tongue against the very edge of the upper
front-teeth. In transcribing EngUsh words the natives naturally
represent the English dentals by their Unguals, not by their own
dentals ; e. g. OfX^^ TiirekXaT^ Tn$f?|^ Oavarnmet^ti &c. *

6. The Yisai^a, Jihvdmdliya and Upadhmdniya are not now articulated


7. The dental ^ 8 sounds Uke s in ' sin,' the Ungual 19 sh Uke sh in ' shim,'

the palatal ^ i like ss in ' session.'

* Biihler, Madras Literary Journal, February, 1864. Rigendralal Mitra, ' On the Origin
of the Hindvi Language,' Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1864, p. 509.


The real Anusv&ra is sounded as a very slight nasal, like n in French ^ bon/
If the dot is used as a graphic sign in place of the other five nasals it
must, of course, be pronounced like the nasal which it represents *•



^ 23. In Sanskrit every sentence is considered as one unbroken chain
of syllables. Except where there is a stop, which we should mark by
interpunction, the final letters of each word are made to coalesce with the
initial letters of the following word. This coalescence of final and initial
letters, (of vowels with vowels, of consonants with consonants, and of
consonants with vowels,) is called Sandhi.

As certain letters in Sanskrit are incompatible with each other, i e.
cannot be pronounced one immediately after the other, they have to be
modified or assimilated in order to facilitate their pronunciation. The rules,
according to which either one or both letters are thus modified, are called
the rules of Sandhu

As according to a general rule the words in a sentence must thus be glued
together, the mere absence of Sandhi is in many cases sufficient to mark the
stops which in other languages have to be marked by stops. Ex. VMO^illflPT
^^g^ ^^PTT 'nnnT: astvagnimdhdtmyam^ indrastu devdndm mahattanui^, Let
there be the greatness of Agni ; nevertheless Indra is the greatest of the

JHstinciion between External and Internal Sandhi.

^ 24. It is essential, in order to avoid confusion, to distinguish between
the rules of Sandhi which determine the changes of final and initial letters
of words (pada)^ and between those other rules of Sandhi which apply to
the final letters of verbal roots (dhdtu) and nominal bases (prdtipadika) when
followed by certain terminations or suffixes. Though both are based on the
same phonetic principles and are sometimes identical, their application is
different. For shortness^ sake it will be best to apply the name of External

* According to Sanskrit grammarians the real Anusv&ra is pronounced in the nose only,
the 'five nasals by their respective organs and the nose. Siddh.-Kaum. to P&n. i. i, 9.

The real Anusyftra is therefore ndtikya, nasal; the five nasals are anuttdsikay nasalized,
i.e. pronounced by their own organ of speech^ and uttered through the nose.

c 2


Sandhi or Pada Sandhi to the changes which take place at the meeting of
final and initial letters of words, and that of Internal Sandhi to the changes
produced by the meeting of radical and formative elements.

The rules which apply to final and initial letters of words {pada) apply, with
few exceptions, to the final and initial letters of the component parts of com-
poimds, and likewise to the final letters of nominal hsu^s (prdtipadika) when fol-
lowed by the so-called Pa^fa-terminations (hit bhydm, fin bhiJ^^ �>n bhya^, ^ su)^
or by secondary (taddhita) suffixes beginning with any consonants except i^y.

The changes produced by the contact of incompatible letters in the body
of a word should properly be treated under the heads of declension,
conjugation, and derivation. In many cases it is far easier to remember
the words ready-made fi*om the dictionary, or the grammatical paradigms
firom the grammar, than to acquire the compHcated rules with their
numerous exceptions which are generally detailed in Sanskrit grammars
imder the head of Sandhi. It is easier to learn that the participle passive
of f^ lih, to lick, is c^At: IHha^^ than to remember the rules according to
whichiE + T^A + < are changed into ^-hW^A + /, ^+^</ + rfA, and ^+^^ + ^;
^^ is dropt and the vowel lengthened : while in ^iftf^ + IK parivfih + ta^,
the vowel, under the same circumstances, remains short ; parivfih + tai^ =
parivri4h + tai^y panvfi4+dJuiijt:=parivri4-^4^ai^=:paHvri4hai, In Greek
and Latin no rules are given with regard to changes of this kind. If they
are to be given at all in Sanskrit grammars, they should, to avoid confiision,^
be kept perfectly distinct from the rules afiecting the final and initial letters*
of words as brought together in one and the same sentence.

Classification of Vowels.

^ 25. Vowels are divided into short (hrasva), long {dirgha\ and protracted
{pluta) vowels. Short vowels have one measure {mdira)y long vowels two,
protracted vowels three. (P&9. i. 2y 27.) A consonant is said to last half
the time of a short vowel.
I. Short vowels : V ^9 ^ t, 7 ti, ^ ft, 7l( li.
%. Long vowels : W a, ^ ^, is tl, ^ f^, 1^ e, ^ ai, ^ o, ^ au.
3. Protracted vowels are indicated by the figure 1 3 ; v| <^3y^^\^3iW^3y
%\^ i* ^\^3i^\^'^i' Sometimes we find V ^ ^, a 3 i, instead of
^ % ^ 3 ; or ^ ^ 7, 4 3 1�, instead of ^ |, au 3.

^ %6* Vowels are likewise divided into

1. Monophthongs {samdndkshara) : V a, ^ a, i^t, ^ f, W, 9 12, ^ fj, ^ff, l^ li.

2. Diphthongs {iandhyakshara) : 1^ �^ ^ ai, ^ 0, ^ au.

^ 27. AU vowels are liable to be nasalized, or to become anundsika : ^2,^d.


� 28. Vowels are again divided into light {laghu) and heavy {guru). This
division is important for metrical purposes only.

I, Light vowels are Vo, l^t^^tiy^ft^Tif/t^if not followed by a double consonant,
a. Heavy vowels are ^ d^ ^ f, ^ it, ^ f^, ^ e, ^ ot^ lit o, ^ at<, and any
short vowel, if followed by more than one consonant.

j 29. Vowels are, lastly, divided according to accent, into cicuie (udfttta),
grave (anudfttta), and circumflexed (svarita). The acute vowels are pronounced
with a raised tone, the grave vowels with a low, the circumflexed with an even
tone. (P&9� i� If 29—32.) Accents are marked inVedic literature only.

Qw^ and Vriddhu

� 30. Ouna is the strengthening of 1^ {� ^ i^ 7 u^ 9 l2, ^ fj� ^ f^, IE /i, by
means of a preceding v a, which raises ^t and^ ttoTie,'9 u and 'mitto'^o.
If ri and ^ K to 1�^ ar, in fi to mt^ al. (P&n. i. i, 2.)

By a repetition of the same process the Viiddhi (increase) vowels are
formed, viz. ^ ai instead oi^e^^au instead of ^ 0, IIT^ dr instead of 1V^ ar^
and trn^ di instead of ^ a/. (P&9. i. i^ i.)

Vowels are thus divided again into :

1 . Simple vowels : wa^ WT(4, \if %iy Tf w, ifi d, ^f�, ^rf, "ij/i.

2. Gu^a vowels: ^c(a + �), ^o(a + tt), iRar, iTc^a/.

3. Vriddhi vowels : WTd ^di^a-^a-^i)^ ^dtt(fl+(i+tt), WTi^dr,in7^a/.

^ 31. V a and ^ d do not take Ouna, or, as other grammarians say,
remain unchanged after taking Gu^a. Thus in the first person sing, of the
reduplicated perfect, which required Guna or Vriddhi, ^Aan forms with
Guna wnjc^ghana^ or with Vriddhi '^^^J9^ jaghdnay I have killed.

Combination of Vowels at the end and beginning of words.

^32. As a general rule, Sanskrit allows of no hiatus (viv^tti) in a
sentence. If a word ends in a vowel, and the next word begins with a
vowel, certain modifications take place in order to remove this hiatus.

� 33' ^or the purpose of explaining the combination of vowels, they
iDAy be divided into two classes :
I. Those which are liable to be changed into semivowels, j^i, ^ ^, V fi, is ^,

^rit'^rt ; also the diphthongs, ve,^ ai, ^ 0, ^ au.
%. Those which are not, V a, VT d.
Calling the former liquid *, the latter hard vowels, we may say : If the

* The Pr&tis&khya calls them n^mtn, for a different reason ; see Rig-yeda-pr&tis&khya,
ed. M. M., p. xziii.


same vowel (long or short) occurs at the end and beginning of words^ the
result IS the long vowel. (P&n. vi. i, loi.) Thus

^ or ^ + W or l�T = ^ S'^d = d.

I^or l+^or |=s|i + t=i?.

V or �4-^ or ifi='ai ^-f u = tf. •

"ijor ^+^or ^=^rr + rf = rf�. |

Ex. 9W VM^I^ni =3 ^WM'l^ril ukivd'\'apagachchhaH:=zukivdpag€u:hchhaH, i

having spoken he goes away. j

'^ ^^^ = H^l ^9l1 nadt + IdfiSi = nadidrUU such a river. i

i|| ^^ = ^shj kartri + riju = kartriju^ doing (neuter) right. j

f)|i| ii^f)r=fiil|^tf)r kintu + udeti = kintildeti, but he rises. i

Or in compounds, ^^ + ^|l^ = ^T^)^ mahi + tia^ = mahiiahi lord of the earth. ;

^ 34. If hard vowels (long or short) occur at the end of a word, and the
next begins with a liquid vowel (except diphthongs), the result is Gu^a of
the liquid vowel. (Pan. vi. i, 87.) Thus

^or^ + ^or^=^fi + i = c (at).
^orWT + �orifl=^5 + S = o (au).
^ or WT + ^or ^r=iR d-^-ft^^ar. (P&p. 1. 1,51.)
Ex. ir^ 1^ = W^^t tava + indra^ = tavendral^^ thine is Indra. I

HT 9W=^fNn 9d + uktvd = 8oktvdf she having spoken.
t HT ^flr = irflF: ^d + fiddhii^ = sarddhi^, this wealth.
1!^ mmKl = IHRVnc: ^ava + likdrahk = tavalkdraJ^, thy letter fi.
Or in compounds, mwi + ^fte = ^nv^fr: kdmya + MA/ii^ = kdmyeshtih^ an
offering for a certain boon,
f^ + 9^1^^ = f^lfhl^^ hita + upadeiah = hiiopadeiah^ good advice.
J 35. If hard vowels (long or short) occur at the end of a word, and the
next begins with a diphthong, the result is Yiiddhi. (P&n. vi. i, 88.) Thus

^ or ^ + 1? = % a + c==ai.
^ or ^ + ^=^ a + at = ai.
^ or ^+^=^ a + o = ai�.
^ or ^H-^=^ a + dtt = ai�.
Ex. Tf^ u^ = n^ iava + eva = tavaiva^ of thee only.

HT ^A^ s %f^ 9d + aikshishfa = saikshishfa^ she saw.

* The letter "Iff Zt is left out, because it is of no practical utility. It is treated like ^ r*> <>^ I

substituting JSl for ^ r in Gupa and Vriddhi. Thus '^-f- V^^hlS U+anuhandhah becor
c9H^V! lanuhandhahf i. e. ha^dng /t as indicatory letter.

t Some grammarians consider the Sandhi of a with ft optional, but they require
shortening of the long d. Ex. WVT-h^V^ brahmd'\'rishih:=:WWfftt hrahmarshifi or
^qf^Vt brahma jrishih, Brahma, a Rishi.




m ^itWl = ir^lv: tava + oshfhah = iavatuhiha^f thj Up.
W^I^W^rf) = ^fyw^^ sd + atdsukyavati = sautsukyavaii^ she desirous.
Or in compouDdsy T7ir + ^ig^=ti^in rama-^ aiharyam^rdTnaiivaryafn^

the lordship of Rlboia.
^ftrrr + Ilhf4 = ^^^^Ht^^iiBUd + aupamyam = sttaupamyam, similarity with

Stt&, the wife of Rfima.

�36. If a simple liquid vowel (long or short) occurs at the end of a
word, and the next be^ns with any vowel or diphthong, the result is
change of the liquid vowel into a semivowel. (P&n. vi. i^ 77.) Thus

■ w or WT=^ or HT

^ii = yii.

^ or ^= If or ^


^or^ -

7ori9l=^or ^

i ^

6 tf

^ or ^=^ or ^

By ai = ye, yai.

.^or ^ = iit or lit

^0, au = yo, you.

'^ or WT = tor TJ


l^or ^=ft or tt


f or ^ "

� or ^=^or ^



ifor ^=>: or\

e, ai=^re, rai.

.^ or ^ = ^ or ^

.0, au=^rOy ran.

'm or ^=W or ^

'5 = t;5.

^ or ^=ftr or tH


vorifl -


^ .


^or ^ = % or %

e, ai = w, voi.

.ift or ^=ii^or 41

^0, fltt = ro, vatf .

Rf �r='

rarar dadhi + aira = dadi


milk here.

Hr^ 7?r = ^i^ A:ar/ft + uta = kartrttta, doing moreover.
�f^ 1[7=<fftiR tnadhu + it;a = madhviva, like honey.
1^^ ^1^ = ^idr^ na^f ^ + ai4asya = nadyai4asya, the river of Ai^a.
In compounds, 7|^ + ^=:�fv4 nadi-hartham = nadyarthain, for the sake
of a river.

Note — Some native grammarians allow^ except in compounds, the omission of this
Sandhi, but they require in that case that a long final vowel be shortened. Ex. ^V^ HH
chaM atra may be ^nfKpf chakryatra or ^fn H?| ehakri atra,

^37. If a Guna-vowel occurs at the end of a word, and the next begins
with any vowel or diphthong (except a), the last element of the Guna-vowel
is changed into a semivowel. If a follows^ a is elided, and no change takes
place in the diphthong; see � 41. (P&n. vi. i^ 78.) Thus

I? (e) 4- any vowel (except a) = in^^ (ay).

lit (0) + any vowel (except a) = 1R(^ (av).


Ex. ^ Wf9 = ^sraRPRK sakhe Agachchha = sakhaydgachchhay Friend, come 1

?R^ ^= ^nrftf sakhe iha = aakhayiha, Friend, here !

nnt ^^^zjfui^f^ prabho €hi=prabhavehi^ Lord, come near !

m^ ^Fhni = 1PTi$M prabho ttU8Aadham=iprabhavau8hadham, Lord,
In compounds, Tft + t^r:='nJh|r: go-\-iid(^=^g(wlia1^. There are various
exceptions in compounds where 7ft go is treated as ir? gava. (^ 41.)

^ 38. If a Ypddhi-vowel occurs at the end of a word, and the next
begins with any vowel or diphthong, the last element is changed into a
semivowel. (P&9. vi. i, 78.) Thus

% (at) 4- any vowel = ^nn^ (ay).

^ {au) + any vowel = in^ (dv).

Ex. f^ v9: = finrnr9: triyai arthah^iriydyarthab>
ftrt ^ = ftnn^ iriyai fite = iriyayriie.

T^ iv^ffln^ss iqi<l%jDi'ii ravau astafnite^ravdvasiamite^ after sunset.
W^ X^=1ITflfftr tau iti=ztdvUi.
In composition, i04-^=f|T^ nau-bartham^^ndvcartham^ for the sake of
� 39. These two rules, however, are liable to certain modifications :

1. The final � y and ^v o(%nay, iraav, which stand according to rule for

^ e, ^ 0, may be dropt before all vowels (except a, ^ 41) ; not, however,
in composition. Thus most MSS. and printed editions change
^ VTSRK sakhe dgachchha^ not into ?nnnTaK sakhaydgachchha, but into

^l?r miNA. sakha dgachchha.
ig^ ^ 'Sakhe ihOy not into Tlirftl^ sakhayiha, but into ^m ^ sakha iha.
wit 'f^ prabho e&t, not into Wi(^f^ prabhavehi, but into inr wf^prabha ehi.
nnt ^A^rl prabho aushadham^ not into iPT^vM prabJiavaushadham, but into
IPT ^Fhni prabha aushadham.

2. The final i^y of ivpi dy, which stands for ^ di, may be dropt before all

vowels, and it is usual to drop it in our editions. Thus
ftl^ w4: iriyai arthaf^ is more usually written f^m W$: iriyd arthab instead
of ftinrnr^ Mydyarthab.

3. The final ^ r of ^BT^ dv, for ^ du, may be dropt before all vowels, but is

more usually retained in our editions. Thus
lit 1^ iau iti is more usually written irrf^^ tdviti, and not iTT jflf id Hi.

Note — Before the particle 7 u the dropping of the final ^y and ^ v is obligatory.

It is without any reason that the final ^y of Gui^a andVpddhi and the final ^9 of
Gupa are generally dropt, while the final ^v of Vfiddhi is generally retained. It would be
more consistent either always to retain the final semivowels or always to drop them. See
Kg-veda-pr&tisftkhya, ed. M. M., Siitras 129, 133, 135 : P&9. vi. i, 78 ; viii. 3, 19.


f 40. In all these cases the hiatus^ occasioned by the dropping o{^y and
^ Vf remains, and the rules of Sandhi are not to be applied again.

� 41. ^ e and ifV 0, before short v a, remain unchanged, and the initial
^ a is elided. (P&9. vi. i, 109.)
Ex. f^ iV9=f^s^ Hve atra = iive'tray in S^iva there.

wit' V�|J|^llU = mt*'^^JfTO prabho anugfihdna^prabho 'nugrihdi^.
Lord, please.

In composition this elision is optional. (Pftii. vi. i> 122.)
Ex. ift + WW: = 'ft�'W: or nhnBt: ffo-^aivd]^=go'ivdiL or go aJhdf^^ cows
and horses.
In some compounds iHT gava must or may be substituted for vf^ go, if a
vowel follows ; ^nrnvt gcwdkshaf^y a window, lit. a builds eye ; 'iH^. gavendraiy
lord of kine, (a name of Krishna) ; imftpj or iftsftpt^am/tnam or go ^jinam^
a bull's hide.

Unchangeable Vowels (Pragrihya).

{ 42. There are certain terminations the final vowels of which are not
liable to any Sandhi rules. These vowels are called /Tro^Aya (Pd^. 1. 1, 11)
by Sanskrit grammarians. They are,

I. The terminations of the dual in ^ (^ 9 t2, and ^ tf, whether of nouns or

Ex. V7t ^ kavi imau^ these two poets.
flTTft ^?rr giri etau, these two hills,
^nv ^ sddM imau, these two merchants.
"W^wnr bandhH dnaya, bring the two fiiends.
(91^ ^ late ete, these two creepers.
f^ ^ vidye imey these two sciences.
^nni^ ^P^^ Saydte arbhakau^ the two children lie down.
^nm% ^TPft iaydvahe dvdm^ we two lie down,
in^ ^1^ ydchete artham, they two ask for money.

Note — Exceptions occur, as 'Hlfhf manivay i.e. *Wft 1{^ mat^i wa, like two jewels.; ^^Hin^
dampativa, i.e. ^Mff1 ^ dampatiiva, like husband and wife.

a. The terminations of ^nftamf and ix^^amd^ the nom. plur. masc. and the

nom. dual of the pronoun ^r^ adas. (Pfin. 1. 1, iz.)
Ex. ^iift WiVTt ami aivdi^ these horses.

^fft JJW* ami ishavaby these arrows.

m^ ^pSift am4 arbhakauy these two children, (This follows from rule i.)


Irregular Sandhi,

� 43. The following are a few cases of irregular Sandhi which require to
be stated. When a preposition ending in v or ^ a is followed by a verb
beginning with T[€ or wt 0, the result of .the coalescence of the vowels is
1? c or ^ 0, not ^ ai or ^ au. (Pan. vi. i, 94.)
Ex, IT + ^ifT^ = ^if?^ pra + ejate =:prejate,

Tff + ^^ = ^"^^W upa H- eshaie = upeshate.

1T-i- ^^^f?r= iTR^fif pra + eshayati ^preahayati *.

'TCr + iwfir= ^^rfif para + ekkati =parekhatL

'9^ + ^ftilfif = ^M^MPri upa + oshati = uposhati,

iRT + ^ft^ = MO^Pri para + ohati =parohatu

This is not the case before the two verbs ^^ edh, to grow, and ^ t, to go, if riused by Gui^a
to 1? e. (P&9. VI. I, 89.)

Ex. "W + ^Wn = "^hMW upa-^edhate=:upaidhate.

In verbs derived from nouns, and beginning with 1? or ^ ^ or o, the elision of the final
V or W a of the preposition is optional.

� 44. If a root beginning with ^ ft is preceded by a preposition ending
in W a or ^ a, the two vowels coalesce into ^btt^ dr instead of ^R ar. (Pan.
VI. I, 91.)

Ex. Wi| + ^^Of = �im<aini apa -f- richchhati = apdrchchhati.
'R + ^5^Dflfk = WnSlHl ava + rindti = avdrndti.
H + 1^ = HT^ pra + fijate ^prdrjate.
TOT + '^^iftr = ^TO^fir pard + rishati =pardr8hati.

In verbs derived from nouns and beginning with ^ fi, this lengthening of the V a of
the preposition is optional. (P^. vi. i, 92.)

In certain compounds ^^ riii^my debt, and ^IH litah, affected, take Vriddhi instead of
Guna if preceded by ^aj H + ^'^ =^V[t9 pra-^rinamznprdrnam, principal debt ; ^^ +
^pir= ^^i3 f�na-|-n?am=rtiuiniam, debt contracted to liquidate another debt ; 5[hlf +
^^IR = ^H^lflt ioka-^-fitahz^iokdrtah, affected by sorrow. Likewise "^ <2A, the substitute
for ?TO vdh, carrying, forms Vriddhi with a preceding ^ a in a compound. Thus "PhB +
"Vf ! viiva-\-iihah^ the ace. plur. of r�ini�ii^ vi^avdh, is frin!^ vUvauhah. (P&n. vi. i, 89,

� 45. If the initial ^ o in wtVt osklhah, lip, and Wt^ otuh, cat, is preceded in a com-
pound by V or ^c, the two vowels may coalesce into w au or wo. (P&n. vi. i, 94,

Ex. ^WC + ^ftWl = 1WOTJ or ^IV^t adhara + oshfhah = adharaushlhak or adharoshthafi,
the lower lip.

^?y + 'f^ ^'^J^S* or ^[f^tj: 8thiUa'{-otuh=zsthiUautuh or sthiUotuh, a big cat.

* In nouns derived from r1^ presh, the rule is optional. �x. h^ or h^ preshya or
prtti$kya, a messenger, fmpresha, a gleaner, b derived from Itpra and ^<9^.


If WtV osh(ha and Wt^ otu are preceded bj W or W a in the middle of a sentence,
thej follow the general rule.

Ex. Wf + Wt9l = •i�itv* mama+08h(ha^=z mamaushfhah^ my lip,
� 46. As irregular compounds the following are mentioned by native grammarians :
^t svairam, wilfulness, and #f5w watrm, self-willed, from W + ^ sva-\-ira,
Wlfn^nooft akshauhini, a complete army, from ^[^ + 9f^�0 aktha+Hhint
"UtSl praudhah, from H + WSl pra-^Hdhaft, full-grown.
mftprauhah, investigation, from Jl '{•'9Sfl pra-\-iikah,
ttmpraishah, a certidn prayer, frt>m H -h ^^i>ra-|-e�&a^. (See � 43.)
Vm praishyah, a messenger.

� 47. The final ^ o of indeclinable words is not liable to the rules of Sandhi. (P&9. 1. 1, 15.)
Ex. V1[t ^hi^ aho apehi. Halloo, go away !

� 48. Indeclinables consisting of a single vowel, with the exception of WJ d (^ 49), are
not liable to the rules of Sandhi. (P&n. i. i, 14.)

Ex* ^ i^ i indray Oh Indra ! 7 "9^^ u umeia, Oh lord of Um& 1
W ^^^ evam. Is it so indeed ?

4 49. It^d (which is written by Indian grammarians WV^ dn) is iised as a preposition
before verbs, or before nouns in the sense of 'so far as' (inclusively or exclusively) or a
little,' it is liable to the rules of Sandhi.

Kz. W 11 III l| 411^= unmnfra ^ adhyayandtzszddhyayaiUU, until the reading begins.

W l!4iqVI<^= €^l|ll^(!^ ekade^dt:=zaikadeidi, to a certain place.

^n Wnitfwi = VlfJ^fNA d dlochitam=:dlochitamf regarded a little.

in Tljt =: vMf d ushi^am =s osh^am, a httle warm.

in ^f)[[ = ^f^ d lAt =5 e^t, come here.

If m ^ is used as an inteijection, it is not liable to Sandhi, according to � 48.
Ex. in rt ftlc5 Jn(^d, evam kila tat, Ah, — now I recollect, — it is just so.

4 50. Certain particles remain unaffected by Sandhi.
Ex. ^ ^ A� indra. Oh Indra.

4 51. A protracted vowel remains unaffected by Sandhi, because it is always supposed
to stand at the end of a sentence. (P&9. vi. i, 135; viii. 2, 83.)

Ex. ^^^VT ^ I ^f^ devadattd 3 ehi, Devadatta, come here !

D 2























































































































5^ S





1. ^
or ^



as. •�•









x^ ^


�� �

















































g '8










*8 -















Combination of Final and Initial Oonsonants.

� 53' Here^ as in the case of vowels, the rules which apply to the final
consonants of words following each other in a sentence are equally applicable
to the final consonants of words following each other in a compound. The
final consonants of nominal bases too, before the so-called Pacfa-terminations
(^ bkydm, f^ bhib, W bhyab^ ^ 9u) and before secondary (taddhita) suffixes
beginning with any consonant but ^ y, are treated according to the same
rules. But the derivatives formed by means of these and other suffixes
are best learnt from the dictionary in their ready-made state ; while
the changes of nominal and verbal bases ending in consonants, before
the terminations of declension and conjugation and other suffixes^ are
regulated by difierent laws, and are best acquired in learning by heart the
principal paradigms of nouns and verbs.

j 54. In order to simplify the rules concerning the changes of final
consonants^ it is important to state at the outset that eleven only out of the
thirty-five consonants can ever stand in Sanskrit at the end of a word; viz.

^ *, l^ii, T^t, ^% \t> '%ny i^p, ^m, c^ /, : bf • m.

1. There are five classes of consonants, consisting of five letters each ;

thus giving twenty-five. In every one of these five classes the aspirates^
if finals are replaced by their corresponding unaspirated letters : mkh
by .W*; ^gh hjifff; V cAA, however, not by ^cA, but by ^^, &c.
Ex. f^^ffiisw{^chitralikhj painter; voc. f^l9fc9i|r chitralik. This reduces
the twenty-five letters to fifteen.

2. In every class the sonant (^ 58} letters^ if final, are replaced by their cor-

responding surd letters ; ^^ by ^ Ar ; ^ �f by 1^^, &c. Ex. ^ hfid,
heart; nom. nArt^. This reduces the fifteen to ten*.

3. No palatal ^ch can ever be final; hence the only remaining palatal,

the \chf is replaced by the corresponding guttural V Art* Ex. ^rT^vocA,
speech; voc. ^^vdk. Final i^/t does not occur. This reduces the
ten to eight. In a few roots the final '^J is replaced by a lingual
instead of a guttural.

4. Of the semivowels, (i^y, ^^> <^ A \^y) �^ ' ^s ^^^ ^^7 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ found at

the end of words. This raises the eight to nine letters.

5. ^ A cannot be final^ but is changed into Jj; sometimes into 1^ A or w /. .

* Some grammarians allow the soft or sonant letters as final, but the MSS. and editions
generally change them into the corresponding hard letters.

t The only exceptions are technical terms such as V^ achy a vowel ; "wlni ajautabt
ending in a vowel, instead of WMI aganta^.


6. Of the sibilants, the only one that is found at the end of words is Visarga.
For, radical ^^sh cannot be final, but is replaced by ^ {. Thus f^dvish
becomes f^^dvit. In a few words final ^^sh is changed into v k.
Radical ^i cannot be final, but is replaced by Z f. Thus "ftr^vii becomes

ftn^ vit. In some words final ^i is changed into ^ k. (J 174.)
Final radical ^� is treated as Visarga.

The Visarga, therefore, raises the nine to ten ; and the Anusvara, to eleven
letters, the only ones that can ever stand at the end of real words.
Hence the rules of Sandhi afibcting final consonants are really reduced to
eleven heads.

� 55* It is important to observe that no word in Sanskrit ever ends in

more than one consonant, the only exception being when an ^ r precedes a

final radical tenuis '^k,J^f,n^tyTfp, Thus

^rfiw^ + W = ^rf^W^ abibhar + / = abibhar, 3. p. sing. impf. of H bhriy to carry.

^rftnr^ + ^= ^fflw^ abibhar + � = abibhar, 2. p. sing. impf. of ^ bhri, to carry.

^<<>J| + ^= ^44 M suvalg -h 5 = suval^ nom. sing, well jimiping.

But "51^^ ilrk^ strength, nom. sing, of iiJ^tJr;.
V<ir<<<\ avarivart^ 3. p. sing. impf. intens. of '^[f^vrit or w vftrfA.
^BPn^ amdrf, firom ifH mrij. (P&n. viii. 2, 2,4.)

The nom. sing, of f^wt^chikirsh is f%vh chikib, because here the r is
not followed by a tenuis.

Classification of Consonants,

^ 56. Before we csui examine the changes of final and initial consonants,
according to the rules of external Sandhi, we have to explain what is meant
by the place and the quality of consonants.

1. The throat, the palate, the roof of the palate, the teeth, the lips, and the

nose are called the places or organs of the letters. (See ^ 4.)

2. By contact between the tongue and the four places, — ^throat, palate, roof,

teeth, — the guttural, palatal, lingua^ and dental consonants are formed.
Labial consonants are formed by contact between the lips.

3. In forming the nasals of the five classes the veil which separates the

nose firom the pharynx is withdrawn *. Hence these letters are called
Anundsikaf i. e. co-nasal or nasalized.

4. The real Anusv&ra is formed in the nose only, and is called Ndsikya, i. e.


5. The Visarga is said to be pronounced in the chest (urasya) ; the three or

five sibilants in their respective places.

* Lectures on the Science of Language, Second Series, p. 145.


6. The semivowels, too, are referred to these five places, and three of them,
'^Vf (9^> ^^9 c^^ ^ nasalized, and are then called Anundaika. (4, ^^
^, or 4^ <9; ^9 jf, /, V.) X. r cannot be nasalized in Sanskrit
^ 57. According to theii* quality {prayatna*, effort) letters are divided into,

1. Letters formed by complete contact (spfishfa) of the organs: ^k^ Wtkh^

^ffj ^ff^y Vii; ^cA, itcAA, iry, T^jh, ^n; zt, ZfK ir^, �^, ^n;
ir/, ^/A, ^rf, vrfA, ^�; J^py i||/?A, wi, HiA, ifm. These are called
Spuria in Sanskrit, and, if they did not comprehend the nasals, would
correspond to the classical mutes.

2. Letters formed by slight contact {tshat sprishfa) : ^y, tr, H /, '^v (not f A).

These are called Antah^sthd (fem.), i.e. intermediate between Sparaas and
Oshmans, which has been freely translated by semivowel or liquid.

3. Letters formed by slight opening {ishad vivfita): X X* V^� ^**� ^^9

^ 0, ^ A. These are called (Ashman (flatus) in Sanskrit, which may be
rendered by sibilant or flatus.

4. Vowels are said to be formed by complete opening (yivrita)^,
^ 58. A second division, according to quality, is,

1. Surd letters : ^*, ir*A, ^cA, itcAA, zU ^tK 1ft, ^'A, ^P, '^ph; X Xf

^ i, ^shy ^s, X 09 <^d Yisarga : ^. In their formation the glottis is
open. They are called Affhosha, non-sonant.

2. Sonant letters : nj, "^ffh, ir^, l^jA, z4, �*^A, ^ rf, vdA, w A, hAA, Tii, ^*,

^n, ^n. If w/ ^ A, TTy, x^r, 75/, Wt?, the Anusvftra *m, and all vowels.
In their formation the glottis is closed. They are called Ohoshavai.
^ 59. Lastly, consonants are divided, according to quality, into,

1 . Aspirated {mahdprdr^a) : m kh, '^ gh, it cAA, T^jhj z th^ V ^A, ^ /A, v dh,

"RI^A, H AA; X X> V^> '^'^j "� X 0; f *; ti^e Visarga : 4 and
Anusv&ra * th*

2. Unaspirated (alpaprdna) : all the rest.

It will be seen, therefore, that the change of ^ch into ^ A is a change of
place, and that the change of ^ ch into nj is a change of quality ; while in the

* Sanskrit grammarians call this ^I'^AU IR^ dbhyantaralt prayatna^^ mode of articu-
lation preparatory to the utterance of the sound, and distinguish it from ^fl^ R^c^t vdhyah
prayaindfi, mode of articulation at the close of the utterance of the sound, which produces
the qualities of surd> sonant, aspirated, and unaspirated, as explained in � 58, 59.

t Some grammarians differ in their description of the degrees of closing or opening of
the organs. Some ascrihe to the semivowels duhgprishfa, imperfect contact, or ishadasprishia,
slight non-contact, or tshadvivrita, slight opening ; to the sihilants nemaspfishfa, half-contact,
i. 6. greater opening than is required for the semivowels, or vivrita, complete opening ; while
they require for the vowels either vivjita, complete opening, or asprishfa, non-contact. Siddh . -
-Kaum. vol. i. p. 10. Rig-veda-pr&tis. xiii. 3. In the Atharva-veda-pr&tisftkhya i. 33. we
ought to read ^S^^l( eke 'sprishfam instead of ^ ^V die spfishfam.


transition of ^ ch into i^g, or of ifi into it �, we should have a change both
of place and of quality.

^ 60. The changes which take place by the combination of the eleven final
letters with initial vowels or consonants may be divided therefore into two

Final letters are changed^ i. with regard to their places or organs, a,, with
regard to their quality.

I. Changes 0/ Place,

� 61 • The only final consonants which are liable to change of place are
the Dentals, the Anusv&ra, and Yisarga. The Dentals, being incompatible
with Palatals and Linguals, become palatal and lingual before these letters.
Anusvlb*a and Visarga adapt themselves as much as possible to the place of
the letter by which they are followed. All other changes of final consonants
are merely changes of quality ; these in the case of Dentals, Anusv&ra, and
Visarga, being superadded to the changes of place.

� 62, Final \ t before palatals (^ cA, "^ chhy njy 15 jh^ ^ n, 31^ i) is changed
into a palatal. {P&s^. viii. 4, 40.)
Ex. TTiT + ^ = WW tat + cha = tachchOy and this.

Tn^+ ftRftr = TrRatTftr tat + chhinatti = tachchhinatHy he cuts this.
Tn^+ ^pftfir :^ TPqjptfrtlT iat + fyinoti = tachirinotiy he hears this *.
in^+i!Ti|^ = 'irwni^ tat +jdyate = tajjdyate, this is bom. The final
1^ ^ is changed into ^ch and then into i^j according to � 66.

In composition, ipnr + ihfT= •I'l^fll jagat +jetd =jaffajfetdy conqueror of
the world.
The same change would take place before an initial T^jh; and before an
initial if ^, H^/ might become either l{^j or ^^fi, (J 68.)

� 6^, Final Tf^n before i^y, ^jh, s^riy and !i^i is changed to palatal ^ w,

Ex. inPSl + invfir = inw^lflr tdn -{-jayati = tdnjayati^ he conquers them. (P&9.
VIII. 4, 40.)

Note — Rules on the changes of final ^n before ^cA, "^cAA, and 3^/ will be given
hereafter. See � 73, 74.

J 64. Final \t before \ty\t^9 1^ ^* ^ ^> ^9 (i^o^ \*K P^?- vm. 4, 43)
is changed into a lingual. (Pfin. viii. 4, 41.)

Ex. in^+T^=wpn^ to^+^ya/e = /a^i^ya/e. The final \t v& changed

into ^ t and then into ^ 4 according to ^ 66.

In composition^ fnr + ^^=W2f)v tat + fikdzsztaffikdy a gloss on this.

^m^ + 7^ = ^^^7^ €tat + fhakkurai, = etatthakkuraJ^y the idol of him.

* ^ iy according to � 93, is generally changed to K chh : IRplnflf iaehekhfii^ti.


The same change would take place before an initial V 4^; and before an
initial 9 n^ 1^/ might become either i|r ^ or n^ 9. {� 68.)

� 65. Final if^n before ^ (?, ^ ^A, ^9 (not \�A, P^^. viii. 4, 43) is
changed to m^t^.

Ex. i|fT�^ + VTTO = HCimiHI.: mahdn+4dfnarai = mahdn4dfnaral^y a great

Note — Rules on the changes of ^n before ^f and ^fA (not \sh) will be given hereafter
(� 74). The changes of place with regard to final Anu8v4ra (th) and Visarga ($) will be
explained together with the changes of quality to which these letters are liable.

2. Changes of Quality.

^ 66. Sonant initiiJs require sonant finals.
Surd initials require surd finals.

As all final letters (except nasals and ?^ () are surd^ they remain surd
before surds. They are changed into their corresponding sonant letters
before sonants.

As the nasals have no corresponding surd letters, they remain unchanged
in quality, though followed by surd letters, unless the contact can be
avoided by inserting sibilants.

Examples :

1. 1|i before sonants, changed into if^g:

WOf^ + ^= ^mtijiji samydk + uktam = samyaguktam, Well said !
fW^ + VsprfH = ftnnrnflir dhik + dhanagarvitam = dhigdhanagarmtam. Fie
on the piurse-proud man !
In composition, f?f^ + Tfin = fl^TiTif: dik + gaja^ = diggajal^, an elephant

supporting the globe at one of the eight points of the compass.
Before Pada- terminations: f^+ fW: = fllff^ldik + bhiljk = digbln^ymBtrum.'phxr.
Before secondary suffixes beginning with consonants, except \y: Y1^ +
fira = ^T^in^ vdk + min = vdgmin, eloquent *.

2. tf before sonants, changed into ^^:

^qfxnT? + ^ = M(Xm*4 j^flrfora^ + ayam ^parivrd^ayam^ he is a mendicant.
i|fbn^ + V^ = M fiM 1 < gH Pi l parwrdf + hasati =:^parivrd4 hasati, the mendi-
cant laughs ; (also itftXT^ Wflr parwrd4 4hamti. � 70.)
In composition, ifficm^ + fll?J = MfUII fty il parivrdf + mitram s=: parivrd4nii''

tramy a beggar's friend.
Before Pada- terminations : ilftm^ + fti: = MfVfll^t parivrdf + Wt^ szpari"

* Pfti^ini is driven to admit a suffix ffmin instead of min, in order to prevent the nasaliza-
tion of the final consonant of vdchj cf. PIL9. viii. 4, 45, v&rt.


3. y^p before sonants, changed into ^ft:

V^^+^V?f=^KJ^ra kakup + atra=^kakubatra, a r^Ion there, (inflectional

base Ti|D^ kaki^h,)
in^ + IIT: = "mtZl op + gJui(ak = abghatdf^^ a water-jar.
^8n^ + ifiR = ^rain op '\- jay ah = abjayaj^^ obtaining water.
Wi^^+ IW = VRm op 4- may ah = ammayah^ watery, (f 69.)
^9^1^ + f^ = lijifw AaAt^p + bhih = kakubbhii, instrum. plur.

4. \i before sonants, changed into ^ d, except before sonant palatals and

lingualsy when (according to � 62) it is changed into ^J and ^^:
^rfti^+ ^RT =^Rf^^ sarit + cUra = saridatra, the river there,
ipnr + ^3|n = ^nnfhBrt jagat + Uah =^jagadiidhy lord of the world.
1f1(+ V^ = 1^�^! mahat + dhanuh = mahaddhanuh^ a larg^ bow.
i|^+ f^ = l^fin tnahat + Mt^ = mahadbhi^f instrum. plur.

IT i before sonant palatals, changed into ^^J: see ^ 62 :

^rfb(^+ fci = nftWii ^orit -Vjalam = saTtjjalam^ water of the river.

1^^ before sonant Unguals, changed into ^ ^.* see ^ 6% :

CTi^+ TPTC = inr|TiTO etat + i^marah = eta44Amarah, the uproar of them.

Note — ^There are exceptions to tbiB rule, but they are confined to Taddhita derivatives
which are found in dictionaries. Thus final l^t before the possessive suffixes ^^mat;
m^rfl/, ftn^rin, ^c5 vah. is not changed. Ex. fii^ n^ + ^= f^^�^ f{^t%dyul + vai =
vidyutvaty possessed of lightning. Final "^s too, which represents Visarga, remains
unchanged before the same Taddhitas. Thus HH^ + fV�^= n �l fts \t^as + rtn = t^asvin,
instead of n^ifVftn^<e;of?tfiy see � 84. 3. 5�ilfn^4- 11?= 'ilfi fd m ^yotis-^fnat=:jyotishmat,
instead of ^HtftAl(^jyotirmatj � 84. (P&n. i. 4, 19.)

^ 67* Additional changes take place if the final surds "^k^Jt^ Tfif \P ^^^
followed by initial nasals, chiefly t^n and i^m. The nasals being sonant,
they require the change of ^ A:, ^ ^, if^ty and i^j? into T\g9\49^ d, and i^ ft;
but these final sonants may be further infected by the nasal character of the
initial nasals, and may be written 1^ i^y Ti^ n, v^ n, ^^m. (Pa^. viii. 4, 45*)

Ex. flpi^ + ifm: = flyy^m: or f^S^fm: dik + ndgah = digndgah or diiinagah,

a world-elephant.
Wi|ft5^ + Htft=''^ft5j|flr or iqftB^Rtfi^ madhulit + nardati = madhU'

li4nardati or madhulinnardatiy the bee himis.
Vn|^+ ^IR: = innir� or inrum: jagat + ndthah ^jagadnathah or jagan-

ndthai, lord of the world.
V^+^=:iri|^ or W^ ap-+nadizsabnadi or amnadi^ water-river.
Unjr + gw = irngm or mvin prdk + mukhah =prdgmuktuii or jwdflmtt-

AAa$, facing the east.
)9^+in(=synRinl or h^^ bhavat+matam=^bhavadmatam or Ma-

vanmatoiit, your opinion.


Note — If a word should begin with a guttural, palatal^ or lingual n (^ n, ^n, or ^n)
then a final- 1|^^ would change its place or organ at the same time that it became a nasal! It
would become 1^ �, ^H, or ^9. There are, however, no words in common use beginning
with ▼ �, f a, or ^ t�-

� 68. Before the suffix ^^ maya and before fRf mdtra the change into the nasal is not
optional, but obligatory. (P&n. viii. 4, 45, v&rt.)

Ex. ^^ + ini = ^i^�i vdk-{-mayam = vdnmayamy consisting of speech.

>r^^ + IT^r = f^rrt^WI^ madhulif+mdiram = ftutdhuUnrndtram, merely a bee.

TH^+ 'nW = n<�iic) tai-^mdtram^ztanmdtram, element.

Note — Ninety-six is always ^^QT^fir sha^^i^aoatiy never ^^4mf)l shaj^voH*

� 69. The initial 1| h, if brought into immediate contact with -a final "^k C^^), 7 ^ (^ A*
^t {\ ^)j \P (^^)* is commonly, not necessarily, changed into the sonant aspirate of the
class of the final letter, viz. into ^gh, ^4^,ydh, ^bh. (PiLi^. viii. 4, 62,)

Ex. fW^ + i5r�r�li=ftl'<fla'�lt or ftl'lirWH: dhik-{-ha$timalis=dhigha$tinafi or dkUfghat-
tinaft, Fie on the elephants I

l|ftnn^.+ ^ = ^rfiCIIT^in or ^ifnnjin panvrdf-\-hataft=iparwrd4hataf^ or pari'
vrddipiataltf the mendicant is killed.

in^+^== n^jn or HTW tat+hutamz=z ladhutam or taddhutam^ this is sacrificed.

V(^+^T^ = V^T^ or W9in!V ap+harai^am^^ abhor ai^am or abbhara^tam, water-

^ 70. 1^^ before c^/ is not changed into ^ d, but into J^L (Pan. viii. 4^ 60.)
Ex* mi + cl3V = Kfni tat + labdham = tcUlabdham^ this is taken,

^f1^+(9cl17=)(ill^li bjihat + laUttam ss bfiAaUaldtam^ a large fore**

^71. Final ^n before c^ / is changed into T^l; but this 7^1 is pronounced
through the nose, and is written with the Anusvdra dot over it. It is usual
in this case to write the Anusvftra as a half-moon^ called Ardha-chandra*
Ex. i|^F^+ c9W = ^Vfl^ftn?: mahdn + laihah = maMl IdbhaJ^^ large gain*

^ 7ij. Final T ^ iPr n, and ^n^ preceded by a short vowel and followed
by any vowel, are doubled. (P&Q. viii. 3, 3a.)

Ex. �1^+ Wiv: = Vl^m: dhavan + aiva^ -=- dhdvannaSvaJ^, a running horse,
mir^ + uri^ = UTT^T^ praiya'h + date = pratyaMaste, he sits turned

toward the west.
^'ni(^+ 'Vri)' = ^vrai^ sugars -h aste = mgann^tej he sits counting well **.

If "^ ii, ^ n, and 1^ n are preceded by a long vowel and followed by any
vowel, no change takes place.
Ex. ?i^)i^+ insi'irer kavin + dhvayasva^ call the poets.


* Technical terms like 'VOrfif w^ddiy a list of suffixes beginning with w^, or fniW tinanU
words ending in /t�, are exempt from this rule. See also Wilkins, Sanskrita Grammar, ^ 30.

E 2

28 EXTERNAL 8ANDHI. ^ 73""

� 73. Final n^n before initial ^ k, "Wf^kh, and ^^p^ ^pky remains unchanged.
Final f^ n before ^ch, ^^ chh, requires the intercession of i(^i.
Final ?^n before Jji \(^9 requires the intercession of ^sh.
Final i^n before T^/, \thf requires the intercession of l^�. (P&9.
VIII. 3, 7.)
Before these inserted sibilants the original t^n is changed to Anusvfira.
Ex. '^W9^+^Wlir?:=l^WTC hasan + chakdra = h€uamichakdra, he did it
vr^+1(nn=Vl4^(VT: dMv(m-�chhdgdik^dMvaniichhdgdl^^ a run-
ning goat.
*leS^ + firflpT: = ^^f^P^H: chalan + fitii^hal^ = chalamshtift^haJ^ a

moving titU^ha-bird.
li^n^ + TfC =: ^tlV|K* fnahdn + thakkura^ = mahdmahthakkural^y a great

^T1f^+ in^ = ^l4w^ patan + taru^ sspataihstarul^, a falling tree.

Note — Ttf^pra^dm, quiet, forms the nom. WflT\praddnj but this final ^^n^ being the
representation of an original ^my is not allowed before ^ch^ If^chk, J^f, J^th^ l(^t, ^th to
take a sibilant. Ex. IQIT*^ "^ f^Pnflf == in^TftPrnW praidn-i- chinoti =zpraid1lchiBoH ; not
^tlVfVl ^Or pr(Udihdehinoti. (Pki^. viii. 3, 7.)

� 74. Final ^ * and n^n may be followed by initial ^^i, ^�A, ^* without

causing any change ; but it is optional to add a i| A after the 1^ 1^ and a

^f after the ^9. Thus ^ iMa becomes n ^kSa (or n ifikchha, � 92);

1^ iisha becomes n iiksha; T^ iisa becomes v� iikia; iqi nia becomes

H^ nfia (or ?|n nt^hha)] n nsha becomes unr nfsha; inr nsa becomes

:q^ visa. (P&^i. VIII. 3, 28.)

Ex. VT^ + ^=9T^^ or WIV^ (or OT^lfir) prdik + ieteszprdiiiete or

prdiikiete (or prdiikchhete),

^n^+ ^rcflr = ^IKIIini or ^sm^infir sugan + sarati = suffafiaarati or

� 75. The same rule appUes to final 1^ n before s^ i and ^ s, but not
before \8h, where it remains unchanged. Before 9^ i it is first changed
into palatal 1^ fi* (^ 63) ; and ^ ni may again be changed to W^^ iichS,
S9^ fichchh (f 72, 92), or '^nchh. Before ^*, ^n may remain unchanged,
or ^n� may be changed into im^rUs, (P&n. viii. 3, 30.)
Ex. wp^ + ^ = inp^ tdn 4- �Aa/ = tdnshafy those six.

1fnT + ^ng<9n^=lfT'^IT|(3T^ or Al^ll^cftl*^ or AINILl|<4r�^ or TTT^W^^ST^
tdn + idrdiUdn = tdfiidrddldn or tdnchMrddldn or tdnchchhdrddldn
or tdnchhdrddldny those tigers. (P&n. V111.3, 31.)

* To allow �(� to remain unchanged before 9(^^ was a mere misprint in Benfey's large
grammar, and has long been corrected by that scholar.


irn^+^Rlir = 1f1i9fi^ or irrmn^ tdn + sahate := tdnsahate or taiit$ahate^

he bears them.
f^ (f^) + ^ =fln^ or ff�i^ hin {hiMs) + m = Jwmu or MniiUy among
enemies. (The base f)||^Aim^, before the '^iu oi the loc. plur., is
treated as a Pada.) See { 53^ 55.
^ 76. A final ^ ^ before 1^9 must remain unchanged, and if / may be inserted.
Ex. 11;^ + irfbn =: iiprftin or ii^wfVfl: shat + saritah ^ sha(aaritai^ or shaftsa-
ritahi six rivers. (Pftp. viii. 49 42 ; 3? 29.)

^ 77. II m at the end of words remains unchanged if followed by any
initial voweL

Ex. "An + ^V^ kim + atra = fwrST kimatra^ What is there ?
Before consonants it may, without exception, be changed to Anusv&ra. (P&9.
VIII. 3, 23.)

This is the general rule. The exceptions are simply optional (P&n. viii.
4, 59), viz.

Before i|[ k, ^^kh, i^^g, \ffhf i^fi^ the final ^m or Anusvtbra may be

changed into ^ H.
Before ^cA, J^chh, n^j\ Tijh^ TJ^n, to n^n.

Before J^f* \tf^9 \4f \4^9 ^t^> to l^n.

Before nj, i(^/A, ^rf, i^rfA, i^�, to i^n.

Before i^/ij T^ph, ^6, )^�A, �^m, to i^m.

Before i^y, <^/, ^t?, to |[y, ;3^J, Hy. See f 56. 6.
Hence it follows that final i^m may be changed into Anusvfira before all
consonants, and mtut be so changed only before 9( i, w �A, ^9, ^ A, and tr^
i. e. the five consonants which have no corresponding nasal class-letter.

It would be most desirable if soholan would never avail themselves of the optional
change of final Aausvira into ^ �, ^ ^> ^i^, '^n, ^^m, We should then be spared a number
of compound letters which are troublesome both in writing and printing ; and we should
avoid the ambiguity as to the ori^nal nature of these class-nasals when followed by initial
sonant palatals, Unguals, and dentals. Thus if 1ft '^H^ tdm jayati, he conquers her, is
written IfTW^fv tdfi jayati, it may be taken for IfT^ iimPa tdi^ jayati, he conquers them,
which, according to � 63, must be changed into HfSHrffT idSi jayati. In the same manner
HP^inrfk tdn damaiyaH may be either WPT ^^nrfk tdn damayoH, he tames them, or If^
^iniflf tdm damayati, he tames her. All this uncertainty is at once removed if final l^^m is
always changed into Anusvfira, whatever be the initial consonant of the following word.

Ex. ftiw + i|3ftfti=fli W^rfW (or flifdft) kim -^ karoshi = kim karoski (or
At9l karoshi). What doest thou ?
^1^ + Hf^ = 1^ wfV (or IRJWif ) iatrum +Jahi = iairumjoM (or iairuii
Jahi), kill the enemy.


i|^+TrTfir=if?ff Tirflr (or vf^lMcOl) nadim-^tarati^nadi^ tarati (or

nadin tarati)^ he crosses the river.
^l^^+^infir = g^ ^ffflr (or ^psiwftr) ffurum -j- namaii = ffurum namati

(or gurun namati)^ he salutes the teacher.
fliif + 'Hci = fii 1W (or (Vim) kim-\'phalam=ikim phalam (or kim

phalam)f What is the use 1
*Hn^p^+ iftm^ = ^n^ nNriinr (or l^n^BpAHhnr) idstram + mimdmsaie =

idstram mimdmsate (or idstram mimdmsate)^ he studies the book.
Before i^y, c^/, ^t?:

lWT3^H-^nfif = ^rr?R ^nfif (or Hi^i^KllOi) satvaram-^-ydii^satvaram ydti

(or satvaray ydti), he walks quickly.
ftrin�^+c5HTr=ftniT <W1> (or f^renfrirr} mdydm-k-ldbhate^vidydm la-

bhate (or vidyal labhate), he acquires wisdom.
THi + ^ = W %^ (or Tl'^) tarn + veda = ^a/� rerfa (or tcHv veda\ I

know him.

Before ^r, l^i, n^�A, i^�, ^ A:

^R;iin^+ ^fl^ = ^1^ Or^^Ol itarunom + ro^ft^t = Ararunam roditiy he cries

9WI4I^+ $^ = ^TBiTirf ^ iayydydm -^ iete == iayydydm iete, he lies on

the couch.
�fhm + ii%ir = ifhBf ^l^ moksham-^- seveta^moksham seveta^ let a man

cultivate spiritual fireedom.
1^l^+|nR[fW = �rvt ^irflr madhuram^-hasati^madhura^ hasati, he
laughs sweetly.
^78. i^m at the end of a word in pausd, i. e. at the end of a sentence,
is pronounced as m, not as Anusvlb*a. It may be written, however, for the
sake of brevity, with the simple dot (^ 8, note), and it is .so written through-
out in this grammar. Ex. wAevam, thus, (or ^[^^evam.)

� 79. Final ^^m before 1^ A, if ^ A be immediately followed by ^n, i^^w,

\y9 <? ^> ^ ^> ™^y ^ treated as if it were immediately followed by these

letters (PAn. viii. 3, 26; 27). See, however, � 77.

Ex. f^+ wkszfiiwkoT ftF^ kim + hnute = Hm hnute or Hn hnute. What

does he hide 1

fVlH + ir: = f* in or f^^. kim + hyal^ =z kim hyai^ or kiy Aya*, What

about yesterday ?
ftn^ + WcWfir = fli V<9^ or fVRRT^ilflr *�m + hmdlayati = *tm hmaluyati
or kimhmalayati. What does he move ?
^ 80. If ^ kri is preceded by the preposition W{sam9 an ^� is inserted,
and ^^m changed to Anusv&ra. (PAn. vi. i, 137; viii. 3, 2-5.)
Ex. THI + ^fm = ^^?r: sam -f- Art^ai^ = samskfita^, hallowed.


^ 81. In w^m^^samrdjy nom. W^ samrdfy king? "^ w is never changed.

Visarga and Final 1(8 and T^r.

^ 82. The phonetic changes of final sibilants, which are considered the
most difficulty may be reduced to a few very simple rules. It should only
be borne in mind :

I. That there are really five sibilants, and not three ; that the signs for the
guttural and labial sibilants became obsolete, and were replaced by
the two dots (:) which properly belong to the Visarga only, i. e. to the
unmodified sibilant,
a. That all sibilants and Visarga are surd, and that their proper corresponding
sonant is the ^ r.

^ 83. The only sibilant which can be final in pauid is the Visarga. If
Visarga is followed by a surd letter, it is changed into the sibilant of that
class to which the following surd letter belongs, provided there is a sibilant.

It should be observed, however, that the guttural and labial sibilants are
now written by : ^^ and that the same sign may also be used instead of any
sibilant^ if followed by a sibilant.

Ex. wm + "mm = mn ^wm (originally THT X 'WW:) taiai, + kdma^ = taiai kdmah

(originally taia-j^^kamafi), hence love.
^1: + ^i^ s= ^^^Nrj;: pHrriaJ^ + chondral = pUrr^ chandra^, the full

iTCh + VVlt = flO^mMI taroi^ + chhdyd = taroi chhdydy the shade of

the tree,
^ftiH + TBfir = 4hfV(9flf bhUa^ -f talaii = bhitashtalatij the frightened

man is disturbed.
Ht<t: + 7^ = ^MV^: hhagnab + fbakkura^ = bhaffnashthakkural^, the

broken idol.
•IWT: + Hit = HVlWIi nadydb + Hram = nadydstiram, the border of the

7nrT:+W=:^TOT: to (originally ^niTX^) nadydb -^ pdram =z nadydb

pdram (originally nadyd<f>pdram), the opposite shore of a river.

Visarga before sibilants (P&n. viii. 3, 36):

^ + fip^ = ^HftsnS^ or ^ f^nj: supiab + Hiub = supiai Hiub or
supta^ Hiuljt, the child sleeps.

•ipn + W^np! = NMIuftc^lt or Hnn ^ttv^in bhdgab + sho4aiab = bhdgash
sho4aSait or bh&gal^ 8ho4a6abi a sixteenth part.

WW: + ^jrt: = IWWWf: or iKVmi ^^^ prathamab'\^8arga1^::^prathama8''
sargab or praihamdb sarga^, the first section.

32 SXTfiBNAL 8AKDHI. � 84-

Note i — If Visarga is followed by an initial '^ts, it is not changed into dental ^$f
but remains Visarga, as if followed by ^�. (PIL9. viii, 3, 35.)

�z. '!fm + Wrfw = l(nrt l^rfv ^afhaf^-^-isarati = iaf AaJl tsaraH^ a wicked man cheats.
W* + W^ = 1C W^ ka^-^-ttan^zzikdli tBoru^, Which is the handle of the sword ?

Note 2 — If, on the contrary, Visarga is followed by a sibilant with a surd letter, the
Visarga is frequently dropt in MSS. (P&9. viii. 3, 36, yftrt.)

Ex. ^^ + l^J = ^^ l^r or ^^ W devdft'{-8tka=:devdlt stha or deed $tka, you are gods;
(also ^^rn9T devds giha,)

^fts + ^^yfil = l[ftJ ^^fn or ^ft ^CAf harifi-^sphurat%=zharift tpkurati or hari
sphuratiy Hari appears ; (also ^fd^^cfv haris q>hurati.)

Note 3— If nouns ending in l^is or ^S^u^, like ff^ Aovi/i or V^S dhanult, are followed
by words beginning with 1^ k, ^kh, ^p, ^^pk, and are governed by these words, ^$k may
be substituted for final Visarga. 41 (M 0^1^011 or Tlfot ftnvflf sarpishpibati or satpif^ pibati,
he drinks ghee ; but fnsg ^rfn: f^^ i^^^4 tisktkatu sarpih, piba tvam uddkam^ let the ghee
stand, drmk thou water. (P&n. viii. 3, 44.)

j 84. If final Yisarga is followed by a sonant letter, consonant or vowel,
the general -nAe is that it be changed into ^r. (See, however, J 86.) This rule
adtnits, however, of the following exceptions :

1. If the Visarga is preceded by ^ d, and followed by a sonant letter

(vowel or consonant), the Visarga is dropt

2. If the Visarga is preceded by va, and followed by any vowel except Wfl,

the Visarga is dropt.

3. If the Visarga is preceded by V a, and followed by a sonant consonant,

the Visarga is dropt, and the V a changed to if^ 0.

4. If the Visarga is preceded by ^ a, and followed by V a, the Visarga is

dropt, V a changed into ^ 0, after which, according to ^ 41, the initial
W a must be eUded. The sign of the eUsion is s, called Avagraha.

Examples of the general rule :
irff: + irt = Vftrti^ kavil^ + ay am = kamrayam^ this poet.
Ijfln + ^^fir = tftr^^flr ravif^ + udeti = ravir udetiy the sun rises.
Hh + T3Kflr = ^rHNKfir gaulf. + gachchhati = gator gachchhati, the ox walks.

flfi^ + WHflr = ftri^^'riTI vishnu^ +jayaH = vishnur jayatif Vishnu is victo-

^I^ + '^V: = ^^[h^^ paioi + bandhdf^ ^paiorbandhaJjky the binding of the

9f* + ^ ^ ?1^ mttAt^ijl + muhui^ = muhunnuhuif gradually.
^niJ + ^rrflr = ^rgflfir vdyui^ + vdti = vdyur vaiiy the wind blows.
i^jl^ + T^Rflr = f^H^lnni Hiuh + hasati = Hiur hasatiy the child laughs.
tfft + V�n =: Af9if: ni^ + dhanah = nirdhanahy without wealth.
^ + �rtfln = nflAn dui. + n{/t<Ji = duroiHhy of bad manners.
9iftAR + fii: = iiftflrfil: jyotih •+• Mi^ =:jyoiirbhi^y instrum. plur.


Examples of the first exception :
wist: + wft = WI8T wft ahdit + ami^sz aivd amtf these horses.
irPTTO + ^wm = ITOTIT ''^VK dgaidJ^ + rishayal^ = a^a fishayai^, the poets

have arrived*
IWTt + mn: = fin mm hatd^ + ^q/ai^ = hatd ffofd^y the elephants are killed.
TfWfm + ^RT: = ^nnrr ^RT: tinno/^^ + na^a/jl = unnaid noffdiy the high

imn: + ^nii^ = in?rT V^iHt chhdtrdl^ •\- yatante ^ chhdtrd yatante, the pupils

HT: + ^ = 'nfW; mdi + Mi^ = mdbhii^ instrum. phur. of in^ 9nd�, moon.

Examples of the second exception :

^m + WTTIK = ygn wnnc *a/aj + dgatai^ = *tt<a dgaiah, Whence come ?
ic -f f[^ =riV ^: A-o^ -). etf Ao^ = Aa e^Ao^, Who is he ?

^ + ^5fti: = ^ ^^ftf: *a4 + fwAtiJ = *a fishihi Who is the poet?
inrt + WTfi^= 'HT mfl^ maTiai^ + ddi = mana dJi, beginning with mind.
Examples of the third exception :

^fhrsn + ^ = ^Hift Hv: iobhana^ + gandhal^=:iobhano gandhai^ a sweet

scent. '
^pR: + ^^^ = ^TRt ^^^ nUtanah + ffhafai^ = nfl/a^to ghafai^, a new jar,

the lingual fi.
ftrtwn + IfH: = ftrtlilft ^^ nirvdriai + ^ijpaA = nirr^no cf^jpa^, the lamp is

blown out.
mftw: + m^ =i�lftTft mnr: a/fta^ + md^aiS = atUo mdsa^, the past month.
ipn + HIP = flft illp *n^�* + ya/na4 = ki^o yatnah^ effort is made,
vni: 4. ^: = inrttn: fMtnah + rafnaf^^ manor amal^^ (a compound)^ pleasiog

to the mind^ delightful.
^ + ^ = ^frfW: na$ + M�$ = nobhib, instrum. plur. with the noses.

Examples of the fourth exception :
^: + VI = ^�^ narafy + ayam = naro ^yam^ this man.
^: + mftm = ^s^Ain t^ecfaA + adhitah = t'^^o ^dhiiaiy the Veda has been

vn + H^ = W^^^ ^y^i + astram = oyo ^stram^ an iron-weapon.
^ 85. There are a few words in which the final letter is etymologically z.r*.
This ^ r^ as a final^ is changed into Yisarga^ according to � 82, and it

* It is called TiRit Ow^S rajdio visargafi, the Vissrga produced from r. It occurs,
preceded by V a, in IpTt puna^, agun ; IRH prdtaftj early ; ^IH an/o^, within ; ^QTt m^o^,
heaven; Hl^ aAo^, day (� 196); in the voc.sing. of nouns in ^p, ex,^f(lpitaft, father,
from f^pitfiy &c. ; and in verbal forms such as WiTR^ cjdgaty 2, 3. sing. impf. of W^jdgfi,



follows all the rules affecting the Visarga except the exceptional rules j 84.
2, 3, 4 ; L e. if preceded by V a, and followed by any sonant letter, vowel
or consonant, the ^ r is retained.

Ex. g^ + wf^ = '^fflfifpunai^ + api =punarapi, even again.
jmn -f ^=m^:!^prdtai^ + eva ^prdtareva, very early.
Win +^1? = WTI^ bhrdtaljL + dehi = bhrdtar deh% Brother, give !

J 86. No ^r can ever be followed by another 7^ r (P&n. viii. 3, 14). Hence
final Visarga, whether etymologically ^s or ^r, if followed by initial T.r,
and therefore by ^ 84 changed to ^r, is dropt, and its preceding vowel
lengthened. (P&n. vi. 3, 1 1 1 •)

Ex. 'Piy + ^nn^ = flr^TTsn^ vidhu^ + rdjate = vidhil raj ate ^ the moon shines.
^rnK + T!W = WTIT T!W hhrdtah + raksha = bhrdid rakshuy Brother, protect !
yn + ^&�ft = J'n tc^punafk + rogi=pund rogi^ ill again.

These are the general rules on the Sandhi of final Visarga, ^� and ^r.
The following rules refer to a few exceptional cases.

j 87. The two pronouns W. safk and f!^ esha(L, this, become iff sa and
^ esha before consonants and vowels, except before short V a and at the
end of a sentence. (P&i^. vi. i, 132.)

Ex. ir: + ^f^rfk = iff ^^^ifir sai^ + dadati = sa dadatiy he gives.

^ jj^. = Iff i^^ sal^ indrah = sa indraft, this Indra. The two vowels
are not liable to Sandhi.
But W* + ini^= ifftsH^ sal^ + abhavat = so ^bhavaty he was.

i|ir: ^ mritah sai^ he is dead.

Sometimes Sandhi takes place, particularly for the sake of the metre.
Thus Iff m�a esha becomes occasionally fhl �ai�Aa, he, this person. 9^^
sa indra^ appears as B5: sendrab. (P&n. vi. i, 134.)

The pronoun 1^ syai^, he, follows the same rule optionally in poetry. (P&n.
VI. 1, 133O

� 88. irh bhoby an irregular vocative of }fm(^bhavat, thou, drops its Visarga
before all vowels and all sonant consonants. (P&n. viii. 3, 2,2,.)

Ex. irh + |;5nT = rft Ij^nr bhob + iidna = bho {Sana, Oh lord !
rffe + ^TO=Ht ^TO bhob + devdb = bho devdby Oh gods !

The same appUes to the inteijections H^ft: bhagob and wifh aghob, really
irregular vocatives of \m^bhagavat, God, and w^^c^Aava^, sinner.

J 89. Numerous exceptions, which are best learnt firom the dictionary,
occur in compound and derivative words. A few of the more important
may here be mentioned.


I. Nouns in W^^m, ^iB> ^i^U8,/ormtfi^ the first part of a Compound,

I. Before derivatives of^kfi, to do (e.g. M^kara, WT. kdra)^ before derivatives of V^^ibam,
to desire (e. g. VIT kdntOt "WR kdma), before 4^ kathsa, goblet, ^W kumbha, jar,
WT^pdiray vessel, ^^11 kiM, counter, board, Wfltkan^y ear, the final Visarga of bases
in '9^^as is changed to ^�. (P&9. viii. 3, 46.)

Ex. ^0^ + IRS = V)l(ljKU ^eyah+karai=zA'eifaskarafif making happy.
Wfl + IPC = fl^ljkU ahah-{-karalt^ahaskarah, sun.
Wm + ^^ = ini^^ ayali-\-kumbka(i=zayaskumbkal^, iron-pot.

There are several words of the same kind — ^which are best learnt from the dictionary — in
which the Visarga is changed into dental sibilant. (P&9. viii. 3, 47.)

�z. Wt + "^^ = W9I^ adka^+padam^^adhaspadam, below the foot,
f^^ + ^ifin = Rj^fWfht divah+patilt^dwaspati^, lord of heaven.
^TTf J + Vfifl = ^n^Wfftn vdcha^-^-patift^vdehaspatift, lord of speech.
Hn + IPCS = HIHKit bkd(t'\'kara(t=^bhdskarap, sun, &c.

3. Nouns in ^w and ^^��, such as Ifftt havih, V^ dhanuf^, &c., before words beginning
with ^it, ^ kh, ^p, and ^ph, always take '^sh. (PA9. viii. 3, 45.)

Ex. ^rfnt + ^nf = �R*iin sarpift+pdnams=sarpishpdnam, ghee-drinking.
WPll + ^iTIft = WIJfc^lHl dyulk+kdmalL^^dyuskkdma^y fond of life.

Note — ^i^<^�i* bhrdtushptUrali, nephew, is used instead of HTJt 'JJST* bhrdtufi putrdh, the
son of the brother.

II. Words in IV^as, ^is, ^^us, treated as Prepositions.

I. The words cpn namaft, ^t pur ah, fldX tirafty if compounded prepositionally with ^ kfi,
change Visarga into ^�. (P&9. viii. 3, 40.)

Ex. •!*!: + iro = •PraroJ namah'\'kdrafi=:namaskdrafi, adoration; (but fR ^pWT
namalt kritvd, having performed adoration.)
yj + ^W = ^^.^m purali+kfitya=ipuraskfitya, having preferred.

fiftJ + ^ST^ = fflUftlO tirah+kdri^ tiraskdri, despising. In flftJ tiru^ the change
is considered optional. (P&p. viii. 3, 43.)

3. The words ftfimj, ^duli, ^f^vaAi^, HTftfJ doih, Itl^lpr^ufi, ^npchatuk, if compounded
with words beginning with Vit, ^^kh, ^p or ^ph, take \sk instead of final Visarga.

Ex. f^ + ^StHl = fn^^ini nili'\-kdmai^niskkdmaft, loveless.
i�R + ^m^fl = f^*4MS ni^+phalah=znishpkalalt, fruitless.
^nftn + ^pf = Vrflfl^fTf dvih'\'kfitamz=dnshkritamf made manifest.
Jt + Tflf = ^i^ii duh-^kfitam=zduskkfitam, badly done, criminal.
^VJt + ^ata = '^AMit^i cAa/vA+ibofMims^cAahifMotiam, square.

III. Nouns in m^as, ^is, 9^ us, before certain Taddhita Sufixes.

r. Before the Taddhita suJBixes ^^mat, "^Ifvat, f^mn, vad^t^vala, the final ^^s appears
as ^s or \sk (� 100).

Ex. Win + fii^ ^ H ^y^^^tejaft+vin = tejasdn, with splendour.
^Miin; + ITH^= alfi Ol Vf \jyotih 4- ma^ ^yoHshmat, with light.
fK 4- ^c5 = ii|M^ rajafi+vala=srajaspah, a bufiblo.

F :;^


3. Before Tfuldhita suffixes beginning with 1( t, the ^�, preceded hj \ i or 7�, is changed
into \sh, after which the 1^^ becomes Z ^

Ex. '^R; + W:=WPty arehilt-^tvam:=archi8hfvaim, brightness.

^^ + Vm ^ ^3�M chatufL^ tayam = cAo^tuAf ayam, the aggregate of four.

3. Before the Taddhita suffixes "^V^pd^a, iRff kcdpa, '^ka, and in composition with the
verb ^i9^rn kdmyaH, nouns in IV^ as retain their final ^ �, while nouns in ^ is and
^^tw change it into \8h (� 100). (P&n. viii. 3, 39.)

Ex. ■'TO + Vm^ = H M^H I ^ payaft-^pd^am sspayaspdiam, bad milk.

VK + ^rar = ^nras^ pay o^ -f kalpam =payaskalpam, a little milk.
rS + ^ = M^ifSK ya^ah+kah^ya^askafi, glorious.

H + ^itf^ifn = ��^<9iiMinn ya^aik+kdmyati=ya^Mkdmyati, he is ambitious.
^TO + '^^^ = �rM"Hi^i 8arpifk-{-pddam = sarpishpdkm, bad ghee.
^ITO + ira^ = ^RaoiKsi �af7?i/^+ita/pam= sar^Aita^am, a little ghee.
VJt + 15 = Vg�ifc dkanuh+kdl!k^=dhanii8hkii(i, belonging to the bow.
'-' ^* + ^Wrfir = V^MilMlOll dhantifi+kdmyaH^dhanushkdmyati^ he desires a bow.

^ 90. Nouns ending in radical \t {^ 85) retain the \r before the ^ w of
the loc. plur., and in composition before nouns even though beginning with

Ex. 1T^ + ^ == If^ vdr 4- �� = vdrshu, in the waters.

ftr^ + ifin = ifftftn gir -hpatiit ssgirpatV^, lord of speech.

In compounds^ however^ like Jil^Oi; girpati^, the optional use of Visarga is sanc^
tioned (P&n. viii. 2, 70, v&rt.), and we meet with jOimOi: gthpcttilf,^ ^iifin dhUh-
paiihy and ^{^f^ dhdrpatif^; ^n^lin svaipatih and 9^flR svarpaiihi lord of
heaven ; H^tilOi: ahaJ^patii^ and ^r^^fli: aharpatil^y lord of the day.

^ dhary the Pada base of ^CTITf^aAan, day, is further irregular, because its final ^r is
treated like ^� before the Pada-terminations, and in composition before words beginning
with ^r; hence ^■^[J + filJ = ^I^tfir: ahdfL+hhHk^=- ahobkif^ j W^ + ^ = ^'^^ ahah+su =
nhdtau; ^T^ 4- TRIt = V^UHl ahafi-\'rdtraitszahordtra^, day and night. (P&9. viii. 2,
68, v&rt.)

^ 91. itcAA at the beginning of a word, after a final short vowel, and
after the particles w\d and mmd, is changed to ^ssichchh.

Ex, m + irnn= irt ^l^l tava -f chhdyd = iava chchhdyd, thy shade.
1IT + f^a^ = IT f^X^ md + chhidat = ma chchhidaty let him not cut.
W + V^^= wra[Rprfil a + chhddayati = dchchhddayatiy he covers.
After any other long vowels, this change is optional.

V^Ov^l^l or ^r^^Ownn badarichhdyd or badarichchhdyd^ shade of Badaris.
In the body of a word, the change of it chh into IK chchh is necessary
both after long and short vowels.
Ex. ^^Pa ichchhatiy he wishes. Ihst mkchchha^, a barbarian. (Pai^. vi.
h 73-76.)

^� 93. EXTERNAL 6ANDHI. 37

^ 92. Initial 9 i, not followed by a hard consonant, may be changed
i^to It chhf if the final letter of the preceding word is a hard consonant or
^^a (for ^�). (P49. VIII. 4, 63.)

Ex. ^ni| + 91^ = wnV(nr or ^nvw vdk + iatam=ivdkSatam or vdkchhatam^ a

hundred speeches.
i|fnm^+^ = i|fnm^ ^ or MfVni^iilk parivrdt + iete=:parivrdf Me

or parivrdf chheie, the beggar lies doiwn,
^C1^+ IPii =5 Hfi^^i or irfWHi mcAat + takafam s maAocA iakafam

or maAaeA chhakafam, a great car.
in^+ lBf|ik^= irf{1%isr /a/ + ilokena = tachchhlokenay by that verse.
vn^+ Ifrv: = Vl^^w: or vmfur: ihdvan-\'iaiah^dhdv€di iaiai or

dhdvaH chhaia^f a running hare.
wi^+19^==^V�9^ or Wt^w^ ap + iabdai :=s ap iabdalk or apchhabdahf

the sound of water.

^ 93. If 1 A, ^^A, ^ ^, i^cfAy or yi{bh stand at the end of a syllable which
begins with i[^g^ \^4^ TRd^ or \by and lose their aspiration as final or
otherwise, the initial consonants 1^^, ^^4^ \^9 or ^d are changed into
\gK J^4h, \dh, }^bh.

Ex. n duh^ a milker, becomes ipr dhuk^

ffrfp^viivagudhj all attracting, becomes ^m^jnyiivaghui^
'^^budh^ wise, becomes ^Mv/,



� 94.













00 ^


so ^








































































<<9 O

�t9 O



�<9 O



�t9 O



























c* 1^

NO ta


5* ft,


•4 tQ



00 E^








J -It













































•F4 aS







a; IB.


^ ft?



"8 s


� 94.









E- W





^ >�







l� l�

S" t�






I* N

s **





• •


2* t*






2 �






5 W















o> W






� r





�- Ik




'o (r





W 9

•o IT






^ IT



� IT
+ ••

^2 'S

w W



n3 -d




























• •

• •







s g

• • ••

. 9

•8 .a


.a 5


s ^



H -d _g



J a









I " 'S
-3.1 5



•S ^.1

:� .

S - -3


. * .S
I i* 3







IK •





1? i












no n3
















le le
























1 •

























s r


















a •

�� IB



• •

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a 8

^� 96. CHANGE OP l^n INTO U^^l. 41

NATI, or Change 0/ Denial i{^n and ^s into Lingual ^Jl and ^ah.
� 95. In addition to the rules which require the modification of certain
letters at the beginning and end of words^ there are some other rules to be
remembered which regulate the transition of dental ^n and ?E^� into lingual
^^1} and ^^sh in the body of words. Beginners should try to impress on
their memory these rules as far as they concern the change of the dental
nasal and sibilant into the Ungual nasal and sibilant in simple words : with
regard to compound nouns and verbs, the rules are very complicated and
capricious, and can only be learnt by long practice.

Change o/* ^ n into ^^ n.
� 96, The dental n�, followed by a vowel, or by ^n, n^m, ^y, and \v,
is, in the middle of a word, changed into the lingual n^n if it is preceded by
the Unguals ^li, ^f<, ^r, or J(sh. The influence of these letters on a
foUowing ^ n is not stopt by any vowel, by any guttural (n k, Wt kh,
^ffy ^gK **, %K *^), or by any labial ^;^p, HjpA, -^ft, ^bh, Hw, '^v\
or by \y^ intervening between the Unguals and the ^n, (Pftn. viii. 4, i ; 2.)
Ex. ^ + tft = ^^irf nri + nam = nfindm, gen. plur. of ^ fifi, man.
Ti�: Jtarna^, ear.
J^^ ddshanam, abuse.

Tj^vfimhanam, nourishing, (v A is guttural and preceded by Anusv&ra.)
^liiv arkena, by the sun, (^ k is guttural.)
JJdilOl ffjihndti, he takes, (v h is guttural.)
ft(t^ kshipnui, throwing, (^p is labial)
iff^ premnd, by love, {f^m is labial.)
irviv: brahmanya^, kind to Brahmans, (v A is guttural, i^m is labial,

and f^ n foUowed by i(y.)
fTpnn nishannai^, rested, (i^n is foUowed by ^^n, which is itself

afterwards changed to ^9.)
ir^^tl^ akshaiyvat, having eyes, (19 n is followed by ^t^.)
Tfiilm prdyenay generaUy, (i^y does not prevent the change.)
But ir^ archana, worship, (^cA is palatal.)

^v4^ arnavena, by the ocean, {^^n is Ungual.)

t[^ darianam, a system of philosophy, {n^i is palatal.)

w9^ ardhena, by half, {\dh is dental.)

TB^^ kurvanti, they do, (^� is foUowed by T^/.)

<IHI�|, rdmdn, the R&mas, (t^h is final.)

Note — ^^njn rugnah^ like "^WUR vrihutf^ (P&o* vi. i, i6), should be written with l(fi.
The "^g is no protection for the �^n. Thus ^^iCn aynt has to be especially mentioned as
an exception for net changing its •! � into ^ 9 in compounds, such as ^Rff^ iardgmiin
(P&9. Ga^ hshubhnddi.)



CHANGE OF l^n INTO ^^fi.


^ 97. The ^n of ^nt<, the sign of the Su conjugation, and the tl^n of
ifind, the sign of the Kri conjugation, are not changed into ^n in the two
verbs Ij^trip and ^jp^ kahubh (P&9. viii. 4, 39). Hence

igiilfir tfipnoti, he pleases *• ^Vlfif kshubhndti, he shakes.
But ^^^ihfir irinoti, he hears. ^^^9^[fh(pit8hndti, he nourishes.
^HPOr kshubhdna, imper. shake.

Table showing the Changes of\ii into K^n.


in spite of intervening


if there follow


Vowels, or





(including l| h and Anusv&ra),




(including \v)y



and n^y.



j 98. The changes here explained of t^^n in the middle of simple words,
(whether it belongs to a suffix or a termination,) are the most important to
remember. But f!^9� is likewise liable to be changed into ^9 when it
occurs in the second part of a compound the first part of which contains
one of the letters ^r�, ^T^, ^*'> or ^�A, and particularly after certain
prepositions. Here, however, the rules are much more uncertain, and we
must depend on the dictionary rather than on the grammar for the right
employment of the dental or lingual nasals. The following rules are the
most important :

I. The change of 'i^n into ^n does not take place unless the two members
of the compound are combined so as to express a single conception.
Hence imff bdrdhri, a leathern thong, + ^19 nasa, nose, gives wnfl^mn
bdrdhrinaaai, if it is the name of a certain animal ; according to Wilson,
of a goat with long ears ; according to others, of a rhinoceros, or a bird.
(UnMi-Sutras, ed. Aufrecht, s. v. P&n. viii. 4, 3.) But ^^ charman,
leather, + ^inf^Rir ndsikd, nose, gives ^^HlC^I^ charmandsika^, if it means
having a leathern nose. An important exception is nk^iH^sarvandman,
a technical term for pronouns, {^k sarva being the first in their list,)
which P&^ini himself employs with the dental '^n only. (P&^. i, i, 27,)
Other proper names not following the general rule, are f^Rpnn trinayanaJ^fy

W ^ — �

. * In the Veda we find ^v^(^ tripnuhi, Rv. ii. 16, 6 ; "^Jlir?; ffTpyaoo^, Rv. iii. 42, 2,
■ t The S&rasvati says i^ml ^, that the it is optionally changed when Trinayanaf^ is
a name. Hence f�^�iHn^ trinayanah or fiS|in�n trii^yanah. % St^* ?9*

-J 98. CHANGE OP 1^ n INTO T^n. 48

three-eyed, name of S'iva; Tljif^ raghunandanal^^ nlame of R&ma;
^jfJh^: svarbhdnui^ name of Rahu, &c.

Words to be remembered :
^RPlA: agranthy first, principal, from ini �S^�, front, and ^ nf, to lead.
Umrfh grdmanihy head borough, from jfm grdma, multitude, and ift ni^

to lead.
^?nn vritraffhnaitj Indra, killer of Vritra ; but ^|^ff^ vritrahanam, ace. of

^^fip^ m/raAan. (P&i?. viii. 4, la ; aa.)
f^lfV�f<ft or fMbsr^ girinadi or giriftadl^ mountain-stream.
VX!PJ[p(iTdhnam, aflemoon, from vjj pard^ over, and ^^[f^^ahan, daj; but
^^llln: sarvdhr^al^y the whole day, firom ?er% sarva, all, and mn^ ahan,
day ; and the same whenever the first word ends in % a. (P&9.VIII. 4, 7*) .
There are minute distinctions, according to which, for instance, iflnrnr
kshirapdnam if it means the drinking of milk, or a vessel for drinking
milk, ^: 'il(li.i|H; kamaahk kahtrapdnai,^ may be pronounced with dental
or lingual n{^n or ^9); but if it is the name of a tribe who live on milk,
it must be pronounced ^^tt^mn kshirapdnai, milk-drinking* (Pa^. viii.
4, 9 and 10.) In the same manner lipft^nf^ darbhavdhanam, a hay-
cart, is spelt with lingual mn; while in ordinary compounds, such as
l^j^eilffj indravdkanam, a vehicle belonging to Indra, the dental i^n
remains unchanged. (Pan. viii. 4, 8.)

2* In a compound consisting of more than two words the �r n of any one
word can only be affected by the word immediately preceding. Hence
Hm^l^m mdsha-vdpeiia, by sowing beans ; but im^Hcui^H indsha-kumbha-'
vdpena, by sowing from a bean-jar. (P&in. viii. 4, 38.)

3. In a compound the change of 9|[n into ^n does not take place if the first

word ends in itg,
Ex. ^^1^ + wnt = V^'''^ n* + ayanam = figayanam.
Some grammarians restrict this to proper names. (P&n. viii. 4, 3, 5.)
Or if it ends in \shy and the next is formed by a primary suffix with ^n.
Ex. ftf : 4- "V^ = Ph"iM nth -{-pdnam = nishpdnam.

^T^ + ^n^= Miju|l^�i y<yul^-{-pdvanam=iyajushpdvanam, (Paij. viii.

4. 35')

4. In compounds the �^ii of nouns ending in w n, and the tTn of case-termina-

tions, if followed by a vowel, are always liable to change,
d) ns^l iPm*)^ vriMvdpin, rice-sowing, may form the genitive irtf^^TpTO: vrU

hivdpinai^; but also lAf^^Tlf^ vrihivdpinai^.
lAf^mMlOo or inr^qiMir*! vrthwdpdfii or wihivdpdni, nom. plur. neut.
inrt.<^|i)iU or iftf^^n^ vrihivdpef^. ov^vribivdpena, instrum. sing.

G 2,

44 CHANGE OF J[^n INTO ^9 � 98*

Likewise feminines such as dir^^lfil'llfl or 'lfln|qirV|ff) vrthivdpini or vrihivdpint
(K&s.-Vritti viii. 4, ii,)
Note — ^The �^ii of secondary Buffixes^ attached to the end of compounds, is, under the
general conditions, always changed to 9^t>' Thus ^IfTV! kharapah (i.e. donkey-keeper)
becomes VSKM'I^HIt khdrapdyai^, the descendant of Kharapa. HIAHIjiIki; rndtfibhoginafL^
fit to be possessed by a mother, from TTV mdtfiy mother, and HtTt bhogait, ei^oyment, with
the a^jectiyal suffix ^Ina {samdsdnta), is always spelt with ^9. (See also � 98. 6.) Again,
while •i*l�i(�i�fl ffarpabhagini, the sister of Garga, always retiuns its dental �r n, being an
ordinary compound, Wt^^f^Wf gargabkagini would have the lingtial ^9, if it was derived
from �i�l�l�ii gargabhagafi, the share of Garga, with the adjectival suffix ^ in, fem.J^inif
enjoying the share of Garga. Words which afker they have been compounded take a new
suffix are treated in fact like single words (samdnapada), and therefore foUow the general
rule of � g6. (P&9. viii. 4, 3. Kfts'.-Vfitti vm. 4, 11, v&rt.)

5. If the second part of the compoimd is monosyllabic, then the change of

a final �^n followed by a terminational vowel, or of a terminational �^n,
is obligatory. (Pan, vm. 4, 12.)

Ex, ^[9^ vritrahafiy Vritra-killer ; gen. "n^??: vritrahanaJ^ ; but ^ttl]^
dirghdhnt (P&9. vm. 4, 7.)
^tnn surapahy drinking surd ; nom. plur. neut. ^iiMiOu surdpdni,
'^ftrHT. kshirapahi drinking milk ; instrum. sing. I^^l^ kshirapena.

6. If the second part of a compound contains a guttural, the change is obliga-i

tory, even though the second part be not monosyllabic. (P&i;i. viii. 4, 1 3.)
Ex. ^ft^iiif: harikdmahy loving Hari ; instrum. sing, l^fi.'aci^ harikdmena;
but ^iji|l04r�f agragdminu (Pa^. vm. 3, 92.)
^UMI^iliinr iushkagomayena^ instrum. sing, of 3JcapAinT iushkagomaya ;
(nvai iushka^ dry, ^f\pn gomaya^ dung.)

7. Likewise after prepositions which contain an T r, the 1^ � of primary

a�Sxes, such as VtT anaj ^qf^ ani^ infN aniya^ ^ in, ^ na (if preceded
by a vowel), and ITR mdna, is changed to ?!^ n, but under certain restric-
tions. (P&n. VIII. 4, 29.)
Ex. '^^^m pravapanam ; VMJPi pramdnam ; U\^H\^ prdpyamdnam.
While in these cases the change is pronounced obligatory, it is said to be
optional after causative verbs (P&9. vm. 4, 30), and aft;er verbs begin-
ning and ending in consonants with any vowel but ^ a (Pfin. vm.
4, 31); hence iPTnra and ^^ praydpanam Bud praydpanam ; irdw or ^if
prakopanam or prakqpanam. Again, after verbs beginning in a vowel
(not ^ a) and strengthening their bases by nasalization, the change
is necessary ; it is forbidden in other verbs, not beginning with vowels,
though they require nasalization : hence n + I^Tti = ^i^^pra + inganam =
prevganam ; but H 4- #W = rtr^ pra + kampanam = prakampanam*

^ 98. CHANGE OF \n INTO U^^n. 45

Lastly, there are several roots which defy all these rules, viz. htM^, )|iAt2,
j^ pHy Vf *am, 111^ gam, ^fT^pydy, ^ vep : hence WfR prabhdnam &c.,
never nvn^j^ra&Adnam; n^inr/'ravepanam, never T^mni pravepafjMm*

8. After prepositions containing an T r, such as wn^^antar, ftr^mV, ^nj^flro,
i|f^ j^ari, and Upra, and after ^^�r, the change of 9^n into ^n takes
place :

1. In most roots beginning with w n. (P&n. viii. 4, 14.)

II + ^Ifftr = nUFffir j^ra + namaii =pranamatiy he bows.

"iltT + ^^=Mil4j[^nf pard + nudati =:pardi(iudati, he pushes away.

^tm + VlfK = ila^iin i an^a^ + nayati = a^arnaya/t, he leads in.

H ^ ifpnc =: nrnnv: pra + ndyakah =praitdyakaii, a leader.
The roots which are liable to this change of their initial 1^ n are entered in
the Dhfttup4tha, the list of roots of native grammarians, as be^nning
with IB 9. Thus we should find the root Tf^inam entered as ip^^am,
simply in order thus to indicate its liabiUty to change.

2. In a few roots this change is optional if they are foUowed by Krit affixes^

viz. (P4n. VIII. 4, 33.)
fioftr niSy to kiss ; nftjftnr^ or iiftlfVlA^i pranvhsiiavyam or pranitimtavyam.
fiir^ nikah^ to kiss ; nftir^ or nfif^ pranikshanam or pramkahair^am.
ftrfllfniJ, to blame; irfto^ or nfthpf jvramnJanam or pranindanam,

3. In a few roots the initial �([ n resists all change, and these roots are entered

in the Dh4tup&tha as beginning with ^�, viz. (PA^. vi. i, 65, vart)

^ nrity to dance,
if^ nandy to rejoice.
t|^ nardj to howl.
in nakky to destroy.

im ndfy to fall down, (Chur *.)
ffr^ ndthf to ask.
ifV^ nddhy to beg.
ff nft^ to lead.

Ex. xfityllc^ parinartanam ; jfii^A^ paHrumdanam.

4. The root i^naiy to destroy, changes Tin into ^n only when its 91 i is

not changed to \8h. H + ^f5pn^ = vmp^pra + naiyate =praiui8yate ; but
H + in: = If^Wtpra + nashfai =prana8hfaJjk,destrojed. (Pfin. viii. 4, 36.)

5. In the root iTT an, to breathe, the ifn is changed to Ti^^n if the ^r is not

separated from the il� by more than one letter. Thus ii + ifftfftf =
UrAnfir pra + aniti = prdiiiti, he breathes ; but ^ + wfirfir = ^Aftrflr
pari + aniti = paryaniti (P&tanjali). The reduplicated aorist forms
mf^mif^prdninat ; the desiderative with X[KSpard is MunuOimfil pardrfi-
nishaii. (P&9. viii. 4^ 19, i^i.)

* It is not "H^fiaf, to dance, but If^nat of the Chur class, and hence written with a
long d. Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 41, note.

46 .CHANGE OF i^n INTO m^n. �99-

. 6. In the root j[9ihan, to kill, the i^n is changed except where wh has to
be changed to ^^A, (P&V. viii. 4, 22,) Thus n + ipi1^=r nf^qi^ j^ra +
hanyate = prahanyatej he is struck down ; ^hf^miT antarhaiyyate
(Pan. VIII. 4, 24) ; but n + iifir = TcHhi prd + ghnanti srpraghnanti^ they
kiU. Also nipQff jE^raAa^anaTTiy killing.
The change is optional again where ^n is followed by ^m or ^v. (P&n.
VIII. 4, 23.) Thus iVffiiT or 1i;f)l!R prahanmi or prahai^mi ; 9^^ or
Hf^ir: prahanvafk or prahai^Lval^,

7. The ^n of 7[ nt< of the Su and of ifT n<2 of the Kri conjugation is changed

to Uln in the verbs f^ At, to send, and ift mi, to destroy. (P&p. viii. 4, 15.)

Ex. Ilfiglffrdl prahinvanti ; Tpiftfif^ prami^nii.

8. The IT n of the termination Wlff^dni in the imperative is changeable. (P&n.

VIII. 4, 16.) Thus H 4- H^lftf = TW^rrftr pra + bhavani =prabhavdni.

9. The w n of the preposition f^ niy if preceded by upra, rtftpari, &c.,

is changed into m n before the verbs (P&n. viii. 4, 17) ^T^^arf, to speak,
TfF nady to shout, ^^paty to fall, ^/>a�?, to go, the verbs called ^ ffhu,
iTT^* md, to measure, ^me, to change, ift so, to destroy, ^Aan, to
kill, in yd, to go, ^ t?d, to blow, ^ drdy to flee or to sleep, vg\psdy to
eat, ^vap, to sow or to weave, ^t^aA, to bear, ^iam, to be tranquil
{dw)y f^ chiy to collect, ^ dihy to anoint.
The same change takes place even when the augment intervenes.
(Pan. VIII. 4, 17, v&rt.)
um^K^d pranyagadat ; 'UWU^^pranyanadat

^ 99. In all other verbs except those which follow n^ gady the change of
f^ni after uprOy vftpariy &c., is optional.

uftnr^fir or irfHnrvfir pranipachati or pranipachati.

Except again in verbs beginning with 11^ ka or 'Wi kha, or ending in i(^ sh
(P&9. VIII. 4, 18), in which the ii^n off^ni remains unchanged.

Wf^ndHf pranikaroti ; jfiHmX^ pranikhddati ; uPh Pm H(k pranipina8h(i.

* Where it seemed likely to be useful, the Sanskrit roots have been given with their
diacritical letters {anubandkas), but only in their DevanHgari form. P&nini in enumerating
the roots which change f�Tnt after J^pra, "^ftpari, &c., into ftf ni, mentions 1Tm<2, but this,
according to the commentaries, includes two roots, the root mWmd{n), which forms fii#flo
mimite, he measures, and the root ^^m€{n), which forms ^Vnmayate, he changes. Where
fn this grammar the transcribed form of a root differs from its Devan&gart original, the
additional letters may always be looked upon as diacritical marks employed by native
grammarians. Sometimes the class to which certain verbs belong has been indicated by
adding the first verb of that class in brackets. Thus iam {div) means ^dmyati, or hm
conjugated like div, and not idmayate.

-J lOO. CHANOB OP H* INTO \�h. 47

Change 0/^8 into wsh.

^ ICO* A dental ^s (chiefly of suf&xes and terminations *), if preceded
by any vowel except m, %n &, or by i| A:, ^ r, H 2, is always changed
into the lingual i^^A, provided it be followed by a vowel, or by 1^/, ^ th,
iljUy i^m^ i^y, or ^v; likewise by certain Taddliita suf&xes^ '^ka^ w^kalpa^
^f^pdia^ &c.

If an inserted Anusv&rat or the Visarga or nsh intervenes between the
vowel and the ^ �, the change into T^sh takes place nevertheless.

Ex. wf^sarpiSf inflectional base; ?rf9: sarpi^, nom. sing. neut. clarified
butter ; instrum. isf^mi sarpishd ; nom. plur. w(tf^ sarptmshi (here
the Anusvara intervenes) ; loc. plur. ^tf^^ sarpiiahu (here the
Visarga intervenes), or ?rf^ sarpUhshu (here the ^sh intervenes).

^TT^ vdkshUf loc. plur. of m^vdchy speech.

H^ipi^ + ^ = ^^^9^ 9<^ffrv(ii(ik + w = sarvaiakshuy omnipotent.

ffirfVvi^ (1^) + ^ = f^l?ffi9^ chitralikh (A) + m = chitralikshu, painter.

Tft^ gtrskUf loc. plur. otf^gir, speech.

WR^ + ^ = ^W^ kamal + m = kamalshu, naming the goddess Lakshmi.

lltiQirfk dhrokahyati, fut. of "Sf druh^ to hate ; (here ^ A is changed to
^ky and the aspiration thrown on the initial ^<f.)

if^V^ pokshyati, fut. of ^^ptuh^ to nourish ; (here '^^sh is changed
into ni^ k.)

Bf^ + ^ = ^rf^w: sarpii^ + kai = sarpishkait ; adj . formed by i| ka,
having clarified butter.

irt: + IPC = ^lf9fT5 sarpilj^ + taral^ = satpishfaraii ; (here the 1^ / of
ire tarah is changed into 7^, as in ^ 89^ III. 2.) If the penultimate
vowel be long^ no change takes place; ii\wXTJ gtstard. (Pftn. viii.
3> loi.)

irf^ 4- m = '^[f^i^nsarpil^ + mat = sarpishmat, having clarified butter.

* The ^� must not be a radical t^s: hence ^fl^ mjpMatf, because the ^� belongs ta
the root ftw^jpt*. (PA9.VHI. 3, 59.) Yet Hrf^J^ dHshati, firom root ^ll^iitfff. The rules
do not apply to final ^�j hence llf)�1%AA agnia tatra, (Pftn. viii. 3, 55.)

t The Anusy&ra must be what Sanskrit grammarians call num, it must not represent
a radical nasal; hence, even if we write 'jj^punuu, loc. plur. of ^i^pv^, man, Pada
base ^^punij it does not become '^pufh$hu. (Pki^. viii. 3, 58.) According to Bopp and
other European grammarians, who do not limit the Anusv&ra to the inserted Anusv&ra>
we should have to write either ifypufhshu, or, if we wish to preserve the ^�, ^^/ncn^*
According to PlL^ini, however, ^ puihsu is the right form. The S&rasvati prescribes

48 CHANGE OP ^� INTO ^ �A. � ^Ol-

Table showing the Changes o/* ^ s into i^ sh.

Any Vowels except W, wr^, change if there follow

(in spite of „ ^ Vowels, or

inserted Anusv&rajVisarga, or sibilant intervening,) 1^^, ^^^9

also T^f *, ^f, <^/ ^^ ^n, i^i�,

if immediately preceding, K*A ^y, ^V.

^ loi. The same rule produces the change of ^� into i|(^�A in roots
beginning with ^�, if reduplicated, provided the vowel of the redupUcated
syllable is not v, ^nTa: Ex. '^^g^svap, to sleep ; Redupl. Perf. "^bb^^ stiskvdpa,
I have slept f^ sidh, Des. ftlf^mrfir sishitsati. This rule is liable to

� I02. Again, many roots beginning with ^^s change it into ^�A afler
prepositions requiring such a change, viz. will ati^ over, w^ anu, after,
^iftl apiy upon, irfW abhi, towards, fVf ni, in, f^ nir, out, ^/lari, round,
Tffn prati, towards, ftr w, away: Ex. wfiT + ^if^= ^rMflfff abhi + stauH =
abhishtauiiy he praises. The same change takes place even aft;er the augment
has been added, in which case the ^ � is really preceded by an v a :
Ex. Wirrh^ abhyashfautf he praised. Some verbs, after these prepositions,
keep the i^ �A in the redupUcated perfect : Ex. ftn^ sich^ to sprinkle ;
niWrH^ni abhishinchatif he sprinkles ; 1i(h(Vi^^ abhishishecha, he has
sprinkled. In the intensive ftrv sich does not follow this rule ; hence
v(*ldr4l�|ii abhisesichyate (P&n. viii. 3, 112) ; but in the desiderative ^ � is
changed, vfHM^n(fir abhishishikshati* Many other cases must be learnt
from the dictionary or from Pfinini.

� 103. In order to give an idea of the minuteness of the rules as collected by native
grammarians, and of the complicated manner in which these rules are laid down, the fol-
lowing extracts from P&Qini have been subjoined, though they by no means exhaust the
subject according to the views of native grammarians. It need hardly be added that
beginners should not attempt to burden their memory with these rules, though a glance
at them may be useful by giving them an idea of the intricacies of Sanskrit grammar.

Native grammarians enumerate all monosyllabic verbs beginning with ^ $, and followed
by a vowel or by a dental consonant, (likewise f^Rf^ ami, to smile, ftff? svid^ to sweat,
9^ svad, to taste, ^N^ naflj^ to embrace, ^X^^nap, to sleep,) as if beginning with ^�A.
Thus they write f^ shidh, VT shthd, f^ shmi, (Pft?. vi. i, 64.)

This is not done with ^^�nP� to go, ^^srv, to let oflP, ^^'^•frt to cover, ^f'^^f/r** to
cover, ^styai, to sound, Bl|^�eik, to go, ^ sfi, to go, in order to show that their initial
^^8lB not liable to be changed into ^sh under any circumstances.

They then give the general rule that this initial ^sh is to be changed into ^ 8, in all
these verbs, except fW^jh^hiVf to spit, and ^^^shvashk', to go, (and according to some*
in 19 shfyai, S&r.,) unless where ^�A is enjoined a second time .

^� 103. CHANGE 0� ^^8 INTO ^sh. 49

Now ^^sh toT^^8m these verbs is ei^o'med a second time :

1. When a preposition, or whatever else precedes it, requires such permutation, according to

general rules, f^ + wOl = ftnnf)r in+stauti = vUhfauti. �^�eo forms fVlW sitheva
in the reduplicated perfect.

2. In desideratives, when the reduplicative sjllable contains ^or 7t or �. ftl^nc^A, Des.

f^DviMOl iishitsati.
But if the ^ � of the desiderative element must itself be changed to K �A, the initial V #

remains unchanged, f^^sidh, fV H f\| M fff iisedhUhati. (P&9. viii. 3, 61.)
Except in ^s/u, and in derivative verbs in W^aya, where ^� is changed to "^sh, ^ttu,

Des. 3f5^ Huhfitshatu f^S^iidh, Cans. �VI|fk sedhayati, Des. f^jR^ffV^fif tUhedha'

yishati; but ^^^^1 suMhati. (viii.3, 61.)
Except again, in certain causatives, in W^aya (viii. 3, 62), where '^^B is not changed into

^^9h, XW^ tvidy nrBu^nnun nwedayxshatu flTf �raa, i�faii^i�i<iin smddayuhatu

VKgah, f)l4ll{fVMni sisdhayishati.

3. In certain verbs, after prepositions which require such a change, even when they are

separated from the verb by the augment, viz. ^�tt (��), ^�tf (tud), ^ so (cftv), ^9tif{ad),
^l^stubh {hh4) ; or even if separated by reduplication, in the verbs WT sthdj ^X^^
$enaya,i^P^9idh,9fF^8ich, ^i^$afij,^l^^9oaHj,Wf sad, ^St^stambh, '^^^svan, �^s�v,
(the last only after ^(ft pari, ftf ni, fkvi: viii. 3, 65.)

After prepositions : V&|l|llAOl abhishuf^ti, ulifJ^Ol abhishuvatu w5nRfiT abhishyatu
^if^fmTjiarMA^att/t. 'Vffkjg^^ pariskfobhate. vf*lf I^Ql abhUhfhdsyati. ltmWfBPf(fk
abhishei^yati, vfi^Mfffparishedhati. H fW Oi^ Of abhishifichati. h P^^ �i Hi parishqfati,
Vfky^^i^ parishvajate (viii. 3, 65). f^T^t^fw nishidati, but vf)nfh(Ar pratiMati
(viii. 3, 66). irfilWlfif abAMAfa6Afi^/t (viii. 3, 67 and 1 14). Also W^VfVQ aoashfabhya
(viii. 3, 68, in certain senses), ft and H^mutfl vi and ovotAvaya/t (viii. 3, 69, in
the sense of eating). Mfut^ A parishevate.

After prepositions and augment : H M( jf|t fl a&Ay a<Ati^/. m9 J^ H jparyo^Atioa/. Wlini
abhyashyat. vAwtRparyashlaut, VMIf^Hfl abhyashfobhata, W^WTf{^abhy€uhfhdi,
H M| HIQ 4| II abhyashenayat, ^^(W^f^varyashedhat. W^^tft^niahhyashifichat, VlnK^Hf^
paryashajat, l|M|*^l|ff ahhyashvajata, VMIl^^fl abhyashidat. ^•*lf WTI^ abkya-
shfabhndt, VI U|'4U fl vya�Arana/ and V II U|IU |l oo^Avo^a/. h M 4 s n paryashevata .

After prepositions and reduplication (viii.3, 64): H fil il Vi abAi/ojA^Aau. timlftwftnrtif
abhishUhenayishati. wM^k^^f^ff^flK abhUhishedhayUhati, HlBlOlftmiOl a^AisAt-
ihikshati, ^VfkfMlVftr odAuAtsAanA^Aa/t and UMllWuJH^ a6Aya�At�AaffA�Aa<.
M(Xriu|||||| |7amAisAvanA�Aa/e. ftfftPfWfil nishishatsati (viii. 3, 118). ^ififlfW
abhitashfamhha, W^f^H^l^ avashashvdi^, VlfkjPn^ parishisheva, (the last only
after nftpori, ftf �•, ftf rt.)

4. Only after the prepositions Vlftpari, f^ni, ftvi, the following words (viii. 3, 70): the
part, ftnn sita^, the subst. Wit sayaft, ftr^�tp, ^saA; ^ Art (if with initial ^^s,
Vf skji) and similar verbs ; ^ �/�.
The words mentioned in 4. and ^h^soail; may optionally retain ^�, if the augment
intervenes, (viii. 3> 71.)


60 CHANGE OP ^* INTO \sh. � IO4-

5. After the prepositions W^ anu, f% vi, Vft pari, ^rfW abhi, ^ni, W^syand may take ^sh,

except when applied to living beings, (viii. 3, 73.)

6. After the prep, fkvi, "^^ti^skand may take ^sh, though not in the past participle in

ftta (viii. 3, 73), but after the prep. "^rfiCi^an, throughout, even in the past participle
(viii. 3, 74). ^rftmnn or Vft^S^ parishkannah or pariskannah.

7. After the prep, ftf^nir, ftf ni, f^T w, the verbs ^J'^spAtir and ^^e^sphul may take ^sh,

(viii. 3, 76.)

8. After the prep, ftf w, ^S^skambh must always take ^*A. (viii. 3, 77.)

9. The verb ^V^ as, after dropping its initial vowel, takes ^^sh after prepositions which

cause such a change, and after W^prddur, if the "^sh is followed by ^y or a vowel
(viii. 3, 87). ^(^^\Habhishydt, Tf\^'W:^^prdduhshydt, m Jt 40f prdduhshanti.

10. The verb VF^{svap, when changed to ^\*�p, takes ^sh, after ^ su, fllr*, ftl^mr, 5^<^��r

(viii. 3, 88). ^f9^ sushuptafk. ^^! dukshuptdh.
Exceptional cases, where ^� is used, and not \sh:

11. The verb ftr^WcA, followed by the intensive affix (viii. 3, 112). H (*l S ftl *M H abhisesi'


12. The verb ftn^^A, signifying to go (viii. 3, 1 13), ^Hl^ vOl parisedhaH.

13. The verb ^ sah, if changed to ^R^ sodh (viii. 3, 115). ^(Vlh^ parisodhvm.

14. The verbs W^stambh, f^^^siv, ^(W sah, in the reduplicated aorist (viii. 3, 116).

M 9l(l ^^IliparyasishahaL

15. The verb ^su, followed by the affixes of the ist future, the conditional, or the desidera-

tive (viii. 3, 117). V in ^*t ^ Pil abhisoshyati, Wfil^^ abhisusiilk.

16. The verbs Wl^sad, W^f^svailj, in the reduplicated perfect (viii. 3, 118). ^RfiWHT^

abhishasdda, ^vf^n^m abhishasvaje.

17. The verb T^^sad, optionally, if preceded by the augment (viii. 3, 119). •m�Ii<^i^ or

"^^nff^nyashidat or nyasidat,

� 104. There are many compounds in which the initial ^s of the second word is changed
to ^sh, if the first word ends in a vowel (except &). Ex. ^ i^i\ii^yudkish{hira, from'^^ yudhi,
in battle, and f^lKsthira, firm; ^5u�^Att,well; ^dushlhu, ill; ^^V(\ sushamd, beautiful,
ftlWt vishamalt, difficult, from ?Rt samah, even ; f^ST^^trishtubk, a metre ; ^r�TWWT agnU
shomau, Agni and Soma ; •iin-q^ mdtrishvasfi, mother's sister ; fM ij^^pitfishvasri, father's
sister; 'ftWJ goshthaft, cow-stable ; ViOhS^HI agnishfomah, a sacrifice ; sti^Pnel^i jyoti^
shtomah, a sacrifice, (here the final ^s of iHtfir^jyotis is dropt.) In g^^itii^ turdsdh, a
name of Indra, and similar compounds, ^� is changed to ^sh whenever ^ h becomes Zf;
nom. ^CF^f^^turdshdl : ace. Jii^l^ turdsdham, (P&n. viii. 3, 56!)

Change of Dental V dh into Lingual ^ dh.

� 105. The ^ dh of the second pers. plur. Atm. is changed to 7 ^ in the reduplicated

perfect, the aorist, and in ^Ufsh(dhvam of the benedictive, provided the ^^dh, or the ^shi

of ^fM shidkoam^ follows immediately an inflective root ending in any vowel but V, ^BTT a
(PAi[^. viii. 3, 78.)

Ex� ^ kfi; Perf. "^^j ehakfupive,
^chyu; Aor� ^Wl^ achyotfhvam,
^plu; Bened. ^ 4) ^ plosMdhvam,




But ft|1(^A�At/>; AoT, ^Kf^(^ akshibdhvam.
^Qf^yq;; Bened. V[Wfiy^yak$h(dhvam,
If the same termiDations are preceded by the intermediate ^ t, and the ^t be preceded by
1(y, l^r, c^ /, ^r, ^ A, the change is optional.

Ex. ^lu; Perf. ejc^f^d hduvidhve or <;}c!|ni} luluvufhve.

IJ lu; Aor. H^Ollt alavidhvam or HcftiV^ alavi^hvam.

^ lu; Bened. c^fV^iJ lavUhtdhvam or cftl^i^J lavishi^hvam.
But ^^6tM^A ; Aor. VlftfMiil dbodhidkoam.

Rules of Internal Sandhi,

� 106. The phonetic rules contained in the preceding paragraphs (^ 32—94)
apply, as has been stated, to the final and initial letters of words {padaa)^
when brought into immediate contact with each other in a sentence, to the
final and initial letters of words formed into compounds, and to the final
letters of nominal bases before the Pada-terminations, and before certain
secondary or Taddhita sufiixes, beginning with any consonant except 11 y.

There is another class of phonetic rules applicable to the final letters of
nominal {prdtipadika) and verbal bases (dhdtu) before the other terminations
of declension and conjugation, before primary or K|it suffixes, and before
secondary or Taddhita suffixes, beginning with a vowel or ^y. Some of
these rules are general, and deserve to be remembered. But in many cases
they either agree with the rules of External Sandhi^ or are themselves hable
to such numerous exceptions that it is far easier to learn the words or
grammatical forms themselves, as we do in Greek and Latin, than to- try to
master the rules according to which they are formed or supposed to be

The following are a few of the phonetic rules of what may be called
Internal Sandhi. The student will find it useful to glance at them, without
endeavouring, however, to impress them on his memory. After he has
learnt that f\g^ dvishy to hate, forms |tf^ dveshmi, I hate, itftv dvekshi, thou
hatest, itflf dveskfi, he hates, wi:Zadve(, he hated, %ft dvi^i^h Hate ! fk? dvif,
a hater, f^^ dtnshafk, of a hater, f|r^ dvi(su, among haters, — ^he will refer
back with advantage to the rules, more or less general, which regulate the
change of final ^M into wk, Zf, J^d, &c. ; but he will never learn his
declensions and conjugations properly, if, instead of acquiring first the
paradigms as they are, he endeavours to construct each form by itseli^
according to the phonetic rules laid down in the following paragraphs.

I. Final Vowels,

� 107. No hiatus is tolerated in the middle of Sanskrit words. Words such as
H^'i praiiga, fore-yoke, Pfln^ titaii, sieve, are isolated exceptions. The hiatus in com-
pounds, such as ^I^XW^pura-itd, going in front, �pnrfte nama-nktih, saying of praise, which

H 2


is produced hj the elision of a final ^� before certain vowels, has been treated of under the
head of External Sandhi. (� 84. 2.)

� 108. Final V a and WT d coalesce with following vowels according to the general
rules of Sandhi.

^ + ^rftr tuda + ami = fl ^1 Rl tuddmi, I beat.

^ + ^ tuda'\'i=z'J^ tude, I beat, Atm.

^Tf + ^ citf�a-f-i=15[Tn ddne, in the gift.

^fPf + "^ cMna+felfR dtfne, the two gifts.

If we admit the same set of terminations after bases ending in consonants and in short
V a, it becomes necessary to lay down some rules requiring final V a to be dropt before
certain vowels. Thus if W^am is put down as the general termination of the ace. sing., as
in '^T^vdch-am, it is necessary to enjoin the omission of final Va of f^ ^va before the
^ am of the ace. sing., in order to arrive at f^ �vam. In the same manner, if ^ am is
put down as the termination of the i. p. sing. impf. Par., and ^ e as that of the i. p. sing,
pres. Atm., we can form regularly ITbh advesh-am and fv^ dviske; but we have to lay
down a new rule, according to which the final V a of ^ tuda is dropt, in order to arrive at
the correct forms ^V^ atud{a)-am and ^ tud(a)e. By following the system adopted in this
grammar of giving two sets of terminations, and thus enabling the student to arrive at the
actual forms of declension and conjugation by a merely mechanical combination of base
and termination, it is possible to dispense with a number of these phonetic rules.

Again, in the declension of bases ending in radical WT d, certain phonetic rules had to
be laid down, according to which the final W d had to be elided before certain terminations
beginning with vowels. Thus the dative ^"^111? + ^ iankhadhmd+e was said to form
^RM Sankhadhme, (to the sheU-blower,) by dropping the final WT d, and not ^^ITIh iaii-
khadhmai. Here, too, the same result is obtained by admitting two bases for this as for
many other nouns, and assigning the weak base, in which the WTd \b dropt, to all the
so-called Bha cases, the cases which Bopp calls the weakest cases (P&n. vi. 4, 140). Each
of these systems has its advantages and defects, and the most practical plan is, no doubt,
to leam the paradigms by heart without asking any questions as to the manner in which
the base and the terminations were originally combined or glued together.

� 109. With regard to verbal bases ending in long W d, many special rules have to be
observed, according to which final WI<f is either elided, or changed to ^1 or to ^e.
These rules will be given in the chapter on Conjugation. Thus

JTT 4- ^■Hw pund-{- anti = Jn fn punanti, they cleanse.
JfT + m pund'\'mafL= jWl^ti punimah, we cleanse.
^ + f^ rf^H- Ai=^fl5 dehi. Give !

� no. Fmal ^�, %i, ^u, "^Stf, ^p, if followed by vowels or diphthongs, are generally
changed to ^y, ^ 1?, ^ r.

Ex. irfif + ^ ^ IW ma/t'H- ai=:matyai, to the mind.

ftffir + ^ = flBfTj: jt^'-ftiA==yt9yttA, they have conquered.
HT5 + Wh ^ >m�n; bhdnu-\-ohr=bhdnvoli, of the two splendours.
fln[ + ^UX=:f^mi pitri+d^zpitrd, by the father.
fwft + irfw = ftrwrfk hibhi^ ati = hibhyati, they fear.


In some cases ^t and ^^ are changed to l^iyj 7tt and '94 to T^�9; ^n to ftrij ^f^
to ^tr and, after labials, to 1^ �r.

Ex. f^jftr + W^ = f^RfftPr^ ^Uri+athult=ziUriyathuft, you (two) have gone*
>ft + X= fiift hM'\-i=:bhiyi, in fear.
^ + ^bHw = ^^fw yif+an/t=yitoan^t, thej join.
^ + ^ = 355* ytty�4" w^=y*yttwAi they have joined.
^ + ^ = ^3^ sushu-^e^sushuve, I have brought forth.
^J^+ ^= ^fil &M+t=6A�vt, on earth.
^ + Wn ^ Wfn ffifi+a^�:= mriyate, he dies.
'I + ^iflr := ftltfif ^+ fl*� = ffirati, he swallows.
^+ ^ = M^lVpflpr^+fssjpoptiri, liberal.

When either the one or the other takes place must be learnt from paradigms and front
special rules given under the heads of Declension and Conjugation. See ftpmfk Inhkyati
from W^ hhi, but fflf^pAfjihriyaH firom |rt hri,

�111. Final ^r^, if followed by terminational consonants, is changed to ^ Ir ; and after
labials to "Ql^tfr.

\ffr^9 to shout; Passive 'AW gir-yate: Part. '^fAlgin^.
\pri, to fiU; Passive '^^Im pHr-yate s Part '^B^*p4n^,

Before the "^y of the Passive, Intensive, and Benedictive, final ^t and 7� are lengthened,
final ^ r� changed to ftrt, final ^ fl to 1^ fr or Ti^ 4r, (See f 390.)

$ 1 1 a. ^ e, % at, Wt o, ^ ati, before vowels and diphthongs, are generally changed into

^■n^^flyt ^■nn^y, ^B^flw, ^n^4�.

^ + ^IW= ^^ de-^-ate^dayate, he protects.
^ 4- ^ = TW rat+�= rdye, to wealth.
m + ^^ ^ ^o+e=:^at>e, to the cow.
^ + W = ^n^ nau-^-afis^ndvalk, the ships.

Roots terminated by a radical diphthong (except ^vye in redupl. perf., P&9. vi. i, 46)
change it into WT d before any affix except those of the so-called special tenses. (Plli^. vi. i , 45.)

^ + TIT = ^ynn de+td=:ddtd, he will protect.
^ + ^rhr = ^T^ftll de-^-siya = ddsfya, May I protect !
y + TIT = irnn tnlai'\-td^^ fMtd, he will wither.
Ifft + TIT = TfmiT io+td=z^dtdy he will pare.
But in the Present ^ + ^lflr= ^fOTflf gUn+aHszgldyati, he is weary.

2. ^na/ Consonants.

^113. The rules according to which the consonants which can occur at
the end of a word are restricted to ii^ A:, T^ i^ ^ f^ ^ ?i T^/, ;^ n, ^p, 1^ m, c^ /,
: i^, * m, must likewise be observed where the last letter of a nominal or
verbal base becomes final, i. e. where it is not followed bj any derivative
letter or syllable.

Thus the nominal base "^^yudh, battle, would in the vocative singular be


^ yudh. Here, however, the 1^ dh must be changed into ^ d, because no
aspirate is tolerated as a final {� 54. i) ; and ^d is changed into if^t, because
no word can end in a soft consonant (^ 54. 2). ^u^vdch, speech, in the voc.
sing, would change its ^ch into vA:, because palatals can never be final

{� 54- 3)-

In w^ft^ adhokf instead of imftf adoh, the aspiration of the final is thrown

back on the initial wd (^ 118). The final i^A or ^gh, after losing its
aspiration, becomes t^^, which is ftirther changed to ^^A:.

^ 1 14. Nominal or verbal bases ending in consonants and followed hj
terminations consisting of a single consonant, drop the termination altogether,
two consonants not being tolerated at the end of a word (^ 55). The final
consonants of the base are then treated like other final consonants.
TfT^ + ^= ^T^ vdch + � = vdky speech ; nom. sing,

lrt^+^=:Hr^ /wdncA +*=jwdn, eastern; nom. sing. masc. Here Wi|
prdiik^ which remains after the dropping of ^�, is, according to the
same rule, reduced again to X^^prdiiy the final nasal remaining guttural,
because it would have been guttural if the final v k had remained.
*9^^l ''^ ^^ '^^^suvalg + � = 9uvaly well jumping. Here, afi;er the dropping
of ^�, there would remain ^7^ suvalk; but as no word can end in
two consonants, this is reduced to ^MM 9uval. Before the Pada-
terminations "^^^^suvalg assumes its Pada form ^in9 ^vva/ {^ 5^\
hence instrum. plur. ^^foU: suvalbhil^,
^in[ir + ^= ^Vl^ ahan + � = ahan, thou killedst ; 2. p. sing. impf. Pto.
lil|^+ � = ^a^Z adveah + / = adveff he hated ; 3. p. sing. impf. Par.
m^ + 1^= ^mt^ adoh + / = adhok, he milked ; 3. p. sing. impf. Par.

Exceptions will be seen imder the heads of Declension and Conjugation.

^115. With regard to the changes of the final consonants of nominal
and verbal bases, before terminations, the general rule is,

1. Terminations beginning with sonant letters, require a sonant letter at the

end of the nominal or verbal base.

2. Terminations beginning with surd letters, require a surd letter at the end

of the nominal or verbal base.

3. In this general rule the terminations beginning with vowels^ semivowels,

or nasals are excluded, i. e. thej produce no change in the final cori'-
sonant of the base.

1. T^+ fW = ^rf^ vach + dhi = vagdhi, Speak ! 2. p. sing. imp. Par.

1JW + i^ = Tmk prich + dhve ^prigdhve, you mix ; 2. p. plur. pres. Atm.

2. ire + ftr = ilfl^ ad + si = aisi, 2. p. sing. pres. thou eatest.
^ + fw = ^iftl ad + ti = atti, 3, p. sing. pres. he eats.


3- H'fU^+^sir^fif marut +i = maruti, loc. sing, in the wind.
^^+ ftl = ^fPf vach + mi = vachmi^ I speak*
in^+ in^ = jfofk grath + yate ^grathyate, it is arranged.

Exceptions such as fi|^ + ^ = finn AAW + nah = bhinnaJ^, divided, H^'+ in =
*pnn JAo; + nai^ = bhagnah, broken, must be learnt by practice rather than
by rule.

^ ii6. Aspirates^ if followed by terminations beginning with any letter
(except vowels and semivowels and nasals), lose their aspiration. (^ 54. i.)

Ex. inir^+fir = *nfftr mdmath + ti = mdmattif 3. p. sing. pres. Par. of the
intensive ^pnn^mdmath, he shakes much.
%W + d = %^ rundh + dhve = runddhve, 2. p. plur. pres. Atm. of

Ip^rudhf you impede.
cl^+ ^ = H^ labh + sye = lapsye^ I shall take.
But ^+ ^='5ftT yudh + iz^yudhiy loc. sing, in battle.
c5t>^+'i:=cAwK lobh ■^yai^ = hbhyal^y to be desired*
tp^ + Trfw = "^[Vlfif kshubh + ndti = kshubhndti^ he agitates.
It is a general rule that two aspirates can never meet in ordinaiy Sanskrit.

� 117. Iffinall^^A, ^^,^JA,)^&A are followed by 1^/ or "^M, they are changed to the
corresponding soft letters, 7^^, \4i \^y ^^> but the Ht and "^/A are likewise softened, and
the ^d receives the aspiration. See also � 128.

Ex. ^^9V + fir = ^lirQr rui^h'\-ti = runaddhi, he obstructs.

([^ + in = nv: lahh-^toA = labdhaft, taken.

^^+ ^ = %VS rundh-^-thah^irunddhali (also spelt ^Vt rundhafi), you two obstruct.

^^+ in = %in rundh-^taft^rrunddhah, they two obstruct.

^^I^+lT = ^'iW abdndh'\'tam=z abdnddham, 2, p. dual aor. i. Par. you two bound.

Vlh^+ ^l = '�i4�it abandh-i-thdhzrzabanddhdhf 2, p. sing. aor. i. Atm. thou
In ^nwfv abdnddham, 2. p. dual aor. i. Par., the aspiration of final ^^dh is not thrown back
upon the initial ^b, because it is supposed to be absorbed by the ntam of the termination,
changed into ^dham. The same applies to V^JIl ahanddhdh, though here the termination
^in thdlt was aspirated in itself.

� 1 18. If ^gh^ ^ 4K ^<^A, H6A, V hy at the end of a syllable, lose their aspiration either
as final or as being followed by VStdhv (not by fW dhi), ^bh, ^^8, they throw their aspiration
back upon the initial letters, provided these letters be no other than ^^, V ^, Vcf, ^b.
See � 93.

Ex. Inflective base ^frtM^A, to know; nom. sing. ^1^6Aii/, knowing,
lustrum, plur. ^Dh bhudbhi^,
Loc. plur. ^7^ bhutsu.

Second pers. plur. aor. Atm. ^^^ abhuddhvam.
Second pers. sing. pres. Intens. 'frfh^ + fff = ^•Jlfwi bobodh-^-si^bobhotsi.


Desiderative of ^>^dabh, fimrfir dhipsati, he wishes to hurt.

First pers. sing. fut. of '4^+^inf^=^tiQrTftr bandh-^sydmizszbhanttydmiy I shall

^ dahy to bum ; y^dhak^ nom. sing, a burner.
^ duhy to milk ; V^J49 adhugdhvam, 2, p. plur. impf. Atm. : but 2. p. sing. imp. Par.

jf^ dugdki.

Note — l^dadlh the reduplicated base ot^dkd, ^^fffi^dadhdmi, I place, throws the lost
aspiration of the final ^dk back on the initial ^d, not only before V3(dho, ^�, but likewise
before l(t and l^M, where we might have expected the application of � 1 17. ^ + 115 = VWJ
dadh-\'taik=:dhattah; ^ + ^=VW dWA+f*a^=rfAa�A^i^; ^4-% = VT^da<?*-f�e=
dhatse; T^ + V| = >|^ dadh + dhvam = dhaddhvam,

� 1 19. If ^chf ^Jj ^jh are final, or followed by a termination beginning with any letter,
except vowels, semivowels, or nasals, they are changed to V it or ^T^.
Ex. Nominal base ^'^vdch; voc. ^T^r<^, speech.

Verbal base ^^vach; 3. p. sing. pres. ^^+ flr = ^^ftR�ocA-f h*=rfl*/f.
gW + fil = ^JfHl yufLj-\'dhi=zyunffdhif 2. p. sing. imp. Join !
But loc. sing, ^n^ + ^= inf^ vdch-^iz^vdehi.

in^ + ^ = ^IHR vdch-^-ya = vdchya, to be spoken.
T^ + Ht = 4 VIZ vach-^mali = vachmah, we speak.
T^+ ^ ^ ^W vacA+f 0^= vacAroA, we two speak. (See also � 124.)

f 120. "^^A at the end of nominal and verbal bases, if it becomes the final of a word, is
changed into ^ f .
Ex. Nominal base f^^(l9�A; nom. sing, fif^dvif, a hater.

Verbal base i)n(,cfoi�A; 3. p. sing. impf. Par. Vl^ advef, he hated.

� 121. Before verbal terminations beginning with ^s, it is treated like ^ k,
Ex. ItY + ftr = a (V| doesh-^n = dvekshi, thou hatest; hor, '^tf^^^fladmkshat, he hated.
^it^ftfpokshyati (posh-^gyati), he will nourish.

� 122. Before H^t or \th it remains unchanged itself, but changes 1^/ and \th into ^f
and ^fA.

Ex. fl|^+ TK = ftrt (tewA+^fl^ssrfpwAfoA, they (two) hate.

^ffn + 1R= �(hv�i iarpish'{-tamam=:8arpishlamam, the best clarified butter.
This rule admits of a more general application, namely, that every dental l(t, ^th, ^ d, \dhy
^11, and ^�, is changed into the corresponding lingual, if preceded by ^f, ^fA, ^^ ^^�
l(jp, and \$h, (P&9. viii. 4, 41.)

Ex. fin + f^ = f^Uft dmd-\-dhi=: dm44hi, hate thou.

^ + w = ^ lli+ ^tf = iffc, he praises.

1|^+ ^ = ^mt �Aizf +ntffn= sAan^tdm, of six.

yS+ n^lm^ M^^QlS �Aa/+fi<*t'<i^=<^?9<n^<i^4> ninety-six. (Pft^. viii. 4, 42,


� 123. Before other consonantal terminations ^sh is treated like Zf,
Ex. fn + i9 = f)n^ c{oMA+(IAvafR = cfeict^oam, 2. p. plur. imp. Atm. Hate ye
f)n + ^ := finrS dvish+su = dvifsu, loc. plur. among haters.


Exceptions to this rvle, such as Y^^^^T^^i noiii.^|^(2Aftib, and to other rules will be seen
under the heads of Declension and Coi^ugation.

� 134. In the roots Wt^^bhr4f, to shine, ^JW^mfij, to wipe, ^VV yaj, to sacrifice, Hl^^r^, to
shine, '^j^sfij, to let forth, and ^il^^bhrqJU, to roast {^S^bkrasf, P&p. viii. 2,36), the final
^J is replaced hj ^�A, which, in the cases enumerated above, is liable to the same changes
as an original ^sh. Thus

in 4- If = ^ miij-^-tha^^mrishtha, you wipe.

rn^ + ^ = ^1^^ rdj-^-su^zrdfsu. HUi^+ ii = 'WmiJ ayaf-^-dhvamsszoyail^hvam,

� 125. Most verbal and nominal bases ending in 1^^, ^ chh, ^ksh, VicA (some in
nij.� 134) ftK treated exactly like those ending in simple ^M.
Ex. Nominal base ftl^vi/; nom. ftr^vtf, a man of the third caste.

Fut. ^9^ + ^Vrfk = %^ITfll vei-{-sydm^=ivek8hydmi, I shall enter.
Put. periphr. ^1^ + VT = ^VT ve^-^-td^sveshtd^ he will enter.

f^n^ + VI = f^V^ vU'{-dkvttm=:vi4iP^am, enter you.
Loc. plur. f^n^ "^ ^ ^ ^Vi ^+^ = ^'^f Among men.
Nominal base T(t^prdchh ; nom. 1|T7jirif, an asker.

Verbal base Jf^^prachh: X(^ + mrf^ =^ HVfllOl praekk-\-9ydmi:s^pr€Lk9hydmt I shall
ir^ + HT = VfT praehh+td^prathfd, he will ask.
HTV + ^ = VX^prdchk-^su ^prdlsu, among askers.
Nominal base IfWtaksh; JH^^ "^ ^ ^ ''^^ taksh-^iu^iafsu, among carpenters.
Nominal base X^^rakshj 'Tta^ + ^ = 'ftt^ goraksh-^-tM^s.gora^tu, among cow-
Verbal base ^^^ehaksh; WB^+ % = ^^ chaksh-^-Kzi^chakBhe, thou seest.
^V + li^ = ^^ chaksh'\'dhve^=.eha44hvei you see.
HV vro/cA, to cut; nom. sing. ^vpf.

ira + ^9IT6v =s IIUIMIOi vr(Ueh'\'ayd!m^=:vrak8hydmi^ I shall cut.
IfW + TfT = KWl vraich+td^vrashfd, he will cut.

� 126. The H^i of fllfS^cft/, to show, '^ dfis, to see, ^Jl^�pr*'� *<> touch, if final, or
followed by Pada-terminations, is changed into "^ k,
Ex. Nominal base flpl^ dU; nom. sing. fip| (2i4: ; instrum. plur. fljfhi: digbhijj^ ; loc.
plur. f^[^ dtifc^Att.
^S^dftf/ nom. sing. "JUr rfft*** instrum. plur. ^0*i: drigbhili.
In the root ^noi, the change of l^i into ^ * or ^f is optional (Pi^. viii. 2, 63). For
further particulars see Declension and Conjugation.

� 127. ^ A at the end of verbal bases, if followed by a termination beginning with ^f,
is treated like ^gh, i. e. like a guttural with an inherent aspiration, which aspiraetion may
be thrown forward on the initial letter.
Ex. ra� + ^9IT6v = c^VfUOl leh+9ydmi=z lekshydmi, I shall lick.
<((Vf + ^9IT6v = ^it^^nfif doh+sydmi^dhokshydm, I shall milk.

� 128. In all other cases, whether at the end of a word or followed by terminations, ^h
is treated either (i) like '^^gh in most words beginning with ^d (PA?, viii. 2, 32), and in
Tfim^ ushifih ; or (2) like ^ ^A in all other words.


68 IlfTERNAL SANDHI. � 129-

Ez. (i) ^duh; nom. ^^dhuk; instrum. plur. vfi^dhugbh^; loc. plur. ^|l| d&uXrMtt �•
part. pass. ^'Vt dugdhah.
^n + in = T7t diih+taft = djri^hafk, fast, is an exception.
Ex. (a) fc5^ Uhj nom. "ftlT /if ; instrum. plur. ft^fkl lufbhifi; loc. plur. ft^^ Kf��

fty^ + in = cATt Hh-\'taft=:li4hah.
^W + in = 155t ruA-f eo^ = r4fha(k.

In cATt ZlbZfta^ and C7t riidha^, ^"^^ ^+' are changed to ^ + ^ ^+^9 or, more
correctly, to ^J4-^^ (� n?); then the first ^^is dropt and the vowel lengthened.
The only vowel which is not lengthened is ^ p j e. g. ^ + IT = ^ vfM-f /a=: vrtcfta.

The vowel of ^T^ sah and ^ raA is changed into ^ o (Plln. vi. 3, 1 12), unless
SamprasArai;ia is required, as in the part. '9fSl 44ha^. (P^P* vi. i, 15.)

� lap. The final � A of certain roots (TF c/ruA, ^ m�A, ^^ snuh, fw^ snik) is treated
either as ^gh or 7 ^. From ^7 druA, to hate, we have in compounds the nom. sing,
"ira dhruk and ^ dhruf (Pkiy, viii. a, 33) ; past participle 7*^ drugdkah or "ni drii^aft.

� 130. The final 7 A of �T? iiaA, to bind, is treated as ^ dh,

Ex. 9m�i^ updnah, slipper; nom. sing. WHl^Eupdnat; instrum. plur. ll'MMi||� upd-
Past part. pass. �T^ + IH = �nr naA+/aA=fsa€2tMa^, bound.
As to ^f*TR ano4uh, ox, &c., see Declension.

� 131. The ^� of the nominal bases VBC^^dhvas, fiEdling, and Q^�ra�, tearing, if final
or followed by Pada-terminations, and the ^ � of ^1^ rot, the termination of the part,
perf. Par., before Pada-terminations only, is changed to 1^/ (P&9* viii. a, 72). See, how-
ever, � 173, 204.

Ex. V|^ dhxxu^ to fall ; nom. sing. y/(^dhvat^ nom. plur. URR dhvasalt, instrum. plur.
ttriks dhvadbhi^.
� 132. Verbal bases ending in ^�, change it to 1^/, before terminations of the general
tenses beginning with ^ s. (PII9. vii. 49 49.)

Ex. 7^t7(w, to dwell; fut. ^ + 1WTftT= HWiifti vas-^-tydmi^^vatsydmi.
Before other terminations beginning with ^�, final ^^s remains unchanged.

^re[ + ^ ^ ^Vw vos+M = raM0, thou dwellest.

1^ + fff = ^rfin #(u+n = fOMt, thou sleepest.

f�H^ + W s: fifw nimi-\'S€^zniAis8e, thou kissest.

HH^ + ftf = Msft^ pepe$ 4- si ^pepeshshi, thou hurtest. ( � 1 00. )
In certain verbs final ^s is dropt before f^ dhi of the imperative.

^n^ 4- flf = ^prftf ^-{-dhi = iddhi. (PA^. vi. 4, 35.)

^nr^ 4- "ftf = ^rvrftl ckakds-^dht = chakddhi.

In the same verbs final ^<, if immediately followed by the termination of the second person,
^�, may be changed to HJ or remain ^^8,

^9^[f^^+'^^^^(^H^or^r^• aid8+8=zaidt or aidh.
Before the II / of the third person, it always becomes Itt,

W5n^ + H^= W^nH aid8'\-t=zaM, (PAi[^. viii. 2, 73, 74.)


Final II /, V d, V ofA before the '^s of the and pen. sing. Imperf. Par. may be regularly repre-
sented by II / or by ^�; H^H^ave/ or ^l%� avehy thoti knewest; ITi^lQII aru^a/ or ^T^Hn arw^,
thou preventedst. (P&9. viii. 2, 75.)

� 133. �Tn and '^m at the end of a nominal or verbal base, befrae sibilants (but not
before the ^nt of the loc. plur.), are changed to Anusvftra.

Ex. til Ml H Hi jighdAuati, he wishes to kill, from ITtf Aon.
^AMIn hramsyate, he will step, from '^l^kram.

But ^iV[�^ suhifuu, among good strikers^ from ^i^*^ wAtn, Pada base of ^%.^ tuhifhs.
If �( n were changed to Anusvlira, we should have to write ^f^f^fuAsffwAfi.

� 134. ^n remains unchanged before semivowels.

Ex. f^Vn hanyate^ he is killed, from l|l^Aaii. IK^f^^tanvan, extending, from IT^tan.
H^^A prenvanam ♦, propelling, f^m Ip^inv.

� i^� ^ff^ remains unchanged before the semivowels l^y, 1[ r, c^ /.
Ex. �si*�fi kdm-yah, to be loved, i^m IRI ibom.

Vnt tdmram^ copper, from IHI tarn and suffix T^ra.
WJgl amlcihi sour, from ^PT am and suffix 79 la.

� 136. l^m at the end of a nominal or verbal base, if no suffix follows, or if followed by
a Pada-termination, or by personal terminations beginning with IVm or ^v, is changed into
5^�. (Pi^. VIII, 2, 65.)

Ex. Tf^lX^praidn, nom. sing., and H^nf^ praidnbhih, instrum. plur., JX^gJ^praidnsu^
loc. plur., from JK^pl^^praidm, quieting. (P&];i. viii. a, 64.)
1|J|W| aganma, we went, and VT5^ aganva, we two went, from Jn^ + l^aro+mfl,
Tfl^ + ^ gam-^va.

But nom. plur. H^ii�ii praddmah,

J 137. With regard to nasals, the general rule is that in the body of a
word the firsts, the seconds^ the thirds, and the fourths of each class can
only be preceded by their own fifths, though in writing the dot may be
used as a general substitute. (^ 8.)

Ex. VRdin^ or Wl^^ diankaie or diamkate^ he fears.

lll^rt^^^H. or n i rriilfir dlHigati or dlimgatiy he embraces.

^rairf^ or ^W^ vanchayati or vafhchayati^ he cheats.

Tnm^ or 7l4l37^ utkanthate or uikamthate, he longs.

if^ or JV^ ganium or gathtumy to go.

Hi^n^ or wiik kampate or kampate, he trembles.
In compounds, such as ^ + ?S^: sum + kalpait, it is optional to change
final IT m, standing at the end of a Pada, into the fifth or into real Anusv&ra ;
hence ;r?I9: or ^r|^ samkalpah or sankalpaJj^, (See � 77.)

* If the 5^n before ^r were treated as Anusv&ra, the second 5^n would have to be
changed into a lingual (� 96). P&n. viii. 4, a, v&rt.

I 2


{ I38� In the body of a word, Anusv&ra is the only nasal that can stand
before the sibilants 9^i, i^M, ^^Sy and v h.

Ex. ^^ damianam, biting. '^■Tsff^ yaj4msh%^ the prayers.
1|^: hamsai^, goose, tl^ ramhate, he goes.

� 139. �^fi following immediately after ^ch or IT J is changed to ^ iS.
Ex. MIgi ydchfld, prayer. TT^ r^^i, queen. ^^jajHe^ he was bom.

� 140. ^chh in the middle of a word between vowels or diphthongs
must be changed to ^ chchh, (See $91.)

Ex. ^^^ fichhy to go ; ^Itarfir fichchhatif he goes.
jr^: tnlechchAaljk, a barbarian.

� 141. "^ehh before a suffix beginning with ^n or <f m is changed to 9^s.

Ex. WIJ + •! = IW; prachh-^na^prtUnafk, question.

HiH^ + 1H=Hiii ^n pdprachh + mi ^zpdprahni, I ask frequently.
Before ^ v this change is optional.

� 142. Roots ending in l^y and ^o throw off their final letters before terminations
beginning with consonants, except ^ y,

Ex. "^+ n: rrr^w: pHy-^-tdfi^ip^tdfiy decaying.
5^4- •!! = TpDt fttrp+naj= /tfr^, killed,
fijftf^ + ^fl^^ fljf^^n'^�KcK�4-�4n = didivdn, having played.

� 143. Roots ending in ^o and ^r, if preceded by !^� or 7u, lengthen their ^� and 7�,
if ^v or'^r is followed immediately by a terminational consonant. (P&n. viii. 2, 77.) See
No. 92, W^ tvar.

Ex. 1^(2x0, to play, ^1^1 Hi ^vyati, he plays. Bened. l(\^K(ri div-ydsam,
^^r, to exerts ^ffUgiln^.
Wfri (i. e. ftl^^'tr), to grow old, ^4Vn jiryati,
f^ffir, voice; instrum. plur. 'ftrnJ girhhih, loc. plur. 'ftg^r�Ati.

There are exceptions. (Pfti;i. viii. 2, 79.)

'^ibur, to sound. Bened. ^^4^1 kurydsam.

On a similar principle 7tt is leugthened in 5^+ WRt = ij^iii turv-^-dvah^riUirvdvah.
(PA9. VIII. 2, 78.)

� 144. Nominal and verbal bases ending in ^tr and 7^�r lengthen !^t and 7fi, when
^r becomes final after the loss of another final consonant. (Pftn. viii. 2, 76.)

Ex. f^ + ^= 'ft^ or 'rtt^ir+tfsr^rfr or gik^ nom. sing, voice.

� 145. Nominal bases ending in 1^�< or '9^�5 (the 1[((�9 or ^S^tu being radical)
lengthen \% and 7tt when final, and before terminations beginning with H&A or ^^$.

Loc. plur. ^^^ + 9 ^ ^1^*^ gupis'\-8u = tupfhshu ; nom. sing. masc. and neut.
Nom. sing. masc. tiqt^ + ^=^r^ 8ajus-^$=isaji!hj nom. sing. neut. ^B[i|* <af4J^.



Doubling of Cbnsonants,

$ 146. According to some grammarians any consonant exceptor and Wh, followed bj
another consonant and preceded by a vowel^ may be doubled; likewise any consonant
preceded by ^ r or V A, these letters being themselves preceded by a vowel. As no practical
object is obtfuned by this practice, it is best, with S^&kalya, to discontinue it throughout.

In our editions doubling takes place most frequently where any consonant, except the
sibilants and f A, is preceded by ^r or V A, these being agun preceded by a vowel. Thus

^rip arka, sim, is frequently written wil arkka,
l[WP{^brahman may be written lfWfR{brakmman,

If an aspirated consonant has to be doubled, the first loses its aspiration. Thus ^V^ or
Ain vardhana or varddhana, increase.

� 147. A sibilant after ^r must not be doubled, unless it is followed by a consonant.
Thus it is always, ^Av varshdlii rainy season; Vl^l^S ddaridh (PriLt. 387), mirror. But we
may write either ^^4n or ^^^nndar^ate or dariiyate, it is shown.

Explanation of some Qrammatical Terms used by Native Qrammarians.

^ 148, Some of the technical terms used by native grammarians have proved
so useful that they have found ready admittance into our own grammatical
terminology. Quna and Vfiddhi are terms adopted by comparative gramma-
rians in the absence of any classical words to mark the exact changes of
vowels comprehended under these words by Panini and others. Most
Sanskrit grammars have besides sanctioned the use of such terms as
Parasmaipada, Atmanepada, Taipurusha, Bahuvrihiy Karmadhdraya^ Ejit,
Taddhita, Unddiy and many more. Nothing can be more perfect than the
grammatical terminology of P&nini ; but as it was contrived for his own
peculiar system of grammar, it is difficult to adopt part of it without at the
same time adopting the whole of his system. A few remarks, however, on
some of P&nini's grammatical terms may be useful.

All words without exception, or according to some grammarians with
very few exceptions, are derived from roots or dhdtus. These roots
have been collected in what are called Dhdtupdfhas, root-recitals, the most
important of which is ascribed by tradition to P&nini*.

From these dhdtus or roots are derived by means otpratyayas or suffixes^
not only all kinds of verbs, but all substantives and adjectives, and according
to some, even all pronouns and particles. Thus firom the root ii^ man^ to
think, we have not only W^ man-u-te^ he thinks, but likewise iff^ man-as^
mind, ilT�f^ mdnas-a, mental, &c. Words thus formed, but without as yet
any case-terminations attached to them, are called Prdtipadika, nominal
bases. Thus from the root ^^an, to beget, we have the prdtipadika or

* Siddh&nta-Kaumudif ed. TaranlLtha, vol. 11. p. i.


nominal base 'sr^fjan-a, man^ and this by the addition of the sign of the
nom. sing, becomes ys^mjan-a-Jj^^ a man*

Suffixes for the formation of nouns are of two kinds :

1. Those by which nouns are derived direct from roots ; Primary Suffixes.

2. Those by which nouns are derived from other nouns ; Secondary Suffixes.

The former are called JSH/, the latter Taddhita. Thus ^r^Jana^ man, is
derived from the root ^^^Jan by the Krit suffix V a; but ^(^f^janinay
appropriate for man, is derived from ^nfjana by the Taddhita suffix ^ (na.
The name prdtipadika would apply both to "^^jana and ^(^dm janina^ as
nominal bases, ready to receive the terminations of declension.

The Krit suffixes are subdivided into three classes :
I. Krity properly so called, i.e. suffixes by which nouns can be regularly
formed from roots with certain more or less definite meanings. Thus
by means of the suffix w^ athuy Sanskrit grammarians form
^iT^ vepathu^ trembling, from ^rcp, to tremble.
Tg^I^ Svayathu, swelling, from ftgi ivi^ to swell.
T^f^ kshavathUt sneezing, from '^ kshu^ to sneeze.
?j^ davath% vexation, from 5 rf�, to vex, to bum.

%. Kritya, certain suffixes, such as jr^ tavya, ^Hfhr aniya, il ya^ ^fi^ elima^
which may be treated as declinable verbal terminations. Thus from
^ Arar, to do, is formed ^K^ kartavya^ ^ITTHQ^ karai^iyUf wA kdrya,
what is to be done, faciendum.

3. Uiiddi^ suffixes used in the formation of noims which to native gramma-

rians seemed more or less irregular, either in form or meaning. Thus
from 'i^vasy to dwell, both '^[^vastu, a thing, and '^j^vdsiu, a house.

The Taddhita suffixes are no further subdivided, but the feminine suffixes
(atripratyaya) are sometimes treated as a separate class.

A root, followed by a suffix (pratyaya), whether Kfit or Taddhita, is
raised to the dignity of a base {prdtipadika)^ and finally becomes a real
word (pada) when it is finished by receiving a case-termination (vibhakti).

Every base, with regard to the suffix which is attached to it, is called
Anga, body. For technical purposes, however, new distinctions have been
introduced by Sanskrit grammarians, according to which, in certain declen-
sions, a base is only called Anga before the terminations of the nom. and
ace. sing., nom. and ace. dual, and nom. plur. of masc. and fem. nouns ;
besides the nom. and ace. plur. of neuters. The vocative generally follows
the nominative. These Aftga cases together are called the Sarvandmasthdna.
Bopp calls them the Strong Cases.

Before terminations beginning with consonants (likewise before Taddhitas


beginning with any consonant except ity) the base is called Pada, the
same term which, as we saw before, was used to signify a noun, with a case-
termination attached to it. The rules of Sandhi before these terminations
are in the main the same as at the end of words.

Before the remaining terminations which begin with vowels (likewise
before Taddhitas beginning with vowels and i^y) the base is called Bha.
Bopp calls the Pada and Bha cases together the Weak Cases ; and when it
is necessary to distinguish, he calls the Pada the Middle and the Bha the
Weakest Oases.

Nouns, whether substantives, adjectives, or pronouns, are declined through
three numbers with seven or, if we include the vocative, eight cases. A case-
termination is called ^^i? or f^^i(f%vibhakti, lit. division.

Verbs are conjugated through the active and passive voices, and some
through a middle voice also^ in ten moods and tenses, with three persons and
three numbers. A personal termination is called fir^ tiii or fH^irf^vibhakti.

A declined noim ajs well as a conjugated verb, ending in a vibhakti, is
called Pada.

Particles are comprehended under the name of Nipdia, hterally what falls
into a sentence, what takes its place before or after other words.

All particles are indeclinable {avyaya).

Particles are,
I. Those beginning with ^ cAa, and, i. e. a list of words consisting of

conjunctions, adverbs, inteijections, collected by native grammarians.
%. Those beginning with V pra^ before, i. e. a list of prepositions collected
in the same manner by native grammariaus.

When the prepositions beginning with j(pra govern a substantive^ they
are called Karmapravachaniya. When they are joined to a root, they are
called Upasarga or Oati. The name of Qati is also given to a class of
adverbs which enter into close combination with verbs. Ex. ^nft 4ri in
^lO^ Urikfityaj assenting ; ?rn^ khdt in W(�pn khdtkfitya, having made
khdtf i. e. the sound produced by clearing the throat.

64 DECLENSION. � 149-



^ 149. Sanskrit nouns have three genders^ Masculine^ Femininey and
Neuter ; three numbers, Singular^ Dual� and Plural ; and eight cases.
Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Locative,
and Vocative.

Note — ^There are a few nouns which are indeclinable in Sanskrit : ^T^ war, heaven ;
Unrm ^y^� ^� ' ^^Tl *fl^�'� ycar> (of Vikram&ditya*s era) ; ^R svayam, self;' wBf sdmi,
half; ^ bMrf atmosphere ; ^|f^ sudi, the light fortnight, and wf^ badi, the dark fortnight,
the usual abbreviations for l^j|IMII|! hiklapakshatL and f WHT^ hrishiiiapdkshahj or Vjc^MV|�
bahulapaksha^f (Warren, K&lasankalita, p. 361.) According to Ridhak&nta, ^flfsiMft is used
in the West only.

Some nouns are pluralia tantum, used in the plural only ; ^fO� ddrdh, plur. masc. wife ;
Vim dpa^ plur. fem. water; ^l%n varshdh, plur. fem. the rainy season, i.e. the rains;
f^mrn nkatdt^i plur. fem. sand ; 4ic4l� hdhvMk, the Pleiades.

^ 150. Sanskrit nouns may be divided into two classes :
I. Those that have bases ending in consonants.
7,. Those that have bases endii^ in vowels.

' I. Bases ending in Consonants.

^151. Nominal bases may end in all consonants except V9I, s^^, ^y.
The final letters of the inflective bases of nouns, being either final or brought
in contact with the initial letters of the terminations, are subject to some
of the phonetic rules explained above.

^ 152. Bases ending in consonants receive the following terminations :

Terminations for Masculines and Feminines.

Singular. Dual. Plural.

Nom. 1^ s (which is always drop t) \^au 1 IK a*

Ace. mam J J

Instr. Wtd 1 f^.bhii^

Dat. Tffe y^bhydm I ^' ,

AbL ^a* J 1****^'**

Gen. irt ttij 1 ^ dm

Loc. ^ t J * ' -> 1 **�

Voc. like Nom., except bases in ;^n and ^^s iS^au ^ iK a-/l

Neuters have no termination in the Nom., Ace, and Voc. singular (Pada

They take ^Hn the Nom., Ace, and Voc. dual (Bha cases).

They take ^ t in the Nom., Ace, and Yoc. plural, and insert a nasal
before the final consonant of the inflective base (Anga cases). This nasal is

-� 154-



determined by the consonant which follows it; hence ^li before gutturals, ^H
before palatals, Hf^n before Unguals, ^^n before dentals, f{m before labials^ Anu-
SY&ra before sibilants and ^ A. Neuters ending in a nasal or a semivowel do
not insert the nasal in the plural. (See S&rasv. i. 8, 5; Colebrooke, p. 83.)
� ^53' Bases ending in consonants are divided again into two classes :

1. Unchangeable bases.

2. Changeable bases.

Nouns of the first class have the same base before all terminations, this base
being liable to such changes only as are required by the rules of Sandhi.
Noims of the second class have two or three bases, according as they are
followed by certain terminations.
Thus from im^pratyach, Nom. Dual XffiA pratyaHch-au ; base wj^pra-
tyanch, (Anga.)
Instnxm. PluT. ififri^. pratyaff'bhii^ ; ha^e im^pratyach. (Pada.)
Qen. Dnsl vjif^. pratich-oi^ ; hsae jnHl^pratlch. (Bha.)

I, Unchangeable Bases.
Paradigm of a regular Noun with unchangeable Base.
� 154. Bases ending in ^^n and c^ / are not liable to any phonetic changes
before the terminations, except that in the Nom. Sing, the ^* of the termi-
nation is dropt (see � 114; 55) ; and that in the Loc. Plmr. a ^ t *��y ^
^inserted after the final v n.

Base ^^jfm^sugdny a ready reckoner, masc. fem. neut (fi-om ^ �i, well, and
root im^gan^ to count.) (Accent, P&n. vi. i, 169.)



^M4Ui sugdi^'d
^�I4U sugdn-e

^"TOt sugdn-aft

L. ^�i(Vi suffd^'i
V. ^T^nt^ra^


N. A.V. ^n^ sugdf^ t












'^^Wi'^ sugdn-bhydm






^'1^ sugdi^'i

r ^'Wli sugdi^-ah

r ^tllW sugdi^'bhyafi

^VROf sugdn'dm


^�iRu sugdn-i.

* Or ^^ sugd^if-su, � 74.

t As the accent in the vocative is always on the first syllable, it should be remembered,
once for all, that wherever the nom. ace. and voc. are given together, the vocative is under-
stood to have its proper accent on the first syllable. The vocative of the neuter sugai^
would therefore be, not sugdn, but sdgai^.




� ^55- Bajses ending in gutturals, ^ k, Wfkh, n g^ ^gh.
These bases require no special rules.

Base ^if^ aarvc^dky omnipotent, masc. fern. neut. (from ^ sarva^ all^
and root ^|(n^ iak^ to be able.)



N.V. ll4^SPV<aroa^

A. 4lqy4i sarvaidkam

I. ^9^141 sarvaidkd

D. flq^l^ sarvaidke

Ab.l •

r IR^niS sarvaidkaji

L. ^rf^lf^ sarvaidki


MA8C. FESf .

41^9^ sarvaMkau



jAw^ ^arvaidghhydm I -�-�-. ,^^^^ri.,^x

f tiw^l* •*!• sarvaiagoliyci^

IR^nvt sarvaddkdm
^^9^ sarvaidkshu *

4ll)l4l* sarvaidkofi



41^9140 sarvaSi



N. A.V. ^^9fl|^ sarvaSdh

AU regular nouns ending in ^^, ^kh, i\^g, ^gh, ^ t> ^ fh, ^^4, ^ 4h,

\^9 ^^A� ^rf, ^rfA, '^^p, "^ph, ^*, ^bh, may be declined after the model
of ^rt^ aarvaidk.

� 156. Base ending in?^M. fNei Tc^^ chitralikh, painter, (from f^chitra,
picture, and root ftS^^likh, to paint.)







N.V. (Vlfffc^tt chitralikf 1 n_ r "^ 1 ^ ^

I. n^�r<o�i chitralikhd | l^l^fcTf^

D, f^^(fl^ chitralikhe r^^^<^'^chitraligbhydm^ ^




ftWftjftf cMtrali




ftwftwft ckitri


Note— In the paradigms of regular nouns with unchangeable consonantal bases it will
be sufficient to remember the Nom. Sing., Norn. Plur., Instr. Plur., Loc. Plur., and Nom.

♦ On the change of ^ w after ^ifc, see � 100.
t ^k instead of l^AA, see � 113; 54. i.

-� i5�.



Plur. Neut. The Ace. Instr. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Sing., Norn. Ace. Voo. Gen. Loc. Dnal^
Ace. Gen. Flur., follow the Nom. Plur. The Instr. Dat. Abl. Dual, Dat. Abl. Flur., follow ^
the Instr. Plur. The Vocative is the same aa the Nominative.

� 157. Regular nouns to be declined like irtlRf MrtHi^a^.




l^ftH^Aan/, green
m. f. n.

vPhH^ agnimath, fire
m. f. n.


-kindling wfr^WT^^


^ agnimadbkih




' agnimatka

t agfUmatsuX agnimantki

^KffiAfuf, friendly
m. f . n.






^(iM^A, knowing
m. f. n.





^J^^l?, guardian
m. f. n.





V^H Aoitf^A, region






^ 158. Bases ending in palatals^ "^ch, ^ chhy l^j, l|jA.
Bases ending in ^cA change ^cA into 11 i, or n^, except when followed
by a termination beginning with a vowel.

Base ifc^^ja/amticA, masc. cloud (water-dropping).



N.V. fra^iatemn*

A. ^<^H^ jalamttckam

I. lldy^l jaUxmuckd

D. V|<4IJ^ jalamucke

\ W^^^^* Jalamuckatk
G. J

L. i|eM|fV| jalamueki



>■ Wc9y^


1c�I5'*mI jalamugbkydm


r fc9g^




9|c4^^1 jalamueki


N. A.V� ^raj^jatemu*

Decline like n^^^^^^jalamuch^ — ^^n^v4cA, fem,
skin; ^rew:A, fern, light; ^�mcA, fem. ladle.



lfT9^^ jalamuckaji
ifcS^f^ jalamugbkifi
lTc9^pn^ jalamugbkya^

HRfPJ^ jalamuckdm


bf c5^r^ jalamuHcki

speech ; W^ tvach, fem,

* t^M final changed into H^f. See � 113; 54. i
t See � 66. % See � 54. i.

K 7,

Final ^� dropt, � 55.
II See � 118.

68 DBCLBNSIOK. � 159-

� 159* Special bases in ^eh,


^P"^ kruHck*, moving crookedly, ^^ g�^fi?S "^P^ ^W (Accent, P&ni. vi. i, 182)

a curlew kriih krunbhifi kriinkshu kruHcha^

1fff^pr<2f(cA, if it means worship- W^ HI^Rrt W^ llfw: (Accent, P&n.vi. 1,182)

ping prdn prdhbhii^ prdnkshu prdHchah (Ace. the same)

^p^Vft/cAf, cutting VS ^[7^ 7^ Y''* ('^*^<'�'**> ^^•'^'* '> ^^^)

� 160. Bases ending in ^chh change V ehh into 91/, which becomes ^ f, when final, and
before consonants. (See � 125; 174. 6: P&n. vi. 4, 19.)


VX^prdchh, an asker T[^prdl JfX^^prdSah VX^^^prdibhCh in^pr^^ jfif^prd^^i

� 161. Bases endipg in l^j, if regular, follow the example of nouns in ^cA, except that
they preserve ^j before vowels.


^^ rttj, disease IJf *ttA: ^^Ht rujajk <5fhi: rughhif^ ^^ rukshu %ftf ruHji

^S^ 4ri, strength ^1^ ilrk |) ^S^ ^rjdh ^rf^A: drghhifi ^90^ ^rib�&� ^rf^ iirji

Other regular nouns in 9^j, — ^i^PTvattv, m. merchant; ^^IW^hhishajy m. physician;
^U^^^ftft^', m. priest; ?9nf <ra;, f. garland; ITfif a�ft;, n. blood. (On the optional forms
of v�i^flupj, see � 214.) WSS(majjy Nom. Sing. T^ mak, diving.

� 162. Bases ending in II j changeable to ^ ^.

Some bases ending in IVy change 9^j into ^f or ^ ^ when final, and before terminations
beginning with consonants.

* Derived from the root ^l^ArttHcA. The Nom. Sing, would have been jP^ + l^triMi*
+�y 1^� and ^k are dropt, see � 114.

t Derived from the root TC^vraich, (in the Dh&tup&tha, ^Vt^^^> to cut. According
to Sanskrit grammarians, the penultimate l^s or SI /is dropt, and ^cA before consonants
or if final changed into ^ ^ (See � 1 14.)

X The form ^fTpf (i^ot Tl^vraf) is confirmed by Siddh&nta-Kaumudt (1863), vol. i.
p. 182,

.|| On the two final consonants, see � 55. The Nom. Plur. Neut. would be ^iW ikji
or ^^Hihrji. At the end of compounds the optional forms are ^rfntfrjf or �(^ HHiji,
The latter form is confirmed by Colebrooke, the Siddh&nta-Kaumudt, vol. i. p. 194,
and the Prakriyi-Kaumudt. The Prakriyft-Kaumudt (p. 44 a) says : ^rf^T I '^ vj^Qi

5lrf^i ^|fiS g^^rfir^ i ^^ff^ fBiftr i wnm^ ' �|fMTtfiil< i i \ wffit i (P&n.vn. i,

72, viLrt.)

-� i63-



Base ^^i^samr^, masc* sovereign.

Singular. Dual,

masc. fkm. ma8c. fbm.

N.V. MHU samrdf ") ^ ^ 1

\ > ti^i�ii samrajau >

A. 41^191 samr^fam J J



I. TWIT samrd^d

D. 4IW^ samrdje

b. 1
- J


* HH\^*m 9amrd4bhydm


L. mrrftf samrd^

H^lini samrdjc^

Hm^Ri: samrdtfbhi^
HH\^^ samrdi/bhyafL

HHm\ Mimrdjdm

^H\\^ samrdftu or 4IM 1^1^ samrdftsu *

The words which follow this declension are mostly nouns derived, without any sufi^,
from the roots WT ^^r^' (S^^^^ ^^^ ^n^)f ^ shine; ^fmfij, to dean; 1|l^y^/ (except
^fi^i^W/rt;), to sacrifice; m^r^^, to shine, to rule; '^l^^rv, to dismiss, to create,
QEf^^srqj, wreath, and V|i^<Mr*y, blood, are not derived from ^'^sni); OTI^6Arcjj;, to
roast (^Smi). Also vfi^ft^^parwrdj, a mendicant.






Hitiii^ vibhrdj, resplen-










q%H(ieo<?;J, worshipper





of the gods





t^^^i^^viivasjfij, creator





of the universe





M (Vsii ^parivrdj, a men-









' parivrd(9u

0|HI<I�^ vihar^iW, an





universal monarch





'^f^bhfijj, roasting









� 163. Irregular bases







I. lh^*A��<yir, lame

Wlkhdn ^

iNn khdnjaiL Wf^ khanbhih '

in^ AAanfu

♦ Cf. � 76.

t From another root, l%�if^ vibhrdk, (ViMiOh! vibhrdgbhih &c. may be formed. (Siddh.-
Kaum. vol. i. p. 165.)

X From ^ (i^a, god, and ^(^ yaj, to sacrifice, contracted into ^1^ y .
II The lengthening of the W a in f%^ viiva takes place whenever ^J is changed into
a lingual. (P&p. vi. 3, 128.)

IT See Siddh.-Kaum. ed. T4ran&tha, vol. i. p. 165.



� 164-

2. vm^ra avaydj, name of a Vedic priest, has two bases. The Nom. Sing, is W^IIT* waydhk,
and all the cases beginning with consonants (Pada cases) are formed from the same
base^ ^V^^q^ avayas. The Voc. Sing., too, is irregular, being, agunst the rule of
these bases, identical with the Nom. Sing. Some grammarians, however, allow
% ^S[WV* he avayaji.
Base ^S^^^^avayas and VHITl^aoay^^.

Singular. Dual. Plural.




N. V^llll avaydf^
A. Ti�|44in avay^jam
I. ^Rnrnn aoaydjd
D. ^RTTW avaydje

Ab. "I

L. ^nTtftf avaydji

l ^^Mi�Jt avaydjau I V^^N* avay^ah

V^4tRlS avayobhifi

' ^^rits^ avayobhydm 1 ■% , , .. .

V WWWJ avayobhyaik

> ^SMi�n* avaydjofi
like Nom.

WWVP^ avayafLSu
like Nom.

V. WTHTJ avaydj or UWJ avaya^

� 164. Bases ending in ^ r.

Bases ending in ^ r are regular, only ^ t and v u, preceding the ^ r, are
lengthened, if the ^r is final or followed by a consonant {� 144). In the
Loc. Plur. the final ^r remains unchanged though followed by ^�A. {� 90.)
Base ffl^ffir, fern, voice.







N.V. �ft:^^

A. f^t.g<ram

* flro girai.

I. fhrjsfird


vfifil: ^r&Ai?^

D. mtgiri
Ab. 1^
G. J

L. fhft^w

* ''ft^ girbhydn

. i/t^ girbhyd^

f^fXri girdm

Base ^Ttvar, neut. water.






N.A.V. ^•r^i

^TRJ v^*

^rft rirt

I. ^ITO rW

w3t vdrbhydm

^IWt vdrbhQii &c.





Jf^pwr, f. town

^1m/J ^tTprfraJ

^ ;7^6A� ^p^s&t^

n^ dvdr, f. door

it: ife^ VTC dodraik


dvdrbhtli Wl^ dvdrshd

f^f^ ibfr, m. f. n. scattering

^ Jb/A fVt; KroA


HrbMI^ ^ ib^Mi^t

* According to P&n. vi. i, 168, vdri would have the accent on the first, while hrtdit
according to P&igi.vi. i, 171, would have it on the second syllable, because the Nom. and
Ace. Dual in the neuter are not Tritty&di, but are Asarvan&masthlLna.

t Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 125.

-� 1^5.



^ 165. Bases in ^#. r,

(A.) Bases formed by the suffixes ^V^6W^ ^^9 ^tt'.
Bases ending in ^� change the ^^8 according to the general euphonic
rules explained above. Thus

^V^o^^ if finaly becomes IR ai^. (^ 83.)

ir^a� followed by terminations beginning with vowels remains unchanged.

1^ and '9^^is and us followed by terminations beginning with vowels are

changed to l[i^ and 911^ ish and u$h� (See � 100.)
W^^as before v^bh becomes ^0 ($ S4. 3) ; l^is and W^^us before ^M

become ^ir and ^tfr. {� 82.)
W^^as before ^ 9U becomes ir^ as or IKI afk; ^is and ^ t^ before ^ su

become ^ish or ^ ii^, T^ush or T* ui^.
Besides these general rules, the following special rules should be observed :

1. Nouns formed by the suffix w^^as lengthen their w a in the Nom. Sing.

masc. and fem.^ but not in the Vocative. Thus Nom. Sing, m* f.
^pnfr: sumandtiy well-minded (fi/i^v^s) ; Yoc. ^ir: sumanab.

2. Nouns formed by the suffixes ^ or Tl^ w or �� do not lengthen their

vowel in the Nom. Sing. masc. and fem. Hence Nom. Sing. m. f.
^9i|Vir* sujyotii^f having good light, from ^ su, good, and l^tfin jyoii^y
n. light ; ^[^nB|: suchakshuft^ having good eyes, from ^ su, good, and
^: chakshui^f n. eye. (P&^. v. 4, 133, com.)

3. Neuter nouns in ^f^^as, '^is, T^tw, lengthen their vowel and nasalize

it in the Nom. Ace. Voc. Flur. From wm mana(L,^^^mandthsi; from
"^^tfinjyoiii^, '^i^tfff^Jyotimshi ; from 't^ chakshuf^, Wf^chaksMmshi.

Base ^iiH4^ sumdnas, well-minded, masc. fern. neut. (from ^ su and
^H^^mdnas, neut. mind.)



N. ^�i�ni mrndndfi

A. ^�infi sumdnasam

I. ^•in^i nmdnasd

D. ^Tvf^ sumdnase

Ab. 1

f^�in�* sumdnasafi
G. J

L. ^TvTfrr sumdnasi

V, '^'R* sttmanaft


N. A.V. ^'HIJ raimfna^






^•fnl^nl sumdnobhydm

^nn^i tumdnasolt

^TvpEu sdmanasau


^•mtfl sumdnasi




^|ipf^ sumdnasa^
^ffftftl! swndnobhi
^nm^� swndnobhi

^HAHI sumdwudm
^H�i^� sdmanasah


^^nrfftr wmdndrhsi

The rest like the masc. and fem.




Base ^nftfir^ sujyotis^ well-lighted, masc. fern. neut. (from ^ su and
l^f^h(^^Jyotis, neut, light.)







N.V. ^9ifHlTt 8ujy6Hh

A. ^THiin^ sujy6tisham

I. yW^Oim sujydtishd

D. ^^Ol^ tujydtiske

Ab. 1 ^^

G. J

L. ^nftflrft sujy^Hshi

[ filfHirA sujy6tishau > ^SUftf^T. sujydtishah

f ^ilftflmt 8ujy6t%rbhya^
^sinOmi sujydHsJUbn

^^ Or ATT sujydtirbhydm

f ^^tftPdift: sujydtishoh





N.A.y. ^ilftfln Mvy<dtA ^ilftflmft <i9y<^/M&^

The rest like the masc. and fern.

^HI^J l TOl $i^y6ti^JU

Decline after the model of ^iHT^ ^umamitf and ^iijtfll^ stffyotis the
following bases :

^V^ vedhas, Nom. sing, ^vn vedhd^j m. wise. ^c;[^ chandramas, N. s.
^f;[i!n cAait^Jramai^ m. moon. K^hi^ /7racA�/a�, N. s. jAkV. prachetdi,^ m.,
Nom. prop, of a lawgiver. fi^^fNn^ divauka$, N. s. fii[^^ divaukdi^ m.
a deity, ft^m^ t;iA<2ya�y N. s. fn^pn: vihdydi^ m. bird, mr^l^ apaaraSy N. s.
mn: apaardhf f. a nymph. 'vfN^ mahaiyaSy N. s. in^WK mahaujdiy
m. f. n. very mighty. ^nR[ pay as, N. s. inn payal^, n. milk. ^HT^ aya*,
N. s* inn ayai^y n. iron. in^ yaias^ N. s. iT^ yaiai, n. praise, ^ftr^ AavM,
N. 8. ^[fin Aari A^ n. oblation, wf^ archis, N. s. irf$: archif^, n. splendour.
IVT^ dyu�9 N. s. inj: 4ytt/l, n. life, age. ^^ vapus, N. s. ^ t^opu^,
n. body*.

� i66. ^TSJard, old age, may be declined throughout reg^ularly as a feminine. (See � 238.)
There is, however, another base Wtl^jaras, equally feminine t� and equally regular, escept
that it is defective in all cases the terminations of which begin with consonants.

* Any of these neuter nouns may assume masc. and fem. terminations at the end of a
compound ; �TV^f%S nashfahamhy Nom. sing. masc. one whose oblation is destroyed.

t Boehtlingk (Declination im Sanskrit, p. 125) gave Ifi^'ara*, rightly as feminine; in
the dictionary, though oxytone, it is by mistake put down as neuter.

-$ ifi;.



Base ^(^jard.


N. ^mjard^

A. Wfijardm

I. "fStrm^jardyd

D. mjMjardycd

Ab. ^ncnmyariiy^

G. irCT^i: yar^y^
L. mmljardydm
V. ^jdre


N.A.y. iftyar/
I.D.Ab. "^CTJ^ jardbhydm
G.L. IRlftjyarrfyoA


N.v. ^ro:jWA

A. "iltn jarah
I. IfTTfiTtyartfAAiA
D. Ab. '^(KW* jardbhyah
G. Hirnof jar^n^fm

Base "f^lT^jaras.


deest; term. ^�
^Kfii jards-am
M^^^i jards-aft
�i<tii jards-ahk


deest ; term. )^ bhydm


deest ; term, f^t &&iA
deest ; term. >i^: bhyah
'^fft^i jards-dm
deest ; term. ^ su


� 167. In compositions, besides tbe regular forms from '^^ jard, viz* fn jO nirjardh,
fvTTO nirjardt f^HR nirjaram, (ageless,) grammarians allow tbe base in ^ 5 to be used
l>efore all terminations beginning with vowels f-



A. r�i9|i fUrjaram at
I. HiiMU nirjarer^ or
D. fn ^ 4^1 M nirjardya or
Ab. xn^Kxnnirjardt or
G. ftr^tW nirjarasya or
Li. 1*1 �ii. mxjare or


MASC. FElf .


T �!nW nirjarasam

ftm^FT nifjarasd (Hi^iftlH 1

TnnOT nirjarase

■ftrnHK nirjarasah (f^fTnWTI^i

ftnron nirjarasafjk (ftnitS^

frnro^ nirjarasi


'*' The declension of '^(K^jard, as a regular fem. in VT<^, is given Here by anticipation
for tbe sake of comparison with the defective ^O^jards*

t By a pedantic adherence to the Siitras of P&igiini some monstrous forms (included in
brackets) have been deduced by certain native grammarians, but deservedly reprobated by
others. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. r. pp. 103, 141.)

X The declension of ftf^fc nirjardh, as a regular masc. in W ({^ is given by anticipation
for the sake of comparison with the defective 'f�r^X^nti7ara�*


Dual. Dual.

N. A.V. ftf^U nifjarau or ftww fdrjarasan

I.D.Ab. f�l^<l*'rf nirjardbhydm decst

G, L. ftwrtte nirjarayo^ or ftTWTlnt nirjaraiofi

Plural. Plural.

N.V. 1*1 Au* niryardli or ftrtrW nirfaroiafi

A. ftwCn^ nirfardn or f<TOT?JK nirjarasaii

I. ftfAiJ nifjarai^ deest (f^mSi nirjarasaili, masc.)

D. Ab. ftpftw nirjarehhyah decst

G. ftmrrof nirjardndm or ftTiTOlf nirjartudm

L. fn^^g niryareshu deest

Fern. tlf^JJ nirjardf like ^ffHTib^A
Neut. T^iiKnirfaram, like ^sfw kdntam.

Neut. Sing, deest (f^^nl my^/oTMom) ; Dual
tn ^ i.^1 nirjaroH: Plur. Ph 4 U f\l nnjardihsi.

� i68. 'nn^^aneAflw, m. time, S^^V^vrtMlffm/a�y io� name of Indra, form the Nom.
Sing. vWf^i anekd, ^^^^purudamid, without final Visal^. The other cases are regular,
like ^•in^ sumanas^ m. Voc. ^ V^^ he anehaft.

� 169. T^tT^tf/afurf, m. proper name, forms the Nom. Sing. T^RTti/an^ and the Voc.
Sing. T^nfr^tt/anan or T^FT u4anaft or y^^u^ana, (Sftr. i. 9, 73.)

� 170. (B.) Bases ending in radical ^�.

X, From f^lTpt^, a lump, and ^jm^gras, to swallow, a compound is formed, (Vi9ti^p*9^
gras, a lump-eater.

From f^l^ pis, to walk, and ^ m, well, ft compound is formed, ^ft^ supis, well-

From ^ tu8, to sound, and ^ m, well, a compound is formed, ^3^ tutus, well-

3. In forming the Nom. Sing. m. f. (and neuter), the rules laid down before with regard
to nouns in which ^l^as, !^m, "V^itf) belong to a suffix, are simply inverted. Nouns
in ^M and 9^im lengthen the rowel, nouns in ^V^(u leave it short.

Ex. Nom. Sing. m. f. n. fifift pi^^^raft, ^^t suptft, ^^ suti^t.

3. In the Nom. Ace. Voc. Plur. of neuters, nouns in ^V^m, t^M� ^^m� niLsalize their

vowels, but do not lengthen them.

Ex. Nom. Aec.Voc. Plur. neut. fi) S{j (\l pii^^ogrwmsi, ^ftf^ ��;n�fut, ^^flfra/vmn,

4. Nouns in ^w and ^m Ungthen their vowels before all terminations beginning with


Ex. Instr. Plur. ^^Af^ iupMhi^, ^|1|f% suUhrhhi^, ^^ sut4hshu.

5. The rftdical ^� of nouns ending in l^if and T^m, though followed bj vowels, is not
liable to be changed into \9k. (See 4 100, note.)

-� 171-



Base ^if^^^pi1y/affra$, eating a mouthful, mate. fem. neut.

MA8C. rSM •

N.V. K^W piif(/agraft

A . iH^titi pij^ffrasam
I. n<�tl� I pind^rasd

B. lH�ii� pin^grase

Ab. 1-^j

^ f iWVH* pin^agraaat^
G. J

L. ri ��4 (Vi pii^gran


N. A. V. fMfli: pin^agrdh^




MASC. rsM.



I f^}vifMiitn4to^o%4m

>- Witf^iipt?




\ r4lut^ pii^^agrobhyaft

Wnr^ pifyfagra^su


Base ^3^raffw, well-sounding, masc. fem. neat.


MASC. ruf.

N.V. ^M/^
A. ^^ ��/��aiii

D. igirn./�.e

Ab. 1

L* 93^ Stt/tM>


N.A.V. '^SltuUl^


MASC. rsM.



^l|j% 9ut4rbhydm







r 9^P^ suMrbhyaft

^g^ iutusdm

^p^^ w^s^ or ^1[^ t�<4� A�A�*


� 171. Nouns derived from desiderative verbs change ^^$ into ^^sh when necessarj.
Base f^l^f^pipafhis, wishing to read, masc. finn. neut.


N. ftroftt/wpafACJ

A. fM ilQt 4 inpaf &Mam

I. f^ M Cs m pipafhishd

D. finriV^inpa^ftisJIs

L. fVmftft|�f|Nifikis4t

N. A.V. flrort: iiyo^AIS






- iMnt^^ ptpa^huhau
� f^r(A^ pipathirbhyin

* f M^tni pipathuhaik

fVUdlfnt pipatMrbki^
> ftrirt*^: pipathirbhyali




Omr^Hl pipatkiihi

URT7KT pipathiskdm


ftnifTfV jnpafAisAt (see � 172)

� Siddh.'Kaum. vol. i. p. 187. � 83*



� 172-

� 172. The nouns VlQ|l4^^t�, fern, blessing, and ^ij^sajush, masc. a companion, are
declined like f^^^fi^pipafhis, except in the Nom. Ace. andVoc. Flur., if they should be
used as neuters at the end of compounds*.

List of different Bases in ^St
Base. Nom. Sing. Nom. Pl. Instr. Pl.


^^fv^sumanas, ^tstt: �^: ^^^W. ^iRfftr ^Htfil^:

kind, m. f. n. sumandh^ -nah sumanasa^ sumandmsi sumanobhih

^i^tfir^sujyotis, ^a'ftfin id. ^TUiPilM: ^i^ftTflfP^ ^3^*iPi!f&:
well-lighted, m.f.n. sujyotih sujyotishaft sujyotimshi sujyotirbhih sujyotishshu or -tiftshu

fiwVP^pindagras, ftl^: id. f^i^OW. f^J^f^ fTOJWW: WTOT^or^IT:^

lump-eating, m .f .n. pindagrah pit^dagrasah pindagramsi pii^grobkih pintfagrassu or -grahsu

'•RBT^cAait^, splen- ^'HliTJ id. ^nBTTH ^wflff ^*|Bt: ^�hli^ dr ^�lir�^

did, m.f.n. chakdh chdkdsah chakdmsi chakdbhili chakdssu or chakdltsu

Log. Pl.

flTT^ or ^^:^
sumanassu or -nahsu

^j^^PilbS or �fin5

id. ^^J

id.8 ^[ftnr:


id. ^3^:

id.8 ftnrfw:

?ft^rfo*2,arm,m.(n.) ^
(Accent,P.vi.i,i7i) dol^

^?Hf^supis, well- ^pftj
going, m. f . n. supih

f5^ suius, well- ^:
sounding, m . f . n, sutHh

finiftr^ipa^Aw,desir- fMsJIt
ous of reading, m.f.n. pipafMh

f^nO^cAtWrs, desir- Pm*!?
ous of acting, m.f.n. chik(h

VrfipT^ifiw, blessing, y^T^ld^t^ id. WlP^R!
f. (Voc. id.) d^ishaft

^'^^^sajus, compa- V^sajdh id. tig^t
nion, m. (Voc. id.) sajushah

^^j^^suhimSy one who ^f^ id. ^fifHt
strikes well, m. f. n. suhin suhinisaf^






ddskshu or ddhshu

fupiffA^Att or sttpGishu

M^A^Att or sutdftshu

pipafkishah pipathishi^ pipafhtrbhifi pipafhishshuor-thifishu

id. r^raOTt t^wiif rVBtTH: i^Afctj
chikirshah chikirshi^ chiktrbhih






dHshshu or dsfhshu

sajdshshu or sajuhshu

* Some grammarians do not allow the lengthening of the vowels in ^i^iTPr dHmshi and
^Rjftl sajdmshi. (irfTrfw g;^ I ^� �j. d. <|0. 1 H^uA-^^li^H^fiU mPHMr<4iN^^f<(d4i4ftn^<<
H^^iira ^rtnni: 11 ?I^: Nldi^H �lri�*41J|^NNI^Il) This may be right according
to the strict interpretation of P&ioiini, but the Pr&tisakhya (xiii. 7) gives the rule in a more
general form, statmg that every neuter ending in an Ushman has a long vowel before the
Anusvara, the Anusv^ being followed by si or shi^

^ The Vocative is ^Tvft sumanaft. In the other paradigms it i^ the same as the

^ <^t^cfo� may be declined regularly throughout as a masculine. But it is likewise
declined as a neuter. On its irregulsur or optional forms, see � 914*

^ Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 197. ^ ^� not changed into ^jsh; see � 100, note.

^ Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 194. ^ See � 75,

-J 174, DECLENSION. 77

� 173. Uf^dkvas (from t^^^dhvams, to fall) and B^�r(u (from ^P^sraths, to fall), when
used at the end of compounds^ change their '^s into 1^^ in the Nom. and Voc. Sing., and
before terminations beginning with consonants.

N.V. V[^U[f(^parnadhvat N. A.V. UlSui^ parnadhvasau N. A. M^Bui^: pan^hvasa^
A.'^ivn parnadhvasam l,D.Ah,'^'6vnfipany^dhvadbkydm I. M^^Cd* paraadkvadbhih
I. M^VbI^I panyidhvasd G. L. I^SiT^i^t parnadhvasofi L. ^W^ parnadhvattu

� 174. Bases ending in 9^/, \sh, ^chh, yi^sh, � h.

Bases ending in these consonants retain them unchanged before all terminations begin-
ning with vowels. Before all other terminations and when final, their final consonants are
treated either like ^ f or like "^ Ar.

1. Bases derived from fi^ Jt/, to show, '^S^driiy to see, ^?^4pn^, to touch, change ^^

into ^ At. (� 126.)


f^ dUy f . countiy fip^ d�k f^. dUaft. fifffl dimH fi^fhi: digbh^ f^ diksh^

2. Bases derived from f13f noi, to destroy, change 3l[i into ? f or ^ ib.


^ft^^>feanii/,m.f.n. '3(Nll^or��T'5 *^^�W ^^'ffip ^*^n^fii:or�^#H: ^''H^or^*^
life-destroying jioanaf ox ^nak 'fia^a^ -naiMi '■noifbhih or 'Uagbhi^ -nafsu or 'tiakshu

3. All other bases in 9T ^ change their final into 7 (.


f^vi^, m.f.n. one who enters f^v{f ft^tri'/oA f^if^v^m^i w^fWj r�^6*iji ftn^vtV^t^

4. Bases derived from V^ dhjish, to dare, change ^sh into "^ k.


dadhrik dadhfishah dadhrimshi dadhfigbhifi dadhfikshu

5. All other bases derived from verbs with final ^sh change ^sh into Z f .


"%^c7t?i9^,m.f.n. hating f)p^dv{t fimdvishah HfH dv^nuhi Hl^fkt dvUPfh^ f^^^dvitsti

6. Bases ending in V chh change V chh into ^ f .


1Tni^|ir^cM,m.f.n. asking Wl^prd( Ift^.prd^ah vHf^prdm^ m^filtprtf^AiJi XKT^prdtsd

7. Bases ending in ^ ksh change ^ ksh into Z t,


ini^/ait�A,m.f.n. paring l^tdf* H^l tdk$hah 'if^ tdnikshi J(^f^* ta^hi^ JC^tafsiii

* If differently derived If^^taksh may form its Nom. Sing. If^ tak, ^ftX^goraksh, cow-
herd, which regularly forms its Nom. Sing. *i\<.^gorat,mB,j, according to a different derivation,
form Tffttjl^gorak, (See Colebrooke, p, 90, note ; Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 187.) So (HH^pipaky
Nom. Dual Pm M ^pipakshau, desirous of maturing ; (kH^ vivak, Nom . Dual ni�i�ji vivakshau,
desirous of saying ; fi^V^ didhak, Nom. Dual R{H>I|t didhakshau, desirous of burning*.

78 DBCLBKSIOK. � 175-

8. Moot bases ending in � A change � h into Z f .


ft^a^ Kh, m.f.n. licking fcl^ Uf fc97t Khaf^ ftif^ Umhi PcS^Rrt li^h{(i fc9T^ U^sd
^^A,m.f.n. covering '^gMt ^JlP^Ao^ '^l^gumhi "^j^^. gku4bh�h '^^ghutau
On the change of initial ^T y into ^gK see � 93.

9. Bases derived from roots endmg in ^ h, and beginning with <^ d, change � h into ^k.

Likewise ^Tim^ tuhifihy a metre.


|^(^A,m.f.n. milking "^dhvk ^.d^kaf^ ^ddmhi "^^^^ dhugbhili "^^dkuhsM

ID. Bases derived from the roots 7^ druhy to hate, ^m�A, to confound, flT^ snih, to love,
^� mtiA, to spuCy may change the final � h into ^ f or ^ ^.


lg|rfniA,m.f.n. IJ^or^ ^T* '^ V^.otI^. ^or^

hating dhr^otdhriik dnihait druihhi dhrujbMfLOtdhrugbh^ dhrufsiiotdhrukshd

II. Bases derived *from W futh, to bind, change ^ h into 11^ f.


^!^ffnf^updiMh,f. a shoe T^THIl^up^af '�in�TCt upiinahafk ^H\*\^iupdnadbhifi HM\HfHupdtuitsu

Decline (^m^^vipdi, f. the Bejah river in the Punjab. ft^v�A, f. ordure. ^^nrfA,
f. anger. f^lJi^rtprtMA, f. drop of water. Hi Dl ^9�o�ib<A, wishbg to enter. f%^�n�A, loving.
*\^^ goduhf cow-milker. TMPcdf madkuHk, bee. fiiP^^tTwA, f. splendour. ^€(i�i ^bahutvishf
m. f. n. very splendid. iQig^ ratnamush, a stealer of gems. (^9^ ^r^> m. f. n. such.
yitipH^kidfU, m. f. n. Which ? Wt^p^marmaspfU, giving pain.

� 175* U^^l^ turikdh, m. name of Indra, changes \s into ^sh whenever ^ A is changed
into '^ ^ or ^ f .

Kom. Sing. 'gO^m^ turdshdt. Nom. Dual ^U^l^ turdtdhau. Instr. Plur. ^THIT^fH:

� 176. ^rtlT^pitro^, m. an offering, or a priest, is irregular. The Nom. Sing, is
^^inpttro^^, and all the cases beginning with consonants (Pada cases) are formed from a
base JitSl^pttro^. The Voc. Singular, too, is irreg^ar, being identical with the Nom. Sing.
(� 153)) though some grammarians allow ^ ^Oai hepuro^*

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. ^ftH puro^dXi jOsi^incro^att ^^IT^/mro^o^

A. ^drnp /mro^^am jO il ^u puro4diau "^[iiWV^* puro^dial^

I. fdsnPlwro^tf jd:it^ pmro^bhgdm ^iit^* puro^hi^

.D. ^iWJ^ puroifdse ^[(tit^ pwro4obkgdm gO lV*C puro^obhyafi

Ab. ^OsiV*lHiro^(i^ ^[ittt^ puro^bhydm ^iM\^l puro^hyafk

G. ^dlT^imro^^a^ ^p�k�T^ iwro^oft J^n^fi puroid^dm

L. ^(dirf^ jmro^ ^dnifi^ incro^<2^ ^:^imro^M

V. ^dir: or <^* j9�ro^4 or -^ ^(tm^ puro4dhu ^(ttUg: purw/ddal^

-� 179'



� 177. Another word, 4i%^||l4( ukiha^, a reciter of hyams, is declined like ^[tiVTS^

Nom. ^I^p^rint ukthadd^, Aec. Sing. 9#q|llii vkthtMsam. Inttr. Flur. W^nffrfW:
ukthaiobhifi. Voc. Sing. "TW^q^: or ^HRT^ vkthaid^ or ttkthah^,

� 178. Bmcs in v^m.

Bases ending in ^m retain ^m before all terminations beginning with vowels. Before
aU other terminations and when final, the ^m is changed into �(fi.

Base ll(^UHpraidin^ mild.



Nom.Voc. J[^[t^praidn

Acc. ii^ii�i|>rai(^nuim

Instr. JC^Itm pra�dmd

Loc. inRTfH|^ai<lm�


ICASC. Flic*



Wf[Vm pra^dmau
Wf[Vm praddmau
n^ll*^ praidnbhydm

V^nn praddmaf^
V^rfv^ praidnbhi^


A. Nouns mth two Bases,

� 179. Many nouns in Sanskrit have more than one base, or rather they
modify their base according to rule before certain terminations.
Nouns with two bases^ have one base for the

Nom. Voc. and Acc. Sing. 1
Nom. Voc. and Acc. IHial > of masc noims*;
Nom. Voc (not Acc.) Plural J
Nom. Voc. and Acc. Plural of neuter nouns ;
and a second base for all other cases.

The former base will be called the A1^ga base. Bopp calls it the strong
base, and the terminations the weak terminations.

The second base will be called Ihe Pada and Bha base, Bopp calls it
.the weak base, and the terminations the strong terminations.

The general rule is that the simple base, which appears in the Pada and
Bha cases, is strengthened in the Anga cases. Thus the Pada and Bha
base ixi^^prach becomes in the Anga cases 'vlt^prdnch. The Pada base of
the present participle ^P^ adaty eating, becomes ^in adant in the Anga



* Most nouns with changeable bases form their feminines in ^#. A few, howerer, such
as ^in^ddfMm^ are said to be feminine without taking the ^ I, and some of them occur as
feminine at the end of compounds.




cases. This gives us the following system of terminations for wordd with
two bases :

Singular. Dual. Plural.



^� (which is always dropt)

^ au

w; ah


V am

W au

� ah




wit bhydm

Ut bhih



�IT bhydm

vq: bhyah


^ ai^

)i�lf bhydm

'�K bhyah


v: aA

vt: 0^

tvt dm




^ oh





Nom. Ace

� 1 80. Certain words derived from ^^^anch, to move, have two, others
three bases.

Vjrn^ prach, forward, eastern, has two bases, nH[ prdnch for its Anga,
Tff^prach for its Pada and Bha base^ and is declined accordingly t.







N.V. W^prdht
A. lA^praficham





^•1 /


L. Vjf^ prachi

I prdchah ||

infiW prdgbhih

^ KW^ prdffbhyAn 1 j

V T(P^^. prdgbhyah

Xir^i prdchdm

f Ul^lprdchoh

* AAga base, or^ according to Bopp, strong base with weak terminations. The termina-
tions are called in Sanskrit the Sarvandmasthdna terminations.

t Compounds ending in IV^ ach retain the accent on the preposition, except after
prepositions ending in ^� or Vtf. This rule does not apply to f�Tn^and W^ddhi (Pfto*
VI. 3,52-53). H6nce HKJ^pdrdchy ^^[^ODdch, W^prdch, '^^^Mich; also ^^f^nyach,
^^r\ddhyachj ^Vf^sadhryach, h^'^^v(8hv<ick : but UM^pratydch, <IM|^ samydch,
^W^ anvdcK

X Wf^i^rtfn stands for VXWprdhk: this for HHi^jJrtfflcA+^f.

II In the declension of words ending in V^acA, the rule is that if IH^^acA has the Ud&tta,
B8 in HVA^pratydch, Hi^^samydchf ^[^^^anvdch (� 180, note), all terminations, except
the Sarvan&masthftnas, take the Ud&tta (Pa^. vi. i, 169-1 70). The rule P&p. vi. i, 182, refers
to ^^a^cA, not to W^ cLch* The rule PsL^, vi. i, 222, is restricted in the Veda by vi. i, 1 70.
V^^prdch is treated as if the accent were on the preposition.

-� i8i.






WT^ prdcM


same as mMC.

I. Tfl^ prdchd

The feminine of m^prdch is w^prdcM, declined like fern. m.\L
Decline w^(j^dvdch, downward^ south. Strong base Wti^dvdnch.

B. Nouns with three Bases,

^ i8i. Nouns with three bases have their Ahga or strong base in the same

cases as the nouns with two bases. In the other cases, however, thej have one

base, the Pada base, before all terminations beginning with consonants ; and

another base, the Bha base, before all terminations beginning with vowels.

In these nouns with three cases^ Bopp calls Anga base the strong base ;

the Pada base the middle base ;

the Bha base the weakest base.

This gives us the following system of terminations for words with three


Singular. Dual. Plural.


Nom.Voc. ^* (always dropt)

^ au

w: ah

Ace. ^ am

w au

W. ah

Instr. ^ d
Dat. ^e
Abl. w: ah

virf bhydm
)i�lf bhydm
v^f bhydm

)i^: bhyah
vq: bhyah

Gen. in ah

yitx oh

^ ^171


Loc. \%

^ oh





Nom. Ace.


Terminations included in two lines require Anga or strong base.
Terminations included in one line require Pada or middle base.
Terminations not included in lines require Bha or weakest base.

Words derived from ^h^ aiich, to move^ with three bases.

HHTV pratyach, behind, has for its Anga or strongest base vA^pi^atyaRch ;
for its Bha or weakest wrt^^/^a/fcA. The Pada or middle base is nw^jwa-
tyach. Hence miT^ pratyaii, Nom. Sing, inasc^j mgi^ pratyak, Nom. Sing,
neut. ; Vlft^ pratlcM, Nom. Sing. fern.











. V[�(9pratydn JRi^i praiydflchau
Wi^ pratydfleham uA^ pratydHehau

Uri^i pratydiieha^


1 Wrt^J pratichdft*




inlfV pratlekd
Jlffl^I pratichd^

HVF^ pratyaghhydm
IIW'**ll praiyagbhyam
lIN'Mll pratyaghhydm

Wffilt pratyagbh^
T(^P^^ praiyagbkydik
•iiH*^ pratyaghhydh


llfl1^! prattchdhk

UrfWtJ pratichdlt

llrfl^i praUchdm


"Wtt^ pratklU UlA^l pratickdli

Var^ pratyaksh4







inrt^ pra/fcA^

H�n^ pratydflchi




The following words, derived from ^t^a/icAy to movey have three bases :

Anoa oa SrmoMG Bask. Pada oa Middle Basi. Bha or Weak Babb.

irA^j9ra/y(^Ay behind (P&i;i. vi. z, 5z) V[�(^pratyach inff^prattch

W^ samydnch, right (vi. �, 5�)
^4^ nyd^h, low (vi. 2, 53)
inn^'o^^^^A, accompanying (vi. 3, 95)
VP|^ ant^i ncA, following (vi. 2, 52)
fl*^ vishvaiich^ aU-pervading
yg^^idafich, upward (vi. 2, 52)
fll9^ tirydAch, tortuous

^omr^ samyach



fifi^ vishvach

Jpift^ sarnich


fl^ vishdch
flrc^ tiraich

ftr^ tiryach

Bases in n^at and *^^an�.

I, Participles Present.
� 182. Participles of the present have two bases, the Pada and Bha base
in ^a/, the Anga base in wi^an/. (Accent, Pfti^. vi. i, 173.)

Singular. Dual. Plural.




N.V. W^addu
A. ^tr^addntam

V^ffi addntau

^4"� oddntafL

H^A* adatdfi

I. V^fll ocfa/^
D. H^ a(ia/^


ll^[lQf adddbhydm




WffiKt adddbhifL
> ^Rfnt adddbhya^

^^nt adatam
H^fJ addtgu

* Rv. 1. 173, 5.

-� 1 84-











^f^fnr ad!(w^

� 183. There is a veiy difficult rule according to which certain participles keep the ^^n
in the Nom. and Aoo. Dual of neutersy and before the ^i of the feminine. This rule can
only be fully understood by those who are acquainted with the ten classes of cocgugations.
It is this,

I. Participles of verbs foDowing the Bh^> Div> and CSiur classes must preserve the ^n.
II. Participles of verbs following the Tnd class may or may not preserve the ^^n. The
same applies to all participles of the ftiture in ^9n(^sya^ and to the participles of
verbs of the Ad class m^d.
III. Participles of all other verbs must reject the 9^ii.

I. ^^^^bhdvat. Nom. and Aoc. Dual Neut. H4l(t hhdvanti^

^^^dioyat, ^[Wlft dkyantt

"^KH^ckordyat, ^ntTift chordyanH.

II* Q7l^/�M2f�^. ^fiilituddnti€x'^B!fii%dat^.

^^if^C^in(hhav%shydt (fut.). Wftn4lft llaoishydnii or Hft^Tlft bkavishyait

TTT^^ ydt. ifhft ydnti or ^Wlft ydt^.

III. W^addt, Nom. and Ace. Dual Neut. W^^adati,

Wjpijiihvat. ^[Wli hikvati,

^�^nV��nr<^. ^9^d\ sunoatt.

^^^rundhdt, %^f!ft rundhaii,

Jf^n^^tanvdt, in^ift tanvatt.

Mlm^H^Mndt, ^tnnfikri^ti

The feminine base is throughout identical in form with the Nom. Dual Neut. Hence

H^hft bhdvanti, beings fern. ; ^jf\ tuddnti or �^n1 tudatt, striking, fem.; M^adait, eating,

fem. The feminine base is declined regularly as a base in \i,

� 184. Another rule, which ought not to be mixed up with the preceding rule, prohibits

the strengthening of the A&ga base throughout in the participles present of reduplicated

verbs, except in the Nom. Ace. Voc. Plur. Neut., where the insertion of i^n is optional.

With this exception, these participles are therefore really declined like nouns in HJ with

unchangeable bases.

Base ^Ij^dddat, giving, from ^dd,U> give, ^^iCi ddddmi, I give.

Singular. Dual. Plural.



N.y. ^;H^dddat ^^dddat
A* ^^ dddatam ^^^^dddat
!• ^^ dddatd

D. ^dddate

^ * f^^9*dddata^

L. ^^Ol dddati



fl^^dddaiau Y^i^dddaH

^^[fVf dddadbhydm





dddata^ r ^^^ dddati *

i^^fjlt dddadbhilt

r^^^lW dddadbhyafi

^^[^A dddatdm

* Or ^^fw dddanti.
M 2




The same rule applies to the participles 'W^^^jakshat, tB^g; vfnn^y^ra/^ waking;
JflfOgJidaridrat, being poor; ^jl^^nidsatf commanding; WWP^F^^chakdsat, shining. But
^m'Hjdgatf neut. the world, forms Nom. Flur. "^nrhfjdganti, only.

� 185* '^f^^^^ great, ^ip(f[^pf(8hat, m. a deer, n. a drop of water, are declined like
participles of verbs of the Ad class.

Singular. Dual. Plural.




N. V. "'pp^ hrihdn T?^ hrihdntau 'f^* hfikdrUa^

A. ^ili hfihdntam ^^m bfihdntau ^f^lH bfihatdfi




Yflft hfihati


^[^ftl l>fihdfUi

N. A. *^fl[hfihdt


� 186. n^maAa^, great, likewise originally a participle of the Ad class,
forms its Anga or strong base in ^fdndnt.

Singular. Dual. Plural.


N. T^Tt^ moA^n
A. I^hf mahdntam

T^tljt mdhdntau
^^Ifll mahdntau

H^tiTi tnakdntah

Hi^Al mdhatdfL

I. n^n\ mahatd

D. ^R^ mahati

Ab. 1

*n^n\ mahatdh
G. J

L. T^fVmaAa^/


r M^tNi mahddbhydm -i



ti^iO mahaii

H^fjit mahddbhi^

9T^ITt mahddbhyal

iT^Wf mahatam


N.A.V. ^^mahdt

•1^1 ffi mahanti

The rest like the masculine.



N. �i^in mdhati

Bases ending in the Suffixes in^^mat anrf ^vat,/or�i% <A�V -4ilya �a�^^

in iVT^^mant an^ ^vant.

J 187. The possessive suffixes in^�7ta/ and ^ ra^ form their Anga- 6r
strong base in in^man/ and '^vanU They lengthen their vowel in the
Nom. Sing. Masc* These suffixes are of very frequent occurrence.

^� 1 88.




^^tfhmju^afffUmat^ having fire.







N. ^H n*! i�\ agnimdn
A; ^M�i4n agnimantam

Wnfinit agnimantau
nPifMflr aaninuintau



V. ^ (< �i���^ agniman




^(••Wfll am


N. V. ^rfr^nni o^mma/



N. ^rtVfJinft agnmati

in^ra^ is used i. after bases in v a and yf\ d.

Ex. vnrn^jnanara/y having knowledge. f^Wf^vidydicat^ having know-
But ^fftjff^agmmaty having fire. X^^i^hanumaty having jaws.

%. After bases ending in nasals, semivowels, or sibilants, if preceded hj^a
or ^ d. (P&9. VIII. a, lo.)
Ex. xffii^f^jpayawaty having milk. "Wf^jP^udanvaty having water.
But "^itdfifnvnjyotishmaty having light. '^fA^glrvat, having a voice.

3* After bases ending in any other consonants, by whatever vowel they may
be preceded.

Ex. f^n^K\vidyuivat^ having lightning.

There are exceptions to these rules. (PA?, viii. 2j 9-16.)

� 188. >nf\bhavat. Your Honour, which is frequentlj used in place of the pronoun of
the second person, followed bj the third person of the verb, is declined like a noun derived
by ^ro/. Native grammarians derive it from HT hhd, with the suffix ^va^, and keep it
distinct from H^TI^&Aova^, being, the participle present of ^bh4^ to be.

H^ftAovo/, Your Honour.

Singular. Dual.


ilchli hhaoaiUaM
)l4ln hhnantoM

N. H^\\hhaifD6n

A. Vnni ^Aovan/am

V. >n^ hhofDan or H^ bhofk



H^TWt hhaoantah


N.A.V. ^^^bhaoat



^Wlft bhavaii


H^flT bhaoanti




H^lft bhavati




^^^^bhavat, bemg, part, present.


N. ^n^bhaoan
A. H^ bhaoantam

V. H^l^ 6^09011



W^llT bhavantau





N.A.V. ^ifWff^bhavai



� 189. ^V^arva^, mMC. horse, is declined regularly like nouns in ^�af, except in the
Nom. Sing., where it has ^^ arviL ^A^f^arvan in Vl^l^ omirraii, villioixt a foe, is a
totally different word, and declined like a noun in W^on^- Nom. Sing. Wf^ anarvdj
Nom. Dual WSTtPOt anarvdii^uj Ace. Sing. W<nil} atuirvdifamj Instr. Sing. VhI^I
anarvapdj Instr. Flur. wHHW: anarvabhi^. The feminine of lAl^arra^ is ^Apfiarvatt

� 190. fnfl^hiyat. How much ? ^^tya/, so much, are declined like bases in ^f[mat.
Their feminines are DllllA kiyaH, ^<iifl iyati.



N. f^Pffl^lkfydn
A. M� kiyantam
I. f^mtl kfyatd
V. f^r^�^Kya1l


N. A.V. ftra^^Atyo/



fti^lJt kiyantau
Ol4fli kfyantau
r^mvi hiyadbhydm




fViPKl kiyatd^


Bases in W(an (w(an, in^man, li^yan.)

^ 191. Words in "W^an have three bases : their Anga or strong base is
in�( dn ; their Bha or weakest base ^^n; and their Pada or middle base W a.

Mark besides,
I. That the Nom. Sing. masc. has ^ dy not yg^^dniay
2� That the Nom. Sing. neut. has va, not 1R(|{�.

3. That the Yoc. Sing. neut. may be either identical with the Nominative,

or take f|[n*

4. That words ending in in^man and nsf^van keep nT^man and lf(ra� as

their Bha bases, without dropping the v a, when there is a consonant
immediately before the ^9l man and ^ van. This is to avoid the
concurrence of three consonants, such as x^parvn from vA^parvan^

-J 19a.



or ITTTV dtmn from imni^ Atman. This rule applies only to words
ending in i|9^ man and ^ von, not to words ending in simple
fT^ an. Thus mp[^ takshan forms iraOT tak$knd; i{^ m�lr(2Aan,
^ mirdhnd^ &g.

5. That in all other words the loss of the v a is optional in the Loc. Sing.,
and in the Norn. Ace. Yoc. Dual of neuters. The feminine, however,
drops the v a ; thus tnft rdjfit.

Tm9{rcljan^ m. king. Iis\g^xmff{r4jdn; Pada, xmrAja; Bha, TTtrajfi.





N. TSmriid

A. TmT4w6'ifoM

TTITRt rdfdnau OIH* rdjdnah

TXm^Hddnau [\


V, l}m\rdjan

I. TnfT rdijfid
D. XJ^rijfie
Ab. XSr*rijfiah

THI^ rdjabhydm TJlfRlt rdjabhif^
TT'Wt rdjabhydm illW rdjabhyafk
TT^fMlf rdjabhydm TTIfMn rdjabhydfi

6. trrt^/i

TXt^* rdjfio^ Tnrt rdjfidm

L. tl% r^'flt or TnrfH rdjami

iWi rdjHoh ^

Jfim^indimdn ; P^a,^vrPfn^



W(^ ndmni or ^W^O ndmani


iflili^ YMfmon, n* name, Anga, *


a; Bha,im






SflHlf^ ndrndni

V. ^fW ndma (

or inmi[ fMman

L IflW nimnd
Ab. vfTV namno^

'^^K^ ninabkydm
*fW*<ll ndnutbhydm
tl*l*<ll ndmabhydm

*IW*Mi ndmabhyali
•TTHW ndmabhyti^

G. ifnTnl^Mia^

�nirt n^nwiiw

L. �TTi% fi/mm or •fWfi n^mant


^ 192. Nouns in which the suffixes ini( man and Wt^van are preceded by
a consonant, such as mi^ iroAman, m. n. the creator, ini^ yajvan, m.
sacrificer^iftf^^ari^afi, n* joint, form their Bha base in in^ man and ^ran.

"Vis^ 6raAm(fo, m� creator. Anga, HVI^ brahman ; Pada, irv iraAm(f ;
Bha, mP^ 6raAm<fn.



� 193-





N. WT hrahmd

A. 4H4li hrahmapam

7 bra^ma^a^

won hrahmd^ta^

I. nran &raAfiu^
D. miw hrahmdne
Ab. IPnran braAmefnoA

WVW hrahmdbhydm
mn^ hrahmdbhydm

"nrW hrahmdhhyafi
"mV* hrahmdbhyafk

• &raAfiMffia4


L. HHfilT brahmdffi

mrant broAfiuf^o^

mrafh hrahmdi^li

mrOff braAiiuffUfoi

fiw^ braAfiM^ra


N. A. mt brdhma

dtman, self ; ^M^ sudharmany



mrart brdhma^ KWXf^ brdhmdni

brdhma or mi^ brcfAfium

Decline ^QW^ ycyvan, sacrificer ;

hOi R; ^^ pratidivatiy one who sports, fix)m flf^^ffiqfk tfiv dtvyati, lengthens
the flj di to ^ di, whenever the ^ti is immediately followed by ;^�. Nom.
Sing, nfirfipn pratidivd ; Nom. Plur. llOlR^MM* pratidivdnaJ^ ; Ace. Plur.
vSiK^rg; pratidlvnalk ($ 143).

� 193* Wor^ in Wv^an, like Km^rdjan, king, fonn their feminine in %iy dropping the
Ma before the \nj XS^rdiHi, queen.

Words in ^9[yan, like ^sli^9{^dhivan, fisherman, form their feminine in ^^vari; ^^^nft
dMoari, wife of a fisherman. (See, however, P&9. iv. i, 7, vftrt.)

Words in ^^many if feminine, are declined like masculines. qi�i�\ d^man, fem. rope;
Nom. Sing. ^^IKl ddmd. Ace. ^^[m^ ddmdnam ; but there is an optional base I^TUT (2^m4, Ace.
Sing. ^^T^ ddmdm. (Pft^. iv. i, ii; 13.)

� 194. Nouns in Wv( an, l|i|[ man^ ^[9f^van, at the end of adjectival compounds, may
either use their masculine forms as feminines, or form feminines in WT^. Those in Wv^an,
if in the Bha base they can drop the Wa before the i^n, may also take %t (Pt^9- iv. i, 28).
Thus, Nom. Sing. masc. and fem. ^^Hi sucharmd, having good leather, Nom. Dual
^^kxm meharmdifauj ^^m suparvd^ ^l|$|'l||T suparvd^fou : or, Nom. Sing. fem. ^-^fli
sucharmd, Nom. Dual ^'^ngucharme, Plur. ^'^A u sucharmdli j ^^fmsuparvd, ^H^suparve^
^^Hfn suparvdft. Of 'WJTJ^tlbahurdjan, having many kings, the feminine may be,
I. HJiim bahurdjdf Dual ^j<im�U bahurdjdnau,
3. "^^^IWflbahurdJd, Dual ^fKJ^bahurdje,
3. MJUSS^ bahurdjHi, Dual WpX^bahurdJflyau.
Ol^lfll dviddmni (P&9. iv. i, 27), having two ropes, is an exception.

Adjectives in ^�(van, which form their fem. in ^T^var^, ^A^Pi^^dhioan, a fisherman,
^fhrrft dhioari, ^(t^pioan, ^^ft^ pioari, fat, may do the same at the end of compounds, or

-^ 196. DEGLEKSION. 89

take ^ vd. ^W^ff^Pd hahudMvari or ^JMOwI baiudMod, Nom. Dual ^J^A^ bakudhive,
having many fiahemien. (Siddb.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 309.)

� 195* vf^pathifif m. path, has

for its Anga base im^lpdnihdn (like XJW^lTdjdn) ;
for its Bha base V^^^path;
for its Pada base X[^pathL

It is irregular in the Nom. and Yoc. Sing., where it is imi pdnihdi.

Singular. DuiLL. Plural.

N.V. ^i^.pdnthdk vr^V^ pdnthdnau N. 'irffT^tl pdntMndik

A. A^\A pdnthdnam A^w pdnthdnau A. VTT^paihdtt

I. '^[^ipathd Vlf^^ pathibhydm I. "Vfifft^. pcMbkitL

The terminations after '^V^paik have the Ud&tta> hecauae they replace a lost UdAtta^
(P&9. VI. 1, 199.)

^% IV|�t fibhukahin, m. a name of Indra, and lfVp( maM^n, m. a chuming-stick, are
declined in the same manner. The three hases are,

^4^H T^kvkskin }
'Hn'^ mdnikdn J �^ '

TV mat A J

Tnl matM J

The Nom. and Voc. Sing, are ^V|^ fibkukskdlk and ^kmi mdntkdh.

Vf^ptUkin, '^^(Vlli, fibkukskitt, and Wf^ma^Am form their feminines X^tt patki,
^^9(1 ribkukskif Wlf\ matki,

�196. A word of very frequent occurrence is 'nfH dhauy n, day, which
takes ^(^dhas as its Pada base. Otherwise it is declined like ^9m9{^ndinan.

Singular. Dual, Plural,

P. N. A.V. H?: dha^ Bh. N. A.V. ^ dkn�* An. N. A.V. ^mftf rfA^t

Bh. I. W]pdknd P. I.D.Ah.^n^rfAoftAyifm P- I. ^Iftfir. (OoftAiS

Bh. D. ^dkne Bb. G.L. mj^tdknofi P. D.Ah. ^lft^:<ao6Aya#

Bh. Ah.G. ^rjp dknah Bh. G. ^rfAiwIw

Bh. L. mf^dknif P. L. Hf^rfAoMttt

The Visarga in the Nominative Singular is treated like an original ^r (J 85).
Hence Vf^ ahar-afiai^, day by day. In composition, too, the same rule
applies ; iHTfiHin dhargafjMhf a month (P&ii. yiii* 2> 69) : though not always,
V^iMt ahordirai^^ day and night. (See � 90.)

* Ot^^dkani. f OtW^akam. % Ot'V^dkaisu.'


90 DECLENSION. � 197^

� 197. At tbe end of a compound, too^ ^Sin^aftatiis imgolar. Thiu ^I^Tfvl^dir^A^iUm,
having long days, is declined :

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. l^htUT: dirghdhdik * N. A.V. (f)Qll|14Ul dirgMkdu^u N.V. ^lIlflQ: dtrghdhdi^lk

V. ^^^n^ dirghdhah A. ^t^^ljl! dirgMknai^

A. ^1 i I f lid dirghdhd^am I. ql 4 1 ^ (Ws dfrghdhobhifk^ &o.

Feminine, >jt^1]jt dirghdhni (Pft^. viii. 4, 7).

� 198. In derivative compomids with numerals, and with ft tn and TTPT adifa, ^H]| ahna
is substituted for W^aAan.- but in the Loc. Sing, both forms are admitted; e.g. JBlJp
dvyahndt^, produced in two days; Loc. Sing, ^t^dvydhne ot^sff^doyahni or W^doyohanu
(Pft^. VI. 3, no.)

^ 199. i|9^ ivan, m. dog, ^^ yuvany m. young, take ^ iuny ^ yUn
as their Bha bases. For the rest, they are declined regularly, like WKf{^
brahman, m. (Accent, PAi^. vi. i, 182.)

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. ^ W N. A.V. miHi hinau N. ^iRt Wii#

A. ^tT^^anam A. IRTt^i^fui^

V. "qp^^^in I. n!^. ivdbhifL

The feminine of i8R( iran is VRft iunf; of ^pi;^ yfiviin, ^;�rf?n yuvati^;
according to some grammarians^ '^^yUnl.

� 30O. ^W^maghmoany the Mighty, a name of Indra, takes H^^\:\maghon as its Bha

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. H<Mf^l fnaghdvd N.A.V. •i^�ii�il maghdodnau N. ITR^TR ? ma^Aife4na^

A. vnnTn maghdvdnam A. TJt^ maglukia^

V. T^^fiu^^aoan I. H1R6u ma^Aifea^At^t

The same word may likewise be declined like a masculine with the suffix ^11 vo/ or 111 ma//
(see ^(••i�n^ agnimat, )

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. HH^X^maghdijdn N.A.y. vi n^ nl maghdcantau N. ^Wiwi maghdoantaf^

A. HIRW maghdvantam A. ^Wnit maghdvata^

V. W^^^mdghavdn I. W^m^l maghdtadbhifi

The feminine is accordingly either n^Vl tnaghdni or W^^nrt maghavaH,

� 301. ^[^�^ |9i&A<�fi and* ^An^aryamdn, two names of Vedic deities, do not lengthen
their vowel except in the Nom. Sing, and the Nom. Ace. Voc. Flur. neut. ; (in this they
follow the bases in ^m; ( 303.) For the rest, they are declined like nouns in W^an,*
(see XX^^rdjan,)

* P&p. viii. 3, 69, v&rt. I; Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1^4; but Colebrooke, p. 83, has
^iQlfl dtrghdhd as Nom. Sing.

t Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, p. 81.





p4shan, pUska^ piUhn


f^ fro fHw:

pUshd pUshdi^ pUshi^


pUshdbhift p4$hdi^

aryaman, aryama, aryami^ aryamd aryamdnafi aryanu^ aryarndbhih aryamdi^

Loc. Sing. JiJvii piUhffi or �f[n(Vi piUkdi^ij or, according to some, ^jf^p^hu (Sdr. i. 9, 31.)

� 202. The root ^Aan, to kill, if used as a noun, follows the same rule ; only that
when the rowel between � h and �( n is dropt, � h becomes ^gh,


^Aofiy f ha, l{<^hn ip hd ffft haiu^ IH ghnafi Iffkl habkii^ ^TfH hdni

brahmahan, ha, ghn brahmaha brahmahd^afL brahfnagk$idfk brahmahdbhi^ brahmaha^
Loc. Sing, mifk brahmaghni or HII^Au brahmahdifi.

Bases in ^ih.
^ ^203. Words in i^tn are almost regular 5 it is to be observed that

1. They drop the 9(n at the end of the Pada base.

2. They form the Norn. Sing. masc. in \t; the Nom. Ace. Sing. neut. in

\%; and the Nom. Ace. Plur. neut. in ^ tm�







Vf�nfT dhan<ndu

Vfvpn dhan{nalk


Vinn dhaninam

Vf�nfT dhan<nau

Vfvpn dhandtafk


vfnni dhaiUnd

VlfH^ dhanibhydm

VfVrfW: cfAaii^Ai^


Vftfn dhan<ne

Vftrwrf dhanOihydm

Vf^TW dhanibhyal


. Vtnii dhaninal^

VfH^ dhanCbhydm,

Vf^T^n c^Aow^Aya/


vPn^^i dhanina^

Vfflfih (^Aan/fto^

VPffHl dhanindm


Hfifftf dhanini

Vf^nih dAan^noJl



Vftp^ dhdnin

VfVRT dhdninau

VfVnn dhdninaf^

• Nbutbb.





N.A. VftTcJAaw/

Vftnft dkan(n(

Htllfff dhamni



Vfif JAint or m1^�^ <



Decline ^tirftj^mee^Mmn^ wise; ^^jrftsi^ yaio^m^ glorious ; ^rfN^^t^^my
loquacious; ^sirrftli^Ar^n^ doing.

Note — ^These nouns in ^tn, (etymologicallj a shortened form of IR^an,) fbllow
the analogy of nouns in W^^an (like TTi|�( r^'an, mH9{^ndman) in the Nom. Sing,
masc. and neut., and in the Voc. Sing, and in the Nom. Ace. Plur. neut. They might be
ranged, in fact, with the nouns having unchangeable bases ; for the lengthening of the
vowel in the Nom. and Ace. Plur. neut. is but a compensation for the absence of the nasal
which is inserted in these cases in all bases except those ending in nasals and semivowels.

N 2



� W4-

Participles in ^vas.

� 204. Participles of the reduplicated perfect in ^ vas have three bases ;
^vf^ vd^ as the Anga, ^n^ ush as th� Bha^ and ^ vas as the Pada base*
According to Sanskrit grammariansy they change the ^^ of '^vas into i(i, if
the ^tf is finals or if it is followed by terminations beginning with ^Jbh and ^^s;
(see � 173^ 131.) But the fact is, that the Pada base is really '^vat, not

Anga, ^^^fg^runuivdms ; Pada, 7^^�m^rurudvas ; Bha, i^i^^rurudush.







%4('|l^ rurudvamsau

'^^li^i: rtirtMlvflfmfa^

<^^J[^ rtfmdi&Aa^


y^^^ ruruddshd

)^?^[W: ruruddshafL
^^H* rurwkisha^



^ISmf rurudvddbhydm
^^iWf rwrudvddbhydm
^^liNi rurudvddbhydm




^^^^ ruruddahi

^^^[^ rtf nM/tt9A^


^^ar^ ruriM^rcf/m .






^i^SiiV rurudvamsi



1^^^^ rurudushi


^ 205. Participles in ^va� which insert an ^ t between the reduplicated
root and the termination, drop the \i whenever the termination '^vaa is
changed into w^ush. Thus

Wftipni^ tasthivdrif from m? sthd, to standi forms the fem. ff^j4t tasthushU
^i^W^lf^i^pechivan^ from Tf^pach, to cook^ forms the itm.^r^ pechushl.

A very common word following this declension is ^xw^vidvdny wise, (for
rV| ri I If(^ vividvdn) ; fem. ft^ vu^t^^A^.

K the root ends in ^ t or ^ ^, this radical vowel is never dropt before '^t^U8h^
the contracted form of '^vcu. Hence from �ft nt, rH�fl4l�f, ninivdn; Instr.
ftf^tvT ninjfushd ; fern. fVf^4t ninyusht

■J ao^



Decline the

following participles :
































{ 206. Bases in ^11^ fycw (termination of the comparative) form their
Anga base in ^i|i^ iydihs.

Pada and Bha base V[ft^^^gdriya8f heavier; Anga base 'tdP^^gdriy&m$.



N. V:C[^^gdHydn

'rtNfNit gdriydihtau TfNfv: gdriydfhtaft

A. � 1 Mlfi gdriydmsam 'lO^i^ gdriydihsau


N. 1^1 gdriya^


^rthftwrf gdiiyobkydm


*iO<itil gdriyoH


N. nttlRn gdriyan


�iOm�* gdriyasaft
ItfNtRlS gdriyobhift, &c.


irfNfftr gdHydmsi

Miscellaneous Nouns with changeable Consonantal Bases,

� 207. WoTds ending in ^l|T^/N!^i, foot, retain 1|T^ ptfi as Anga and Pada base, but shorten
it to '^^pad as Bha base.

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N.y. ^^n^ supdd ^m^ supddau

A. ^^Tn^ supddam ^mi^ supddau

^Ml^ supddaft,


^m|: supadafk (Bha)
L ^^Qlt supddbhif, (Pada)

* 9^111 changed into �(ii according to � 136.

64 DECLENSION. � i^oS-'

The feminine is either ^Hi^ supdd or ^[^nft wpadi (Pll?. iv. i, 8); but a metre consisting
of two feet is called Pa^qi dvipadd,

� 208. Words ending in Wl^ vdh, carrying, retain ^TfP vdh as Anga and Pada base, but

shorten it to ^ Hh as Bha base. The fern. 10 ^Sl^ 4ki.

Rnal Thw interchangeable with ^^, ^{^ ^^ (See � 128 ; 174, 8.)

The 9tf of ^ ah forms Vpddhi with a preceding V a or WT ^ (� 46). Thus f^Hl^lf

vUvavdh, upholder of the universe. (Accent, Pft^. vi. i, 171.)

Singular. Dual. Plural.

A. ft m'<< I ( Mowdham h^^i^ whavakau f^^^'fStfl vihauhdft

I. ffinr^fW: mitfotM^QEbA^

� 209. ^Iimi hetavak is further irregular, forming its Pada base in ^l^o(�, and retain-
ing it in the Nom. andVoc. Sing.; e.g. Nom .V oc mn^ u ivetavahj Aco. m n �i 1^ hetatfdham ;
Instr. '%m^ hetauhdj Instr. Plur.^ri^tRi: ivetaochhC^, &c. ; Loc. Plur. wF^^ ivetctoaltsd.

Some grammarians allow nknsif ^etavdh, instead of ^lUf hetauh, in all the Bha cases
(Slir. 1. 9, 14), and likewise ^nm MtacaJi in Voc. Sing.

� 210. A more important compound with ^Tf otf& is W^ano^A, an ox, (i.e. a cart-
drawer.) It has three bases : i. The Anga base ^njif. ana4^dhj 2. The Pada base VIK
ana4iuds 3. The Bha base Vf|J| ana^uh.

It is irregular besides in the Nom. and Voc. Sing.

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. Wryp^flfio^v^ N. A.V. HHj!^ aruufodhau N. V�TfT?J ana^dhc^

\, WHf^^anadvan I. D. Ab. "Vlvf^flf anat/udbhydm A. xins^; ana^uhatk

A. ^nnpit anadvdham G. L. ^�ij^i ana^uholL I. ^njfk* ana^udbhifk

I. HHJ^I anajuhd L. WHJI^ ana^^m

If used as a neuter, at the end of a compound, it forms

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. A.V. WifJ^ ofto^ ^"ip? ana(ftth( W^fjtf^ ana^dthU

The rest like the masculine.

The feminine is WJl^ anaifuhi or VHJIfl ana^dM (Pft^. vii. i, 98, v&rt.)*

^211. ^(\op, water^ is invariably plural^ and makes its v a long in the
Anga base, and substitutes 11 ^ for lip before an affix beginning with H bh.

Plural: Nom. wm dpahy Ace. ^B^ &pd1^^ Instr. ^nftj: adbhif^y Loc. ^c^apsi.
(Accent, Pin. vi. i, 171.)

In composition ^sr^ap is said to form '^^avdp^ Nom. Sing. masc. and
fem., having good water; Ace. T^j^svdpam; \ris\x. "^m svapd, &c. Nom.
Plur. ^m: 8vdpa^; Ace. ^9^ svapai^; Instr. wfw* svadbhii^y &c. The
neuter forms the Nom. Sing, ^^(^^svap; Nom. Plur. ^f)| avampi or ^iffi
svdmpiy according to Wfierent interpretations of Panini. (Colebrooke, p. loi,
note.) The Sarasvati (i� 9, 62) gives ^otf^ WSTTTftf svdmpi taidgdniy tanks
with good water.

i ai4.



� 3ia. ^P^/hhtm, nuud, has three bases: i. The Anga base ffh^piim^inis / a. The Pada
base ^piim/ 3. The Bha base ^J^jwitw. (Accent, V^, vi. i, 17'.)

I. ^UTiniffu/

N.A.y. JHi 4IT pumdnuau
I. D. Ab. ^M|f pumbh^m
6. L. ^lnS|)tfm^^


A. ^|TnptMn�i^
I. ^f^j7�m&&i^

The Loc. Pliir. is written ^ jpufXui^, not ^jncm^Ait or ^f^iwMtt (� loo, note). The SArasvatt
gpives '^^pankshd (1.9, 70). P&Qioi (viii. 3, 58) says that ^ nvm only, not Anusvftra in
general, does not prevent the change of ^s into \9h; and therefore that change does not
take place in ^Pi^*^ tuhinsu and ^^^puiiiuu. In the first, \n is radical, not inserted ; in the
second, the Anusvftra represents an original ^m, Cf. Siddh.-Kaiun. vol. i. p. 186 : ^Hl^m

In composition it is declined in the same manner if used in the masc. or fern, gender.
As a neuter it is, Nom. Sing. ^fV mp�fii, Nom. Dual ^^^ wpufM, Norn. Plur. ^^Hff^

� 313. f^dip or ^ dyu, f. sky, is declined as follows, (Accent, PA9. vi. l, 171 ; 183) :

Base l^cifr, ^ dyu, (See $ a 19.)

Singular. Dual.

N. nhdyaSfi N.A.Y. f^ijlcf/vaii

A. f^ dham I. D. Ab. ^p>lf dyitbhydm

I. fl^ dwd 6. L. f^^ dM(i

D. f^ dM

Ab. G. f^plt divdfi

L. ftfffdfp/

Another base In dyo is declined as a base ending in a vowel, and follows the paradigm
of ^^0, � a 19. (See Siddh.-Kamn. vol. i. p. 138.)

C!ompounds like ^f^sucKv, having a good sky, are declined in the masc. and fern, like
f^itp. Hence ^W S tudyaui^, ^t^4 tudicam, &c.

In the neuter they form Nom. Aoc. Voc. Sing. ^^ 9udyu, having a good sky ; Dual
^fij^ sudhf; Plur. ^r^Hc 8udwi.

� 314. A number of words in Sanskrit are what Greek grammarians would call
Metaplasia, i. e. they exist under two forms, each following a different declension, but one
being deficient in the Sarvan&masth&na cases, i.e. Nom. Voc. Ace. Sing, and Dual, Nom.
Voo. Plur., and Nom. Voc. Aoc. Plur. of neuters. (Pft?. vi. i, 63.) Thus

DsrsoTiva Bask : Bask dsclknbd throughout :

*i. W4I�^ asan, n. blood ; ^^'\ <wr(f > ^'

*3. Wn^ dsan, n. face ; WTW dsya, n.

♦3. 'W^^udan, n. water ; ^Rf^ udaka, n.

4. ^dat, m. tooth; Aco. PI. ipn datdftj ^ danta, m.

N. flp^fl^iHijk
A. fifV: dhdfi
t. ^[fii: dyiSbkii^
D.Ab. ^)^ dy4bhyafi
G. fiipit dk>dm
L. IR dyiishu

* No accent on Vibhakti. (Pft?. vi. i, 171.)


*5* ^n^l^<fo<Aa�y (m.) n. ami;

6. �T^ii(�, f. nose ; Aoc. PI. '^Wl na^j

7. f^T^ nU, f. night ; Aoc. Fl. fH^ nUd^;

8. '^pad, m. foot ; Ace. PI. V[^. paddhj

9. ^I^IT*** f. anny f; Loc PI. ^J^pritfd;

10. <ri^ mdihs, n. meat ]: ;

11. TT^m^, m. month || ; IVT^ misdh^
*I3. l|l|ff^yaiban� n. liverlT;

•13. "^jn^y^&Aan, m. pea-Boup;
♦14. ^^\ iakan, n. ordure;

15. ^ �itf, n. ridge ;

16. ^ Apd, n. (m.); Gen. Sing. |p^ hfiddli^


^t^ dos, m, n�
frftniT ndsikdf f.
f�nn miitf, f .
Xft^pdda, m.
^n�ii/7n/afi^ f.
IFIT mdfhsa, n.
^insr mi^a^ m.
^T^yoAft^ n.
^ y<29Aa, m.
"^l^Pi^iakjit, n�
^T^ 5tfntfy n�
^^ hfidaya, n.

A. Plur. ^V^^f^ onifLji or ViUpH flu^t,
I. Sing, ^i^^ asfHd or WHT asnd.
J., DuM^nsffiasfiffbkydmorW^^P^tuabhydm,

A. Flur. ?^AI�^ danidn or ipn dato^
I. Sing. ^W�f dantena at ^Kl datd.

Dual ^fvraf dantdbhydm or ^[lOf (2ai2&Ay^.
A. Plur. �!nn[�^m4i�<{ii or IVnn m^a^.


Hence in

No. I* N.V. A. Sing, is ^^^^^^^ tufik only ;

N.y . A. Dual 18 ^sra^ (Ufiji only ; but

N.V. Plur. is H^ftl asjriiiji only ;
No. 4. N. A.y. Sing. la^Wlf^f^dantafi, am^ a, only;

N.V. A. Dual is ^[m dantau only ; but

N.V. Plur. is ^Vn dantd^ only;
No, II • N. A. V. Sing, is ^T^^i^rndsaft^amya, only ;

N.V. A. Dual is W(m rndgam only ; but i I. Sing. nmH mdsena or ^mX mdsd,

N.y. Plur. is WC9tl mdsd^ only ; \^LIhal^W(^fnd8dbhydmoT^V^mdbhifdm.

No. 13. N. A.y . Sing, is '^tf^4>^^|r^Aa^,am,a, only ; f A. Plmr. '^JJft^ yHshdn or ^V!R y^skifo^,

N. A.y. Dual is ^3^ yiUhau only ; but " I. Sing. "^^9 yiishei^ or ^jVHT y^shi^,

N.y. Plur. is ^jpn ydshd^L only ; [ I. Du. J^T^ydshdbhydmoT^^^^ sIMhydm.

L. Sing. ^yii8heoT^^^f^'Shafli or^ftn -shffi,

Granmiarians differ on the exact meaning of Pft^ini's rule ; and forms such as (j^N^^
dosha^, Nom. Dual Neut., would seem to show that in the Nom. Acc.yoc. Dual the base
^^C^doshan may be used. (See Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. pp. 107, 131, 141, 144.) By some the
rule is restricted to the yeda.

2. Bases enixng in Vowels.

^ 215. Bases ending in vowels may be subdivided into two classes :

1. Bases ending in any vowels, except derivative v a and w a.

2, Bases ending in derivative v a and w d.

* No accent on yibhakti. (P&9. vi. i, 171.) f Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 131.

X Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 141. H The Sftrasvat! gives aU cases of TT^m^ (i. 6, 35).

IT PAjp. VI. I, 63.

^� ai8.



I. Bases ending in any Vowels, excqpi derivative v a and wr &.
^ 216. Instead of attempting to learn, either according to the system
followed by native grammarians, or according to the more correct views
of comparative philologists, how the terminations appended to consonantal
bases are changed when appended to bases ending in vowels, it will be fiir
easier to learn by heart the paradigms such as they are, without entering
at all into the question whether there was originally but one set of termi-
nations for all nouns, or whether, from the beginning, different terminations
were used after bases ending in consonants and after bases ending in


Bases in ^ ai and w^ au.

^ %iT* These bases are, with few exceptions, declined like bases ending
in consonants. The principal rules to be observed are that before consonants
^ ai becomes W d, while w au remains unchanged ; and that before vowels
both ^ ai and ^ au become im ay and im dv.

Base^ rai, Jj^rdy^ m. wealth; (Accent, Pft^ji. vi. i, 171.) ^nau, ifT^fiav,
f. ship; (Accent, P&n. vi. i, 168.)

N.V. TK ri-h ^\ nad'lL
A. XjArdy-am tfT? nio-am
I. TP^rdy-d ^T^ndv-d
D. xArdy-i •fl^nA?-^


>• ^Cnir ray^ttu fTw ndv-au

XJ^rd'bkydm ni*^\ nau-bhydm



• fidO'6(^

TPK rdy-afk •TW ndv-afk
TT^ rdy-dlt* l^XT^ndv-a^
Tjfiir* rd-hkihk nt^* nati-ftAiJk

tjlrf rdy^dm "fT^ ndv-dm


G. ;

L. Xjf^ rdy^ •nftfnA?-/

Decline |T^: glau^, m. the moon.

Bases in ift o.
^218. The only noun of importance is lit go, bl bull or cow. It is slightly
irregular in Nom. Ace. Abl. and Oen. Sing, and in the Ace. Flur. (Accent,
Pft^u VI. I, i8a.)



N.V. ift:yarf.^

A. if ya-m

I. ^T^gdv-d

D. TffH gdo^e

L. ift gdo'%

f 1w


fft^ gd-bhydm

I 'rife gdv'Of^


IW gdv-afi

iftfilJ gd'hhih

X gd-bhyaft
iflj gd'Shu

* In the Veda the Ace. Plur. of T rat occurs both as rdyah (Rv� i . 68, 5; 98, 3; vii. 34^ 3a ;
VIII. 52, 10; X. 140, 4) and rdydft (Rv. 1. 113, 4; iii. 2, 15).


98 DECLBNSIOK. $ �I9"-

If bases in ^ ai, w o, w au are to be dedined as neuters at the end of compounds, they
shorten ^ at to ^ i, and IIt o and Mfau to 'Vu, and are then declined like neuters in ^t and
7 ft. The masculine forms, however, are equally allowed (if the base is masculine) in all
cases except the Nom. Ace. Voc. Sing. Dual and Plural. Hence Instr. Sing. neut. ^fbllT
suriifd or ^MMi surdyd; but only T^^^sunund.

% 319. Wtdyo, fem. heaven, is declined like ^go. It coincides in the Nom. and Voc.
Sing, with fif^dir, sky, but differs from it in all other cases. (� 213.)


Wl dya4^
W dydm*

11% dydve








L. W^dydn

V. l[n dyauli



> Vrn dydvau

lit^ dydbhydm

> VJ^S dydvofi


WT^ dydva^
VHW: dydbhili

f VtW dydbhya^

W^ dydodm
Vt J dydshu

Forms of dyu which occur in the Rig-veda :

Sing. N. dyaus : A. d{vam, dy(m; I. dwa{dM, by day) ; D. dM; G. divdk, dydft; L. dh^,
dydtrij y. dycSis (Rv. vi. 51, 5). Plur. N. dydvahj A. dyun; I. dy^hih. Dual N. dyivd.

Being used at the end of a compound Wtdyo forms its neuter base as ^dyu2 e.g.
Xf^pradyuy eminently celestial, Dual M^�f1 pradyunt, Plur. Jf^f^ pradyihi (Siddh.-Kaum.
vol. I. pp. 144, 145); while from f^cftv the neuter adjective was, as we saw, ^l^ttecfytr,
having a good sky. Dual ^R}*|1 9udiv(, Plur. '^fif^sudM (Colebr. pp. 67, 73). Xf^pradyu,
as a neuter, cannot take the optional masculine cases (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 145).

Note — There are no real nouns ending in IT e, though grammarians imagine such words
as ITS e^9 the sun, ^^ludyadeft, the rising sun ; Nom, Dual 9ll<^4i udyadayau, Nom. Plur.
W^^I udyadayafi.

Bases in ^ J and "a <2.
I. Monosyllabie Bases in\t and 9ii, being both Masculine and Feminine,

(A.) By themselves.

� sac. Monosyllabic bases, derived from verbs without any suffix, like ^dhi, thinking,
lift kri, buying, "^Idy cutting, take the same terminations as consonantal bases. They
remain unchanged before terminations beginning with consonants, but change final \( and
9l^ into f^iy and T^tto, before vowels. (P&9. vi. 4, 82, 83.) Their Vocative is the same
as their Nominative.

(B.) At the end of compounds.

� 221. These monosyllabic bases rarely occur except at the end of compounds. Heie

* K&8ik& VI. I, 93.

-� 221. DEOLBNSIOK. 99

they may either chaDge %( and "9^il into ^^iy and ^fip, or into ^y and ^o. They
change it

I. Into l(^iy and tn�o;

a. If the first member of the compound forms the predicate of the second, and the

second maintains its nominal character. Thus Mm Hit paramanQi, the best leader.
Ace. Sing. H t.�i Thm paramaniyam. Here ?fttiil$ is treated as a noun, and seems
to have lost its verbal character. VlpAs Mdhadhifi, a pure thinker, a man of pure
thought, Ace. Sing. ^-sOfll iuddhadhiyam: ^^ htdkifL^ a man of bad thought,
Ace. Sing, ^f^ kttdhiyam, (Sftr.)

b. If ^ I and 9 1^ are preceded by two radical initial consonants. HMflilt jalaMft^ a buyer

of water, makes Ace. Sing. i| t^r^ijalahiyam. ^Vllt suMft^ well foring. Ace. Sing.
^n�i^ stJriyam, (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1 19.) This is a merely phonetic change,
intended to facilitate pronunciation. (P&p. vi. 4, 8a.)

3. Into ^y and ^v, under all other circumstances, i.e. wherever the monosyllabic bases
retain their verbal character, illliilfll grdman((i^ leader of a village, Aoo. Sing. IfTRPilt
grdmai^yam; here ^imgrdma is not the predicate of •I'h nih, but is governed by v^t itlj^,
which retains so far its verbal character. Wftl pradkih, thinking in a high degree, Ace.
Sing. T[dfpradkyam; here Ti pra is a jpreposition belonging to ^dhi, which retains
its verbal nature. 71^2 unn(h^ leading out, Ace. Sing, '^^iunnyam; here ^ik2 is
a preposition belonging to ^ ni. Though ^^ is preceded by two consonants, one
only belongs to the root. mWI* iuddhadMh (if a Tatpurusha compound), thinking
pure things, would form the Ace. Sing, "^f^iuddhadkyam^ and thus be distinguished
from "^g^* hMhadhif^ (as a Karmadhlbraya compound), a pure thinker, or as a
Bahuvrihi compound, a man possessed of pure thoughts (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. up),
which both have ^Hirf^M iuddhadhiyam for their accusative. The general idea which
suggested the distinction between bases changing their final ^^and '9^4 either into
nty and T^fio, or into ^y and ^r, seems to have been that the former were treated
as real monosyllabic nouns that might be used by themselves (>lh dh(h, a thinker), or
in such compounds as a noun admits of (^Wh sudhifk*^ a good thinker; ^vVh
iuddhadhth, a pure thinker or pure thoughted); while the latter always retained
somewhat of their verbal character, and could therefore not be used by themselves,
but only at the end of compounds, preceded either by a preposition (TVWh pradhi^,
providens) or by a noun which was governed by them. The nouns in which \i and
9 il stand after two radical consonants form an exception to this general rule, which
exception admits, however, of a phonetic explanation (� 330), so that the only real
exception would be in the case of certain compounds ending in ^bhd. ThuB>f^bh4
becomes ^^6A�v before vowels, whether it be verbal or nominal. (P&p. vi. 4, 85.)
Ex. ^^^! svayambh^h, self-existing. Ace. Sing. tsi*i�|'^ svayambhuvam, (S&r. i. 6, 61.
Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1 19.) Not, however, in ^^t^t varshdbhdp, frog, Ace. Sing.
^4p4 varshdbhvam (P&p. vi. 4, 84), and in some other compounds, such as �R^
karabhUft or ^VRi^t kdrabhUh, nail, "^^^ punarbhith, re-born, "^[^t dfinbhUh, thunder-
bolt. (P&n. VI. 4, 84, virt.)

* WMh sudhih is never to be treated as a verbal compound, but always forms Ace. Sing.
^Anf MufAtyam, &c., as if it were a Karmadhibraya compound. (P&9. vi. 4, 85.)

O 2


100 DEOLENSIOK. � 222.

2� Polysyllabic Bases in %i and "SI ii,

� 332. Polysyllabic bases in ^ ^ and "Sltf being both masculine and feminine, such as
Vl^l pap(h, protector, the sun, ipfh yayi^L, road, and ^1^ nfit4hy dancer, are declined like
the verbal compounds Wttl pradht^ and ^H|cj)* VfikshM^, except that

I. they form the Ace. Smg, in X^ &nd ^kiimj
3. they form the Ace. Plur. in ^It and "^li^i^.
Remember also, that those m%f form the Loc. Sing, in ^ ^, not in nyi,

sinH�fli vdtupramihy antelope, may be declined like V[^* papi^ ; but if derived by fsp^
kvip, it may entirely follow the verbal JTifl pradhth (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 1 16). The same
applies to nouns like '-yill! sutifi, wishing for a son ; ^^ftt sukhih, wishing for pleasure.
They follow the verbal TOft pradhih throughout, but they have their Gen. and Abl. Sing,
in ^ 11^ V ^IJt sutyuh (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. |. p. 130). If the final long ^^ is preceded by
two consonants, it is changed before vowels into ^^iy* Ex, �^; iushk(ljij Sirt�ii4i
hishkiyaut &c.


� 222.




2 a.





&< a. I" ll �-
*• a, ***




^ AS


;5 ll S� 1*

i. S 5S S -

^ S� ^ "XS ^

^3Q ^ 1. b I. b





-. I, i, I, i, fe. fe,


si ^ -


o '^' "^* ^ "^ ^ "S

� 2 � I ^ ^

til it ^



S S *� "s .^ "^ .� .� ^


3 � �9 'S '^




5 g ^ IS 5 ;� S

fS ^ S 'ts S "�

S *S 2 �s s fS

eu" J 4 ^ >2 ^


4^1 a

�<S pC! ^^

^ ^s ;S

^ ::� :S




































*>— ^














p ^



>•! 1.11. 11.1. gi %\% i.t%H.%



•ft c*

<• H ^ 52 ^

o -S ^ ^ ^

� ^a >• >• ^


1 3


-^ ^ a J -^



I •


*A oCS

8 ^


X s s

I 2 ^ -8 'S I -S -S ? P -S



t � � I I
J •� ^ J� S


^ ^ g -g




^ ^ ^ e "^ •Atf

I I ^ I If I |l



S � i I S

? ? � 2 ?

I, I, ^ ?� ^







$ 333. All these compounds may be used without any change, whether they refer to
nouns in the masculine or in the' feminine gender. If the head-borough or the sweeper
should be of the female sex, the Dat. Sing, would still be t|i�i^ ^SK^ grdmai^ye striyaif
WR9^ f^9R khalapve striyai (Kftsik^ i. 4, 3). Sometimes, however, if the meaning of a
compound is such that it may by itself be applied to a woman as well as to a man, e. g.
WAlpradhtftj thinking, some grammarians allow such compounds to be declined in the
feminine, like H^Sftt lakshmilk, except in the Ace. Sing, and Plur., where they take ^ am
and W: oA; K^pradhyam^ JWl pradhyali, not Wfipradhim or Wt^XpradMtL (Siddh.-Kaum.
voL I. p. 136). A similar argument is applied to ^t|L* punarbh4h, if it means a woman
married a second time. It may then form its Vocative 1 ^�T^ he punarbhu (Siddh.-Kaum.
vol* I. p. 138), and take thejive fuller feminine terminations (� 324).

Ma8C. and Fbm.

Fbm. only.













J[^ pradkye

or vApradhyai



or mtlpradhy^


nun pradhya^

ox XtWlpradhydh



or TfyApradhydm



or it^pradhi



N. A.V.

nuf^ pradhyau

V:^ pradhyau

I. D. Ab.

Wtt^ pradMbhydm

Vtftuii pradhfbhyibn


WBtn pradhyoh

Wfn pradhyol^




m* pradhya^

nW pradhyaft


nun pradhyafi

nUR pradhyat,


inftte pradMbhik

Xri\^. pradhtbhUi


. W^^ pradhibhyah

nWtW pradhtbhyaf^



or irlt�lf pradkbUtm




I. Monosyllabic Bases m%i andv^^ being Fendfdne only.

� 224. Bases like yft dhi^ intellect^ ^ M^ happiness, |(t hriy shame,
Wt bhi^ fear, and ^bhrU^ brow, may be declined throughout exactly like
the monosyllabic bases in ^ I and "9 1^, such as ^ 14^ a cutter. Their only
peculiarity consists in their admitting a number of optional forms in the
Dat. Abl. Gen. and Loc. Sing, and Gen. Plur. These may be called the^t^
fuller feminine termimUions in ^ ai, ^ d^, ^tn dh^ ^ dm^ and iff ndm.



� 225-




Optional ftaller


Optional ftiUer

fern. only.


fem. only.





N. ift: dhiii

);:; bhih,

A. ^n dhlyam

^ bMvam

I. fWm dhiyd

^irr Mttt;^

D. f^dhiyi

ft^ dhiyal

^ AA2�t;^

^ bhuvai

Ab. dm </Ai^<�$

ftnm dhiydlf,

^^ bhuvdi^

^irn A*tit?<4

G. fMn: <;Aiy<C^

fmr. dhiyaff,

^T* bhuvdi^

^^ AAw(/^

L. f^<;%t

fW^ dhiydm

^[fl ftAwrf

^^ bhuvam

V. ^.dhih

^ Mt/^




^^ dAt^vatt

I.D. Ab. iftinif dhibkydm

^gvqf bhibhydm

G.L. ftnfh <�ltyrf*

^^ bhtivdfjL



N. f)nv: �?Afyai&

^ bhiival^

A. f^: dhiyaj^

^. Muro^

I. >ft^. (f^rMf^

^ Mt{M{/l

D.Ab. vN: dhibhydh

^ini: bhUbhydh

O. fWirf ^Af2^(/m

ilhri dhindtn

^^ bhuvam


L. ^(f^^Mii


^ bkdshu

2. Polysyllabic Bases in \ i an<i? "a oi^ d^in^ Feminine only.
� 225. (i) These bases always take the full feminine terminations.

(2) They change their final ^ i and "9 it into J{^y and ^t; before terminations

beginning with vowels.

(3) They take ^ m and ^9 as the terminations of the Ace. Sing, and Plural.

(4) They shorten their final \t and "^Kl in the Vocative Singular.

(5) Remember that most nouns in ^ J have no i^� in the Nom. Sing.^ while

those in 'mm have it.

Note — Some nouns in \i take ^s in the Nom. Sing. : V4h avih, not desiring (applied
to women); H^jftt lakshmift, goddess of prosperity; W^ tarifi, boat; ff?fh tofi^ri^, lute.

Versus memorialis : W^lcAU^flilOAtf^^VllUiy^l^'l* ^MIHIH<f ^?Ri;TTf ftlc^jWt f
lif^[r�R U (Sftr. p. 18 a.)

Base ^ nadi and T^muiy, Base "^niyadhtl and '^^vadhv.

Singular. Singular.


N. T^nadi N. ^vadhd-i^

A. Tvff nadt-m A. 'f^vadhu-m

I. ^TOT nady-'d I. ^v|t vadhv^

-$ 226.



D. ^ nady-at
Ab. tnrr: nddy-d^
Q. inv. nady^
L. ifvf nady-am

N. A. V. fflf^ nady^au
I. D. Ab* ifT^t�rf na(f /-ft/
G • L. ^nrih nady-dt^


N.V. ifw: norfy-flij

A. "il^ nadi-i

I. ^rf^ nadi'bhil^

D. "Sf^^an nadi-bhyak

Ab. ii^^vif: nadi-bhyal^

G. H^lffi nadi-ndm

L. inf^ nadi-shu

D. ^^ vadhv-ai
Ab. 'WIT: vadkv'di^
G. "wn: vadhv-dh
L. ^vrf vadkv-dm

N. A. V. W^ vadhv-au
I. D. Ab. ^^{jvf vadhd-bhydm
G. L. iTttft: vadhv-6h.

N. V, ^wr vadkv-Sh
A. *^ vadki'h
\. t|^[fW: vadhd-bhih
D. ^n^ vadkurbhyah
Ab. ^t^HH vadhd'bhyah
G. ^r^ vadhd-ndm
L. ^ifj vadkd'Shu

Compounds ending tn Monosyllabic Feminine Bases in^t and 9 tL

� 3a6. Compounds ttie last member of which is a monosyllabic feminine base in ^^ or
V I?, are declined alike in the masculine and feminine. Thus ^J^* stfd&li|l, masc. and fem. *
if it means a good mind, or having a good mmd, is dedmed exactly like ^ dhili, ^jfft
subkrifltj masc. and fem. having a good brow, is declined exactly like W* bkriffif, without

* The following rule is taken from the Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 136. It^l dh/G^, intellect,
stands at the end of the Karmadhlbraya compound like Wfi^pradhih, eminent inteUect, or if it
is xised as a Bahuviihi compound in the feminine, such as wAi pradkih, possessed of eminent
intellect, it is in both cases declined like ^S^ffh lakshmih. It would thus become identical
with Wfilpradhih, thinking eminently, when it takes exceptionally the feminine terminations
(� 333). The Ace. Sing, and Flur., however, take ^am and Wt aft. The difference, therefore,
would be the substitution of ^y for ^�y before vowels, the obligation of using the fliller
fem. terminations only, and the Vocative in ^ t, these being the only points of difference
between the declension of f9H!Th lakshmff^ and ^ dhth, fem. The SiddhAnta-Kaumudf,
while giidng these rules for IPlfh pradMlt, agrees with the rules given above with regard
to ^|M^: sudhih, &c.

t The Voc. Sing. ^^ judAru is used by Bha^, in a passage where R&ma in great grief
exclaims, ^ f^liH W^ % ^ hd pUah kvdsi he subhru, Oh father, where art thou. Oh
thou fine-browed (wife) I Some grammarians admit this Vocative as correct ; others call it
a mistake of Bha^ti ; others, again, while admitting that it is a mistake, consider that
Bhat^ made R&ma intentionally commit it as a token of his distracted mind. (Siddh.-
Kaum. vol. I. p. 137.)



� aa6-

excluding the fiiller terminations (jkai,^flldh, irf dm, ^n^)* for the masculine, or the
simple terminations (^ €,^alt,Wt ah, ^t, ^ dm) for the feminine. The same applies to
the compound ^Wtt sitdhih, when used as a substantive, good intellect.

If the same compounds are used as neuters, they shorten the final ^ < or ^tf of their
base, and are declined like ^Tlft vdri and ^ mridu, with this difference, however, that in
the Inst. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Sing. Dual and Plural they may optionally take the masculine

Maso. and Fmn.

Opttonal ftillar IbmiB.

Optional forms for nenters. ezoefpt





N. ^: sudhiJ^

ijl^ mdhi

A. ^fViT siulhiyam

^fv MMf Ai

I* ^|fW mdhiyd

or |[fW�IT sudMnd

D. '^l^sudhiye

^fll^ 8udhiya%

or ^ftl% 9udhine

Ab. T^^amx audhiyai^


or |[fViT: #tMf AinaA

G. ^|fiR: sudhiyafjk

^iVim sudhiyd^

or ^[finrt 9udhinah

L. ?|fM^ mdhiyi


or ^f^fiT ^d%jm

V. ^^ sudhilk

^�i�{At or ^^iMJAe




N. A.V. ^|fti4^ sudhiyau

^ftRft sudhini

I. D. Ab. ^^1^ mdhibhydm

or ^ftiHrf sudhibhydm

G. L. ^fV^qh sudhiyoh

or j^iV^*^! ft^f At�o$




N.V. ^f^in sudhiyai

^^AfVr ft^AJiii

A. ^jftro 8udhiyah

^lAf^ ^^^A^nt

L ^pfHii: ^^ JMt^

or ^fV^n stulhibhi^

D. ^iA�n sudkibhya^

or ^fifW sudhibhyab

Ab.^fsftsm 9udhlbhyaJ^

or ^fV�n sudhibhya^

6. ^gftnii sudhiydm


or ^^A^ sudhindm

L. ^iA^ �tf (f A&Aii

or ^ftlj 9udhishu

* 1 can find no authority by which these fuller terminations are excluded. In ^j^^�1
bakuireyaii, the feminine 'ihf^ ireyait retains its feminine character (naditva) throughout
(Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. ii6); and the same is distinctly maintained for the compound
irAt pradhth, possessed of distinguished intellect, if used as a masculine (Siddh.-Kaum.
vol. I. p. 119).

-� aa7�



Kbm. and Fern.

Opttonal ftiUer ftnnt.

Optional forma for neaterB�eioept
Norn. AocYoc

with beautiful brows.




N. ^s^subhrO^


A. igfi sfubhruvam

^ 9ubhru

I. '^^ subhruvd

or ^^IITT ^dArund

D. ^^ stdfhrme

^^ #tt&Aruvai

^^ 1^ 9ubhrune

Ab. ^1^ mbkruvaJjt


or ^^9: subhrunab

6. ^^ subhruvai^


or ^^19: ^udArtttia^

L. ^^fir subhruvi


or ^^1% subhrui^

V. ^ �< JArd^

^subhru OT^'bhro




N, A. V. ^^ MfMruvotf

^I^nift n^Arifi^f

I. D. Ab. "^^^ 9ubkrilbhydm

or ^fHff syhhrubhyam

O. L. ^f^ subkruvo^

or ^^^ mbhrai^b




N.V. ^^: subhruvafk

?|^|f)ir wbhrili^i

A. ^1^ subhruvah

^l^flir 9ubhrAi(fi

I. ^l^fW: subhfilbhi^

or ^^fW: �tf iAruiAt^

D. ^^v: MfiArdMya^

or ^^f�n M^Aru&Ayo^

Ab. ^^: mbhrHbhyah

or ^^jMH Mf iArud^a^

O. ^fWf subhruvdni


or ^f^ �tedAr<{9am

L. ^^ �iMrt2�Ati

or ^^ mbhrusku

Compounds ending in Pohfiyllabic Feminine Bases tn ^ t a$id 9 ti.

� 337. Feminine nouns like ^l^ midland ^m^cAomtf may form the last portion of com-
pounds which are used in the masculine gender. Thus ^J^NM^ bakiUreyasi, a man who
has many auspicious qualities (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. pp. 116, 11 7), and H fdl ^*J^ atichamd, one
who is better than an army (Siddh.-Kaum. voL i. p. 133), are declined in the masculine and

N. ^Jwnft hahuireyati *
A. Wi^M^ bahuheyasim
I, ^^it^pi[X bahuheyasyd
D. ^IJ^^Hm bakuireyasyai
Ab. Wyitront bahuireyasydli
6. 'Wf^^Q^OTt bahusreyasydh
L. Wjvlll^i bahuireyasydm
V. "Wf v)4|f^ bahuireyasi


fjilll^i^ bahuSreyasyau
Wj^^W bahuireyasyaa
4f ^^4llM|t bahuireyas(bhydm
4f ^^4llM|t bahtUreyas(bhydm
^wifWllMi bahuireyadbkydm
^j^Ml4\: bahtOreyasyob
^^M^^\ bahuireyasyob
W^miMT 6aAti^6y<uya�


^J^^iMl bahiUreyasyab
^fM^^^ bahuireyatin
^j^^lARi: bahtUreyasibkib
^Ww[f[\^s^ bahuireyasibkyah
^jfitVlWi^ bdhuireyadbhydb
^f d<44fi�if bakuheyastndm
^^wf^lt^ bahUreyatishu
^T^hPEKft bahuireyasyab

* From cT^epfh lakshmil^j the Nom. Sing, would be ^ifjCWUlrtl atildkshmiff,

P a


N. Hfll^'Ji atichamiift
A. V (A^^atichamUm
I. uPrt^HI atichamvd
D. vPa^^^ attchamoai
Ab.^wftP^*TR attchamvdl^
G. vHl'^^l* atichamvdfi
L. linil^MT atichamodm
v. vOmi} atichamu


vfiH^*Hi atichamvau

nfh^W atichamvau

'Wfil^lJ^n atichami&hydm
^nH^IJMI atichamdbhydm

^rfiT^^^ atichamiSfhya^

\l atichamvafL*

Nouns like 9*1 lO Jtufiulri, a maa who behaves like a girl, are declined like ^j^Htil
hakuireyati, except in the Ace. Sing, and Plur., where they form ^TTV kumdryam and
^IIT^! humdryah, (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. pp. 118, 119.)

^ 2^8. ^ 8trl^ woman, is declined like Tf^ nadl^ only that the accumula-
tion of four consonants is avoided by the regular insertion of an \i^ e. g.
fipin striyd, and not '^ssinstryd. Remember also two optional forms in the
Ace. Sing, and Pliur.

Base Igftstri and f^^nstriy. (Accent, P&n.yi. i^ 168.)

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. ^ gtri N. A.V. (idlir 8tr<yau N. ^RH striya^

A. ^jfF stiim or (^4 striyam I. D. Ab. ^pf)^ stHbhyam A. ^! �/r^ or Ugfm striydfL

I. f^ppn^/rty/ G. L. %nih ffriyejj^

D. f^jfl^ striyai
Ab.G. i^pRH striydlL

V. f^�^W(Pfti[^. 1.4,4)

� 229. When ^^ sfrl forms the last portion of a compound, and has to be treated as a
masculine, feminine^ and neuter, the following forms occur :

I. ^fif^. stribhih
D. Ab. 9fh�i: stHbhydf^

G. ^fNrt�^r<�/fn(P&9.i.4,5)
L. kjj[\^ strUhu





Hfilf^PS atistrih
rirfllf^ atktrim or
t^vflrf^pi atistriya

irfM^ppnr atistrind


D. Vftim^ atUtraye
Ab.G. ^t^f^ atistrefk



wfil^ijf atistrau
vPfl^ atistre



^rfir%n dtistrih
r VPrif^ atistrim or
[ vPflf^A atistriyam

nfVf^MI atistriyd
VPilf^^ atistriyai or
Pri^^ atistraye
r HPift^l^t: atistriydl^ or

Wfkf^gprf atistriydm or
VPri^pji atistrau
^Vfk^ atistre




HPtlP^g|4UI atistri^

r VPflf^^JU atistrine or
L ^ffiH^B^ atistraye
VPil(^4U� attf^rttui^ or

vPdl^pIT atistrau
^Vflf^ atistre


Vfri^! atistre^
WPri (^ (lU a^is/rtV* or

* The neuter is said to be N. A.V. Sing. WJ*l^rfl bahuareyast, N. A.V. Dual �ij^��tn�fl
^^aikuirtfya^fir, N. A.V. Plur. lj$>4|^PH ^aAtiireya^nf, Dat. Sing. i||^^ C^?) or
**^t% baJnUreyasyai {-sye ?) or -�6ic, &c.

-� �3o-





N.A.V. Vn i l\{j4t atistriyau
I.D.Ab. wGlf^ri^ atistribkydm
G.L. VlOlf^lih atistriyoh



irffffSPtt atistrayah
Hfif^fhrj^ attstrin or
^ifkf^gnn atistnya^
wfirffSffo atistribhi
VPilf^^ atistribhy
wftnEjfhoi atistrindm
Vfwf^^ atistrishu

Wflf^nit atistriyau
HflffiSRVt atistribhydm
VlOlf^lih atistriyofi



vHl^fl^: atistraydhk
J Hfil^liP: a^wM$ or
1 ^rfkffann atistnyah

wPiif^diR?: o^/rt^^

vOlf^W atistribhy
vOl^mt atistrii^


Vfrif^'lin atistrii^i
^VflffiSPlt atistribhydm
^tfir^pifh atistrino^


In the masculine final ^1 is shortened to ^t, and the compound declined like ^if^ ifcam^,
except in the Nom. Acc.Voc. and Gen. Loc. Dual. In the Ace. Sing, and Plur� optional
forms are admitted. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 134.)

The feminine may be the same as the masculine, except in the Instr. Sing, and Ace. Plur.,
but it may likewise be declined like ^^g^ str< in the Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. Sing.

The neuter has the usual optional forms.

Bases inj^i and 7u^ Masculine ^ Feminine, Neuter,

^ 230. There are masculine^ feminine, and neuter bases in 1^ t and 7 u.
They are of frequent occurrence, and should be carefully committed to

Adjectives in ^i are declined like substantives, only that the masculine
may optionally be substituted for the neuter in all cases except the Nom.
and Ace. Sing. ; Nom* Ace. and Voc. Dual and Plur. Ex. nf%; iuchift, masc.
bright 3 nf%: hichi^y fem.; vfv iuchi, neut.

The same applies to adjectives in 7 u, except that they may form their
feminine either without any change, or by adding ^ t Thus c7f : laghu^,
light, is in the fem. either c^ laghui, to be declined as a feminine/ or c9^
laffhvi, to be declined like tf!(t nodi.

If the final 7 1� is preceded by more than one consonant, the fem. does
not take \i. Thus Trf^^a^u, pale; fem. xft^ipdrufu^*

Some adjectives in 7t� lengthen their vowel in the fem., and are then
declined like ^ vadhdh* Thus ttjj: pangul^, lame; fem. "TO paiigilf^.
Likewise ^^f^ kuruh, a Kuru ; fem. ^^[^ kurHlf, : some compounds ending in
"9^: ilruh, thigh, such as ^pft^ vdmorui, with handsome thighs, fem.
TO^ vamorulh


Bases in \i.









Bases in 7t<.


poet tnat{, thought o^^ water mfuli^, soft nifidd,Boft

N [^^'

[ kavdy-e

Ab.G. 1^

[ kav4-lk

V (^





WXHtnatdy-eot mttJO
IW maty-ai vari'^

^nXmati-h or ^ifVuil

Tin mo/oi^ or <||fXRu
IfTTT maty 'dm vdri-i^





mfuft^, soft


^[^mfu2(fo-eor ignrnfuiii^iitfor
^ mfidv-ai l|^ mfiddv-e
ipfhmfidf^^or ^ign* mftdi^iia^ or

l|^ mfuioi^ or •jjlT*! fiiruli�Hif or
l|lf mjidv-dm ^J^ mjidad

N.A.V. I




irftr^or ^p^

Ttftsft ^

vdri�^ mpdd



[ havC^hydm mati-bhydm vdrubhydm mfidd'bhydm mfidd'bhydm mifidd^hydm



N.V. 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ,

vdri'i^ infidv'6^



kaoi-n matt-fk
[ kavi'bhUk maH'bhifk

ikaoi^hya^ maH-bhyat^
fqTni •THnfT

kav{'8hu mati'Shu


mifiddo'dfi mfiddv-aft







vdri'bhydtk mfidd-hkyd^ mfidd'bhyafk mfidA'bhyatk

t^rr^ ^.^ ^^..

vdri-thu mjidA-tku mjidUslut

* The Gui^a in theVoc Sing, of neuters in ^t, 7�, ^r*> i'' approved by M&dhyandini
Vyftghrap&d, as may be seen from the following verse : ^R^j^VT ^f|ilQl|p|%iM ^hf IHIT

t Nouns ending in short ^t^ 7�, ^p, and ^a, and having the accent on these vowels,
may throw the accent on •ITit^ in the Gen.Rur. (Pfti[^. vi. i^ 177). Hence matindmy or,
more usually, matMm,

X The lines of separation placed in the transcribed paradigms are not intended to divide

-� as*-



� 331. lAr kati, how many, '^flfyaH, as many (relat.), and Iffir taii, so many, axe used
in the Plural only, and take no tenninations in the Nom. and Ace. Plural. For the rest,
they are declined like 1|Pt kavi, and without distinction of gender.


Nom.Voo. Wfif kdti

Ace. Vfir kdti

Instr. ^iflrfk: ibirt&Ai^

Dat. IVfirW kdtibhya^

Abl. ivflivr* kdHbhya^

Gen. inftsft kdtiiUbn

Loc. ^VflfJ kdtishu

� 232. vftr sdkhi, friend, has two bases :

^mT^^sdkhdy for the Anga, i. e. the strong base.
^[f^sdkhi for the Pada and Bha base.
It is irregular in some of its cases.

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N. Wmtdkhd

A. 4lfl|4| sdkhdyam

^IWmi tdkhdya^

I. 91^ sdkhyd
D. W^idkhye
Ab. ^f^ idkhyvfk
6. W^9dkhyu(i
L. 41 WT sdkhyau

TlAf^ sdkhibhydm
TlAf^ sdkhibhydm
^rftPi^f mikkibhydm
4l4Nii sdkhyol^
Wiwftl sdkhyo^

^rfMWt sdkhibhifi
^f^S^ idkhibhyafi
HftlPi^t sdkhibhya^
Wift^ sdkhtndm

like Nom.

like Nom.
The feminine mftfoAA^ is regular, like i|^ mi{f<.

At the end of compounds, we find ^% $akhi, masc. declined as follows :
Base ^fi(W tusakhi, a good friend, masc.


^��iM muakhdyam

^41^*1 susakhaye
Ah. ^^BWtnMoAiU^
G. ^'B^ fMoAiU^
L. ^Hfii muakhau


^jWWm siuakkdyau

^HMW susakhdyau

^frf^P^f 8U$akhibhydm

^�wii MwoibAjfO^
^�wi* tusakhyoli
^P9t^ 9iuakkdyau

^4lfll^; susakhdya^*

^vOiMlS ficiaibAt6Aya^
^H^�ri 9U$akhMm
T^^gf^ tusakhisku
^H^W* suiokhdyali

At the end of a neater compound ^% sakhi is dedined like ^Tft 0^ (� 330).

the real terminations from the real hase, hut only to fiunlitate the learning hy heart of these
nouns. Masculine nouns in short '9u are )fT^ bhdnu, sun, ^^ vdyu, wind, nf^tntA^ti, nom.
prop, ^ft^ pQu, as masc.> is the name of a tree ; as neuter, the name of its fruit (SAr. i. 8, 1 7).
Feminine nouns in short Vu are V^ dkenuk, cow, ^IJt rajpifi, rope, K^ tami^, hody. '
* Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 11 9.



� ^33-

� ^33> vfffpati, lord, is irregular:

N. Vfiflpdti^
A. Vf^pdtim
I. '^fVlpdtyd
D. Vl^pdtye
Ab. G. V^l pdtyuh
L. "^wipdtyau
V. yfkpdte


N.A.V. v:iftpdti

I.D.Ab. ^ffir^ pdtibhydm
6. L. mftlpdtyoh

N. Mn�i;/?<�toyaA
A. MriT�^/?(f//�
I. MfifRn pdtibhifi
D. Ab. ^OrflfMn pdtibhyah
G. IlifhfffiJiftlnAn
L. ^rfirjj^rf/MAtt
V. MAm pdtayal^

"^pati at the end of compounds^ e.g. ^[jtfjf bhilpatif lord of the earth,
V!9nmfiX prqfdpatiy lord of creatures, is regular, like ^irf^ kavi. The feminine
ofi^pati is V^ paint, wife, i. e. legitimate wife, she wfab takes part in the
sacrifices of her husband. (P^. iv. i, $$.)

$ 334. The neuter bases xtHsf akshiy eye, wf^asthi, bone, ^fifdadki, curds, n?<^Msakthi^
thigh, are declined regularly like '^(ift.vdri; but in the Bha cases they substitute the bases
m^I^ akshi^, ^irn asthny ^^dadkn, fiflpJJ sakthn. In these cases they are declined, in fact, like
neuters in m^an, such as ^iH^^ndman. (See note to � 203.)

Anga and Pada base ^ff^akshi, Bha base mTOaibsAn.

Singular. Dual. Plural.

N.A. wftf i�JtsAt N.A.V. nfVl^ dkshini N.A.V. WHflOlf (fj^^A^^t

I. WVUI akshna l.D, Ah.^tf^^ dkshibhydm I. ^ fll| (W: dkshibhih

D. ^nn akshiiL^ G. L. V^lHt akshndh

Ab. G. V^mt akshndh

L. Vft^ir aksh^^ and VmRu aArsA^

V. V^ <�ibsAe (or wftf dkshi)

D. Ab. ^lfB|VEf: dkshibhyah
G. tn^oi akshnam

�a�6^ tn ^ ri. Masculine^ Feminine^ Neuter.
� 235. These bases are dechned after two models :




Base �T1| ndpifi, grandson
N. 'mnndptd
A. l{WXt ndptdr'am
I. •THT ndptr-d
D. ^n^ndptr-e

Ab.G. 'H^lndptufi
L. �fMUsit4jp^ar-�
V. -HT. M^talt{r)


^n[ svdsri, sister

I^IHK svdsdr-am
Htil svdsr-d

^T^! svdaufjk


VTJ dhdtfi, providence

VTJW dhdtT<-i^ or ^irgfT rfA^r
^Ijiit dhdtH-ne or 1TO <i*<ftr^
VTfpin dhdif^'i^ or VTJt (f A^
VTjfiff dhdtrC^ or ^nwft dA^<
V!^ d*//r� or VHT: dMifaA(r)

* If If ri has Ud&tta and becomes ^r and is preceded by a consonant^ the feminine
and the Aj&di Asarvan&masth&na cases have the Ud&tta.

-i 336.



A. •nrs^fu^/i^-n

I. rn|fW: ndptri'bhih
Ab. tryn ndptfi-bhya^
L. *T^ ndptri-shu


^Wt svdsfi-ft
4S4{n?! svdsfi'-bkifi
t�4i�Mi svdsfi'bkyah
WW^^ svds^'bhya^

IfllHUl svdsfi-ndm ( Ved. svdsrdm) YTipDT dhdtfi'ffidm


4S4IIM svdsdr-au VTfllft dhdlfi^fi

^1^^ svdsfi-bhydm VTf)^ dhdifi-bkydtn

W^ svdgr-ofi VT^pfh dhdtfi-fott

2. The second model differs from the first in the Ace. Sing., Nom. Ace. Yoc.
Dual^ and Nom. Plur.^ bj not lengthening the v a before the ^ r.

Base ftrjjPt^Ki 'IT^wwi/K.

Singular. Dual.


N. f^Kfd pitd

N.A.V. HHIUnd^/^r-att
I. D. Ab. Tp'rt ndptri-bhydm
G. L. •fljfc fu(jpfr-o^


A. ^^pitdr-ammfltmdtdr-amlP^^^-^^
1. f^^pitr-d 1T?|1 mdtr-d
D. ftlW/wVr-^ IfT^iii^/r-^
Ab. 1V|t jithi^ ft]: fikl/i^

G. f^^*pitii(i my.mdtufi IftRirh








(VlffU padr-afk ^TH^ rndtdt'Ch
f^n(^*pitf{-bhiiL ^Xf^^^mdtfi'bhUL
J pitfi-bkyafi J mdtii'bhyd^

\ p(tah{r) mfT* mitah{r) f^n(9p<tarau^TW^mdtttrau f^flUX p(tarah •niiC mdtarah

After the first model are declined most namt�a actoris derived from verbs
by the suffix ^ ^H ' ^ dS/ff, giver ; ^ itor/ff| doer ; 1^ tvdshtfi, carpenter ;
ftf h(Stri, sacrificer ; >r| bhartri, husband*

Afi;er the second model are declined maBCulines, such as ^rif bhrdtfi,
brother; Wn^jdmdiriy son-in-law; ^ devrt, husband's brother; if^
savyeshthriy a charioteer : and feminines, such as jf)^ duhitri, daughter ;
^^^ ndnandri or Hl�i^ nanandfi^ husband's sister ; titj y<i/p> husband's
brother's wife. Most terms of relationship in ij ri (except ^1^ wdsfiy sister,
and ^ ndptfiy grandson) do not lengthen their ^ ar.

Note — If words in ^ p are used as adjiectives, the masculine forms may be used for the
neuter also, except in the Nom. and Ace. Sing, and Nom. Ace. Voc. Dual and Plural. The
feminine is formed by \{; '^^kartjriy fem. W^kartri, like �P(t nadt

� ^36. idf Mshfu, a jackal, is irregular ; but most of its irregularities
may be explained by admitting two bases, id^ krdshtu (like ^ mridu) and
litj kroshtri (like �rq[ naptri).



N. IVtfT krosh{d
A. WWtt.kro8h(dram
J ldj(<ll kroshfund
fWn kroshfave
Hcftl krosh(oft
li(ft kroshfu^
WSi kroshfau
V. lit St hroshfo


N.A.V. lAsiO kroshtdrau

I.D.Ab. litf^ kroshtubhydm


J Hffil kroshtvoJi
L IKtS^ kroshfroli


N. litrrc kroshtdrai^
A. l�tf�^ifcr(�A^

I. IKtjfk: kroshfubh^k

D.Ab. ldjWitro�Af�6Aya^
G. litj[Hi kroshfUndm

The base 'fit^kroshtfi is the only one admissible as Afiga, i.e. in the strong cases,
excepting the Vocative. (^ IStVS ke kroshfah is, I believe, wrongly admitted by Wilson.)

The base Ituf Aro^Afu is the only one admissible as Pada, i. e. before terminations begin-
ning with consonants.

The other cases may be formed from both bases, but the Ace. Plur. is litp[krosh^n only.
(P49. VII. 1, 95-97.)

Those who admit Ht^krosh^n as Ace. Plur. likewise admit ijhv itro^Afum as Ace. Sing.
(3&r. I. 6, 70.)

The feminine is WXl kroshfriy declined like '^V^nadi,

� 337. v|[ Aft, man, a word of frequent occurrence, though, for convenience sake, often
replaced by �ft nara, is declined regularly like f)|f pitfi, except in the Gen. Plural, where it
may be either vTOrt njii^ or ^lOTT np?^. (P&9. vi. 4, 6.)




N. -mnd

•TO ndrau

•RS fufro^

A. "^tndram

^f(U ndrau


I. W nrd

•p^lf nribhydm *


D. ^nr^(Ved.i��rc)

HWn nribhyim

W^K nfibhydh

Ab. ^ n4h

^JWlt nfibhyim

^pift nr{bhydi^

6. '^:ni^(Ved.fiira#)


�pirr nf�7^ or fWt nrinim ( Ved. naram)

L. '<^flu^

^ wrrfj


V. 'Hlndli

�Tu lufrott

•TO fwiro^

The feminine is tfrtt ndrt.

2. �a�^� ending in in a and VT ft�

^ 238. This class is the most numerous and most important in Sanskrit^
like the corresponding classes of nouns and adjectives in uSy a^ um in Latin^

* The accent may be on the first or on the second syllables in the Pada cases beginning
with ^bh and ^ �. (P&9. vi. i, 184.)

-J 239.



and OS, 17, oy in Greek* The case-terminations are peculiar, and it is best to
learn "qifw: kdrUaf^, iihfT kdntd, iihi kdntatn by heart in the same manner as
we learn bonus, hona, honum, without asking any questions as to the origin
of the case-terminations, or their relation to the terminations appended to
bases ending in consonants.





Base ^kdntd



N. lir. kdntdh



A. iM kdntdm

^ihrf kdntdm

^t^ kdntdm

I. Wk^ kdnt4na

WK^t kdntdyd


D� wTR kdntiya

WfcA kdntdyai

irfirni kdntdya

Ab� '^i^ITUkdntit

^ihmn kdntdydhk


G* ^shnEV kdntdsya

HflfPnt kdnidydf^

lihr^V kdntdsya

L. *^ kdnU

^VhrPVf kdntdydm


V. -^kdnta

^ ibiii^c? *

^ ibinfa

N.A.V. iliflik(kta4



I. D. Ab. llhfP^ kdntdbhydm

^Vhnvirf kdntdbhydm

^Vhrpjlli kdntdbhydm

6.L. Hhx^. kdntdyofi

Ifhnfh kdntdyoft

'^dttrftl kdntdyofi

N.V, ^rfirn kdntdft

^fffl* /(^t^^

'^iintH kdntdni

A. lhlAl�(^A:<^/^A

irfm: ib<&f<^

lihrrftf kdntdni

I. mfi: kdntaa

itfnrSi: kdntdbhif^


D. Ab. ^ifihiii: kdntMyafi

'llhrn^t kdntdbhyafi

irf^Vin kdntibhyaf^

6. ^ihrT�ff ^^//ii^

^ShfRf kdntdndm

^ShfRf kdntdndm

L. ^frij it<^^^A�

Hhn^ kdntdsu

mk^ kdnt4shu

Note — Certain adjectives

in WS a^, ^ ^9 ^ am, which follow the ancient pronominal

declcDsion, will be explained ii

1 the chapter on Pronouns (�


fio^es tn ^&, ilf<�c�2^fi� and F(niitmne.

� 939. These bases are derived immediately from verbs ending in VT d, such as V^pdy
VIT dhmd. They are declined in the same way in the masculine and feminine gender. In
the neuter the final VTiJ is shortened, and the word declined like ^^i^kdntam,

Anga and Pada base f^T^PHtihapd, Bha base f^C^^vUvapy all-preserving, (masc. and
fem.) The neuter is declined like ^lUtkdntam (� 338).

* Bases in W ^ meaning mother, form their Vocative mWa; e. g. ^TS akka, W^tanba,
^19 alia J But ^Nrrn ambd^d, ^nnc9T ambdldy and llftrVT ambikd form the regular Vocative^
H^lf ambdde, lKn� ambdle, MtWmtanbike.

Q 2



� 240-


Mabculinb and Fbminins*







OtMim vUvapd-m ftfU^r vUtmpau

(V^mi vihapd'h

ftrvn vi^ap-afi

P^mm vihap-d
fqniH vUvap-e
Pcinm; vihap'ofi

ftnWffill vihapd-bhift
flWITWi: ffUvapd-bhya^
Rl^MWt vihapd-hhyaji

^[^X^ vUvap'4m

r�IHIMI^ viivapd'Su

N, HmiM vUvapam

Decline 'fO^MK somapd^y
dkanaddf^, wealth giver.

$940. MasoulinesinW^,
as follows :

Base ^T^ A^Atf .


N.V. ^rptMAii^

A. 1|T1|T A^2A(^

I. fTfTA4�^<2

D. 1(1^ A^at

Ab.- ^!^l! ^A(2A

G. I^I^U AtfA(2jl

fqniH vihape ftf^'TTftT vUoapdni, &c.

Soma drinker; ^RfHTTt iaiikhadhmd^, shell-blower;

not being derived by a Krit suffix from verbal roots, are declined

^n^ hdhau
^tp hdhau
^T^P>lf hdhdbhydm
^I^P^ hdhdbhydm
^TfT^ hdhdbhydm
l^T^ hdhau^
^Vpi hdhaufb

^nr: A^A(^

^TflfW: hdhdbhih
^T^TW hdhdbhyah
^T^TW hdhdbhyah
IgT^ A(f A(?m
^I^T^ hdhdsu



^241. As every noun in Sanskrit may, at the end of a compound, form the
final portion of an adjective, all the essential rules for the declension of such
compound adjectives had to be given in the preceding chapter. Thus in the
declension of neuter nouns in w^flw, like inr^mcfna^, mind, the declension of
mll^lf^^nandnasJ as an adjective masc, fern, and neut., was exhibited at the same
time (^ 165). In the declension of nouns ending in consonants, and admitting
of ho distinction between masculine and feminine terminations, (this applies to

* The S&r. i. 6, 38, gives the optional form ^T^t hdhSh in the masculine. At the end of
a feminine compound the same form is sanctioned in the RApAvali, p. 9 b.


all nouns with unchangeable bases,) the special forms of the neuter in Nom.
Acc.Yoc. Sing. Dual and Plur. had to be exhibited. See � 158, K^f^jalamuk,
^fif9^ jalamuchiy ino^f^ jalamunchi. In the declension of nouns with
changeable bases, the more important feminine and neuter forms were
separately mentioned ; and in the declension of nouns ending in vowelsi all
necessary rules with regard to the same subject were fully stated.

^ 242. The chief difficulty which remains with regard to the declension
of adjectives is the exact formation of the feminine base, and the rules on
this subject are often so complicated that they have to be learnt by practice
rather than by rule. The feminine bases^ however^ once given, there can be no
doubt as to their declension, as they follow exactly the declension of the cor-
responding feminine nouns. A few observations on this point must suffice.

^ 243. Adjectives* in ila form their feminines in w\d. Ex. fmpriya^
dear, masc. fnx priyai^, fem. ftnn priyd, neut. fifA priyam, to be declined
like imr kdnta {� 238).

� 344. Certain adjectives derived by im aka form their feminines in ^VT ikd. Ex. ^mi
pdchaka, cooking, masc. ^I|TW9: pdchakaft, fem. ^Tlf^l^ pdchikd, neut. ^IT^^ pdchakam.
Likewise masc. %i�K sarvdkdhy fem. Vf^^ sarvikd, every ; 71^^ kdrakah, doing, iw(V�M
kdrikds ^M^ ihatyakd^f present here, ^CPiQ^il ihatyikd. But ft^nST kshipakd, fem. one
who sends ; �iMf��i kanyakd, fem. maiden; ^{4il chafakd, fem. sparrow; Tfim tdrakd, fem.
star. Sometimes both forms occmr ; V^IW ajakd and wf^Tir ajikd^ a she-goat.

� 245. Bases in if ft and in �^n take ^ ^ as the sign of the feminine : ir|
kartriy doer^ ^fi^ kartri (^ 235) ; if€^^ daif^in^ a mendicant, ^r<�fl dan^ini
($ 203). Likewise most bases ending in consonants, if they admit of a separate
feminine base : JCT^prdchy w^prdchi (^ 181) ; is^ivan, dog, m\iunl (^ 199) ;
^W^bhavaty ^T^rn^ bhavati (^ 188). Some adjectives in ^ van form their
feminine base in "^vari: ifl^^Jvan, fat, '^[^ pivari ({ 193).

� 246. Many adjectives in ^a form their feminine base in \i (� 225), instead oi^d:
q<u�i^* tfii^mayaJi, made of grass, f4U�i<n trii^mayi; ^^^l devafi, god, divine, \'4t devij
in^t taru^ or ricJHt talunah, a youth, d^'iUl tarw^i; f^lK* kumdrah, a boy, ^*iiO kumdrij
^ft^t gopaji, cowherd, 'iWtyopf, his wife, but ifrtTyop^, a female shepherd ; nnqil nartakali,
actor, •fWt nartaki; ^T mpgah, a deer, Jpft mjigi, a doe ; ^^ sdkarah, boar, f|�a<l
sdkarij ^M4K� kitmbhakdrah, a potter, l^^H^lO kumbhakdri. It wiU be observed, however,
that many of these words are substantives rather than adjectives. Thus if?9't matsyaft, fish,
forms mritnuitH {^ya being expunged before %/) ; •I'j^i manushyaf, man, H^^ manusM,

� 247. Certain adjectives in Kl tail, expressive of colour, form their feminine either in
ItttdoT m •ftfi^: "^tltt iyetah, white, ^^WT^eM, ^Mffl iyenij Wletdh, variegated, 'Z^etd
or WA 9nij Or^ift rohitah, red, 0(f Ml rokUd or Of^^l roAt^l, but "^tifl hetahy white,
^i^ ^dtf/ ^vftfilTa^t/^, white ; MrcofiipaZt^^, grey-h(ured�

* iprT^tT yv^uwocAana, the name for adjective, occurs in P&9. v. 3, 58.


� 248. The formation of feminine substantives must be learnt from the dictionary. Thus

IKm ajah, goat, forms ^W^ajd. W^ aha^, horse, forms W^ahd*

'Wr555 bdlafi, boy, forms Nlc4l bdld.

,. , , �/. , - r TOTT Mlrd, a woman of the S^Mra caste.

�np sUdrt^, a sAdra, forms -{ ^^ .^ _ ^ ^, .. - cy^ j
'^^ [^[jfTjftWri, thewifeof aS^iidra,

Mnfcil mdtuldhf maternal uncle, forms n\^f!imdtuU or �ii�€6i�fl rndtuldni, an uncle's wife.

Vl^l4* dcMrydtiy teacher, forms WT^Twft dchdrydnt*, wife of the teacher ; but lll^l4l

dchdryd, a female teacher.

^ifln patiliy lord, forms V[^patn(, wife, &c.

Degrees of Comparison.

� 249. The Comparative is formed by irt ^ara, or $<il^ iyas {� 206) ; the
Superlative by in? tama, or ^ ishfha t. These terminations inc tara and IHT /oma
are not restricted in Sanskrit to adjectives. Substantives such as Ji nfi^ man,
form wim: fifitamai^, a thorough man; ^gf\ stri, woman, ?sfhnCT strtiard1(.,
more of a woman. Even afler case-terminations or personal terminations,
inc tara and jm tama may be used. Thus from ^i||^ pilrvdhi^^ in the
forenoon, yij^l^rtX pArvahnetarey earlier in the forenoon (Pan. vi. 3, 17).
From "^r^nfK pachaii^ he cooks, ^^['iiiiiS pachatitaram^ he cooks better (Pap. v.
3, 57), iT^finnrf pachatitamdm, he cooks best (P&n. v. 3, 56).

� 250. 7R tara and inr tama, if added to changeable bases, require the
Pada base. Thus from Tft^prdch {� 180), wwcprdktara; from ylf^dhofdn
i� ^^3)> ^^f^n^dhanitara ; from ^f^!{^dhanavat (^ 187), H9mrt^Aanat;a//ara;
from f^nsm^vidvas (^ 204), f^:w^n vidvattama ; from vnf^pratyach (^ 181),
vnni^fS^pratyaktara, There are, however, a few exceptions, such as ^i:i|^�flii:
dasyuhaniamah, from !;^|C�^ dasyuhafij demon-kQler ; ^^iVpirt: supathintaraj^^
from '^^ffi^supathiny with good roads.

^251. i^^iyas and jw ishfha are never added to the secondary suffixes
f /ri, inr ma/, in^va/, ^Ti|va/a, l^vm, ^tn. If adjectives ending in these
suffixes require ^ iyaf^ and jwishtha^ the suffixes are dropt, and the ^ iya^
and Jji ish{ha added to the last consonant of the original base. ^c4m�^ bala-
vdfiy strong, '^rt^f^B[^^bal'iyas, ^fc9T bal-ishtha. ^^ dogdhfiy milking, ^t^N^
doh'tyas, !^^f^ doh-ishtha. ^(^H^ sragvin, garlanded, W^ft^srqf-tyaSy more
profusely garlanded, iffivflv^ m^a^imdn, wise, ^Av(^mat^(yas, vi^nmat-ishtha.

* On the dental �^�, see Gana Kshubhn&di in the K&s'.-Vritti.

t Before KT, tara and IHT tama adjectives retain their accent; before ^in^fy(M and ^ ishfha
they throw it on their first syllable (P&n. iii. i, 4; vi. i, 197). There are a few exceptions.

X Feminines in %(, derived from masculines, must shorten the ^C before KKtara and
KIT tama; Ali|iu1 brdhmarii forms Mlnf^flT.! brdhmai^itard. Other feminines in ^ ^ or 9 tf
may or may not shorten their vowels ; ^)fi stri forms tP^n^i stritard or i^^Ail stritard.
Also dllUlflil ireyasttard or vi^filrt'il ireyasitardj ftj4hro vidushUard or ftjftUTT
vidushitard (P&9. vi. 3, 43-45).

-$ 252.



� 252. Other adjectiveB^ too, lose their derivative elements before |Tn^fy6�
and ^ ishfha, or are otherwise irregular by substituting new bases for the
Comparative and Superlative, iir: pdpaJ^, bad ; imA^ pap-iyas, worse ;
TKlPn pdp-ishtha, worst




I. wfini antika, near


n^*�t( nediyas

Tff^ nedishtha

2, V^ a^a, small


^ffrt^m kaniyas

^ifvfV itanwAf Aa

or VfSfl^m alpiyas

vHmV alpishfha

3. 7^ tim, wide


^O^H^ variyas

^ftlV vamAf Aa

4. ^TJ fiju, straight


^prt^ fijiyas

^ffirv rywA^Aa


^edic X^ft^(^^rajiya9

Tftrf rajishfha *

5. ^5 kji4a, lean



HSf^ kraHshlha

6. ftvv kshipra, quick


t|Ml^^ ib<A�pfy<�

^fftrV Jb^A^uA/Aa

7. )|[^ kshudra, mean


^^^^ ib�;ko%a�

^(tfl^ kshodishfha

8. ^J?5 ^r�, heavy



l|(Xv garish^ha

9. ^ /ftpra^ satisfied



9^49 fffpisA^Aa

10. tjfra dirffhOy long


^[nfrif^ drdghiyas

^jrflW drdghishfha

II. J[t cUra, fiu



^[fVT cfovwA^Aa

13. T7 dfi^ha, firm



7{[f^ drafhishtha

13. m(V^� parivri^ha, exalted ^ Pvr ^ parivra^h ^ffxjRth^parivra^yt

IS VftttfiW parwra4k

14. ^IfiMv^ broad


1V4N^ prathiyas

HftW prathishtha

15. ll^l4Mj>ra/(Mya,praiseworthy ^ ^a


^V iresh^ha

or mjy a



16. ftnTprtya, dear



fn preshfha

17. ^W bahu, many



^fn bhUyishfha

18. *4^ bahukiy frequent

Mf baihh

4^1 mi baihhiyas

^^tfffW baihhish(ha f

19. ^[9 bhri^a, excessive


Vrp^lV^ bhroHyas

^rf){fV bhroHsh^ha

30. ^ inf�d�5 soft


^q?(hn^ mradiyas

vfi^ mradishfha

31. ^^yuvan, young


^�fl^'4^ yavtyas

Vf^ yavishfha

or W^^kan


^Bif�TV iban�AMat

33. ^^n7 vdtfha, firm



^rrftfV sddhishfha X

33. ^ vfiddhay old


iT^ftn^ varshiyas

^FQv var^AwA^Aa

or mjya



34 . ^^ 1 i.^ vfinddraka, beautiful ^vnW

^?(hW^ Vfindiyas

^f^ vpficfurA^Aa

35. iWsMtra, firm

^ stha

-^k^ stheyas

^OT stheshtha

36. ^c9 8tk4la, strong


Wft^ sthaviyas

WPl� stkavish^ha

37. Ow^ipAtra, thick



^V spheshiha

38. ^{9 hrasva, short


4^1^^ hrasiyas

iS^fi krasish^ha

* PA9. VI. 4, 163.

t See Phitsiitra^ ed. Kielhom, 1.7; 33 (30).

X P&5. V. 3, 63,



� ^53'



� 253. Cardinals.

1 ^ ZJ^Hi, W9f, ^^ ^kai^ (kd^ 4kam, one. (Base v^ eka.)

2 ^Vyii %, dvaii, dvSf dv4^ two. (Base iff rft^a; in comp. ftr dvu)

3 < ^nt, fllFJ, aWrr, trdyai^, turdhy trini, three, (Base ftffn.)

4 ft ^iVnc:, ^tCWBlf ^^rmflCy chatvaraJj^^ chdtasrai^f chatvdriy four.

'IJij cJuUur.)

5 M iTV/MiAcAa, m. f. n. five. (Base VM9[^pafu:han.)

6 \vpi^ shdty m. f. n. six. (Base ^^shash.)

7 i9 ^nr sapid, m. f. n. seven. (Base JXVR{^saptan.)

8 fc wwi ashfaii, m. f. n. eight (Base iRVt^ ashfan,)

9 ^ ffViuifa, m. f. n. nine. (Base i^^m^navan.)

10 ^0 ^ ddSa, m. f. n. ten. (Base ^TH^ daian.)

11 ^ ^m^ ^iir^i^aia, eleven. (Base as in ^^19^ daian.)

12 ^ �^[9 dvadaSa.

13 ^^ ?Pihni trdyodaia.

14 ^ "^VftV chdturdaia.

15 ^M iN^ j^i^A^aia.

16 ^ ifhrir shdifciSa.

17 S.9 inn^ sapiddaia,

18 ^t ^Bin^ ash{adaia.

19 H^ ^n^ ndvadaia or

V^fj^rfin UnavimSatii^.

20 ^0 fr^flr: vi^dti^, fem.

21 ^ ^nf^nfin ekavimiaiify.

22 ^^ iir^yOi: dvdvimiati^.

23 ^9 ?pitf^nifk: trayommiatih.

24 ^i ^^reTyOi: chaiurvimSatii^.

25 ^ ii^Ot^ni; panchavimiatiJ^,

26 Hf Hri^Oi: shadvimiati^.

27 ^ ^INDiynR: saptavifhiaiii^.

28 ^b llBir49lOi: ashfdvimicUi^.

29 ^ H^ntyOi: navaviihiatii^.

30 ^0 f?!^!^^ trimidty fern.

31 ^ ll^ircj^ll^ ekairimiat

32 9^ YTf?T91^ dvdtrimiat.

33 m ^TT^n^ irayastrimiat.

34 ^i ^^Sf^SNn^ chatustritniat.


35 ?M iMInn^j^ancAa/rimia/.

36 ^<{ il^f)A^ shaftrimiat.

37 ^ 4IHf)i V<^ saptatrimiat. .

38 ^b WlOiv^ ash(dtrimSat.

39 9^ •I^QhII^ navatrifhiat.

40 to ^HIl(X(|l^ chatvdrifhidty fem�

41 ^ l!4^i4irUll^6tacAa/v(frimia/.

42 i^ Vl^i^l(t|l^ dvdchatvdrimiat or
f^r^iVrft^ dvichatvdrimiat,

43 ^9 ^irenrft^/rayaicAa/v^nmio/or
rA^f^lftyi^ trichatvdrimiaL

44 M ^A^i^ldj^iq^ chatuichatvdrimiai.

45 dM M ^ ^^14 1 rUll^/^ancAacAtf /^({Wjnia/.

46 M( N^^HIint^l^ shafchatvdHihiat.

47 ^5 ^H^i^lfitlA �aj9/acAa/t;^rtinia/�

48 ib llVl^i4in;iflaM^<^Aa/t;(frimia^ or
Wf^i^in^lJJI^ ashtachaivdrimiat.

49 i^ H^^KIinty ^ navachaivdrimiat

50 MO li^T^i^ancAiiia/, fem.

51 M^ i!4k 14^191^ ekapanchdiat.

52 M^ fflM^llllA dvdpanchdiat or
f^nrvT^ dvipanchdiat.

53 M^ UCM^IIH<i, irayaipanchdiai or
flRM'mitl^ tripancfidiat

� ^53-



54 M� ^:^Nl^ chaiuhpaikchdiat.

55 ^^ 'i^ M^ \^\panckapanchdiat.
5^ *<*? '^^'^^'^I, 9hatpanchdiat.

57 ^9 ^ H M^ I ^1 (^ saptapanchdiat

58 Mb HflM^mn ^M^po^hdiat o]

irrt^rrjn^^ ashtapafichdiaU

59 M^ •IMM^mn^ navapaHchdiaL

60 1(0 irf^ shashtthL^ fern.

61 1(S IT^wflr: ekashashfiit.

62 ^ Vl^fv: dvdahashiih, or

f|r^: dvishashfiJjk.
^3 M ^TO'lflr trayah^hashtUjk or
f^RfV: trishashtiijt.

64 l^t ^yuifV: chatushshashfii^.

65 I^M TV^: panchaahashtil^,

66 !{<{ It^^ffc shafshashfif^.

'6y {^s ^Enmfr: sapitishashtilj^.

68 <{t ^RVTirfT: (iskfdsh(i8hfiit or

^rviff?: ashfashiuhfii^.

69 1^^ "TRfv: navashashtiJ^.

70 ,90 Ffffli: saptafif^, fem.

71 �9S ^VffRflr: ekasaptaiii.

72 5^ TT^nrfH: dvdsaptati^ or

f^mrftr dvisaptatii^.

73 9^ ^^I^hPit: trayal^aptaiiJ^ or

f^wrfir: triaaptatih.

74 <** ^:^nifw: chatu^aptaiii^.

75 "^M ^HHIlftn panchaaaptatiff,.

77 M Tnnmfk aaptasaptatih.

78 t9b ^ranranifin ashfdsaptati^ 01

W^hOi: aahffisaptatify.
79 M H^^hDi: navasqptatii^.

80 to ^nifHW: oi&fiil.

81 tS ^nif^fHtr. ekditti^.

82 t^ SHrtfln dvycMti^.

83 t; 'q^rtfli: tryaiUii.

84 M ^ fliJIiinf: cfiaturaiiti^.

85 tM >i^n^BWn paHchdHtii.

86 bit ^lIlAfln shaiaittih.

87 t9 ^nn^ftfln saptdHtii^,

88 bb ^VVT^I'HH: QshtdiiHh.

89 b^ ^m^ftflr: navdiUih.

91 ^^ C4�l^ni: ekanavaiih^

92 <^^ YPnrfift dvdnavatiii or

fkrf^fln dvinavati^.

93 ^^ ^Rt^nfli: trayonavaiih or

f^n^^Hi: trinavatii (not 1

94 ^i ^g^^Oi: chatumavfUih*

95 ^M '^hnrrflr: pafichanavatH^.

96 ^l^iimflr: Mannot^a/i^.

97 ^5 �H�f�irfr: aaptanavatih.

98 ^b WN<ini: ashidnavatih or

isnnnfin askfanavatil^,

99 <^^ H^H^f)r: navanavatih> or

76 i9t( ^^mrftn shatsaptatih^.

.100 soo ijnf ia/awi, neut. and masc. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 635.)

loi so^ ^^wftrii ijrir ekddhikam kUam^ hundred exceeded by one ; or as a coin->

pound, I!4iin4�9lli ekddhika-iaiam^ or ?nmi^ ekaiatam^ as before.
10a ^0^ srfW ?rf dvyadhikam iatam or %^ dviiatam, (Pft^i. vi. 3, 49.).

103 ^0^ "arfVnt ^ tryadhikam iatam or ftnjlf triiaiatn.

104 �io4 ^j[<fV%^ chaturadhikam iatam or ^^ chatu^atam.

105 soM ^i^TfM% '^ panchddhikam iatam or iH^ j9ancAaia/am.

106 ^olr ^iftri ^ sha4adhikam iatam or ^7^ sha(iatam.

107 ^05 FRTfWr ^ saptddhikam iatam or ^rrr^ saptaiatcmt.

108 sob ^rvrfVrtf ^ ashfddkikam iatam or ^VV^ ashtaiatam. (Pan. vi. 3, 49.)

109 so^ ^rnfV^ ^ navddhikam iatam or if^^ navaiatam.


122 KUMEEALS. � 253.

no ^^0 ^^iifVfii ^ daiddhikam iatam or ^n^nf daiaiatam.

Ill ^"W ^4 l <j[i i r w ^ ekddaiddhikam iatam or l!�mnn} ekddaiaiatam &c.

or ^^Kn|[^ l(nf ekddaiam iatam, i. e. a hundred having eleven (in

excess). Paij. v. a, 45,
112^^^ TT^^nfVnir i^ni dvddaiddhikam iatam or Tt^ ^ dvddaiam iatam.

1 13 ^^9 ?Rt^l?TfW4r )(nf trayodaiddhikam iatam or ^4)<;^ l(lii trayodaiam iatam.

114 s^i ^ 4^ 91 1 ri(4 ^ chaturdaiddhikam iatam or ^g^ ^i ^l A chaturdaiam iatam*

115 ^V\ ^'if^^nftr^r ^panchadaiddhikam iatam or ^i^^ ii[ipanchadaiam iatam.

116 ^stf M^f^lirnA ^ shotfaiddhikam iatam or ^i^tl^ l|rff sho4aiam iatam.

117 S^5 ^nr^^nfW^ ^it saptadaiddhikam iatam or ^Em^lRir'ap/actaiamia^am.

118 ^^b ^irn?P(rrMr ^ aahtddaiddhikam iatam or WVT^ ^ ashtddaiam iatam.

119 ^s<t �n^'^nfM^ '^fn navadaiddhikam iatam or fi�l<^l W 'uivac/aiam iatam.

120 ^^0 f^^imfVv ^ vimiatyadhikam iatam or fnl ^ viiiiiam ia/am *.

121 ^^S ^irf^^n^f^ ^ ekavimiatyadhikam iatam or mrf^ ^ ekavimiam

iatam*, &c.
130 s^o f^f^r^fVv ^ trimiadadhikam iatam or f^ ^ trimiam iatam*.
140 sdo ^Vr9Tfc^r^fv% ^ c/uiivdri/hiadadhikam iatam or ^Hlft^ l|nf chatvd"

rimiam iatam*.
150 ^Mo ^Hrrp^Arir "^panchdiadadhikam iatam or ij^l^ i(|ff j^a/icAiiJam iatam*

or ^!t9^ sdrdhaiatam, 100 +4- (hundred).
160 sl{0 tmfv% ^ shashfyadhikam iatam or ivfV^ �AaM^i^a/am.
170 ^$0 ^HimPhA ^ saptatyadhikam iatam or ilH 01^14 saptatiiatam.
180 ^to v;flfiirM4 ^ aiityadhikam iatam or V^llOl^li aiitiiatam.
190 H<^o �n7riV% ^ navatyadhikam iatam or tfCfOl^M navatiiatam.
200 ^00 Ir ^ ^t'^ ^a/e or flnpir dvUatam or fy^ni^ dviicUt
300 ^00 ?ff% ^tnrrf^ /r^ni jaMni or f?nrw triiatam.
400 ioo ^iWlft ^nnf^ chatvdri iatdni or ^{T^W chatuhiatam,
500 MOO irv ^nrrffT pancha iatdni or irv^ panchaiatam.
600 <fOo ^ ^{nnf�T �Aa^ ia/dni or ^T^^ shafiatam.
700 ^00 ^TR ^IiuPh �ap/a ia/^m or ?fin^ saptaiatam.
^ 800 boo ^rv IHinf^ o^A^a iaMni or tnf^ ashfaiatam.
900 <^oo fTT ^nirfW nava iatdni or tn^frtf navaiatam.
1000 ^000 ^ ^nrrfW <^aia ia/(:{7ii or ^9T(r?rt daiaiati, fern., or i(r|# sahdsram^

neut. and masct
2000 ^000 ir ^Vfir dve sahasre,
3000 ^000 yffif^ Tr^9T% ^r^Tit sahasrani.
10,000 so,ooo ^er^ ayutam^ neut. and masc.f

* P&n. V. 3, 46. The same rules apply to W^ sahasram, 1000, so that loii might be
^ rendered by ^^VT^ H^tJ ekddaiam sahasram, 1041 by ^^WWTftsI �^V ekachatvdrimiam
sahasram, &c. t Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 635.


� 253- NUMERALS. 123

100,000 soo^ooo Hlif laksham, neut. or fem.*, or ftfjw niyutam, neut. and masc.t

One million, K^prayutam, neut. or masc*

Ten millions, ^it^ ko(i, {em.X

A hundred millions, V^ arbuda, masc. and neut

A thousand millions, T^T^ mahdrbuda, masc. and neut., or "^tpnpadtna, neut.,
L e. lotus.

Ten thousand millions, 1ft kharva, neut., i. e. minute.

A hundred thousand millions, fimt mkharva, neut.

A billion, f^nn mahdpadmay neut.

Ten billions, :^ iafiku, masc, L e. an ant-hill.

A hundred billions, ^^ iaf^kha, masc. neut., i. e. a conch-shelly or ^t^

samudra, masc.^ i.e. sea.
A thousand billions, iTfn^ mahdiaiikha, or lirq antya, ultimate.
Ten thousand billions, fn^ hdhd, masc, or mn madhya^ middle.
A hundred thousand billions, wp[if^fnahdhdhd, or '^^parardha^ i. e. other half.
One million billions, jp^ dAuna, neut.
Ten million billions, >TfT^ mdhddhuna.

A hundred million billions, nuj^ 1^1(0 akshauhini^ fem., i. e. a host.
A thousand million billions, iffFsfH^^ tnahdkshatihint

In the same manner as ^rftn adhika, exceeding, 7K9f Una^ diminished, may
be used to form liumerical compounds. 4^Jt^ ^ pafichonam iatam or
^^^lUn paftchonaiatam, 100 —5, i. e. 95. If one is to be deducted, tsr iina,
without ^iv eka, suffices. iRf^l^flr: Unavirhiatib, or lE^^vfr^vHllt ekonaviihiaUby
20 —I, Le. 19. Another way of expressing nineteen and similar numbers
is by prefixing wwm ekdnna, i. e. by one not ; ^^rnfff ^rfvt ekdnnavimiati^,
by one not twenty, 1. c. 19. (P&9. vi. 3, 76.)

Declension of Cardinals,
Singular. '^ ^*^' ^^�- Plural.


N. ^WC ikaf^ fW 4kd ^ ^am '^ eke WlSC 4kdh H^iPh &idn%

A. "WM^kam '^:^(kdm Vik4kam "WW^ikdn ^Wt ^<i^ F^Wfif^^^nt

I. ^[^ (kena in^RT 4kayd ^^^Ff ^em ^: ^aih ^Wtftr: ikdhhifi ^t 4kaih

D. ^^mi^^kasmai l^S^ ikasyai VW^ ^asmai vk^l^ebhya^^W^.^dbhyahVy^^Ukebhyah
Ab. ^:^mT^^Ska8mdtW:^Sml4kasydl^W^fm^^^^asmdi ^ipsv:4kebhyc^T^:W(^:ikdbhya^'^k^:^ebhyah
G. ^!Wf^^ixsya ^^S^Ukasydf^W^fi^^asya K^nl^keshdm ^4i\Hl ikdsdin K^Hiikeshdm
L. W^(\�t\^(^asmin'^^S'^^asydm^^UH^(^kasmin K^^^esku <s�wq ^dsu ^w^ekeshu
V. ^3S^a ^ifite ^^<^a l^/ifcc WWil ^dh W^fnf^ 4kdni

* Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 635. t Amara-Kosha iii. 6, 3, 24.

]: A different string of names is given in theVdjasan.-SanhitiL xvii. 2. See also Woepcke, Merooire
8ur la propagation des chiffres indiens (1863), p. 70 ; Lalita-vistara, ed. Calcutt. p. 168.

R 2




^ 254. ffgdvi, two^ base T dva, like ivfir Mn^a (^ 238).



N. A. V. ift drai^ t rfr^

I. D. Ab. yp^ dodbhydm TfV^ dodbhydm

$ 2^55- ftr ^^i three, fem. fir^ <Mft.


^J'^ dodbhydm
Tljte dvdyofk

N.V. ?nn*r(fyaj
A. ?rt�^*r�i

I. f^vfn: frid^^

G. ipn^ini <ray^
L. 1^ triskd

fiXBl tisrdf^ (PA9. VI. 1, 166)

ftf^Hft tisiibhyafi
tfT^Si HsfVfdmf

fcr>n tribhydh

$ 256. ^VJ^ chatur^ four, fem. ^h^ chatasri,

N. V. ^ifRTC chatvdra^ (P&n. vii. i , 98) ^V1I9! ehdtasrah

A. ^fjt: cAoh^oA (PA9. VI. 1, 167)

I. ^V^f^ cAo/i^&AiA

D. Ab. ^9^ chai^bhyafi

G. ^plr cAotufii^m

L. ^^3^ chatArshm

^VlP|<m chatasr^hyaft
^4^^i chatiurvfdm f

•^HUfi. ehatvari '
^3^ chatdrbhyah


iN�^/>ancAany five. ^�A(mA^ six. tnn^a^A/an^ eight


N.A.V. ir^prf�cAa

I. iprfir: |iaticAi6A�A t ir^. shatfbha

D. Ab. '^H^n/MiiScA^Aya^ ^T^^ sha4bhydf^
L. "^i^iC^paiichdsu

^ivt ofAfoic or ^IV ash^d

^rrfW: o�&/^A^ or m^ as^dbhi^ II

WT^t ashtdbhydh or ^IVV<n ashtdbhya^

WRfi askfdndm %

tH9l^ ashfdsd or ^VV^ ashfdsu


Cardinals with bases ending in �^ �, such as 9II9( saptan, ff^ naran,
|ri^ daiariy l� 411^)1^ ekddaian^ &c., follow the declension of ^q^ pafichan.
fHipfin vimiati^ is declined like a feminine in ^i; those in it / like feminines
in II ^; 1(17 iafam like a neut. or masc. in IV a.

$ 258. The constraction of the cardinals from i to 19 requires a few remarks. W^ eka
is naturally used in the singular only, except when it means some ; ^% ^^^^ eke vadantif

* Not firo tisiifi, nor "^nw; chatasf{!i. (Accent, PAp. vi. i, 167, v&rt.; vii. 3, 99, v&rt.)

t Not ftPTOT tisriifdm, nor ^WOTrf chatasjiiridm (PAn. vi. 4, 4), though these forms occur
in the Veda and Epic poetry.

t Accent, P&n. vi. i, 180 j i8i. || P&n. vi. i, 172. H P&n. vii, i, 55.

-^ 259. KUMBBALS. 125

some people say. % dvi is always used as a dual^ all the rest from 3 to 1 9 as plurals.
Ex. f^ffin ^[^% tribhih purushaii^, with three men ; <<�i^^i ^^m^ekdda^a pwnuhdn, eleven
men, ace. The cardinals after four do not distinguish the gender; ^^iii^^i �flO* tkddaia
ndrih, eleven women, aco.

While the numerals from i to. 19 are treated as adjectives, agreeing with their substan-
tives in gender, if possible, and in number and case, N^ihi* vimiatihk and the rest may be
treated both as adjectives and as substantives. Hence HJ^iGi: ^i^l[|i viMatil^ datrih^,
twenty enemies, or ft^fflT ^ici^* viMatifi iatraoaft: ^flR fVi^isi shask^ ^avafi, sixty
boys ; '^ MIc^lP*! datam phaldtti, a hundred fruits ; f^VV^ ^^ triMatd vriddkaifi, by thirty
elders ; '^ ^i^nl iatam ddsindm or '^ qitm* iatam ddsyafi, a hundred slaves ; Tll[f(
f^niTt sahasram pitaraft, a thousand ancestors.

Exceptionally these cardinals may take the plural number : 4^l||f)|(% pafiehiUadbhir
hayaili, with fifty horses.

j 259. Ordtnali.

. iTinn, *^, ^, prathamdl^. Ay am^ *]
^fff^:^ �m, �^, agrimdfyy dy am, > the first,
^rrfipn, �m,'^, ddimdhk. dy amy J
ftnrhn, �^> ^ dvUtyaf^y dy amy the second.
ipN:, �in, *^ tfitiyahy 4, am^ the third.
^fj^, Nf, ^, ehatwrtkdhy U am, ^
^9^* **^, �^ turlyai^y dy am, I the fourth.
1^> "^^j �% turyaJ^ dy amy J

'^^P^y ^, ^, j9a/u?Aa9mC^, /^ am, the fifth*
^>vn, ^, ^y ahashthdfyy i, amy the sixth.
^nw:, ^ift, ��?, sapiamdl^y <, am, the seventh.
^I?it:, ^f ^y ashfamdiky i, am, the eighth.
^TW:, �ift, *^, navamdf^y i, am, the ninth.
^[HR:, ��ft, �ir, daiamdhy U �^> the tenth.
^'W^j *^^f ^^9 ekddaidl^y f, am, the eleventh.
^n^:, �^, �^, navadaSd^y i, amy
'^K9(f^*f �^> �^, dnavimidJjty i, amy
^^WyO i aii: , "^9 ^'il, dfutvifhiatitamdiy iy am


the nineteenth.

f^. o^. o^. viMd^, f, am (P&9. v. 2, 56), 1 ^j^^ t^.nti.th,
W^lflm i ;> �ift, �4, �t)ft<a/(<am<i^, t, am, J

�5|n, o,^, o^ <nm<�f*, r, am, 1 the thirtieth.

i?nnnT:, ^, ^> trifhiattamdJ^y ty am^ J
^Wlfl^�^ o^, chatvdrinMh, i, am, 1 ^^ ^^^^^

^HtintyiH:) ^j ^^9 chatvdrifkiattamdky if am^ J

^'^np, ^, *^, panchdSdi^

r:, **ift, �H, panchdSaiiamdijt

;?' '� ""*♦ , 1 the fiftieth.

IsatiamdJjky i, am^ J

126 NUMERALS. � a6o-

— ,^

irfvinn shashtitatndfyy the sixtieth *.

^f^mflnnr: ekaahashfitamdi^j

^^m ekashashtdhi

^cnrfrnnf: saptatitamd^, the seventieth.

l!MHniA4i: ekaaaptatitamdhA ^, . /, .

> the seventy-first.
^sRnnn ekasaptatd^, J *^

V^llfflAH; aiitUamdJ^y the eightieth.

....>. ' > the eighty-first.

^^j^. ekdiiidh, J ^ ^

^nfinPT:� ^, ^, navaiUamdi^, i, am, the ninetieth.

KUtf^OlAH: ekanavatitamd^, \ ., • . ^ ^

V the ninety-first.

r: ekanavatdJ^y J

^nnPTty �ift; *^, iatatamdh^ <, am, the hundredth. (P&^. v. a, 57.)
l!4iVAAH: ekaiatatamdl^y the hundred and first.
^T^HiPr: sahasratamdl^, the thousandth,

j a6o. Numerical Adverbs and other Berivaiives.

>enp^ sakfit, once. IHIVf e^ad%4^ in one way.

%: <fot^, twice. ffin dvidhd or INt dvedhd, in two ways,

f^ trihy fhrice. f^m f ncIA4 or d^ tredhd^ in three ways.

^ chaiui, four times. ^ig^ chaiurdhd, in four ways.

iHnfi^ j^ancAaAp/va^^ five times. 'q^rVT/'ancAa^Ad, in five ways,

il^^pi: shatkfitva^, six times, &c. 1^ shoifhd, in six ways, &c. (or i|Ti|T ?)

^^i|^ ekaiai^, one-fold�

f^nin dviSaif two-fold.

ftpj; triiai, three-fold, &c. (P&i?. v. 4, 43.)

v4 dvayam or fkinf dvitayam, a pair. (P&Q. v. 2, 42.)

If4 tray am or ftnr4 trUayam or ?nift <rayl, a triad.
^�gf4 chatushfayam, a tetrad.
'^^Vn^i'a^Aatoyam, a pentad, &c.

These are also used as adjectives, in the sense of five-fold &c., and may
then form their plural as v^nmtpanchataydf^ or v;^^ paHchataye (^ 283).

"^mpanchaiy a pentad, ^^ daiai^ a decad (P&Q. v. i, 60), are generally
used as feminine; but both words occur likewise as masculine in the
commentary to P&n. v. i, 59, and in the KHsikft-Vritti.

^ The ordinals from sixty admit of one form only, that is IHH tamafL; but if preceded
by another numeral, both forms are allowed (P&p. v. 3, 58). '^ datam forms its ordinal as
^nnnn iatatamai. only (PAp. v. 2, 57).

-J 261.





J 261. Personal Pronouns.

Base (in composition) m mad and Base (in composition) iw; tvcul and

H9V7 asmad.


N. irt ahdm^ I

A. Kf mamy in md^ me

I. iRT mdydy by me

D. inff mdhyamy ^ m^, to me

Ab. T^mdt, from me

G. YR tndma, ^ m^^ of me

L. ^f^ mdyiy in me


iW /v^m, thou

Hrf <rai�, m /t;(!{^ thee

f^in tvdydy by thee

^ tUbhyam^ ^ te, to thee

ffVI^ /vii/, from thee

ir^ tdvaj ^ te, of thee

fWftl ^V(fyt, in thee


N. WTHf 4�<M?*, we two ^prf yuvdm, you two

A. ^rnt ^</m, ^ notf, us two ^[^ yuvdm, ^ t^^m^ you two

!• ^mr^ dvabhydm, by us two ^^TT^ yuvdbhydm, by you two

D. ^rnrP^ dvabhydm, ^ na�^ to us two ^pn^ yuvabhydm, ^ t;(!{m^ to you two

Ab. in^piilf dvdbhydm, from us two ^^V^ yuvdbhydm, from you two

Q. lin^ifk dvdyoh, fft �ai*, of us two ^^pfh yuvdyo^, ^ t?4w, of you two

L. VTTJV: dvdyo^, in us two f^njh yuvdyol^, in you two

N. Ti vaydm, we

A. ^r^n^ asmdn^ '^^ nai^, us

I. W9n5?: asmdbhii^, by us

D. Il9r4 asmdbhyam, ic nai^, to us

Ab. ^BT^n^ asmdty from us

G. ^r^RFi asmdkam, tf: na$, of us

L. ir^RTI asmdsu, in us


^ ydydm, you

Tpn^ yushmdn, m vai^, you

Y^nfW: yushmdbhih, by you

^9fv4 yushmdbhyam, ^ t;a$, to you

^pm ytf^Am^^ . from you

^^irNi ytuthmdkam, m vah^ of you

^^9Tr| yushmdsu, in you

The substitutes in the even cases, iTT wa, ^ �wc, iff nau, in naij, WT /v<i,
ir ^�, ^ t;<i/�, ^ t?a�, have no accent and are never used at the beginning of
a sentence, nor can they be followed by such particles as ^ cha, and, in vd,
or, CT eva, indeed, ^ ha, ^n^ aha.




� 2,6%^


� 26%. Base (in composition) n^ tad^ he^ she^ it. (Accent, Pa^.vi. i, iSa.)








W^ftdh ^si



wn id(i infH tdni


it tdm ni tim



irn f (!^ inf�f /^ns


ihf tifM TRT tdyd

ihr tdifui


in^ tdibhih 1h ^0^^


l[m tdsnud IT^ tdsytd

Km tdsmai

ffW tdbhydhk

HT�nf^Aya^ ^[^.tdbhyafL


.imr^tdmidt H^mitdsydh Kmnf^tdmdi

iN: tibhyai^

\ HTV>n idbhyaiL flMH tdbhyafk


imt4sya Wmitdsyd^ irm idsya


wmf ^^<^ iNi ^^A^


nfw^tdsmn K^H tdfydm

Icf^SRl^ tdsmin

ITT^ <^ i^ '^A�




N.A. l^iau



I. D. Ab. TTvqi tdbhydm

IIT^ tdbhydm

TTPft tdbhydm

G.L. iritltdyol^

inftt /(fyoA

inih r<�yo^

� 363. Base (in composition









^n tydft ^n syd



' im: tyd(t> wrftf *y tf�t


li tydm Tlf tydm



wt: /y^ iinftf <yi��


R�T iydna THH tydyd


^: fya<!^

Trrfk: fy/&Ai^ d:<yaa



TTP^n tydbhydm
tl tydyo^

D. m^<y<i�ma� TTF^ /y^Csyot TT^ ^yeCsnmt ^^ /y^Aya^ 7ITW /y^Aya^ N^t/y^ftyoA

Ab. VI^^^Tf^tydtrndt Wmi: tydsydh W^^THtydsmdi W^l tydbhya^ VITW tydbhyai ^ W tydbhyah

G. 7l^/y<^a "Ft^BHl tydsydlt W^ tydsya m^tydshdm W^i tydsdm wmHtydshdm

L. n(\lH�f^^yc��iim iHt<<( tydsydm Af^^tydsmin W^ tydshu 791^ fy^nc N^ fy^Au



N.A. ?ft/yarf ^ fy^

I. D. Ab. ?n�rt tydbhydm W^ tydbhydm

G. L. ?nffc /yefyo^ ?nfh ^y(fyoA

Possesrive Pronouns.
� 264. From the bases of the three personal pronouns, possessive adjectives
are formed by means of ^ iya.

^^ly �^, �4, tnadiyah, yd^ yam, mine,
ff^t^, *^, ^, tvadtyal^y yd, yam, thine*
IRfNt, *^, ^, tadiyat^y yd, yam, his, her, its.
vm^lii:, **HT, ^, asmadiyahy yd, yam, our.
f^W{^, �HT, �^, yuahmadiyahy yd, yarn, your.
Tl^^, ^UT, ^, tadiyahy yd, yam, their.
Other derivative possessive pronouns are v^tf^X* mdmdkaf^, mine; im^
tdvdkali^ thine; vnmic dsmakafi, our; ^orni: yau�Am(JA:aA, your. Likewise

♦ P&n. iv.3, 1-3; IV. 1,30; VII. 3, 44.


^rnrafhn mdmakinahy mine ; aim^IhI tdvaktnal^, thine ; Himi^lHi dsmdkinai^,
our ; 4)^|�1iu: yaushmdkti^^ youf •

Befleanve Pronouns.

� 2,65. wisvaydm^ self, is indeclinable. ^Qr4 ^im^wayam vfitavdn, I chose
it myself thou chosest it thyself, he chose it himself; I9r4 ^^imA wayam vfita-
vati, she chose it herself; ^ri ^TRin way am vfUavanfai^, we, you, they chose
it by our, your, themselves.

� z66. wtjf(9{dtmdn, self, is declined like mp^ brahman {� 1 92). Ex. viiii|4|ilh
HHIT ^i|^ dtmanam dtmdndpaiya, see thyself by thyself, gnosce te ipsum ; vninrt
ifH Ifimdtmano doshamjMtvd, having knovm his own &ult� It is used in the
singular even when referring to two or three persons : vmnit ^^HMMI ipn
dtmano deiam dgamya mfitdi^ having returned to their country, they died.

� ^6y. 9:, ^, ^, svdi^f wdj svdm, is a reflexive adjective, corresponding
to Latin suuSy sua, suum. ^ ^ '^fx svam putram djishfvd, having seen his
own son. On the declension of 9 sva, see j 278.

Demonstrative Pronouns,
� z6S^ Base (in composition) inrf etad, this (very near).

SiNOULAB* Plural.


N. WV*eihd^ ^^etjb/ Wfni^etdt ^ eti Wmi etdh Wlttf^ etdfd

A. ^tf/dm ^WteUbn WfR^^etdt 'Hf^^etdn WKH etdh WWtt^ etdni

I. ^nt^et^M Wintetdyd l^imet^na J[lh eta<h inn9^. etabhih T^tetaCh

D. ^:W^etdsmai VIT^etdsjfai ^K^ etdsmai whmeiAhyah ^^fnpiV*etdbhifah whmetMyait
Ab. WWWn!^etdsnUU WJT^Iflt etdsydh W9f^inf{etdsmdi l^^^^et^hyah ^WtV* etdbhyah TW^eiSbhyah
G. ^K^etdaya WIT^Bftletdsydh WK^ etdsya ^^ etAhdm WKX^ etdadm 4!fl^t etAhdm
L. Ui^^etdsmin ^W^ etdiydm ^At^^etdsmin vk^etMu WKV^etdsu ^n^etishu



N.A. mieiad ^ etd itk etd

l.D. AJb.WWPf^ etdbhydm WlH^etdbhydm VWV^ et^kydm

G. L. Vir^l etdyoi ^JPft: etdyoi ^umI; etdyo^

^ 269. Base (in composition) ^ idam, this (indefinitely). (Accent, P&9.

VI. I, 171.)

Singular. Plural.


N. ^aydm l^iydm J^iddm '^imd Jfi^imdh ^ifn imdni

A. ^tnuftn J^imdm JJ^iddm l^j^imdn ^J^.mih ^.ifn imdni

I. nihran^ia WSmandyd ^i^aii^ ffif: �6*A Wf^.dbh^ .ffilt^ftA^

D. ^1^ asmai H^ asyai ^^ asmai ^?W ebhydh "VT^: dbkydi^ W)^* thhydf^

Ab,'%m^a8mdt WWl asydfi W^H^^arndt W^^ebhydf^ mW^dbhydfL W[^: ebhydh

G. ^T^V asyd "V^BfK asydlk ^tW^ asyd ^^ eskdm WT^ dsdm W^ eshdn

L. ^Kf^9^asm4n WPAasydm "V^r^afm^* W^esh4 ^T^dsd ^eshd





� 270-




N.A.V. ^^imad
I.D.Ab. WCf^ dbhyim

^VP^ dbhyim

WM|f dbhyim
1IH41� andyoik

� 370. >nf^e/eii/ and ^tdc^, when repeated in a second sentence with reference to a

preceding "^f^etad and ^ idam, Y�ty in the following cases, by substituting ^ ena, which

has no accent.

Singular. Plural.


A,^eium Wyfiendm ^�n^�ia/ A,W,H\^endn ^^ endfi K^Sn endni

r. ^^vfeitena ^9fmenayd KMn enena



A. ^�Tr enott ^ ene ^ ene

G.L. ^fffb enayoh^ 4!H^I enayo^ t^nnl; enayo^

Ex. ^I^�T ^m^PGOTAv ^ "lll^sinmil anaui oy^aro^Miiii odMtam, enam chhando ^dhyd-
payOj the gramnuir has been studied by this person, teach him prosody.

innfh ^if^ ^f?$ ^ti'4^: IV^ ^ anoyoA pavitram kukan, mayo^ prabhUtam tvam,
the fEonily of these two persons is decent, and their wealth vast.

� 2yi* Base (in composition) ^f^adas^ that (mediate)*

d ' > A


■\ t




N. irOT{uai^

^Rw a�ai^


A. ^f^amdm


^: a(2r�/^

I. ^R^pn amdnd

^r^irr amuya (Rv. i

. 39, 5) ^J^'n axw&fid

D. WIJ'R ami&Amat

^1^^ amtlsftyaf

yw^( amdshmai

Ah. Vy^ll^ami&Afii^

H^vrn amdshyd^

VI|"M 11^ amdshmdi

G. 1II|V| amdshya

H^vrn amdshydft

11*1 ■! amdshya

L� ^^rUif|^ antllsAfntn

Vy^lt amdshydm

%i9jP^9{^ amdshmm




N. Vft omf

in|t om^


A. ^n|^aml2ii

^1^: aml2^

in|ffT ameni

I� ^VIlAfii: amlAki^

^P{fWs aml{6At^

IpfKii: am/&Atj&

D. Ab. ^n^ft^: amiAhyaft

^n|j|<i: amdbhyalk

H*rtW amifhya^

G� WfKlf am<9A^m

^Vf;^ arnishdm

WiflMt amishdm

L. ^nft^ aim^hu



Wfi^ amUhu

N.A.V.^am/ LD.Al

). in{J^f amdbhydm

G. L. irpnt omt^yo^




Belaiive Pronoun.
^ %^2. Base (in composition) ^yddy who or which*






N. THyajk -^Xyi -^ydt

A. ^ydm ^yim '^^ydt

I. H^ySna '^^ydyd ^[^y4na

D. ^Kmydsmai ^(^ydsyai Vl^ydstnai
Ab. ^^^RJf{^ydsmdi HfMU ydsydfi ^^^ffX^ydstndt

G. VP^ydsya ^^f^^* ydtydl^ ^^(^ ydsya

L. ^hi^ydsmm ^1^ ydsydm Vf^fl^jydsmin

My^ it: yd^

^: y^hyaik 'TW: yibkyd^


N.A.V. -^yad
I.D.Ab. 'm^yibhydm
G. L. ^ni^ y(^o^




^■VMt yabkydm

^nftt y<^o/^


^n^llf yibhydm

THut y<^o^

^ ^73* Base (in composition) f% Km,

Who or which 1







N. MXhdii Wkd fiikim

A. ^hdm '^kdm ftk^m

I. w^kina mtkdyd n^k^M

D. ^mkdsmai ^S^kdsyai ^mkdimai
Ab. limi1^A(�nii(^^ ^l^rn it^d^ ^IWnr ib<�im^r

G. ^V9I kdtya ^K^l kdtydh ^V9I Arifjya

L. ^(ifi^^kdsmm m^l kdsydm '^S^^kdtmin

'kk^ WXkii^

-m^kin "mXkih

% ka�t^ HffW: kibhih

ikni: kibhya^ ^IW kdbhyah
ilra: ib^AyaA im^* kdbhyah

^ kishu W^ kdi








N.A. -^kad
I.D.Ab. 'm^kdbhydm
G.L. m^*kdyofi





4ilMli kdbhydm

m^* kdyo^


Wl^ kdbhydm

� 374. Pronouns admit the interposition of V^ ah before their last vowel or syUable, to
denote contempt or dubious relation (P&9.V. 3> 71). W^^Mvayakd^ By theel instead of
FHIT tvayd. ^^�pft: ywakayol^^ Of you two ! ^H^WlfWl asmakdbhih^ii^ us I W^ayakam.
^�J o^o^atf, &c. (See Siddh.-Kaum. vol. i. p. 706.)

s 2,


Compound Pronouns.

� 275. By adding i^driS, "^driid, or i^drihha, to deitaiti pronominal
bases, the following compound pronouns have been formed :

irnp^ tddfii, irr^ tddriia, ril^H| tddjiksha, such like.
tttrp[ etddrii, ieh i ^I etddfiia, WKT^ etddriksha, this like*
trr^ya^Hly tcn^yddfiid, '^ii^ yddrihlia, what like.
$^ idrii, ^^ f^fr^a, ^^ idriksha, this like.
'ifftp^M^frJl, ^fi^ Mcffjia, ^Ift^ kidfikahd, What lik6?

These are declined in three genders, forming the feotiinine in ^ 1 '^^'^
tddrik, m.n.; KTpff iddriSij f.; or Tirpr:, �?ft, ^, tddriial^, ?, am. Similarly
formed are m^ mddfiia, Hl^^l tvddfiSa, like me, like thee, &c�

{ 276. By adding ^ va/ and ^ yat to certain pronominal bases, the
following compound pronouns^ implying quantity, have been formed :

m^ tdvat^ so much, 1

WKTW\etdvai, so much, I- declined like nouns in '^vai (� 187).

Jfm^^ydvaty as much, J

CTlf fyo/, so much, l

f^ %�/, How much 1 1 ^^ ^y^ mft M^ ^ M.

Note — On the declenBion of Wk kdti, How many? irfit tdH, so many, and irfW yciift, as
many, see � 231.

� 277. By adding f^ chU, ^iPT cAona, or wfV| apt, to the interrogative
pronoun fv ^m, it is changed into an indefinlt4^ pronoun.

Tasfim^kaichity wtP^kdchii, fTilf^f{^kithchit, some one; also 'wf^kachchit ,

^TOff kaichana, WT^R kdchana^ fw^^kimchanay some one.
litsfiv ko ^pi, ^irrf^ kdpi, f^sp(f^ kimapi, some one.

In the same manner indefinite adverbs are formed ; w^ kadd^ When ?
'W^(lf^Hkaddchit, WfJ^R kaddchana^ once ; 9 kva^ Where 1 if TBpP^ na kvdpi,
not anywhere.

Sometimes the relative pronoun is prefixed to the interrogative, to render
it indefinite : iK m yaJ^ kaJ^^ whosoever ; i|^ 'is^ yasya kasya, whosesoever.
Likewise it: vf^Sff^yai^ kaichit, whosoever, or in litl yd^ kaScha, or in ^l^if
yai^ kaichana.

The relative pronoun, if doubled, assumes an indefinite or rather distributive
meaning: ift in, in iVT, inr^, yo yah, yd yd, yad yad, whosoever. Occasionally
the relative and demonstrative pronouns are combined for the same purpose :
iVH^ yattad^ whatsoever.

� a78-



Pronominal Adjectives.

^ 278. Under the name of SarvaTidmany which has been freely translated
by Pronoun^ but which really means a class of words beginning with sarva,
native grammarians have included, besides the real pronouns mentioned
before, the following words which share in common with the real pronouns
certain peculiarities of declension. They may be called Pronominal Adjectives,
and it is to be remembered that they 'are affected by these peculiarities of
declension only if they are used in certain senses.

I. ;irt sarva, all; 2n fnv viSva, all; 3. "9^ ubha^ two; 4. ^^nr ubhaya,
both; 5. w^ anyuy other; 6. ^sc^nrt anyaiara, either; 7. jKK.iiara, other;
8. n tva, other (some add iWl^ tvai, other) ; 9. words formed by the suffixes
T7R tara and wm tama, such as 9. innc kaiara, Which of two? 10. 'WIR katama,
Which of many? lo. TR sama, all ; 11. ftnr simoj whole ; 12,^ nema, half
13. ^^ eAa, one; 14. '^ pilrva^ east or prior; 15. '^tpafUy subsequent
16. vqt avara, west or posterior ; 17. ^^^ dakshiiia, south or right
1 8. 7f9t uttara, north or subsequent ; 19. w^ apara, other or inferior
20. ^N^ adhara^ west or inferior ; %i. t^ sva^ own ; 2z. thnc anta/ra^ outer,
(except WilTT ^ antard pili^y suburb,) or lower (scil. garment).

If TR sama means equal or even, it is not a pronominal adjective ; nor ^ft|lV
dakshi'^, if it means clever ; nor ^ sva, if it means kinsman or wealth ; nor
WKt, arUara, if it means interval, &;c.; nor any of the seven from "^p^rva to
^N^ adhara^ unless they imply a relation in time or space. Hence ^[flpn Tnnn
dakshind gdthakdl^y clever minstrels; Tiru: ^f^: uttardf^ kuravai^, the northern
Kurus, (a proper name); ir^[jn: 'wnprabhittd^ wdfy^ great treasures (K&s. 1. 1,35);


C ^WW gramayor m

fUare vasatt, he lives

between the two vii






^t sdrvafk*

^^ sdrvau

^n sdrve


^ sdrvam

Wn sdrvau

Wl�t^ sdrvdn


M^m sdrvei^

^ifr^ sdrvdbkydm

^S^l sdrvail^



wTWrf sdrvdbkydm

?l$^t sdrvebkyafb


. ^^MH^sdrvasmdt

^rtrwrf sdrvdbkydm

"Wm^ sdrvebkyah



n%M\l sdrvayoft
WMli sdrvayofi

^HM �drve*hdni
^Crfj sdrvesku


^l^(y^^ sdrvasmtn


^ sdrva

'win sdrvau

^ sdrve






W^ sdrve

^flJ sdrvdf^


^nX sdrvdm

^ sdrve

^tIt: sdrvdk

♦ Accent, P&ij. vi. 1, 191.




I. 94^ sdrvayd

Ab. flf^M'l* sdrvasydl^
G. ^rfwn sdrvasydf^


^rtT>^ sdrvdbhyi
^BWWt sdrvdbhyi
^Af^ sdrvdbhyi
V!^pftt sdrvayoft
irflft; sdrvayoh


^ilf^ sdrvdbh
^T^MJ sdrvdbk
imW sdrvdbk
"II^IIll sdrvdsdn
�^i^ sdrvdsu


N.A.V. ^s^frvom
The rest like the masculine.

^ 279. ^piT anya^ ^mnfT anyatara, '^JR itarOf ^nrc kaiara^ ^inr kcUama,
take If / in the Nom. AccYoc. Sing, of the neuter :
Nom. Sing. ^Pin anjra^, masc. ; wsiVT an^^, fern. ; W^onya^^ neut.

j r%8o. "W^ ubha is used in the Dual only :
Masc. N. A. V. "wiubhaUf I. D. Ab. tht^ ubhdbhydm, O. L� ^TH^ ubhayoi:
W ttAA�, N, A. V. fern, and neut
{ 281. Tinn ttdAaya^9 ^^-yf, ^ -yam^ is never used in the Dual, but only
in the Sing, and Plur. Haradatta admits the Dual.




N. 'THIT: ubhaydf^
A. tnni vhhayam
I� ^Oni^ nhhaym
D. ^TOUw ubhaya

^^Al vbhayaiik
^tSfia^* ubhayeb

$ 38a. The nine words from ^^piSroa to -inKantara (14 to 33)� though used in their
pronominal senses^ may take in the Nom. Plur. ^t or V* ah: in the Abl. Sing. ^IIIIoti^
or ^m^o/; in the Loc. Sing. f^1^<mtf� or ^t.

N. ^[^ pitrvafk

A. YJ^pHrvam

I. ^jtaptfrpc^a

D. ^[4^ pdrvasmai

Ab. }^WH^pitrv(umdi

G. ^i^mpHrvasya



^K^Twrf pdrvdbhydm
^V^ pUrvdbhydm
^^iHI pdrvdbhydm

^pdrve or ^[tlJ pdrvdft


^^^ pdrvebhyah
^M pdrveshdm

kvasmin or ^pdrve ^H\lpdrvayoh

$ 383. The following words may likewise take Ht o^ or ^ t in the Nom. Plur. masc.
(PA9. 1. 1, 33.)

inpn prathama^f first, H^PlT /�raMama�x IHR prathame or inPfH prathamdh; fem.

iiM�ii prathamd.
mm charamahf last, ^T^JT cAaramatf, ^Tln chrome or ^IDRT! cAoram^.
flnnn dcUayal^f two-fold, fem. Pan^l dvitayi, and similar words in IHV tayaj T^nRt tritayah,

three-fold : f?Til% tritaye or fclfl^U tritaydk.


yiR doayaftf two-fold, fern. W^ dvayi, and similar words m^Btyaj IPC trayaf^.
W^* a^af^j few, ^V^ alpe or W9nt alpdlt.
^: ori^Aa^, half, ^ ardhe or H^: ort^A^a.
^Hi^h; katipayah^ some, ^iflnra katipaye or ^iOmiJIt katipaydh,
nT! iMmaj^, half, nf neme or ^SfTS nemdh.
In aU other cases these words are regular, like ^ihn kdntafi.

� 384. %lrt^! dvitiyah and other words in ifhl /^ya are declined like ^iflf kib^ta^ hut in
the Dat. Abl. and Loc. Sing, they may follow ^ sarva.



N. fkfll^* dviiiyafi fMNi c?of%a� 1^1^ 111: dmtiydh

A, (ki^M dntiyam fMiH^dntiyau Unffm^dinHydii

I. (tlffl4^ dviHyena fk lA^nMlt doittydbhydm ffffXHtdmHyaih

D. fMHm doiHydya or fJTlfN^ doitiyatmai fW^t^X^dcittydbhydm ftak'^*dwtiyd)hyaik
Ab. (ll a1 I|! I^drt/fy^ or Dl rf)l4 Wl fl^<lDt%a�m^ fl |A4||M|| dviiiydbhyAn fMtH^^dvitiyebhyafi

G. Ojlillll^l dviHyasya Otiif\H^l doiHyayo^ Pi ill IIh! dmHydndm

L. f\nrt^c{i�<fy� or rknlHRfi�\c?9t%a�mt� f^Allllltt doitiyayoli f^lfii^doiHyeshu

At the end of Bahuviihi compounds the SarvanAmans are treated like ordinary words :
Dat. Sing. iipit^n[^priyob%aydyay to him to whom both are dear (PA9. 1. 1, 39). The same
at the end of compounds such as IHI^l^ rndsapHrvait, a month earlier ; Dat. l||^^9ll|
mdnqfUrvdya (P&p. 1. 1, 30). Likewise in Dvandvas; ^^ I MiHOf p4irvdpard(fdm, of former and
later persons (P&9. 1. 1, 31), though in theNom. Plur. these Dvandvas may take \ij ^KJlnJ^
pdrvd^are or ^IMUJ pdrvdpardfi. Only in compounds expressive of points of the compas s,
such as '9Wt^ uttara-pUrva, north-east, the last element may throughout take the pro-
nominal terminations (P&9. !• i, 38).

Adverbial Decktmon*

4 385. In addition to the regular case-terminations by which the declension of nouns
is efifected, the Sanskrit language possesses other suffixes which differ from the ordinary
terminations chiefly by being restricted in their use to certain words, and particularly to
pronominal bases. The ordinary case-terminations, too, are frequently used in an adverbial
sense. Thus

* Aco. f%C eMram, a long time.

Instr. (^MH ohire^f in a long time.
Dat. r^MS chirdyay for a long time*
AbL f^rn^cfttr^, long ago.
Gen. fWf.t� chirasya, a long time*
Loc. f^ cMre, long.

Other adverbial terminations are,

I* ?n tahf with an ablative meaning, becoming generally local*
3. ?T tra, with a locative meaning.

3. ^dd, with a temporal meaning ; also raised to T^TSff ddnim.
4� im^ tdt, with a locative meaning.


5. ^ thd, with a meaning of modality; likewise ^ tham and ^tha.

6. Tni^�^� expressive of e�Pect.

7. W ^ and WlH^ ^t, local.

8. f^ rhi, temporal and causaL

9. V^ tar, local.
10. ^ ha, local.

See also the terminations for forming numeral adverhs (� 260).

I. Itt taft, with an ablative meaning.
Win tatah, thence. ^IKl yatah, whence. ^IH Hah, hence ; (cf. ^flT Ui, thus, ^ iva, as.)
WW* atah, hence, ^if! hutal^, Whence ? WfiTt amutaft, thence. ^nH ma^^a^, from me.
IRTIWt tumatiaik, from us. H^^HfR bhavatta^, from jour Honour. y^^A* p^rvatajj^
before (in a general local or temporal sense). ^R^t sarvatal^, always. WQW? agrataftf
before* like ^m ogre* wfWin abhUaf^, around, near. V^nnH ubhayataf^ on both sides,
^fini paritah, all round. QHUn grdntatah, from the village. V^IHff* ajiUkiaia^,
from ignorance.

d. 9 <ra, locative; originally ^ ^r^ as in ^ 1^ M^ I purushatrd, amongst men.
inf tatra, there, ^f^ ya/ra, where, ^f^ kutra. Where ? ^[9 atra, here. v�|Ci omtt^a,
there, in the next world. <���i ekatra, at one place, together. ^?n satrd, with,
and ^I^T satram, with (see ^H^ saAa).

3. ^ cZtf, temporal.

in^ tadd, then, and IRpTv^f taddnim. WfJ yadd, when. V?^ hadd,yfh.tn ? 1I�M^I anyadd,
another time. ^Tfl^ sarvadd, always, at all times. ^flR^ eAcKltf, at one time.
^1^ sadd, always. 1^ idd, in the Veda, later ^(|[[tff iddnim, now.

4. WTIf ^^9 local.
TnW^^prdktdt, in front.

Frequently after a base in ^�.*
^gQISSUf^purastdt, before. WiU I ^ adharastdt, below. HKmi^parastdt, afterwards.
WVi^n^ai^Aasf^, below. '^^ftSTHupari8h(dt, above.

5. V thd, modal.

THW ter*tf, thus. 'HIT yathd, as. �t^ sarvathd, in every way. ^PTTOT ubhayathd, in
both ways. V^<niT anyathd, in another way. V^^ilim anyatarathd, in one of two
ways. ^WCTf itarathd, in the other way. ^[^ vfithd, vwnly(?). Or '^ tham, in
Wi katham. How ? fT^ if ^Aom, thus. Or ^ tha, in IR atha, thus.

6. TTTV ^� efPSective.

TCXW^Tnr4}asdt, (tnjPt'^ifH r^rtfo *(2ftfoam, dependent on ^e king.) HkH^i^bhasmasdt,
reduced to ashes. ^O^mf{^affnisdt, reduced to fire.

7. Wr ^ and wRs dhi, local.

l^ftfQnf)[ dakshindhi, in the South, or ^ftpiFT dakshifd. ^HilP^ Mardhi, in the North,
or "^TiRT irf/ar^ ^ITO antard (or �t -ram, or �t -re, or ^tlB -r^tw), between. fTI
purd, in the East, in front, formerly, (or ^pura^ and xpysS[TH^purastdt, before.)
VnJpaichd, behind, (or ^^^9^JfaichA.)

Adverbs such as ^j[HT mudhd, in vain, ^piT iiifif^, falsely, are instrumental cases of
obsolete nouns ending in consonants.


-f 387. CONJUGATION, 137

8. f( rkif temponJ and c&iual.

imft etarhi, at thia time, (WUson.) ^ft karM, At what time? 1|fi| yarhi, wherefore.
irf^ tarhi, therefore^ at that time, (Wilson.)

9. 11^ tavt local.

mn\.prdtar, evtlj, in the morning. V<JAi. sanutar^ in concealment.
10. ^ ka, locative.

lyt kukOy Where ? 1^ iha^ here. ^ saha^ with.



$ 286. Sanskrit verbs are conjugated in the Active and the Passive.
Ex. lAvfll bddhatif he knows; ^ii|^ budhydtCy he is known.

� 287. The Active has two forms :

1. The Parasmai-pada, i.e. transitive, (from ^^t^ parawnai, Dat. Sing, of

^tpara^ another, i.e. a verb the action of which refers to another.)
Ex. i^^jfif daddti, he gives.

2. The Atmane-paday i. e. intransitive, (from WTHI^ dtmane^ Dat. Sing, of

y/rn^ dtman, self, i. e. a verb the action of which refers to the agent.)
Ex. in!^ ddatte, he takes.

Note — ^The distinction. between the Parasnudpada and Atmanepada is fixed bj usage
rather than by rule. Certain verbs in Sanskrit are used in the Parasmaipada only, others
in the Atmanepada only; others in both voices. Those which are used in the ParasAudpada
only, are verbs the action of which was originally conceived as transitive ; e. g. ^fH iHrfk
bkibnim manthati, he shakes the earth; irfll ^ll^ffir nUbhsam khddati, he eats meat; fTnTlrfk
grdmam atoHy he goes to or approaches the village. Those which are used in the Atmanepada
only, were originally verbs expressive of states rather than of actions; e.g. ^MV edhate, he
grows; ^^n gpandate, he trembles; •ilqil modate, he rejoices; ^ ie/e, he lies down.
Such roots are marked in the Dh&tup4tha as n-it or anuddtta-4i (P&9. i. 3, la).

In the language of the best authors, however, many verbs which we should consider
intransitive, are conjugated in the Parasmaipada, while others which govern an accusative,
are always conjugated in the Atmanepada. ^Hfir hasati, he laughs, is always Parasmatpadin,
whether used as transitive or neuter (Colebr. p. 397) : it is so even when reciprocity of action
is indicated, in which case verbs in Sanskrit mostly take the Atmanepada; e. g. ^Or^JDr
vyatihasanti, they laugh at each other (P&9. 1.3, 15, v&rt. i , 3). But ^Plnanayate, he smiles,
is restricted by grammarians to the Atmanepada; and verbs like ^fpin trdyate^ he protects,
are Atmanepadin (i. e. used in the Atmanepada), though they govern an acxnisative ; e. g.
?rprar if trdyawa mdm, Protect me 1 These correspond to the Latin deponents.

Verbs which are used both in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada, take the one or the
other form according as the action of the verb is conceived to be either transitive or reflective;


138 CONJUQATIOK. � 288-*-

e.g. V^mfiX pachaii, he cooks; H^npachate, he cooks for himself; ^(Hfif yajati, he aacrifioes;
,V[Wn yajatCy he sacrifices for himself. The same applies to Causals (Pftn. i. 3, 74).

These distinctions, however, rest in many cases, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, on
peculiar conceptions which it is difficult to analyse or to realize; and in Sanskrit as well as
in Greek, the right use of the active and middle voices is best learnt by practice. Thus
'^ntf to lead, is used as Parasmaipada in such expressions as vftK ^nn^ngai^m vinttyaH*^
he carries o�F a swelling ; but as Atmanepada, in IkN fqn^ffl krodham vinayate, he turns
away or dismisses wrath; a subtle distinction which it is possible to appreciate when stated,
but difficult to bring under any general rules.

Again, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, some verbs are middle in certain tenses only, but
active or middle in others; e. g. Atm. ^V^ vardhate, he grows, nevex^^fKvardhatij but Aor.
^^^(^avfidhat, Par., or ^Wf8� avardhishfa, Atm. he grew. (PA^. i. 3, 91.)

Others take the Parasmaipada or Atmanepada according as they are compounded with
certain prepositions ; e. g. OlvOl vUati, he enters ; but f^lf^n^ ni-vUate, he enters in.
(P&n. I. 3, 17.)

� a88. Causal verbs are conjugated both in the Parasmaipada and Atmane-
pada. Desideratives generally follow the Pada of the simple root (Pai^. i. 3, 62).
Denominatives ending in im dya have both forms (P&n. i. 3, 90). The
intensives hare two forms : one in ^ ya^ which is always Atmanepada ; the
other without ^ ya^ which is always Parasmaipada.

j 289. The passive takes the terminations of the Atmanepada, and prefixes
Hydixi them in the four special or modified tenses. In the other tenses the
forms of the passive are, with a few exceptions^ the same as those of the

j ^^90. There are in Sanskrit thirteen different forms, corresponding to the
tenses and moods of Greek and Latin.

I. Formed from the Special or Modified Base.

Parasmaipada. Atmanepada.

I. The Present (Lat) M'^Tftf bhdvwmi ^k bhdve

7,. The Imperfect (Lan) ^Pf^ dbhavam ws^ dbhave

3. The Optative (Lin) ^ ^ H^ bhdveyam H^ bhdveya

4. The Imperative (Lot) H^Tf�T bhdvani H% bhdvai

n. Formed from the Cfeneral or Unmodified Base.

Parasmaipada. Atmanbpada.

5. TheReduplicated Perfect (lit) ^^ boAhiiva w^ babhUvi

6. The Periphrastic Perfect (Lit) ^ftVH'W^choraydmbabhilva ^ftrjn^choraydmc)

7. The First Aorist (Lun) inftM dbodhisham iMfff^ dbhavishi

8. The Second Aorist (Lun) v^ dbhUvam vftl^ dskhe

9. The Future (Lrit) Hfinqiftl bhavishydmi hPt^ bhavishyi

* Cf. Siddh&nta-Kaumudt, ed. TIbrftnfttha, vol. n. p. 950. Colebrooke, Grammar, p. 337.

^� 291. CONJUOATIOK. 189

10. The Conditional (Liin) wfvul dbhavishyam wftr^ dbhavishye

11. llie Periphrastic Futiire(Lut) Hftrvrf^ bhaviidsmi ^rfVin^ bhamtdhe

12. The Benedictive (Asir lin) ^fjwi bkdydsaim HftnAif bhamshiyd

13. The Subjunctive (Let) occurs in the Veda only.

Bign^icaHon of the Temet and Moods.

^291. I. 2. The Present and Imperfect require no explanation. The
Imperfect takes the Augment {� 300), which has always the accent.

3. The principal senses of the Optative are,

a. Command ;. e. g. }t gpT ^^Hit: tvam gr&mam gachchheby thou mayest go, Le.

go thou to the village.

b. Wish ; e. g. H^nf^finftw bhavdn ihdsUOf Let your honour sit here!

c. Inquiring; e. g. ^^�nlNN VT ll%R4hfN vedam adhiytya, uta tarkam

adhiyiya. Shall I study the Veda or shall I study logic t

d. Supposition {sambhdvana) ; e. g. )9^^[^ ^^MK'h Hll^Ui^l^ bhaved asau

vedapdrago brdhmanatvat, he probably is a student of the Veda, because
he is a Brfihman.

e. Condition ; e. g. ^?^ )I^1J^ f^nn^^ft?IT: mtn dandaS chen na bhavel

lake vinaSyeyur imdb prajdf^y if there were not punishment in the world,
the people would perish, in ij^ B ^n^ini(^ yaf^ pathet sa dpnuydt, he
who studies, will obtain, inr^ft^ Hlli^Wll^lll^^Wi: yad yad rocheta
vyfrebkyoi tat tad dadydd amatsaraby whatever pleases the Brfthmans
let one give that to them not niggardly.
/. It is used in relative dependent sentences ; e. g. iTV 71^ ^^ if ia(^ yaeh
cha tvam evam kuryd na Sraddadhe, I believed not that thou couldst
act thus. 4||ii^)|i: ^li fH^TVra^ yat tddriidb kfishnam ninderann
dicharyam, that such persons should revile Krishna, is wonderful

4. The Imperative requires no explanation, as far as the second person is

concerned ; e. g. ^ tuda, Strike ! The first and third persons are used
in many cases in place of the Optative ; e� g. l^mftf H'^T^^^ ichchhdmi
bhavdn bkuiikidm, I wish your honour may eat.

5. The Reduplicated Perfect d^iotes something absolutely past

6. Certain verbs which are not allowed to form the reduplicated perfect, form

their perfect periphrastically, i e. by means of an auxiliary verb.

7. 8. The First and Second Aorists refer generally to time past, and are the

common historical tenses in narration. They take the Augment {� 300).
9. The Future, also called the Indefinite Future ; e.g. ^Mdlft^lOl VRr^TtCOPK
devai ched varskishyati dhdnyam vapsydmab, if it rain, we shall sow
rice. ifT^sftavf^ ^^l^irfff udvqf-jivam annam ddsyati, as long as life

T 2


lasts, he will give food. Under certain circumstances this Future
may be used optionally with the Periphrastic Future ; e. g. ii^ HhlT
kadd bhoktd or ^to^l^ bhokshyate^ When will he eati

10. The Conditional is used, instead of the Optative, if things are spoken of

that might have, but have not happened (Pft^. m. 3, 139) ; e, g.
^^r g ^^Hftl f l<;i ^fn H wft M i9( suvfishtii ched abhavishyai tadd subhiksham
abhavishyat, if there had been abundant rain, there would have been
plenty. The Conditional takes the Augment {� 300).

11. The Periphrastic or Definite Future ; e. g. vflvrf W* HHnnftr ayodhydm

ivab. praycUdsi, thou wilt to-morrow proceed to Ayodhyl
I a. The Benedictive is used for expressing not only a blessing, but also a

wish in general; e. g. 'vd^nw^fprn^ Mmdn bMydt^ May he be happy!

f^ ^f):^i^VH^chiram jivydt^ May he live long !
13. The Subjunctive occurs in the Veda only.

j 2^2. The Sanskrit verb has in each tense and mood three numbers.
Singular, Dual, and Plural, with three persons in each.



^ (293. Sanskrit grammarians have divided all verbs into ten classes,
according to certain modifications which their roots undergo before the
terminations of the Present, the Imperfect, the Optative, and Imperative.
This division is very usefiil, and will be retained with some slight alterations.
One and the same root may belong to difierent classes. Thus ^iT9^ bkrai^
^[Tl^ M/oi, ^ bhram, n^kram, jfR klam, ?r^ tras, ^ truf, J^huh belong
to the Bhii and Div classes ; �n^ bhrdSate or VIT^in^ bhrdiyate, &c. (Pfti^. in.
1, 70). Again, T^sku, w^stambh^ ^inistufnbh, '^sb^skambh^ ^f^skumbh belong
to the Su and Kri classes; ^^pillir skunoti or "^s^skuruUi (P&9. iii. i, So).

j 294. The four tenses and moods which require this modification of the
root wiU be called the Special or Modified Tenses ; the rest the Qeneral or
Unmodified Tenses, Thus the root fv chi is changed in the Present,
Imperfect, Optative, and Imperative into fir^ cM-wa. Hence f^[^^chiH%nHfndb^
we search; irfVr^ (fcAt-ntt-mo, we searched. But the Past Participle ftnn
chUdbf searched, or the Reduplicated Perfect f^^ chichy-ub, they have
searched, without the ^ nu . We call fv chi, the root, fir^ c/dnu, the base
of the special tenses.


^ ^^95. Verbal bafies are first divided into two divisions :
I. Bases which in the modified tenses end in v a.
II. Bases which in the modified tenses end in any letter but v a.

This second division is subdivided into^
n a. Bases which insert ^ nu, '9u, or ifi ntf between the root and the

II b. Bases which take the terminations without any intermediate element.

I. Firsi Division.
� 296. The first division comprises four classes :

1. The Bhii class (the first with native grammarians, and called by them

v^rfi; bkvddij because the first verb in their lists is ^ bhd^ to be).

a. V a is added to the last letter of the root.

b. The vowel of the root takes Gui^a, where possible (i. e, long or short i , �, p,

if final ; short i, u^ ji, ft, if followed by one consonant).
Ex. "^budh, to know; ^vWfk bddh-^-H, he knows. ^bM^ to be; mrfk bhdtMi'ti,
he is.

Note — The accent in verbs of the Bhil class (as we know from the ancient Vedic
language) rests on the radical vowel, except where it is drawn on the augment.

Many derivative verbs, — such as causatives, Hi^iMOf bhdodyati, he causes to be;
des^ideratives, ^^ff^ IMkdtihati, he wishes to be, from ^hM^ intensives in the Atmaoe-
pada, 4fHllfl bebhiJydte, he cuts much ; and denominatives, n^it^Pn namoiydti, he worships,
c^ff ANPiI lohitdydti, he grows red, — ^follow this class.

2. The Tud class (the sixth with native grammarians, and called by them

g^rf?; tudddi, because the first root in their lists is m iud, to strike).

a. V a is added to the last letter of the root.

b. Before this V a, final ^ i and ^^ are changed to ^iy�

Vttand^iJ to "V^ttt;.

^fi to f^rty.

^ri to^^tr (Jiio).

Ex. mtud^ to strike; 5^ tud-d-H. ftri, to go; fbrfk rty-d-ii. \nil^ to

praise; g^ nuv-d-ti. ^ mp, to die; ftrUT^ fiiny-c�-/c. vAff, to

scatter; ftltfir Wr-rf-/t.

Note — ^The accent in verbs of the Tud class rests on the intermediate ^a; hence never
Gu^a of the radical vowel.

3. The Div class (the fourth with native grammarians, and called by them

fi^^rfi^ divddif because the first root in their lists is fs(^div^ to play).
a. nya is added to the last letter of the root.
Ex. i^nah, to bind; J^^ndh-ya-tu '^budhy to awake; ^^aik bidhrya-te.

Note — ^The accent in verbs of the Div class rests on the radical vowel ; though there are
traces to show that some verbs of this class had the accent originally on ^ ya.


4. The Chur class (the tenth with native grammarians^ and called by
them ^p^rfil^ churddiy because the first root in their lists is ^ chuVj to

a. ^nr (xya is added to the last letter of the root.

b. If the root ends in a simple consonant^ preceded by � a^ V a is

lengthened to wr d*

Ex. ^ daly to cut ; ^Ic9^ ddl^ya-H, (many exceptions.)

c. If the root ends in a simple consonant, preceded by ^j, w, 19 fi, ic/s,

these vowels take Ouna, while ^rt becomes ft,ir.

Ex. fs^ ilish, to embrace ; ^^irfff ilesh-dya-ti. ^ ckur, to steal ; ^At^
chor-dya-tu ^ mfi8\ to endure ; ii4in^ tnarsh-dya^e* "n kftt, to
praise ; ^A^^rfir kirt-dya-tu

d. Final ^t^ %f, '9Uf '^ilj'^fiy &iid ^ft, take Yriddhi.

Ex. fw/riytogrowold; wt^^fifjrdy'dya'tu iftmj^towalk; ^T^^hfmdy-dya'4u
^ dhrij to hold; i|TC^ dhdr-dya-ti. ^/T^, to fill ; Tfp[?i^ pdr^ya-tu

Note — Many, if not all roots amnged nnder this class by native grammarians, are
secondary roots, and identical in form with caueatives, denominatives, &c. This class differs

' from other classes, inasmuch as verbs belonging to it, keep their modificatory syllable '^P^aya
throughout, in the unmodified as well as in the modified tenses, except in the Benedictive

' Par. and the Reduplicated Aorist. The accent rests on the first V a of ^PTifya.

II. Second Division.

^ 297* The second division comprises all verbs which do not^ in the
special tenses, end in w a before the terminations.

It is a distinguishing feature of this second division that, before
certain terminations, all verbs belonging to it require strengthening of their
radical vowel, or if they take g �m, ir �, ^ ni, strengthening of the vowels
. of these syllables. This strengthening generally takes place by means of
Guna, but ^^ni is raiaed to 'mna in the Kri^ and \n to i{na in the Rudh

We shall call the terminations which require strengthening^ of the
inflective base, the weak terminations, and the base before them, the
strong base; and vice versd, the terminations which do not require
strengthening of the base, the strong terminations, and the base before
them, the weak base.

, As a rule, the accent falls on the first vowel of strong terminations, or, if
the terminations are weak, on the strong base, thus establishing throughout
an equilib^um between base and termination.

**$ ^99* ^^^ ^HE TEN CLASSES OF VEBBS. 143

11 a. Bases which take "^nu, '9u,'9ft nL
� 298. This first subdivision comprises three classes :
I. The Su class (the fifth class with native grammarians^ and called by
them ^trfl^ wddi, because the first root in their lists is ^ 9u),
^ m� is added to the last letter of the root^ before strong terminations^
tit no before weak terminations.
Ex. ^ ^ to squeeze out; ^^: sti-^m-mdi^, ist pers, plur. Pres.

ij;^9w-nd-mi, ist pers. sing. Pres.

%• The Tan class (the eighth class with native grammarians, and called by
them iRTfl^ tanddi, because the first root in their lists is in^ ian),
ir tt is added to the last letter of the root, before strong terminations,
ift o before weak terminations.
Ex. K^itan, to stretch ; ir^ ian-dHndi^, ist pers. plur. Pres.

IrM^ tan-d-mi, ist pers. sing. Pres.
Note — ^All verbs belonging to this dan end in �i(i�, except one, ^ Jbft, VUf^ karond, I do.

3. The Kri class (the ninth with native grammarians^ and called by them
IPftfll^kryddi, because the first root in their lists is nft ^0*
'9f\nt is added to the last letter of the root^ before strong terminations^
ii(\nd before weak terminations,
�(n before strong terminations beginning with vowels.

Ex. ift Mf to buy ; nihlrt'V: kri-nl-md^, ist pers. plur. Pres.

iflnnAl kri-^nd-mi, ist pers. sing. Pres.
nfiuKh kri-fi-dntiy 3rd pers. plur. Pres.

II �• Bases to which the terminations are joined immediately.
� 299. The second division comprises three classes :
I. The Ad class (the second class with native grammarians, and called by them
^f^tf^ adddiy because the first root in their lists is iv^aeif, to eat).

a. The terminations are added immediately to the last letter of the base ;

and in the contact of vowels with vowels, vowels with consonants,
consonants with vowels, and consonants with consonants, the phonetic
rules explained above {� 107-145) must be carefully observed.

b. The strong base before the weak terminations takes Guna where

possible {� 296, I. &).
Ex. fc9? lihy to lick : fcTV: lih-mdJ^^ we lick ; Hfft Uh-miy I lick ; ^ft| Uk-shiy
thou lickest ($127); c^ lUhd^ you lick (^ 1 128) ; ti^ dlet^ thou lickedst
($ ia8).

The accent is on the first vowel of the terminations, except in case of
weak terminations, when the accent falls on the radical vowel.



2. The Hu class (the third class with native grammarians^ and called by

them i|f)imn; juhoiyddi, because the first root in their lists is v hu,
ipitfiX Juhdti).

a. The terminations are added as in the Ad class.

b. The strong base before the weak terminations takes Guna, where possible.

c. The root takes reduplication. (Rules of Reduplication^ ^ 30^.)

Ex. J Atty to sacrifice : Jj^, Ju-kurmdi^, we sacrifice ; ^Jlftftr Ju-hd-mi, I

sacrifice. (P&9. vi. i, 19a.)

The intensive verbs, conjugated in the Parasmaipada^ foUow this class.

The accent is on the first syllable of the verb, if the terminations are weak, likewise if
the terminations are strong, but begin with a vowel. Ex. ^f^^ftfH dddhdti ^ ^^[^^ dddhoH
(P4n. VI. 1, 189—190). Whether this rule extends to the Optative Atmanepada is doubtful.
We find in the Rig-veda both dddhUa and dadhttd. Prof. Benfey, who at first accentuated
dadhitd, now places the accent on the first syllable, like BoehtHngk and Bopp. The Agama
sijuf is, no doubt, avidyam&navat svaravidhau (P&p.iii. 1,3, v&rt. 2); but the question is
whether Ua is to be treated as ij&di, beginning with a vowel, or whether the termination
is ta with Agama I. I adopt the former view, and see it confirmed by the Pratyud&hara^a
given in vi. i, 189. For if ydt of dad^dt is no longer tjidi, then Ua in ddd-Ua must be
8J4di on the same ground. The reduphcated verbs bkt, hH, bhfi, hu, mad, jan, dhan, daridrd^
jdfffi have the Uditta on the syllable preceding the terminations, if the terminations are
weak. Ex. OlHfS hibhdrtiy but f^^rfv b(bhrati (Pft^. vi. i, 192).

3. The Rudh class (the seventh class with native grammarians, and called

by them ^^nfi^ rudihddi^ because the first root in their lists is ^ rudh^
'^^/f^ rui^tdddhi, to obstruct).

a. The terminations are added as in the Ad class.

b. Between the radical vowel and the final consonant ?(n is inserted, which

in the strong base before weak terminations is raised to it na.

Ex. ^ytv, to join : ^pn yu^-J-md^, we join ; ^^tAr yt^nd-j-miy I join.

The accent falls on ^ na^ wherever it appear^, unless it is attracted by the

First Division.

Bhii class, with native grammarians, Bhv&di, I class.
Tud class, — — Tud&di, VI class.

Div class, — — Divddi^ IV class.

Chur class, — — Chur&di, X class.

Second Division,

Su class, with native grammarians, Sv&di, V class.

Tan class, — — Tan&di, VIII class.

Kri class, — — Kryidi, IX class.

Ad class, — — Ad&di, II class.

Hu class, — — Juhotyfidi, III class.

Rudh class, — — Rudh&di, VII class.




^ 300. Before we can leave the subject which occupies us at present, ^.
the preparation of the root previous to its assuming the terminations, we
have to consider two processes, the Augment and the Reduplication,
modifications of the root with which we are familiar in Greek, and which in
Sanskrit as well as in Greek form the distinguishing features of certain
tenses (Imperfect, Aorist, Conditional, and Perfect) in evoy verb.

� 301. Roots beginning with consonants take short w a as their initial
augment. This wa has the accent* Thus fiom ^^ctftt, Present '^^'Nlfil
bddhdmi ; Imperfect WwH dbodham.

Boots beginning with vowds always take Vfiddfai, the irregular
result of the combination of the augment with the inidal vowels.
(P&9, VI. I, 90.) *

ma with wa, or W(l, = ^<2.

m a with fi, \1,lte, or ^ ai, =% ai.

W a with 7 11, ^ t{, who, or ^ au, = Wl au.

ma with ^ri, or ^rt = tn^<Jr.

From m^archf %Af^ ar chatty he praises, mA^drchai^ he praised.
From f^iksh, \^ ikshatey he sees, ^Ifir aikshcUa^ he saw.
From ^ undy T^ifw unatti, he wets, mt^adnai, he wetted.
From ^r�, ^ms!^ lichchhati, he goes, xrx^in^drcAchhat, he went.

In the more ancient Sanskrit, as in the more ancient Greek, the augment
is frequently absent. In the later Sanskrit, too, it has to be dropt after the
negative particle wr md (Pin. vi. 4, 74). m vms^ mtit^inA bhavdn kdrshit.
Let not your Honour do this ! or in 9r li^ma #ma kmrot. May he not do it !


� 302. Reduplication takes place in Sanskrit not only in the reduplicated
perfect, but likewise in all verbs of the Hu class. Most of the rules of
reduplication are the same in forming the base of the perfect of all verbs,
and in forming the special base of the verbs of the Ha dass. These will be
stated first ; afterwards those that are peculiar either to the redupUcatioB
of the perfect or to that of the verbs of the Hu dass.

The reduplication in intensive and desiderative verbs and in one form
of the aorist will have to be treated separately.



General Bides of Beduplication.
� 303. The first syllable of a root (i. e. that portion of it which ends
with a vowel) is repeated,
w iudh=:wnbubudh. ^bhit is exceptional in forming ^^babh4. (Pi?.
VII. 4, 73.)
j 304. Aspirated letters are represented in reduplication by their cor-
responding unaspirated letters.

ff(E bhid, to cut, = ft[fil^ bibhid.
\dhil, to shake^ rs^dudhil.
� 305. Gutturals are represented in reduplication by their corresponding
palatals ; ^ A by 1^/ (Pft^u vii. 4, 62.)

ff^ kuty to sever, = ^|^ chukuf.
W{^ khaUf to dig, =5 ^^ chakhan.
''^ff^f'^y to go, = Wf\Jogam.
f^ Aa�, to laugh, = Wf^Jahas.
^ 306. If a root begins with more than one consonant, the first only is


^Arui, to shout, =^)|ircAtfATtti.

Hif^kshipy to throw, = ffftf^ cAiA^A^.

� 307. If a root begins with a sibilant followed by a tenuis or aspirated
tenuis, the tenuis only is reduplicated.

1^ $tUf to praise, = ^ iushfu {� 103, i).
W�^ Stan, to sound, = msH^ tastan.
PT^ spardh, to strive, :=:t(^Bt^pa8pardh,
Wt sthd, to stand, = ir^m iasthd.
1^ ichyut, to drop, = ^l^ chuichyut.
But ^ smriy to pine, = 9W sasmfi.

� 308. If the radical vowel, whether final or medial, is long, it is
shortened in the reduplicative syllable.

HT| ffdh, to enter, = inTT| jagak.
Hft hiy to buy, = ffijf chikrL
^ 9ild, to strike, = ^^ suskdd.
� 309. If the radical (not final) vowel is ^ e or ^ at, it becomes ][ f ; if it
113 wt o or W^ otf, it becomes 7 tf •

it^ $ev, to worship, = ftn^ sishev.

vK(r ^aui, to approach, = jtK^ 4u4hauk.

' �310. Roots with final ^e, %a�, ^0, are treated like roots ending in
�1 a, taking w a in the reduplicative syllable.

^ dhe, to feed^s^ dadhau.

ft gat, to sing, ssip^jaffau.

"fft ioy to sharpen, = ^^ ic^au.




^ 311. The following roots are slightly irregular on account of the
semivowels which they contain^ and which are liable to be changed into
vowels. (This change is caUed SamprasdriOfia.) P&9. vi. i, 17.

Boot. First Pbks. Sing. Bbdupl. Pbaf.

^y�/ = ipiR�y<!6�, to sacrifice, (for im^yaydja.) f9(^ ij\

^^vach = 'Vin^ uvacha, to speak.

^ vad=s ^nri^ uvdduy to say.

^t;qp=7mi uvdpa^ to sow.

tfffjvaS = ^^nr uvditty to wish.

TO vof = ^nnr uv(isa, to dwell.

� vah = ^ifni ttt^<2Aa, to carry.

?F^ t;ay it: =s TVHT uvdya, to weave.

iq^vyacA = f^fiini vivydcha, to surround.

i|^vy�M/A=:f)mvvit;y<^Aa^ to strike.

^■ftrt^a^Asftrir^ vivyathi (P&n. vii. 4^ 68).

^n(.n^^ = ^*^m 9ii8hvdpa, to sleep.

{Vviri=:mn tfiUdva^ to swell^.

^ vye=:fnTi| vivyaya, to cover.

iin jy4 = ftmf^ y vV ^<�j to grow old.

3^ hve=:ipir^juhdvay to call (Pftn. vi. i, 33).

Vfmjn/dy =s i^pipySyto grow fat (P&n. vi. i, 29).

m grah^.'^^^jcigrahaf to take.

in^t^raicA = ^nre ^arrcC^cAo, to cut (P&9. vi. i, 1 7)

yf^prachh:=:'^tr9,paprdchchhay to ask.

�l^ Mri{{^' =^vrsr babhrdjja, to fiy.

In the last three verbs the weak form in the reduplicated perfect is pro-
tected against Samprasfirana by the final double consonant. (P&ii. i. 2^ 5.}

Roots beginning with ^ vOy but ending in double consonants, do not
change ^ va to 7 tt. Ex. t|^ vavjiti; ^r|^ vavridhi.

^312. Boots beginning with short w a, and ending in a single consonant^
contract v a + V a into w\d.

ir|[ ad^ to eat, =:WP?4J.

* The weak forms appear in all persoiiB of the reduplicated perfect where neither Vfiddhi.
nor Giina is required.

t The weakest forms of these verbs do not belong to the reduplicated perfect, but have
been added as useful hereafter for the formation of the past participle, the benedictive, the
passive, &c.

X '^^oy is a substitute for ^ve, in the reduplicated perfect (P&n. 11. 4, 41). If that sub-
stitution does not take place, then ^ ve forms ^Ni vavau, ^I vavuh (Pftn. vi. i, 40).

II P&p. VI. 1, 38, 39. f Or f^rvnV Mhdya (PA9. vi. i, 30);

U 2

WsAK Form *.









(wntgt.) .







'mf{ily or W{iiv\\,













ftpft vivi.

(^ �r.)



(I M)




(^ srih,)

^^ vavfiich.

{J^^ vfiSeh.)

WWm babhrqjj. (^^ **nff •)


� 313, Roots beguming with short wa, and ending with more than one
consonant, prefix ^n�^<2n. (P&n. vii. 4^ 71.)
W^ arch = Wif^ dndrch. (Also ws^ ai (Su), mr^ dnaie.) P&gi, vii. 4, 7a.

{314. The root if fi forms the base of the reduplicated perfect as ^n^ dr.
Other roots beginning with 19 fi prefix wts^dn. (Pa^. vii. 4, 71.)

^^JV, to obtain, =c ^n^ an-fy . ^ ridft, to thrive, = ^>n^ dwfuft.
These roots are treated in fiict as if they were ^1^ arch^ w^ordA, &c.

� 315. Boots beginning with ^ t or '9'tf (not prosodially long), contract l{ + 1(
i + i and Tf + Tfu + u into ^ ( and ^ 4 ; but if the radical ^ i or "V u take
Gu^a or Yriddhi, i^y and ^v are inserted between the reduplicative syllable
and the base. (Pfin. vi. 4, 78.)

^t�A = ^q:|: Uh-dtufyy they two have gone.
= 1[^ iy-Ssh-a (Gu^a), I have gone.
V^tiM='9nir|: dkh-^u^^ they two have withered.
^TrfMuinSkh-a (Guna), I have withered.
As to roots which cannot be reduplicated or are otherwise irregular, see the
rules given for the formation of the Reduplicated and Periphrastic Perfect.

' Special Rules of Reduplication.
�ii6. So far the process of reduplication would be the same, whether applied
to the bases of the Reduplicated Perfect or to those of the Hu class. Butther�
are some points on which these two classes of reduplicated bases differ; viz.

1. In the Reduplicated Perfect, radical ^fi, ^r^> whether final or medial,

are represented in reduplication by w a.

2. In the bases of the Hu class, final if ft and ^ft (they do not occur as

medial) are represented in reduplication by ^ <•

Rbduplicatsd PftarscT. Hu Class. Prbsknt, &c.

)| Mft, to bear^ = 'iprTC babhdra* 1} 6^ n^if^nft Hbhartu

^m, to go, = ^rtr: 'flw^ra. ^^r^^sf^nrfff stsariu

9 hfi, to take, = in[rcjahdra. ^ Af i = fSiffft jiharti.

TTie root Hfi, to go, forms ^prfS ty-arti; \prii to fill, f^mfiipiparti.

� 317. The three verbs 'Rl^nff, f^^m^*, and 1%^ vt5& of the Hu class take Guna
in ihe reduplicated syllahle. (Pft?. vii. 4, 75.)

ftfl^ nij, to wash, nnftR ninekti, nf^fm neniktej ftfl tij, to separate, ^qfW v^ekH;
ftr^cwA, to pervade, ^4(k v^nhfi.

� 318. The two verbs m md, to measure, and 1^ hd, to go, of the Hu class take ^i m
the reduplicative syllable. (P&n. vii. 4, 76.)

TT tnd, ftpftn mimUi; lf\ hd^ ?n4!^njihUi, �

� 319. Certain roots change their initial consonant if they are reduplicated.
^�^ Anil, to kill, ^f^^THjaglma, Likewise in the desiderative f^ M ( 41 Ol jighdmsati^ and the

intensive '^kw^ jakglianydte. (P&9. vii. 3, 55.)
fi| At, to send (Su), ftrePTii^Wya. Likewise in the desiderative Dtl Ml mHi jigkishati^ and
the intensive ^^t^ jegUgdit. (P&9. vii. 3, 56.)


ftl/t, to conquer, f^nWfjigdya, Likewise in the desiderative Pvi'Dii Hi jigUhati: but not
in the intensive, which is always ^^^ j^dte, (Pftp. vii. 3, 57.)

f% chi, to gather, has optionally f^nnV chichdya or f^*l^ chikiya. The same option
applies to the desiderative, but in the intensive we have ^^HTr chechiydte only.
(P49. VII. 3, 58.)


^ 320, After having explained how the verbal roots are modified in ten
difierent ways before they receive the terminations of the four special tenses^
the Present, Imperfect, Optative, and Imperative, we give a table of the
terminations for these so-called special or modified tenses and moods.

j 321. The terminations for the modified tenses, though on the whole the
same for all verbs, are subject to certain variations, according as the verbal bases
take w a (First Division), or ^ 9iu, "V �, ^ ni (Second Division, A.), or nothing
(Second Division, B.) between themselves and the terminations. Instead of
giving the table of terminations according to the system of native gramma-
rians, or according to that of comparative philologists, and explaining the
' real or &ncifid changes which they are supposed to have undergone in the
difierent classes of verbs, it will be more useful to give them in that form
in which they may mechanically be attached to each verbal base. The
beginner should commit to memory the actual paradigms rather than the
difierent sets of terminations. Instead of taking wt^dthe as the termination
of the 2nd pers. dual Atm., and learning that the wr a of mP^ dike is changed
to ^i afl;er bases in wa (Pan. vii. 2, 81), it is simpler to take ^ ithe as
the termination in the First Division ; but still simpler to commit to memory
such forms as "^h^ bodhethe, f^mA dvi$hdit^y fMt^ mimdihey without asking
at first any questions as to how they came to be what they are.

First Division.
BMy Tudy Div, and Chur Classes.
Parasmaipada. Atmanbpada.

P^sent. Imperf. Optative. Imperat. Present. Imperfect. Optative. Imperative.

i.Ufkomt ^m ^iyam^t^ani l^i ^t l^iya ^e

a.ftrW lit ^lih — ♦ i^se "mithdh ^miithdh ^ sva

Z.fKH H^t ^it 3*w* ^te Ifta ^ita id tdm

i.^[m avafi ^[^ ava f[mva ^n ova ^ST^ aoahe ^nf^avahi If^ft ivahi ^T^avahai

2,'^thah iktam ^itam litam ^ ithe ^^ ithdm ^ 4|| HI ( iydthdm 1^ ithdm

3. in ^oA irt tdm Ipri itdm, irf tdm, ^ iU H^ itdm J^^JfH iydtdm ^ it An

I. WHamo^ Wfama ^�ma ^Hama 'WkH\amahe ^H^lamahi %f\ti^imaki IVf^ amahai

2.'^tha Kta f[WtVa Kta ^k dhve ^i dkvam l^idhvam vi dhvam

3.ftrnft 5^� ^^Uyult '^ntu "Rtnie ^ nta ^pl^iran '^Hintdm

. * In the second and third persons Klfitdt may be used as termination after all verbs, if
the sense is benedictive.




Second Division.
8u, Tan, Kri, Ad, Eny and Rudh Classes.


Imperfect Optative.



Imperatiye. F^resent.

Imperfect. Optative.








^ntydft 1



T^* mfl^ydt




1ft a


I. m vo^

I. ft ma^

H tarn
Iff tdm


^BfTKydtam ^tam
lindydtdm Ititdm



wikdte Wnndtdm ^Jlfr/H iydtdm Wlkidtdm

Vl^^ dimhai


l^ffuihe ^f^mahi InOg imahi Wt^^dmakai

V ta V(W ydta V ta

3. tifif anrt2 ini^a,|8 y yjjj ^ antu^ VIC ate VIC

id dhve Iff (2Avam ^Iff idkvam l4 dAvam
a^e VICafa ^^Iran Wlfi atdm

The terminationB enclosed in squares are the weak^ i e. unaccented
terminations which require strengthening of the base.

Note I — When f^ hi is added immediately to the final consonant of a
root (in the Ad^ Rudh, or Hu classes), it is changed to ^dhi (Pai;^. vi. 4, loi.
See No. 162). The verb J hu, though ending in a vowel, takes ^dhi instead
of flf hi, for the sake of euphony. (P&9. vi� 4, loi.)

Kri verbs ending in consonants form the 2nd pers. sing. imp. in VR ana.
(See No. 155, Pan. iii. i, 83.)

In the 2nd pers. sing. imp. Parasm. verbs of the Su and Tan classes take
no termination, except when Tfuia preceded by a conjunct consonant. (See
No. 177.)

Note 2 — In the 3rd pers. plur. pres. and imper. Parasm. verbs of the Hu
class and Wff^ abhyasta, i. e. redupUcated bases, take wfic ati and vg aiu.

Note 3 — ^In the 3rd pers, plur. imp. Parasm. verbs of the Hu class, redu-
plicated bases, and f^ vid, to know, take 7: u^, before which, verbs ending
in a vowel, require Gui^a. 7: tf^ is used optionally after verbs in wr a, and
after fig^dvish, to hate. (P&9. iii. 4, 109— 112.)

$ Saa. By means of these terminations the student is able to form the
Present, Imperfect, Optative, and Imperative in the Parasmaipada and
Atmanepade of all regular verbs in Sanskrit ; and any one who has clearly
understood how the verbal bases are prepared in ten different ways for
receiving their terminations, and who will attach to these verbal bases the
terminations as given above, according to the rules of Sandhi, will have no
difficulty in writing out for himself the paradigms of any Sanskrit verb in
four of the most important tenses and moods, both in the Parasmaipada and
Atmanepada. Some verbs, however, are irregular in the formation of their
base ; these must be learnt jGrom the Dhatup&tha.
















St JB �







S ..•�


;l hi I'M



ft "O &���






11 e! Mil







5.<i 1^1 <ri t!^l






II |l

hi El



1 �


S K ^






11 Pi





* f I %% 1 g

^ �3i

till 111-
iv�8 H^ HlJ; 1i<







iPl rl


:i r^ 8^1 jri

IPS riiii r's















I 322.





• •























L� 'S' .♦ •^^










S^l isl








g?i pi I* r-s ri.ri

r*? Ii!� li




�*l |g:l 1^1 S^l

lr�i irlHiB ^"l i*,J l!^1

# SW-









little II


-lid ill

I i

i e S

I I -S

I 5 'll f "I
















I rl l} fl



^' 1









1:1 tS>







B?i Plli n \Sit^

�*i is:i <ri t^l

i^s riiiiB r'� 1.*,^ IT






$ SW-

















= ^
























11 mill Mil








^ ^ ^ "^ s



















B?i irllf r"� (4-i5^i

!(6| isl ^4 \r


mi titi r's













X 2













:S .1




















s Ul



I Ti ri ?i

f ^ ft I




?i isl<EII


B?i rl^:! r-i mJi^l



saI isI ^I t^l

irs irliiiH ^'n ^$
















• c i?* -fc ^^


7 .^

.1- "�

-S Tir'^


c �^ 1 :�.


5f p^ 1.^ M













5I islWl






g?i rifi ri ^tri







i^s riiiS n ��4 ri






�*l 1^1 <PI t^l

















w�n iriii:i r-g


-� 3^6-





�323, In the tenses which remain, the Reduplicated Perfect, the Peri-
phrastic Perfect, the First and Second Aorist, the Future, the Conditional,
the Periphrastic Future, and Benedictive, the distinction of the ten classes
vanishes. All verbs are treated alike, to whatever class they belong in the
modified tenses; and the distinguishing features, the inserted ^ nu, 711, yiffni,
&c., are removed again firom the roots to which they had been attached in
the Present, the Imperfect, the Optative^ and Imperative. Only the verbs
of the Chur class preserve their w^ dya throughout, except in the Aorist

and Benedictive.

Reduplicated PerfecL

^ 324. The root in its primitive state is reduplicated. The rules of
reduplication have been given above* {� 302— 319*)

^ 325. The Reduplicated Perfect can be formed of all verbs, except
I. Monosyllabic roots which begin with any vowel prosodially long but
H a or HT a: such as fwi4f to praise ; ^v edh, to grow ; ^indh^ to light ;
T^iinrf, to wet.
%. Polysyllabic roots, such as ^WT^chakda^ to be bright*
3. Verbs of the Chur class and derivative verbs, such as Causatives,
Desideratives, Intensives, Denominatives.
J 3atS. Verbs which cannot form the Perfect by reduplication, form the
Periphrastic Perfect by means of composition. {� 340.)

So do likewise ^ rfay, to pity, &c., w ay, to go, mt^^ ds^ to sit down
(P&n, III. 1, 37), in^*d�, to cough (Pdn. iii. i, 35); also w^^kdi, to shine
(S&r.); optionally ijti ush^ to bum, (lihlf oahdm), f^ vid, to know, (ftf^ viddm\
"^t^Jdffri, to wake, {"fmjijdgardm, P&9. iii. i, 38); and, after taking redupli-
cation, Hf^ bhi {f^^bibhaydm^-^hri (f^rpAjihraydm), ij bhri (flwtf bibhardm),
and J hu (j9j^ juhavdm^ P&n. iii. i, 39).

The verb "^l^ drnu, to cover, although polysyllabic, allows only of 'S^^fTT
dmundva as its Perfect.

"^nfichh^ to fail, although its base in the Perfect ends in two consonants,
forms only WH^dnarchchha. It is treated, in fact, as if^f^archchh, ($3I3�)

Tertninationa of the Reduplicated Perfect.





|[^ ishe




^^ ivahe

WT^ dthe



^ tva


^T^ aihui.


^: atui^


^ ima


V a


^ ut


^ idhve or ^ i^At;^
^ ire

These terminations are here given, without any regard to the systems of
native or comparative grammarians, in that form in which they may be
mechanically added to the reduplicated roots. The rules on the omisdon of
the initial ^t of certain terminations will be given below.

^ 327. The accent falls on the terminations in the Parasmaipada and
Atmanepada, except in the three persons singular Parasmaipada, In these
the accent falls on the root, which therefore is strengthened according to the
following rules :

1. Vowels capable of Guj^a, take Guna throughout the aingular, if followed

by one consonant.

fW^ bhid^ f^^ bibhid-a^ fv^HlfV bibhSd^itha, fs^ bibhid^,
'^^budh^ '^pftH bubddh^f '^pft^n bubifdh'-itha, "^^^ btbb6dh-a.
But '^((^jtvy a long medial vowel not being Uable to Guna, forms ftnfhr
jijiv-a, fil �() Ol VI jyiv-itha, f^ptlm jijiv^a.

2. Final vowels take Vriddhi or Guijia in the first, Gu^ in the second,

Ypddhi only in the third person singular.
'^niy f9[^J^nindy-a or Phh^ nimdy-Oy fVf^ mnitha or fiPTftni nindy-ithay
f�fr|nY nindf/'a,

3. V a if followed by a single consonant, takes Ypddhi or Gu^a in the first,

Gu^a in the second, Yriddhi only in the third person, singular,

f^ hcm,'9[ViPiiJaghan^a or w^jaghdn-^i, '^r^^if^jaghdn-itha, ^tf^mjaghan-<k

Note — If the second person singular Parasmaipada is formed bj 'mha^ the aocent falls on
the root ; if with ^ tVAa, the accent may feJl on any syllable, but generally it is on the
termination. In this case the radical vowel may, in certain verbs, be without Gupa,
fifi^ri;, ft%8f �tc^fl, but ftftftlVI vivijitha, (Pkn. i. 2, 2 ; 3.)

� 328. As there is a tendency to strengthen the base in the three persons

singular Parasmaipada, so there is a tendency to weaken the base, under

certain circumstances, before the other terminations of the Perfect, Parasmai

and Atmanepada. Here the following rules must be observed :

I • Roots like Tn{^pat, i. e. roots in which ^ a is preceded and followed by a

single consonant, and w^hich in their reduplicated syllable repeat the

initial consonant without any change (this excludes roots beginning

with aspirates and with gutturals; roots beginning with ^v, and


l|ra[ i^* and ?^ dad are likewise excepted), contract such forms as
iRI^jvopo^ into ^H^pet, beibre the accented terminations, (including
^itha, Pft^. Yi. 4, I20, 121.)

^^pach, vmw^ pig^dktha, but ^l^^pechiihd, ^|^^pechimd, ^l^.peckii^.

1li^ tan, iKVtq teniihdf ^f^ tenimd^ Thp tenu^.

2. Roots mentioned in ^ 311 take their weak form.

^ vahf iHTf uvdhaj isrf\[W Hhimd. T^ vocA, V^rv mdeha, ^: Hchui^.

Note— The roots 1[ M, l|<^jpAa/, Hl^ftA^i;, ?n,<rap, Yl^iiratA (Pft?. vi. 4, laa), and
XV^rddk, in the sense of 'killing' (123), fonn their Reduplicated Perfect like ^paf. The
roots ^Jt^, V^&Arom, and ^f^^tras (134) may do so optionally; and like^nse ^Vi^^jiAa^,
TlH^r4y, W^bhr4jf WfJ^ftAr^/, ^Jpi^JfhW, ^Ql^syam, ^R(�oaii.

3. The roots ^ffam, fjfihan, in^yon, Wlkhan, 'W^^ghas drop their radical

voweL (Pft?. VI. 4, 98.)
Vl\ffam, irvf^ jagmdtuh. f9( Aai�, img: jaghndtuh* 1P( ^Aan, ^�^ eAaA:A-
ndtuh. ^ ^A^> ^VWS^ jdk$hdtuh>
4* Roots ending in more than one consonant, particularly in consonants
preceded by a nasal (P&9. i. 2, 5), such as w^manihi ^:^Jsrafk8^ &c., do
not drop their nasal in the weakening forms. Ex. 3rd pers, dual;
^^mi^l babhrajjdtuh ; ^f^A^^ mamanihdtuh ; Wgk 9a9ra'ik86.
5. The verbs ih^iran/A, V[\9^^'^f^9 ^ dambh, Bnd'm[^^sva^f\ however, may be
weakened, and form ^Nj: trethdtui, d^ grethdtuf^j ^^ debhdtuk^ TOi^
sa$vaj( (loss of nasal and e, cf. Pft^. i. %, 6, v&rt). But according to some
grammarians the forms ^iniiTS: iairanthdtul^ &c. are more correct
� 329. Roots ending in^nd, and many roots ending in diphthongs, drop
their final vowel before all terminations beginning with a vowel (P&9. vi. 4, 64).
In the general tenses, verbs ending in diphthongs are treated like verbs
ending in ^ d.

The same roots take ift au for the termination of the first and third
persons singular Parasmaipada.
^ d(i, ^ dad-ad, ^flpv dadrivd, "^^^ dad-dthu^, r(ff^ dadAr6.
% nUai, wgi mand'^, *ri)pr mamlrivd, 'HTS^ maml-dthuhi ^f^t mamlrM.
Except "Skvyty T^hve^ &c.; see j 311.

j 330. Roots ending in ^ t , ^ f, if n> ^^ preceded by one consonant, change
their vowels, before terminations beginning with vowels, into ^y, ^ r.

If preceded by more than one consonant, they change their vowels into
^*y, ^fl^-t. ($ aai.)

^rf%!^^^rf^ ^nr ^nwrftrftr

the Prasl^a (p. 17 b) decides for both, l|ra[ia� and ^l^io/.
t ^ n forms the perf. ^VR dra^ 3rd pers. dual W
HMJI dtkdrehchka^ 3rd pers. dual VMAjS dnarchckhdtuti*

162 THE INTEBKEDIATE ^ t. $ 331-^

Roots ending in 7 tt, 'mil, change these vowels always into ^ur.

Most roots ending in ^r<, change the vowel to ^ or (PAn. vii. 4, 11).

^ �<, ftrftw niny^d, we two have led. ftr iri, %ftrf^ 6iSriy-ivdy we
two have gone. Tf kri, ^CW^* chakr-dthufty you two have done. ^ sifi,
irarc^ taatar^thuf^^ you two have spread. ^ yu^ ]|3^^ yuyuthdthu^, you
two have joined. ^ stu, ffT^ tushfuv-dthu^y you two have praised. V Arl^
^TIR^ chakar-dthul^f you two have scattered.



\ 331. Before we can proceed to form the paradigms of the Reduplicated
Perfect hy means of joining the terminations with the root, it is necessary
to consider the intermediate \ i, which in the Reduplicated Perfect and in
the other unmodified tenses has to be inserted between the verbal base and
the terminations, originally beginning with consonants. The rules which
require^ allow^ or prohibit the insertion of this ^ t form one of the most
difficult chapters of Sanskrit grammar, and it is the object of the following
paragraphs to simplify these rules as much as possible.

The general tendency, and, so far, the general rule, is that the terminations
of the unmodified or general tenses, originally beginning with consonants,
insert the vowel ^ t between base and termination ; and fi'om an historical
point of view it would no doubt be more correct to speak of the rules which
require the addition of an intermediate ^ i than (as has been done in ^ 326)
to represent the ^ t as an integral part of the terminations, and to give the
rules which require its omission. But as the intermediate ^ i has prevailed
in the vast majority of verbs, it will be easier, for practical purposes, to
state the exceptions, i. e. the cases in which the ^ i is not employed, instead
of defining the cases in which it must or may be inserted.

One termination only, that of the 3rd pers. plur. Perf. Atm., ^ire, keeps the
intermediate ^ t under all circumstances. In the Yeda, however, this ^ iy too,
has not yet become fixed, and is occasionally omitted; e.g. ^^ duduh-rS.

* In W^> \ dfi, and ^pfit^ further shortening may take place; ^^liQ* iaiardtuf^
being shortened to ypK^* dairtUufi, &o� (P&9.V11. 4, la.)


— ^ 332. THE INTSBMEDIATE ^ t. 16^

Let it be remembered then^ that there are three points to be considered :
I. When is it necessary to omit the ^iP
7,. When is it optumcU t6 insert or to omit the ^iP
3. When is it necessary t6 insert the j(iF

For the purposes of reading Sanskrit, all that a student is obliged to know
isy When it is necessary to omit the ^ t. Even for writing Sanskrit this
knowledge would be sufficient, for in all cases except those in which the
omission is necessary, the ^ t may safely be inserted, although^ according
to views of native granunarians, it may be equally right t6 omit it, A
student therefore, and particularly a beginner, is safe if he only knows the
cases in which ^ t is necessarily omitted, nor will anything but extensive
reading enable him to know the verbs in which the insertion is either
optional or necessary. Native grammarians have indeed laid down a number
of rules, but both before and afler Pftnini the language of India has
changed, and even native grammarians are obliged to admit that on the
optional insertion of ^t authorities differ; that is to say, that the literary
language of India differed so much in different parts of that enormous
country, and at different periods of its long history, that no rules, however
minute, would suffice to register all its freaks and fencies.

� 332. Taking as the starting-point the general axiom (P&9. vii. a, 35) that eveiy
termination beginning originally with a consonant (except ^ y) takes the ^ i, which we
represent as a portion of the termination, we proceed to state the exceptions^ i. e. the cases
in which the ^t must on no account be inserted, or, as we should say, must be cut off from
^e beginning of the termination.

The following verbs, which have been carefully collected by native grammarians (Pft?.
VII. 3, 10), are not allowed to take the intermediate ^ • in the so-called general or unmodified
tenses, before terminations or afSj[es beginning originally with a consonant (except \y)*
(Note — ^The reduplicated perfect and its participle in ^l^ea� are not affected by these rules;
see 4 334.)

I. All monosyllabic roots ending in HT ^.
' 9. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^ t, except f^irt, to attend (21, 31)*; HV ^ to grow
(23,41). (Note^f^Mnt, to laugh, must take ^f in the Desiderative. Pft^. vii.

3> 74.)

3. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^l', except ^ 4^, to fly (22, 72 ; 26, 26, anuddtta), and

"^^f to rest (24, 22).

4. All monosyllabic roots ending in T�, except ^yu, to mix (24, 23; not 31,9); ^ni,

to sound (24, 24) ; ^ ntt, to praise (24, 26 ; 28, 104 ?) ; ^ kshu, to sound (24, 27) ;
WQ kshi^, to sharpen (24, 28). ^ mv, to flow (24, 29), takes ^f in Parasmaipada
(PIL9. VII. 2, 36). (Note — ^ stu, to praise, and ^ su, to pour, take ^ • in the First
Aorist Parasmaipada. PII9. vii. 2, 72.)

* These figures refer to the Dh&tup&tha inWestergaard's Radices Linguss Sanscritce, z84i�

Y 2

164 THE INTEBMSDIATE \i. � 332-

5. All monoBjUabic roots ending in ^ft, except ^pji, to choose (31, 38).

Important exception : in the Fat. and Cond. in ^ sya, all verbs in ^ ft take ^ t (P&9.

vii. 2, 70).
^ svfi, to sound, may take ^ i (P&9. vii. 3, 44). 1J bhfi^ to cany, may take ^ • in the

Desider. (Pin. vii. a, 49). '^dji, to regard, >| dhfi, to hold, and ^ ft, to go, take

^ • in the Desider. (PIL9. vii. 2, 74, 75).
In the Benedictive and First Aorist Atmanepada verbs ending in ^ ft aild beginning

with a coigunct consonant may take ^ t (P&9. vii. 2, 43).

6. All monosyllabic roots ending in ^ e, < at, 11^ 0.

Therefore, with few exceptions, as mentioned above, all monosyllabic roots ending in
vowels, except the vowels 9 4 and ^ f<, must not take ^ t .

7. Of roots ending in 1^ *, :;i^ hk, to be able (a6, 78; 27, 15).

8. Of roots ending in ^cA, Vl^^pach, to cook (23, 27); ^l^cacA, to speak (24, 55); ^|^

much, to loose (28, 136); ftr^mcA, to sprinkle (28, 140) ; fl^^ricA, to leave (29, 4) ;
ftr^otcA, to separate (29, 5).

9. Of roots ending in ^ c&A, Jf^^prachh, to ask (28, 120). It must take ^f in the Desider.

(PAfl. VII. 2, 75).

10. Of roots ending in Hj, ^hr�oafl[/, to embrace (23, 7); JlT^tyaj, to leave (23, 17); ^W

taHj, to adhere (23, 18); H9(bhajy to worship (23, 29); X^raHj, to colour (23, 30;
^^9 58); '^(^yaj, to sacrifice (23, 33) ; "ftfl^^nv, to clean (25, 11); ftf^^wj, to separate
(^5) 13 ; not 28, 9, or 29, 23) ; [Kdls. ^[^mjij]; ^^ytff, to meditate (26, 68), to join
(^9) 7)> ^^^9 ^ 1^ oft (26, 69; 28, 121); WB(^bhrajj, to bake (28, 4, except
Desider.); 'fn^majj^ to dip (28, 122); '^^ruj, to break (28, 123); ^^&Ai(f, to bend
(28, 124), to protect (29, 17); ^HlbhaHj, to break (29, 16).

1 1. Of roots ending in ^ d, ^ had^ to evacuate (23, 8) ; ^il^ skand, to step (23, 10) ; ^ ad,

to eat (24, i) ; Vl^pad, to go (26, 60) ; fll^itAtd, to be distressed, &c. (26, 61 ; 28, 142 ;
29, 12) ; ft^vid, to be (26, 62); fi^^mc^, to sweat (26, 79); J^^, to strike (28,
i) ; ^ ^f^f to push (28, 2 ; 28, 132); ?r^ sad, to droop (28, 133) ; 1(1^ iad, to perish
(28, 134); ftt^vid, to find (28, 138? 29, 13; not 24, 56); fil^&Ati, to cut (29, 2);
f^ chhid, to divide (29, 3) ; ^R kshudf to pound (29, 6).

12. Of roots ending in ^<2A,'g^6tu^A, to know-(26, 63); ^y�(fA,tofight(26,64); ^^^rtidk,

with ^3 ^****� *� 1^^� (3^� ^5)> ^ ^��P o^ (29> ^)� tlV r^A, to grow (26, 71 ; 27, 16);
^^(^vyadh, to strike (26, 72); ^p^^krudh, to be angry (26, 80) $ ^^AtAftcKA, to be
hungry (26, 81), except Part. IjAlV kshudhita and Ger. ^^[ftliWT k�hudhitvd (P&9.
VII. 2, 52); ^^^u^A, to clean (26, 82); f^P^sidk, to succeed {26, 83); ^1^<^^, to
achieve (27, 16) ; ^^^bandh, to bind (31, 37).

13. Of roots ending in f^n, l|�^Aafi, to kill (24, 2), except the Fut. and Cond. (P&9. vii. 2,

70) ; likewise its substitute M^badh: vn^maii, to think (26, 67).

14. Of roots ending in ^J>, fit^tip, to pour (10, i ?) ; ^|'R,�nP> ^ go (^3* '4) � ^^^^P* to heat

(23, 16; 26, 50); TJ^iiap, to swear (23, 31 5 26, 59); ^rap, to sow (23, 34); W^,
svtyp, to sleep (24, 60) ; ^n^4P* ^ reach (27, 14) ; ftf^AsAtp, to throw (28, 5) ; ^^'{fi^,
to cut (a8, 137) ; f9r((^/^, to anoint (28, 139) ; ^j^cAAiip, to touch (28, 125). (Note —
^pi^fftp and T^4ip, which are generally included, may take ^ i, according to Pft^.
VII. 2, 45.)
zg. Of roots ending in ^bh, V^rabh, to desire (23, 5) ; W(labh, to take (23, 6) ; TH^yabh,

coin (33f ii)*

-^ 333* THB IKTEBHEDIATS ^ i. ' 165

z6. Of roots ending in IT m, X^ram, to play (ao, 33) ; ^(^^namy to incline (23, la) ; ^yom,
to cease (33, 15). But these three take ^ • in Aor. Par. (Pft?. vii. 2, 73). ^^ffom, to
go (23> 13), but it takes ^f before ^� of Put., CJond., and Deuder. Par. (PA9. vii. 2,
58). Also IV^ibram, to step (13, 31)^ in Atm. (Pft^. vii. 2, 36).

17. Of roots ending in 1^/, ^d^ibW, to shout (20, 26) ; ^l^i^, to see (23, 19) ; ^^eUuhi^
to bite (23, 20); ftn^^K/^ to be sniall {26, 70; 28, 127); fln^c^^ to show (28, 3);
^^I^rtti, to hart (28, 126) ; ftl^rt^, to hurt (28, 126); Wi^$pfiiy to touch (28, 128) ;
fin^^vi^, to enter (28, 130); ^fS^^mfU, to rub (28^ 131).

i8. Of roots ending in ^sA, ^p^AfisA> to draw (23, 21 ; 28, 6); fi^tvish, to shine (23> 32);
fk^c^owA, to hate (24> 3) ; ftn^vwA, to pervade (25, 13), to separate (31 9 54; not 17,
47) 5 5^iww*> to nourish {26, 73 ; not 17, 50) ; ^ii�*, to dry (26, 74) ; f^tesA, to
please {26, 75) ; ^cAmA^ to spoil (26, 76) ; fs^^A, to embrace (26, 77) ; f^P^^A,
to distinguish (29^ 14) ; fti^pMA� to pound (29, 15).

19. Of roots ending in ^s, ^V(�, to dwell (23^ ^6), except Part. Vf^R* ushiia^ and €rer.

9^m\u$kUvd (P49. VII. 2, 52) } '^^^ghas, to eat (17, 65, as substitute for HV <u{).

20. Of roots ending in ^ A^ ^ ruh, to grow (20, 29) ; 1^ dah, to bum (23^ 22) ; m^ msA,

to sprinkle (23, 23); iff vah, to cany (23, 35); J^ doA, to milk (24, 4; not 17, 87);
f^ dih, to smear (24, 5); ft^ Uh, to lick (24, 6); 11^ noA, to bind (26, 57).

4 333* Other roots there are, which must not take ^ f in certain only of the general

A. In the future (formed by ITT id), the future and conditional (formed by ^ sya), the

desiderative, and the participle in W to (Pft^. vii. 2, 15; 44), the verb ^pij^fip must not
take ^ f, if used in the Parasmaipada. (P&9. vii. 2, 60.)
Tf^iUpy to shape, Fut.H^RTAa^^^, �ut.W9^nfit kaJpsyati, Cond. VH i^4m(akalp9yatj
Desid. f^jmrn cMklipsati; Part. JfWl kliptafi.

B. In the future and conditional (formed by ^ iya), the desiderative base, and the

participle in W ta, the following four verbs must not take ^ i, if used in the Parasmai-
pada. (P49. Yii. 2, 59.)

^ofi^, to exist, Put. HMtt^vartsyaH, Cond. V^rf) 9iavart9yatj Desid. ft^Wfif vwfitsaH;

Part. ^|W! vfi^^oA. (Pft^. vii. 2, 15; 56.)
^VficZA, to grow, �vLt,^l9^flfvartsyaH, CoTid.W^mh(avartsyatj Desid. ftl^pfrfk vivfitsatij

Part. ^Vt vriddkaft,
Wi^Mffond, to drop, Fnt, '^^i^fltfB syanttyati, Cond. ^^MkHjuffontsyatj Desid. (Vl^fnOl

fisyanUati; Part* ^OWt syannaf^.
H^ ifidhf to hurt. Put. ^pSflr iartsyati, Cond. HUrf^^ aiartsyat; Desid. (^I^wflf

iUfitsatij Taxt.^Xl iriddha^,

C. In the desiderative bases, and in the participle in W ta, monosyllabic roots ending in

7 �, 9 tf, ^ft, ^rl, and U^ grah, to take, and ^ guk, to hide, do not take ^ �.

(Pft^.vii. 2, 12.)
^bhU, to be, '^^^Vflr bubkOshaHj Pftrt. ^ bh4tafi.

V%ffrah, ftf^lffir j^AfiA^Aa^; Part. ^JlfhrtpftAl^oA (long i by special rule, cf. P4n. vii. 2, 37).
^yuA, 1|l| HI Hi jughukshaH; Part, 'j^ gH^kaft (cf* P^* ^"* ^� 44)*
(Verbs ending in ^fi and ^opi are liable to exceptions. See � 337. P&9. vii. 2, 38-41.)

D. Participial formations.

I. Roots which may be ^hout the ^ t in any one of the general tenses, must be without
it in the participle in W ta.

166 THE INTEBMEDIATS ^ t. � 333-s>

(Remark that the participle in W ta is most opposed^ as the reduplicated perfect is most

disposed to the admission of ^ t .)
Monosyllabic roots ending in T�, ^91^, ^ft, ^f^, do not take \i before the participle

in W ta, nor before other terminations which tend to weaken a verbal base*

(Pft^.vii. a^ II.)

5 y*� *^ i^^f W^ yn-tah, ^nmn^yu'taodn, ^W yu-ivd, (P&9. vii. a, 11.)

€j[ A2, to cut, ^r�T: U-nd(^, cj^�l*H�f^ Ui-4ua>dn, T^Wl 14-tv/L (Except ^ptf, � 335^ II. 6.)

^ vfi, to cover, 'JlfS vfi-ta^f ^imy^vji-tavdn, ^W vfi-tvd.

^Tf^^^, to enter, may form (Pft?. vii. 2, 44) the future as Hlff^A} gdh-i-td or ^^ITSXgd^hdi

hence its participle TRT! gdfha^ only,
^^^ttp, to protect, may form (P&^.vii. a, 44) the future •Ji^nigop-t-td or WhlT^op-^^^*

hence its participle ^^pH ^Pup^oA only.
a. Roots which by native grammarians are marked with technical W ^ or ^1 do not take
^ f in the participle in W to. (P&^ vii. a, 14, 16.) *
f^f^ rnjtd, to sweat (marked as ftlf^^l ISmAo�2^; f^HT mnndh,
91^ 2a;, to be ashamed (marked as ^IfcVlft olaj()i co^Hi lagnaft.

List qf Participles in W ta or �T na loAtcA /or special reasons and in special senses

do not take ^ i.

fsr in, to go ; ftnn ^*i^a^, fWAT ^'fptf. (Pli^. ni. a, 11.) See 4 33a, a.

f^ ivf, to swell ; !f^ iitirta^. (PA?, vii. a, 14.) See $ 33a, a.

1|H iUAtt&A, to shake; "^V: kskubdhaft, if it means the chuming-stick. (PH^. vii.a, 18.)

See i 33a, 15.
^r�( svan, to sound ; ^orflf • svdntaft, if it means the mind.
V^ dhvan, to sound ; Ufhfl dhvdntaftf if it means darkness.
Tl*^ 2a^, to be near; ^P^t lagnah, if it means attached.
^^ m/�cAcAA, to speak indistinctiy ; fjrfS mlishfa^, if it means indistinct.
f^ll^vtre^A, to sound ; MV*ii viribdhaf^, if it refers to a note,
in pAaf�, to prepare ; lilTt phd^aft, if it means without an effort.
^(tW vdhy to labour ; ^Tt^ vd4ha^, if it means excessive.
ip^ dkfish, to be confident ; ^V! dhfishfa^, if it means bold. (P&9. vii. 3, 19.)
ft^l^ vi^aSj to praise ; ftRR^ viiastdfk, if it means arrogant.
7f (fft'A, to grow ; T7t dfiifhalt, if it means strong. (PIL9. vii. a, ao.)
mIV^f parivjih, to grow ; mDl^^* paricfi^hdft, if it means lord. (Plb^. vii. a, ai.)
in^ibcuA, to try ; Wt* kashfah^ if it means difficult or impervious. (P&9- 'Vii� 3, aa.)
^if ^^imA, to manifest ; ^S ghushfafi, if it does not mean proclaimed. (P&9. vii. a, 33.)
W^ard, with the prepos. ^ sam, fH nt, f% m, Irat ar^^^y ^Pw ^amorn^^i^ plagued. (Pl9*

VII. a, 34.)
^R^ ard, with the prepos. V59 ahhi; VMIJ: abhyarnf^, if it means near. (P&^ vii. a, 35.)
^tTftV (as causative), ^|W! vfittah, if it means read.

* ft^mtd, to be soft, though having a technical UTtf, may, in certain senses, form.ito
participle as m^ medUa^ or finT mtnfio^ (P&9. vii. a, 17). The same applies to all verba
marked by technical HT d.

-^ 335. THE IKTBEMEDIATE f i. 167

Intermediate ^ i m the Reduplicated Petrfeet,

$ 334. The preceding niles> prohibiting in a number of roots the ^ i for all or most
general tenses, do not affect the reduplicated perfect. Most of the verbs just enumerated
which must omit ^ t in all other general tenses, do not omit it in the perfect. So general,
in fact, has the use of the ^� become in the perfect, that eight roots only are absolutelj
prohibited from taking it. These are (PIL9. vii. 3, 13),

z. ^ kfi, to do, (unless it is changed to ^ ii^), ist pers. dual ^^ ehakti-vaz but

^hrerf^ sa^haskarwaj and pers. sing. d^lJlfV^ sa^haekaritha.
a. ^ jft, to go, ^8^ sa9fi-va�
3. >| bhriy to bear, Wf^ babhfi-va.

.4, ^vfi (^tfiff and ^tT*^*), to choose. Par. ^^vorrt-vafy Atm..l^|4% vovp-oole*
^^ vavfi-she,

5. ^ stu, to praise, f{^ tuih(iM9a. %W\V tuekfO'tha,

6. ^ dm, to run, ^n dudnM>a. {^{ft^ dudro-tha.

7. ^ sm, to flow, ^1^ eutrU'Va. ^oV^ euero'tha.

8. ^ ir�, to hear, V^^ ^tf^m-va. Jjnit^ iuirO'tha,

� 335* I^ ^^0 second person singular of the reduplicated perfect Par. the ^ • before
Vtha must necessarily be left out,

z. In the eight roots, enumerated before. (The fbrm W^ vavar'thaf howerer, being
restricted to the Veda^ l^^tft^vavaritha is considered the right form. See No. 14a, in
the DhUtupft^.) -

a. In roots ending in vowels, which are necessarily without ^ t in the fiiture (IIT M), P49.
VII. a, 61. See � 33a, where these roots are given.

^ ytf, to go ; Put. inWT ydtdj Hm^ yayd-tha.
fVcH to gather; �vi,WW\ ehetd; ^n^ Mehe-tha.

3. In roots ending in consonants and having an V a for their radical vowel, which are
necessarily ^hout ^ t in the future (IIT td), Th^, vii. a, 62. See $ 33a, where these
roots are given.

^l^pacA, to cook ; Vut.VnR paktd; V^W^ papak-tha.

But ipvflf kfithati, he drags ; Put. Wtl karshfdj 1*rft'*l chakarsh'i-tha.

(Bharadvija requires the omission of ^t after roots with ^ ft only, which are necessarily
wxAout ^ f in the periphrastic future (PIL9. vii. a, 63), except root ^ ft itself. Hence he
allows Mfin pechithaf besides V!^fW^ papaktkaj J^^tf^ iyajUhay besides ^1(W iyashtha:
also M^^ yayUha, P^^^H chichayitha, &c.)

4. An other verbs ending in consonants with any other radical vowel but V a, require \i,
and so do all verbs with which ^ t is either optional or indispensable in the future


* ^tT�*� (37, 8) TO& varatfe, Su. ^�n*J� (34> 8) UTTO^ doaraig^, Chur. ^ vrin,
(3i> 3^) ^t^^ sambkaktau, Krt.

t The form mftff vavariva, which Westergaard mentions, may be derived from another
roQjb \ vfi, the rule of Pli^ini being restricted by the commentator to ^opff and ^or���

168 THE INTEBlfBDIATE ^ i. � 336-

Ezoeptions :

X. Id ^^^* and '^^^^dfii, the omiflsion is optionaL
^^^', '^BW sasrashtha, at W^l^n aasjrijitha,

2. The verbs nftl atti, irfS arti, ^priifvyayati must take \i. � 338, 7.
^f^ad, Wtff^ dd'i'tha^ (exception to No. 3.)
^ft, ^l^iM dr-i'tha, (exception to No. 2.)
^i?ye, ni'^pM^ vivyay-i'tha, (exception to No. 2.)

Tables showing the cases in which the intermediate ^ i must be omitted between the Unmodified
Root and the Terminations of the so-caUed General Tenses, originaUy beginning with m
Consonant, except ^7.

� 336. In these tables IT to stands for the Past Participle; lR(�aii stands for the Desidem*
tiye; Wsya for the Future and Conditional; Ifttd for the Periphrastio Future; ftl^stcA
for the First Aorist ; f^ffT^ lin for the Benedictive.

I. For all General Tenses, except the Reduplicated Perfect^
OmU ^i,
z. Before IT ta, ^�a�, 9 sya, ITT td, ftl^sicA, f^ M :
In the verbs enumerated � 332.

2. Before IT ta, W{^san, Wsya, IfT td:

In ^P^hlip, if Parasmaipada. � 333, A.

3. Before IT ta, WS{^san, ^ sya :

In ^on^ ^fr*<^> ^^ syand, IfSfjfyidh, if Parasmupada. � 333, B.

4. Before IT ta, WS{^san :

In monosyllabic verbs ending in 7^ 9�, ^, ^ ji, jn grah, and ^ guh. % 333, C�

5. Before ir to.*

a. All verbs which by native grammarians are marked with "Wld, \i, or H tf ^.

b. The verb ftl 4r% and others eniunerated in a general list^ ^ 333, D.

II. For the Reduplicated Perfect,
Omit ^1,

1. Before all terminations, except ^ ire :

In eight verbs, mentioned � 334.

2. Before ^tha, 2nd pen. sing. :

All verbs of � 332 ending in vowels 1 if without ^ i in the

All verbs of � 332 ending in consonants unth Va as radical vowel /periphrastic future.

Optional insertion of l^i,

� 337* ^o' practical purposes, as was stated before, it is sufficient to know when H
would be wrong to use the intermediate ^t^- for in all other oases, whatever the views of
difPerent grammarians, or the usage of difforent writers, it is safe to insert the ^ t •

As native grammarians, however, have been at much pains to collect the cases in which ^ t
must or may be inserted, a short abstract of their rules may here follow, which the early
student may safely pass by.

* The technical H tf shows that in the other general tenses the ^ t is optional. ^ 337, 1. 2.

-f 337. THE INTERMEDIATE ^ i. 169

^ i may or nuiy not be inierted :

I. Before any drdkadhdtuka (i. e. an affix of the genenl tenses not requiring the modified
verbal base) beginning with consonants, except \y,

I. In the ydrbs ^wfi^- Per. Fut. VrftlH svar-i-td, or ^Snlsvartdf &c. (P4i^. vii. a, 44.)

(Except future in ^ sya, ^ftl^Vflr nariskyati only. P&9. vii. a, 70.)
^�tf (as Ad and Div, not as Tud), ^f^fHT^av-i-f^, or '^SfVKlsotd, &c.
\dM (not as Tud), vftlfll dhav-utd, or vVVT dAo/^, &c. (Except aorist Pkiasmaipada,

which must take ^ i. PA^. vii. a, 7a.)
a. In all verbs having a technical 'W^H (P&9. vii. 2, 44). TTf p^> Per. Fut. Wlffffl gdh-i-td^

0TVJ^gd4hd. (See $ 333, D. x.)
But ^Vl^^a^j (though marked #i|ail/tf) muti take ^ t in the first aorist. (P&i^. vii. a, 7 1 .)

wfflf^ d^huft.

3. In the eight verbs beginning with V\radh. (P&9. vii. a, 45.)
(a6, 84) T^roiA, to perish, XfifWl reM^utd, or TUT raddhd.

(26, 85) ^VBna^, to vanish, nHiini nai-^td^ or IIVT na^iuAf^.

(a6, 86) ^'r*/'> to delight, irFQlfT tarp-i-td, ot KWttarptd, or ?nn traptd.

(a6, 87) ^^cfft/), to be proud, ^fVWT darp'i-tdf or ?^ darptd, or ^pIT draptd.

(26^ 88) "^ druA, to hate, "^ftf^lH droh-i-td, or "^jft^ drogdhd^ or ^|^^ dro^hd.

(a6, 89) n miiA, to be bewildered, ifH^lfT moA-t-^^^, or iftnfT mogSkd, or 'uVT moifhd.

(a6, 5K>) ^f <"�A, to vomity iM^HT tnoA-t-^^ or iFtniT snogdkd, or lltTT tho^lUL

{26 J 91) f^ miA, to love, %f^Tn tnehri'td^ or ^TVT snegdkd, or ^OTT tnt^hd.

Aooording to some this option extends to the reduplicated perfect; but this is properly
denied by others.

4. In the verb ^|f^iiwA (Chur dass), preceded by f�l^ntr/ but here ^t ii necessary in

the participle with W ta, (PA9. Vix. a, 46 ; 47.)

^ i may or may mot be inserted:

II. Before certain drdhadhdtukai only :

I. Before drdhadhdtukai beginning with Hj :

In the verbs Wish (Tud only), ^ sak, "^hibK "^ruik, ft^m*. (PII9. vii. a,
48.) The participles in IT fa or ^ na are treated separately under No. 7. Hence
\tl i$hfa^ only, but either ^fX iskfvd or l^f^f^T Mitvd.
a. Before drdkadhdtukas beginning with ^^a, but not in the aorist 1

In the verbs ^f\krii, to cut; '^H^cApV, to kill; "If^cAAfW, to play; ^frW, to
strike ; ^TI^npY, to dance. (P&9. vii. a, 57.)

3. Before the termination of the desiderative base (^en^san) :

In the verb ^ vp, and all verbs ending in ^K* {P^9* '^''' ^� 4iO

In the verbs ending in ^w, and in ^^fiilA, '^3[^bhrasi, ^damAA, fW/rt, ^ wri,

^yth ^tff^tf, ^ bhri (BhA class), V^^JHapy ^san^ also TTf^ten, VPHjpat, ^[ftST

daridrd. (P&9. vii. a, 49.)

4. Before the terminations of the benedictive (ft5t^ lih) and first aorist (fis^wcA) in the

Atmanepada :
In the verb ^ rp, and all verbs ending, in ^ f< (P&n. vii. 2, 42). The ^ r^ ifl

changed into ^<r or 'QF^ dr.
In verbs ending in ^ft and beginning with a conjunct consonant. (P&n. vii. a, 43.)


J. 70 THE INTERMEDIATE ^ f. � 338-^

5. Before the gerundial termination i^ tvd .-

In verbs having a technical 7 u. (Pftn. vii. a, 56.)
Vm^^om (^ /(trattf), 'Iffitm ^amitvd or ^ffi?T idntvd.

6. Before the gerondial termination i^ to^ and the participle in W ta :

In the verb %S^ibtf^, (P&9. vn. a, 50.)

f^fifFtX kUHtvd or f^q^ kliskfvdj f||rfl|nn klifitdfL or f^: klishfidi.
In the verb ^[jitf. (Pftn. vii. a, 51.)

MPlff^llMioffp^ or ^^i^to^, T^PSTKl pavitaft or ^[fft j)i2/aA. It must take l^t in
the desiderative (P&gu vii. 2, 74).

7. Before the partidpial terminations IT ta or vTna^' (see also � 333, D. 3, note) :

In the rerb* ^^dam, to tame, ?(fin (to^ail or isfid^ damUah, (P&n. vii. 3^ 37.)
9*^ ^0"^ to qniet, ^^Z idnia^ ot ^if^lffS ^amt^o^.
^|i^, to fill, ^t p<&tuiil or ^fV** p^tai*
^^das, to perish, ^[^ datta^ or ^Tftm: ddaUaf^*
^mjspai, to touch, ^RV: tpashfafi or ^if^At tpdiiidft.
K^ ehhady to cover, i[WS cAAofina^ or f^lQ^AS chhdditah.
W(j^f to inform, QIH JKopfo^ or frf^S j^Iajn^a^.
^i(^rM&, to hurt, ^f: rwAfo^ or ^ftnn nwAtVoA. (P&9. vii. s, 38.)
W^am, to go, vfm dntc^ or vf^iAt omtVo/^
{^ ioar, to hasten, 1|^: A^-^ojl or HlfXil* tvaritaf,
^r^raii-^Aitf^ to shout, ^^^Vt sanffhttshfa^ or ^^ftwt ^on^ftitfAt^aA. (See � 333,

D. 3.)
^n^l�((CnMm, to sound, VIHtil* dwdntah or Uraf^nn ^amVa|^. (See $ 333,

D. 3.)
^ ArttA, to rcgoioe, l[9l hfiihtah or |{ftnR Afi^AtTa^, if applied to horripilation.

(P&9. VII. 3, 39.)
W^fif �pa-cAt, to honour, HUf^il* apackitafi or VQ^TTMiTt opoeA^fitaJk *•

8. Before the participle of the reduplicated perfect in ^^vm ;

In the verbs V^gamy to go, l| D ^ ^ [^agmwdn or *i � i •^ i^JoffOfwdn %,
^�^toi, to kill, i| i)l 4 U{jagknwdn or i| M�^ l^jaghmvdn*
f^ vtd^ to know, W^f^^ll*^ vwidivdn or fM^HTT*^ viMvdn.
f^Jlt^vU, to enter� (^f^f^l^P^^ vivUivdn or fllftrW^ �twA?Ai.
^1^<^, to qee, ^^t^^K dadjriihdn or ^f mi^^deu^fi^^.

Necessary msertion of^u

i 33^* ^ • m^ist be inserted in all verbs in which, as stated before, it is neither prohibited,
nor only opIaonaUy allowed (Pftn. vii. 2, 35). Besides these, the following special cases may
be mentioned :
I* Before ^^va�, participle of reduplicated perfect :

In the verbs ending inWXd (Pft^. vii. 3, 67). VI pd, '^f^^mt^pcg^wdn.

In the verbs reduced to a single syllable in the reduplica^d perfect (P&n. vii. 2, 67).

^Wr a^, to eat, Vrfi(m^ ddvodn.
In the verb ^^ghas^ to eat, l| (\|| 4 \^iakshw4n.
Other verbs reject it.

* Pftn. vii. 3, 30. t PA?. VII. 3, 68.

^� 341. THE IKTEBMSDIATE J^u 171

2. Before 9 #ya of the future and conditioiial :

In all verbs ending in ^ft, and in ^ han (P&9. vii. a, 70). In '^^^gamf if uaed in
tlie Paraamaipada (Pft^. vii. 2, 58).

3. Before the terminations of the first aorist (f^T^ nek) :

In the verbs ^ ttu, ^ su, \dM in the Parasmaipada (P&9. vii. 2, 7a). Thos from
^ stu, to pnuse,' First Aonst (First Form), WMlf^4 astMsham: but in the
Atmanepada, VUtOl astoihi^

4. Before the terminations of the desiderative (1R( san) :

In the verbs V �;<, ^^, \ dfi, ^ i&rt, and lf^^prackh (PA9. vii. 3^ 75); and in

^H^gam, if used in the Parasmaipada (PAi^. vii. 2, 58).
In the verbs ftR smi, ^[jrtl, ^ ft, W1^ a%*, and Hl^ €i/. (Pft^. vii. 3, 74.)
g. Before the gerundial rfT AhI and the participial termination IT ta. (P&9. vii. a, 53-54.)
Intheverbs^^viw, to dwell; ^^ifrsAiu2A� to hunger; ^i^aSeA, to worship; ^^MA,

to confound (Dh&tup4fha 38, 33).

6. Before TIT tvtf only :

In ^JT^j to grow old ; "ff^^vra^ch, to cut. (Phs^, vii. 2, 55.)

7. Before ^tha, 3nd pers. sing, reduplicated perfect ;

In W^ad, to eat ; ^n� to go ; ^ vye, to cover. Wfl{^ diUihay against f 335, 3;
Wl^^driika, � 335, 3, note; ft^lftl^ ffkyoffitha,

� 339. The vowel ^ i thus insoied is never liable to Gu^a or


Insertion of the long \ t.

j 340. Long ^ t may be substituted for the short when subjoined to a

verb ending in ^ ff, also to i| v^i, except in the reduplicated perfect^ the

aoiist Fkrasmaipada, and the benedictive. (P&(i. vii. a, 38—40.)

\trl; Per. Fut. infhiT taritd or iri^ iaritd^ &c�; but Per� 2nd pers. sing.

iHbl teritha; I. Aor. Par. 3rd pers. plur. ^nrrftnj: atdrUkuiJ^; Bened.

3rd pers. sing, nfbrtv iarishtshfa *.

^vri; Per. Fut* ^rfhCT varitd or ^ftlTT varUd; but Per� ^nflc^ vavaritha;

Aor. Par. W^rftlj: avdri$kui ; Bened. ^Miw varUhUhfa^

� 341. In the desiderative and in the aorist Atm. and benedictive Atm. these verbs may
or may not have ^ t (PA9. vxi. 3, 41—43), which, if used* is liable to be changed to ^ ij not^
however, as far as I can judge, in the benedictive Atmanepada.

\tfi: Des. Iliwft^fir titarishaH: ftrifONfil HtofUhOi: flnfnflr tiHrskatij Aor. Itm.
mfffty atarishtOf ^fTnAv (ttarUhfa, and Wifiw aHrshtaj Bened. irftl^tV twritkUhtOf
• lft4t9 HrshUhta*
^ �fi/ Des. PliilVMfl 9war%$hatej f^THfhVn vwarUhatez ^]^4a vuv4rshatej Aor. Atm.
^nfty aoari$h{a, ^l^^lV warUkfay and H^ ooft^a; Bened. q(V�rt� variBkUhfa,
^pftV Vfishiikfa,
The verb ?T^ praA, too, takes the long 1^ i, except in the reduplicated perfect, the
desiderative, and cerfadn tenses of the passive. (P&9. vii. 3, 37.)
Jf^grahj Per. Fut. Q^hlY ^roAiftf ; Inf. Ulflj grakUtm: hvAVed.^nf^jagjihmia. '

* The forms given in the Calcutta edition of PlL^ini vii. 3, 43, ^O^f variaMikfa,
WO^V itarishUhfa, are wrong. (See P&9. vii. 2, 39.)

z 2


PeriphrasHc Perfect.

� 342* Verbs which, according to ^325, cannot form a reduplicated perfect,
form their perfect hj affixing laH ark (an accusative termination of a feminine
abstract noun in in a) to the verbal base, and adding to thi� the reduplicated
perfisct of ^ krij to do, ^bM, to be, or ^ asy to be*
'i^und, to wet, j^i^4iK, ir^, fVTV, undamchakdray babkdva^ Asa.
^fWX^cluikas^ to shine, <^i|ii^HilK^ if^, WRT, chakdsdjhchakdray babhdvtiy dsa.
^it^n bodhaya^ to make known, 4^i|^N4K^ W^> ^VT9> bodhayamchakdrc^
babMvay dsa.
After verbs which are used in the Atmanepada^ the auxiliary verb ^ kfi
is conjugated as Atmanepada, but wt^^ as and ^ bhU in the Parasmaipada.
Hence from ^vi^ edhate, he grows,

^vN^ edh-amchakre-f but w^ babMva and fVTV dsa*
In the passive all three auxiliary verbs follow the Atmanepada.

� 343. Intensive bases which oan take Gu^ take it before ^ dmj desiderative bases
never admit of Guna. ($ 339.)

^ft^bobh4y frequentative base of %bh4, ^ft^^Pl[hmTK bobhavdihehakdra.
But ^'ftftri^ bvbodhish, desiderative base of ^^iirfA, J^f\m[^4|K &c. bvbodhiikd^
ehdkdra &c.

Paradigms of the BedupUcated Perfect.

I. Verbal bases in ^H d, requiring intermediate ^ t.

MfTJA4( to place.
Parasmaipada. Itmanbpada.


dadhwd dadhimd dadM dadhivdhe dadhimdhe

(^m^dadkdthaox ^[H^ ^ l^ftA ^Vl^ ^ftld

X^^^dadhitha* dadhdthuh dadhd dadhishi dadhdthe dadhidhv^

3. ^dadhad ^VJt y(^. f^ ^pHT^ ^ftft

dadhdtui dadhdh dadhi dadhdte dadhiri

2. Verbal bases in ^ t and \iy preceded by one consonant, and requiring intermediate ^ t.

^ni, to lead.


fnn�i nindya ninyivd ninyimd mny4 ninyivdhe ninyimdhe

fftnhrwn^Aaor ^H^^l ftw ftff^ ftn^T^ ftrft'ld or ^ (� 105)

{.Inn (Vm ninayitha * ninydthult ninyd ninyish^ ninyathe ninyidhvi or -^hvi

3. ftwfm fiifi/ya ftrni: ftry ftr^ ftrmi^ ftfft^t

ninydtufi ninyu^ niny^ ninyate ninyirS

* � 335. 2, and � 335. 3.

VWWn chikrdfa Oft m\mW l^iAiW WnW T^nHnW? i^THnW^


3. Veibal bases in ^n, preceded by om oonsonAnt^ and reqairiBg intennediate ^ t.

^dhfi, to hold.

{^fintdadhdraox <?ftW . ^^fw ^ ^ftW^ i^flpii

iJp^ dadhdra dadhrwd dadhrimd dadhri dadhrwdke dadhrimdhe

2. ^dadkdrtha* ^pi^ ^ ^^ ^[Kt^ ^fhdor^^

dadhrdthu^ dadkrd dadhrisk4 dadkrathe dadhridkvi ot '^ho€

3. '^9TK,dad:hira ^Vj: fS^* ^ "^vik ^fft

dadhrdtu^ dadhrvf^ dadhri dadhrite dadhriri

4* Verbal bases in ^ft, preceded by one consonant, not admitting intermediate ^ t,

7 Afty to do.

^4< ckakdra chakfwd chakfimd chakr4 chakfiodhe ehakfimdhe

2. ^^^ehakdrtha ^HS^. ^H ^^ ^W^ ^^

chakrdthvh ekakrd chakjishi ehahrdthe chakfri4hv4

ehakrdtuit choMi^ chakri chakraie chakrirf

5. Verbal bases in ^t or %if preceded by two consonants* and requiring intermediate ^ t.

Hft kri, to buy.

li^nf( chikrdya cMkriyiod eMkriyimd ehikriyi ehikriyivdke cMkriyimdhe

{^^Htnehikr^haoir {^filM^l f^fiw f^fftlftr^ f^ftOTI^ ftrfilfiwor*^

'\^:WPn chikrayitha chikriydthuik chikriyd chikriyishi ekikriydtke chikriyidkv^ or -f^^

3. ^W^ekikrdya f^rftlWj: Nftig: f%ftl^ firftFITTl' fwftlftft

cMkriydtuh chikriy4h ehikriy( chikriyaie cMkriyiri

6. Verbal bases in 7u or H tf, preceded by one or two consonants, and requiring intermediate ^t ,

^ yu, to join.

I'^giBC^ ywydoa yuywwd yuywimd yuyvffi yuytmvdhe yuyycimdhe

2. ipuN^ yuyaoithaf 13^ 33^ 33^ 33^ 33^^*^'^

ynyuvdthff^ yuyuvd yMyuciM yuywdtke yuyuvidhvi ov "4^^

3. ^^myuydva 33^ 333: 33^ 33^ 33ftft

yuyuvdtui yuyuodh yuyuvi yuyuvdte yuytwiri

7. Verbal bases \n'9u, preceded by one or two consonants, and not admitting tbe intermediate ^f .

^ �iu, to praise.

i'^rr^ tu8h{dva or 3|^ 351! 35^ 3f^ 31^

I'^in tushfdva tushfuvd ttuhfumd ttah^voi tushfuvdhe tuehpaadke

2. -^pusM^tkaX fp^: 35^ 33^ 31^ 3ft

tushtuvdthufk tuskluvd tushfushi tushfwdthe tushtu4hv^

3. jrr^tusktdva 35^ 333: 33^ 35^ 35^

tushfuvdtuh tushfuvdf^ tuskpivi tush^vdte tushfimri

* � 335� a� ^^ � 335� 3- ^

t If 3 ^ is taken from Dh&tup4tba 31, 9, it may form ^[^yuydtha. (See i 335, 2, and

Westergaard, Radices, p. 46, note.)

X Bbaradvija might allow 3Vf%^ tushfavitha even against Plln. vii. 2, 13.


8. Verbal bases in ^ft� preceded by two consonants, and requiring intermediate ^i.

H ttri, to spread.

[ J(WK tastdra or irerfts IWftjf ireT TWjft^ II%|(Vh^

iJf^Stt tastdra tastarwd tastarimd tastari toitarwdke tastarimdke

tastardthu^ tattard iattariM ttutardtke tagtofidhoi at ^^ko^

3. K^SJK^iastira IRETCyt TRJ^t TOR nvivi) AWOlX

tastardtuf^ iastari^ tastari tastardte tastarird


9. Verbal bases in ^ji, requiring intermediate ^ t.

Mkfifiio scatter.

^fCchakdra chakarwd chakarimd ekakard ckakarivdhe chakarimdke

ckakardtkttfi chakard chakarishS chakardthe ckakaridMcfr^^kod

3. ^^WTtchakdra ^WPCJt ^*5i ^Iw^ ^*Un ^ITTO

ehakardtufi chakardfL ehakard ehakarite ehakarkrd

10. Verbal bases in consonants, requbing intermediate ^ u

l^tec^ to strike.

I. ^^tutdda B5^ Wfij*^ 1^ W^'T"^ W^^P*^

tuhtdhd ttUudimd tutudd tutudwdke 'hUudimdhe

a. If^tSl^^ tutoditha If^ fj^f Ijfij^ WT^ W^?^

tutuddthiifi tutudd tutudUkd tutudithe tutudidkod

'3. jft^tutdda 53^: 355: f^ 99^ 95^

ttUwidtu^ tutuddfk tutude HOudiu tutudM

1 1. Verbal bases in consonants, having ^ e, and requiring intermediate ^ u

It^ttm, to stretch.

intm tatdna on
* iKK^tatdna











3. Wff^ tenitha











3. inn�l tatdna











la. Verbal bases in consonants, having Samprasftra^av and requiring ^t.


to sacrifice.

^ft(^ iydja or








( ^19 iydshfha at
'ipif^ iyajUha











3. ^imr iydja










-f 344-



13. Verbal Iwses in conaonants, Tequuing contraction, and intermediate ^ t.

^ Ann, to kill.

I'^nf^jaghdna Jaghnwd jaghmmd jaghnS jaghnwdke jaghnmdhe

{Wi^jaghdntkaat WK^ IW 'iftl^ HRl^ IVf^d

* \ ^ N Ph ^jaghanitha jaghndthMf^ Jaghnd jaghnishi jaghnitke joghnidkei

3. ^^\^jag^ina HHj: . w^ ni HHri^ iftR

jagkndtu^ jaghm^ Jaghni jaghnite jaghnM
14. Verbal base ^bM (irregular).

babkMod babhMmd habMioi hahkModhe bahh4ovmdhe
babhiOvdtkulL babMod babh4insM babhihdthe babh(hidMoT'4kvi
babhOodt^ babkMih babkM babMvdte babMoiri



{ 344. It may be useful, without entering into minute details, to dis-
tinguish between two sets of general tenses, moods^ and verbal derivatiyes,
which differ from each other by a tendency either to strengthen or to weaken
their base. The strengthening takes place chiefly by Ghii^a, but, under
special circumstances, Ukewise by Yriddhi, by lengthening of the vowel,
or by nasalization. The weakening takes place by shortening, by changing
^ r^ to l^iTi or, before consonants, to ^ ^r, by Sampras&rana, or by
dropping of a nasal� There are many roots, however, which either cannot
be strengthened or cannot be weakened, and which therefore are liable
to change in one only of these sets* Some resist both strengthening and
T^eakening, as, for instance, all derivative bases, causatives, desideratives,,
and intensives (in the Atm.), which generally have been strengthened, as
far as their bases will allow, previously to their taking the conjugational




The base ig^ if possible,
strengthened in :

1. The Future.

2. The Conditional

3. The Periphrastic Future.

4. The Benedictive Atmanepada.

(Except bases endioff in conson.
or ^ ff, and not taking interm.
^t. P&n.i.a,ii; la. Yii. 3,42.)

5. The First Aorist, 1. 11.^

(Except First Aor. II. Xxm.' of
verbs ending in conson., ^ ft> or

^^- �350-352.)

The base is not strengthened^ and, if
possible, weakened in :

I. The Participle in w to (unless it takes

intermediate ^ t).
a. The Gerund in j^ tvd (unless it takes

intermediate ^ i).
3. The Passive.
4* The Benedictive Ptousmaipada.

5. The First Aorist, IV.

6. The Second Aorist.

(Except verbs in ^ ft, &o. � 364.)





Per. Fut.

Ben. Atm.



(Except bases ending in
ooDB. not taking interm. ^ i.)







^WftW Atm.













































































^nnftn^or wwrsftn^







dtanit or a/M^





















































f '
















ehikirsh chiktrshishydti dchiHrshishyat ckikirshitd chiHrskuMihtd dchiHrthU





chekriyishydte dchekrfyishyai

^a chekriyitd chekriyishUhid dchekriyishfa

-f 345-



II. Root.


Part. W to.

Ger.i^to^ Passive.

Ben. Par.

Second Aor.

First Aor.IV.

notitrengthened. without ^1.

without |(<.

and Sec. Aor.



bh4tvd hHydte




3fn fair






Itt^W tudydte





J^A\ ifttw






iWrW iWryiftc




l^.dyiUd^ ^tf^dy^vd ^((^dioydte

^ ^fNni(<^%/f

\ '^push ^lpu8htdl^^pu8k(vdj^puihy(Uejm^fu$hydtW^[^l{dpu$hat




(^fttftwr) (^'ft^)




(choray) (choritdit)

{ehorayitvd) {chorydie)






iwr fjn^





sutvd ndydte









tan & ta


tatvd tanydte











MW kriydte





fwfx fk^






doish(vd dvUhydte






JWT fin^





ikiitvtf Atfy^fte


nutt nuM ruddhdh


^ Caus.�ai^<^ ^iftjlt

kfi kdray kdritd^

^ Des. f^nft^ f^virfWhi:

^ Int. 'Wml*^ ^Hftftwt

Art ehekfiy chekriyitdlt

ruddhvd rudhydte

kdrayitvd kdrydte

PfiiTT^mT nnanw
chikirthUvd chikinkydti


rudhydt drudhat druddka

ifc^^i^ dchfkarat


i 345. Certain roots which strengthen their hase in a peculiar manner, by Vfiddhi,
like ^^ nifty, by lengthening, like ^^Aj by transposition, like f^^'� by changing ^t
into WXd, like fk mt, by nasalization, like 'H^na�, drop all these marks of strengthening,
in the weak forms.

I. Root. Base


Conditional. Per. Put. Ben.ltm. First Aorist.


^ m^^ Hi^$flr


mfH mdrj mdrkshydti


or mnSuni










� M3-

2 Or IfftWT tanitvd.

* Or WTBft %rf*c (� 391)'

^ P&]^. vii. a, 114.
A a



or If^'lm



gHhitd githishUhfd


bandh bandh bhantiydti

II. Root. Base Part. W to, Ger.rafT^t^ Passive.

not strengthened, without ^i. without ?<.

fH ^ ^


mdtd mdgishid






9rajhsishydte dsrammhyaia sramsitd sramsishishtd

dbhantsyat banddkd

Ben. Par. SecAor.




no/ nai

bandh badh

fiift�A^(i2^ fHfish^d mrijydte

w*^ w� ^I^











baddhvd badhydte badhydt



nafydt dnaiat

grasydt dsrasat


First Aor;. IV.
and II. Atm,


1 PA?. VI. 4, 89. 2 p4^^ yj^ i^ gg^ 8 pi^, VI. 1, 50. ^ PAi^. vii, I, 60.

* PA^. VI. 4, 34. * But with \i, ^fX^t^mdrjitvd^ not nf^t^marjUtd,

^ As to the long 9tf, see � ia8. ^ Or 3|f^ffT^�^^, � ^7, 1, a. ^ Or '^[flnarhshitd,
^^ Roots which may thus drop their nasalj are written in the DhlLtupft|iha with their nasal,
^(^ or B^srams: while others which retain their nasal throughout, are written without the
nasal, hut with an indicatory ^ t ; �Tf^ nod, &c. (PII9. vi. 4, 34 ; vii. i, 58). Two verbs thus
marked by ^ t, (VfH lag and irf^ kap^ may, however, drop their nasal, the general rule not-
withstanding, if used in certain meanings, HIcIOm vUagitam, burnt ; f^lrf^H vikapitam,
deformed (PIL9.VI.4, 34, vftrt. i, a). ^[f)f vfvA,^^flf vruMafi, drops its nasal before terminationa
beginning with a vowel, but not before the intermediate ^t; C|^4|rA varhayati, but^f^m
vfiihkiUi, ti^ raftj, to tinge, may drop its nasal, even in the causative (i.e. before a vowd),
if it means to sport; <�iMrfi rqfayaH(Fk]^,\i, 4, 34, v&rt.3, 4). The same root, like some others,
drops its nasal before sdrvadhdtuka affixes ; C^fir rajati, &c. (PA9. vi. 4, 36). ^V^aiScA, if it
means to worship, must retain its nasal (PA9. vi. 4, 30) and take the intermediate ^ i (P&9. vii.
3> 53) : ^tPm aHehita^, worshipped ; otherwise ^flC aktafi or ^P^n: aHchitaf^, bent.
^^ Or IJ PHi^ 1 8raihsUvd,

-J 347. A0BI8T. 179

Note— The verbs beginning with ^ hut (DhlLtupAlha a8^ 73-108) do not strengthen
their base, except before terminations which are marked by ^fl or ^9; ^ huf, to be
bent, Fut. ffinrtr kufishydH, Per. Put. ^fTVT ku^itd. First Aor. m^[ih(dku((t (P&9. x. 2, i).
fHl^ vff, to fear, never takes Gu^a before intermediate ^ t^ Per. Fut. ftftlllT fn)W(P&9* '•
2� a). ""^ ^n^tt* to cover, may do so optionally ; ^H^ftniT Hn^uvitd or wtPinl Unymitd
(PA9. 1, a, 3).



� 346. We can distmguish in Sanskrit^ as in Greeks between two kinds of
Aorists, one formed by means of a sibilant inserted between root and termi-
nation, — this we call the First, — ^another, formed by adding the terminations
to the base, this we call the Second Aorist,

Both Aorists take the Augment, which always has the Ud&tta, and^ with
some modifications, the terminations of the Imperfect.

^ 347. The First Aorist is formed in four different ways.

Terminations of the First Aorist

1. First Form.
Pabasmaipada. Atmanbpada.

^Mam l^ishva ^^iahima J^iihi ^•�r(V iikodhi ^^^^UhmM

%i^ jyishlam Jl^ishta JWJlishihdi^ \^V^\uhdthdm J^or^idhvamoi%4^am

In this first set of terminations the intermediate ^ i stands as part of the
terminations, because all the verbs that take this form are verbs liable to
take the intermediate ^ �• The first and second forms of the First Aorist
differ^ in fact, by this only, that the former is peculiar to verbs which take,
the latter to verbs which reject intermediate ^ t • (See � 332, 4, note.)

2. Second Form.
Pabasmaipada. Atmanbpada.

^ sam ^ na ^sma f^ si Wf^svaki wt^smaki

�A� -T f^*'�� iWsta {wHsthdfL t ^,^ \vidhvam

[orlltam [orWto [or^sK^Ao^ lor ^qkvam

Htnsd { ,^^^ W*suft l � JXniisdtdm W($ata

^ lOTKJtdm * [orWto

A a 2

180 AOKIST. � 348-

3. Third Form.

There are some verbs which add ^ � to the end of the root before

taking the terminations of the Aorist, and which after this ^^^ employ the

usual terminations with ^ t, viz. ^ isham, &c. They are conjugated in the

Parasmaipada only.


ftr^ s-i'Sham (Vi-q s-ishva ftPVT s-ishma

^ s-ifi (for f^tm si8k(a)h) fwn s^hfam fwn s-ishfa

^it^s4t (for flenBn^�wA(a)/) f^VT s-ishfdm fw^l a-ishul^

4* Fourth Form.

Lastly, there are some few verbs, ending in 9^ i, ^^sh, ^ h, preceded
^7 ^h ^^^ ^r^j which take the following terminations^ without an inter-
mediate ^ f {ksa).

Parasmaipada. Atmanbpada.

Usarn Wm sdva ^m adma ftr� \ ^_^ W!Hf^8dmahi

[ or �rT? vaht

I'^l^ ,^^^ i^J^dhvam
[or ^qn tka^ [ or W dhvam

^Rtsat WXisatdm Wlf^san < ^nAadtdm WK santa

[ or n /a

9t 80^ ?nV stttam mf 9ata

Special Rules /or the First Form of the First Aorist.

� 348. For final vowel, Yriddhi in Parasmaipada*. ^/t2, to cut, Vcdlf^M
dldvisham (Pan. vii* 2, i).

For final vowel, Gui^ia in Atmanepada. cJP lii, Wf^r^Hl dluvishi.

For medial or initial vowel, Gui^a (if possible) both in Par. and Atm.
^ budhj to know ; Par. ^ntftrt dbodhisham ; Atm. ^niMvf^ dbodhishi.

The vowel V a, followed by a single final consonant, may or may not take
Yriddhi in Par* if the verb begins with a consonant t. WiSkan, to sound, wmt"
ftri dka^iishan^ or W^lftpf dkaigAsham (P&9. vii* 2, 7) ; Atm. v^Kflofk dkaniskL


)r may not takeVpddhi; '�n ^q1 1\^ aunfuvtt, or
W4 1^1^ aurr^dvtt, or whi^h^ a�fvm?<* (Pftp. vii. a, 6).

t Roots ending in ^Ic^aZ or ^l^ar always take Vfiddhi in tlfe Parasmaipada ; ^f^P^jvah
to bmm, ^nfttit^jifjvdUt (Plii^. vzi. 2, a). Likewise ^^vad, to speak, and JC^vraj, to go
(Pftn. VII. 2, 3). Roots ending inWh, '^i>�,^y, the roots '^^kshai^f to hurt, '^V^ivas, to breathe,
and verbs of the Chur class, roots with technical ^ e, do not take Vpddbi (P&9. vii. 2, 5).
Vt^ffrah, to take, ^Ui\\^^oMtj ^IP^syam, to sound, V I^MHI H^ dsyamU 2 ^T^vyoy, to
throw, "WVf^f^dnyayit: ^l^kshafi^ to hurt, W^IQ^l^ ifii:<&at^^^- ysn^has, to breathe,
inrall^cC^a^; bi�i^i{fiay, to minisb, W^nfiT^^atwiay/Zy ^**fl^, to suspect, WOfll^^c^ayft.
9|^^ <fttfA<, to shine, q^ vefA, to desire, and qR^^i daridrd, to be poor, drop their final
vowels, according to the rules on intermediate ^ t^- ^T^^i daridrd, ^V^ft^liff^ddaridrU. \

-J 356. AORIST. 181

� 349* ^o Gu^a takes place in desiderative bases. "^^im^A^* Desid. ^^r^6tf6o<iAMAy
Aor. WJwHvf^ dbubodhishisham.

Intensives in l^y, if preceded bj a consonant, must, certain denominatives in ^7 may,
drop their final ^jf. If the intensive ^y is preceded by a vowel, ^y is left between the
final vowel and the intermediate \i. fiv^ bhid, to cut ; Int. base MCnv^^b^hidy ; Aor. Atm.
^AM^f^ dbebhidishi, ^bM, to be; Int. base ^^{bobkdy; Aor. Atm. VJ^)jjpE[ft (^60-
bhiiyishi. Den om . base vflF^^fiamiuy , to worship ; Aor. ^nnR^i dnamasy'isham or liwftl4

Special Bules/or the Second Farm of the First Aorist.

� 350. Yriddhi in Parasmaipada. f^f^kshipy W^H^ dkshaipsam; f^ H,
^l|^ dSaisham (Psl^. vii. 2, i) ; Vl^pach, ^nvnfh^4P<!2^�A^^ (P^� vii. 2� 3).

Gu^a in Atmanepada, if the verb ends in 1(9 ^ ^9 '7, H S (not in if ft,
Pft^. I. 2, 12); otherwise no change of vowel, f^ H, IT^K^ dieshi; but
f^^^^kship, iirfi^f^ dkshipH; if kfi^ Wff^ dkrishi. Final "^jt becomes f[^ tr,

^351. Terminations beginning with ^�/ or ^sth drop their ^� if the
base ends in a short vowel or in a consonant, except nasals. Ex. 2. p. dual
^I^ dkshaip-tamy 3. p. dual vf|irf dkshaip^tdm^ 2,, p. jflur. w^dkshaip-tOj of
tnf^kship ; 2. p . sing. Atm. ^Tf^n: dkfithdi^, 3. p. sing, lat^dkrita, of ^kfi, Atm,
But from w^ mdnyate^ ^nhST dmamsta*

^ 2^2. The roots vm sthd^ to stand, ^ dd^ to give^ VT dhd^ to place, ^dCyto
pity, ^ dhCy to feed, ^ do^ to cut, change their final vowels into ^ i before the
terminations of the Atmanepada (P&9. t. 2, 17). "Wltsthd, 7mf^inrt{j9(foMi-/a ;
^MlfVflMldi updsthi'Shatam, In the Parasmaipada they take the Second Aorist*

($ 368.)

� 353* The roots ^mi {mtndti), to hurt, 'Rtiiu {minoti), to throw, and ^di, Atm., to
decay, instead of taking Gn^a, change their final vowels into WXdm the Atmanepada; and
^ H, to stick, does so optionally (Pft^. vi. i, 50-51)*. Thus firom ^mi and fil wi, ^PITW
amdsta; from ^ di, v^i�r addstaj from c9ft II, tT^TCif a2tf�^a or ^^T aleshfa. In the
Parasmaipada these verhs take the Third Form.

� 354* ^^n> to kiU, drops its nasal in the Atmanepada (Pftp. i. a, 14); ^f^ ahata,
HfJIIIili ahasdtdm, &c.

� 355' 'H^^^'m, to go, drops its nasal in the Atmanepada optionally (P^. i. 2, 13);
WIN a^a/a or ^'i^i agamsta. The same rule applies to the henedictive Atmanepada ;
Vf^tf gasishfa or �WI^ ganuishfa,

� 356. ^ yam drops its nasal, necessarily or optionally, according to its various
meanings; ^f^^9 udayata, he divulged (Pft?. x. 2, 15); V^nni tfp^a/a, he espoused, or
9Ml4U updyamsta (PII9. i. 2, i6).

* Prof. Weher (Kuhn's Beitnlge, vol. vi. p. loa) hlames Dr. Kellner for having admitted
^1 1 (Vi ^•^ amdnsham and similar forms, and denies that these forms are authorised hy
P&^ini. Dr. Kellner, however, was right, as will be seen from the commentary to P&9. vi. t,
50. The substitution ofWtd takes place wherever there would otherwise have been 1![^tfcA,
excepting in Sit forms.

182 AOBIST. � 357-

Special Bulesfor the Third Form of the Firri Aorist.

� 357� Most verbs taking this form of the Aorist end in ^ d, or in
diphthongs which take wt d as their substitute. This wt d remains
unchanged. In the Atmanepada these verbs take the Second Form.

� 358- The verbs vft mi^ to hurt, fk mi, to throw, and jHU,to stick, in taking this form,
change likewise their final vowels into W[ d, Ex. WnfM amdnskem, I threw, and I hurt ;
VfSrfM aldsisham (or W?i4 alaishatn), � 353.

i 3^* Three roots ending in ^m take this form ; IH^yam, to hold, Tli^ram, to rejoice,
�nT �am, to bend, Aor. v4ftR ayaihnsham^ &c. (Pft?. vii. 2, 73.)

Special Bules for the Fourth Form of the First Aorist.

� 360. The roots which take this form must end in i^i (as to ^^<^i> to
see, cf. Pan. iii. i, 47), n*A, ^*, i| A, preceded by any vowel but % irr a.
They must be verbs which reject the intermediate ^ i; j 332I1 i7-*ao;
(P&9. III. I, 45.) Their radical vowel remains unchanged.

( 361. The root tw^^ilish takes this form only if it means to embrace (PA9. iii. i, 46) ;
V fv HI fl ailikihaU Other verbs, such as ^ push and vn iusk^ are speciaUy excepted.

(� 366.)

� 363. The roots J[^<f�A, to milk, fl![^dtA, to anoint, fc9^/tA, to lick, ^^A, to hide
(P^p. VII. 3, 73), may take in the Atmanepada

^X tkdlt instead of ^ff^t satkd^. '^ft vahi instead of ^is(V sdoahi.

Jf ta — W( sata. ^ dhvam — ^M sadhvam.

They thus approach to the Second Form of the first aorist in most, but not in all persons.
Ex. n duhj 3. p. sing. Atm. ^Rjnin adugdhdfi or VIU V|M|i: adhnkshathdlt.
3. p. sing. Atm. HJ'^ adugdha or t|IJll|R adkukshata.
I. p. dual Atm. V^JlDl adukvahi or ^J^i^T^ adkukshdoahu
3. p. plur. Atm. ^i^'Vf adhugdhvam or vj�|�4 adkvkshadkvam.

First Aobist.

First Form,
with intermediate ^ t.

a. Verbs ending in a vowel; ^ Id, to cut.
Vfiddhi in Parasmaipada, Gu^a in Atmanepada.


I. HcftlOl^ dUh^ham Htflftim dldo^hoa Vc6lf^^ dUko-iihrna

3. Vc4l4l! dUk'H^ V?9Tfrt dUh^hfam VUlftf dUhi'Shfa

3. HW^i'Hjdldo'U H^lf^si dldv-ishtdm K^lOlJt dldvi-shu^


I. ^nvftrPf dUw'ishi WcVfti^f^ dlav-ishvahi ^Rc^ftRlf^E dlav'ishmaki

3. VcdOlVU dlav'ishtkdt^ V^f^m^t dlav^hdthdm WtS^^i dlav-idhvam or �^ -^kvam

3. VcftOlf dlav-ishfa 1H^(^NIIlt dlav'ishdtdm Vfdf^MA dlat^ishata

-� 3^�-



b. Verbs ending in consonants; ^^budh, to know.
Gu^ in Parasm^pada and Atmanepada.
dh-Asham HWtf^n^ abodk-ishva

%-IA wftfvV abodh^ishfam

dh-St v41(Vl8f abodk'ishtdm

H^fMwini ab<ydh-^hv
WftftRHlf ahodh-^Bhd
WiftAranrf abodh-ishk





Second Form,

without intermediate ^ t .

a. Verbs ending in consonants ; ft|i(^ kship, to throw.
Vpddhi in Parasmaipada, no change in Atmanepada.^


V^'li aksha^'tam (� 351)

wf^fR akshw'ta

HH^U^I^ akship'Svah

HfHlHIMt dkMp-tdtdt.

^ir%Vr akshaip'ta

I. '•in 4 aftoMAam
3. ^I%4h^ anaMM^

6. Verbs ending in vowels (^^ ^ {*, 7, 'Oi ii) ; �rt nl, to lead.
Vfiddhi in Parasmaipada, Guna in Atmanepada.
^n*^ anaishva
xinE anaishfam
mkti anaishtdm

Wn^ anaUhia
Wmi anaiskuh

1. wPm aneslti

2. W*fWTl aneshthdh

3. ^RT aneahfa


VnMI'Vi aneshdthdm
HHMIAf aneshdtdm

^n�iii ane^Aa/a

c. Verbs ending in ^ n; ^ Afj, to do.
Vpddhi in Paraamaipadai no change in Atmanepada.

I. Wni akdrsham IHSR^ akdrshva V%l4 oAr^jAma


: oA^rMIA

3. W1Vnfll1^aA4r�AI/

WiRTTT akdrshtdm

V4li akdrshfa
IRCrf t akdrshvft


1. ^^Pr akfishi

2. W^fUjn akrithdlh

3. ^7 n akrita


J 362.

^<ffc*ir< akrishvahi
Ij^mvjl akfishdthdm
Vf MIAI akfishdtdm

lif ^r^ akrishmahi
isnfmi akfiskata

a. vR^m: adUhdh
3. VR(4 a<itVa

rf. Verbs ending in ^ <i; ^ d<2^ to give.
Atmanepada only ; WT <^ changed into ^ t.
Hff^^^f^ adiskvahi nfl^^f^ adishmahi

"•in^mvif adishdthdm ^^f^ adifhvam

^n^Mlill adishdtdm WfipTiT adishata

e. Verbs ending in n^ r? ; w */r<, to stretch.
Vriddhi in Parasmaipada, with intermediate l(t.
In Atmanepada the insertion of ^ � is optional. (See � 337, 11. 4. Pftn. vji. 3, 42.)
If ^f is inserted, the^Guna (� 348) and optionally lengthening of ^t. (� 341.)
If ^ t is not inserted, then ^K changed to fl^lr. (� 350.)

^rerrW astdrisham, &c., like First Form.
First Fornhf Atmanepada.


1. ^rarftft or V^dOOl astarishi or astarishi

2. ^�i(Vvii or WWOVU astarishfhdli, or astarishthdh

3. ^rerftf or VUlDv (utarishta or astartshta

Second FonUy
without ^ f .

irsfffi astirski

%^i\l asHrshthdh

^tt^tm asHrshfa


1. ^•Wftwflf or ^TOTh^ astarishvahi or astarishvaki

2. ^WftWWt or HWOm^f astarishdthdm or astarishdthdm

3. 114x1 (Xmffi or HWOmdi astarishdtdm or astarishdtdm

VcAwnrf astirshdthdm
inA^nii astirshdtdm

nWl^flRS asHrshmdhi


1. HWfT!^fflE or VlriO^nK astarishmahi or (u^arlffAtiuzAt

2. ^^ TmII ^^or ll4xf 0^ ^a�/artc?A9am -^vam or (Ufor((ftoam-^ram ^Wl^ agHn/hvam

3. ^�i(V"in or ll%tlOHA a�^amAa<a or astarUhata ^Wl^if asHrshata

2. HiJf^li asrdkshU

3. n^rnifti^ flwr^^Ai

1. H^Alf <uftit�A�

2. V^VK (Ufishthd^

3. v^c atiishfa

/, Verbs with penultimate 'f ft / ^ *ri/> ^ ^^^ off*
Peculiar Vfiddhi in Parasmaipada, no change in Atmanepada.


Vi^W aardkshva

mmi asrdshta�,

H^TTVi asrdshfdm


V^JflnHg asfikshvahi

Vljmi^i asjrikshdthdm

W^^nA asjrikgWdm

H9TV asrdshta

HVn* asriddhvam
W8^^ atjfikshata




1. W M iHf adhdksham

2. ininil^: adkdkshih

3. ^tVlX^^H^adhdkshtt

1. WPlll adkakski

2. H^nnt adagdhd^

3. V^iU adqgdhof

Verbs ending in f A; ^ daA, to burn.
HVTV adhdkikva

1^1*4 addgdham
^V^FVf addgdhdm

^MHSf^ adkakshvahi

UMHfl^l adhakshdthdm

VNHIIAI adhdkshdtdm

I. VinfM aydsUham

3. ^mnrtn^ay^/

I. Wtflrt atuzmmAam
3. V�ifl1 i^anaml/

1. ^Vf^nf adikikam

2. W(((Q|: adikshafi

3. lli)[V|l^a(i�ib�Aa/

1. Vfl^Pvif adikshi

2. ll(^H|lin adikshathdh

3. vR^mil adikshaia

First Aorist.
TAtrrf Fom.


^y4, to go,

W(li\|M| aydsishva
^MiPtir aydmhtam
Winftfff aydgishfdm

T^nam, to bend.
V^rftn? anai^msAva

^nPtist anaahsishtdm

First Aorist.

Fourth Farm.

ft^ ^ii^ to show.
ll(^H|l^ adikshdva
vR^tlfl adikshatam
Vn^Hl^f adik^hatdm

nf^UfPrf^ adikshdvahi
Wflpifnrf adikshdthdm
vRipifniT adikshdtdm

^IVm? adhdkshma
V^MV addgdha
^9VT^ adhdkshtth

HW'uf adhagdhvam
VH^Iff adkakshata

H^llftl^ aydsishma
VlllP^IV aydsishfa
Wnftlj: aydiishvik

WfftW anamsUh^a

llO(V|IH adikthdma
vR^tlfl adikshaia

llf^mi<f\( adikshdmaki
vf^VI^ adikshadhvam

a. WJHIII aghuktkd^
3. W^Q|l(^(i^AttA�Aa/

i|fyttAy to hide*
1I^H|I^ aghukshdoa
WJHIA a^Atfib<Aa/am
V^tlfli aghukshatdm

WrafW aghukshata




V(c9H|IH alikshdma
^r<9Q|n alikshata
uPc^Bft^ alikshan


1. wflf aghukshi ^TJ^T^f^ aghukshdoahi or inpff^a^uAvaAi ^gmitiT^ aghukshdmahi

2. H ^ H| m • aghukshathdik or V^|3T* ag^idhd^ fitful V|i aghukshdihdm ^V^^^orW^^

3. W91!(?r aghukshata or V|^ agHdha V J HI f A I aghukshdtdm W^[9^ aghukshanta

It may also follow the First Form, ^Pff^ agHhisliam aad injf^ agHMshi.

($ 337j I- !•)

ffiR; /lA, to smear.


1. Vf^Bf aliksham WftS^T^ aUkshdva

2. Wfc9^ alikshal^ ^VtA^ii alikshatam

3. vfV61lf<^a/�ib�Aa/ V(t6VfA( alikshatdm


1. ^rfcffftf o/iib^f VPcft'lll^r^ alikshdoahi or UPcdJlf^ a/t^a&t ^rfc<^^VTRfi| a/t'A^A^ItoiaAf

2. ^Vfc9�fm: a/a<Aa^A<^ or WcShm a^i&i�$ ^rfl91^ a/tib�A42^A^ lrfc9^ or WfSt^ ^

3. ^n<d�fiia/ti(<Aa^a or WcAv al^ha VPcftOIMi alikshdtdm nfc^Hlff alikshanta

n rf�A, to milk.

I • V^f^ a(iAtt^�Af VJ^imP^ adAttJtfA^raAi or VJJff^ aduhvahi ^R^^IT^rf^ adhukshdmahi
2. ^^^miadhukshathdli or ^l^nfTI adugdhdfi H ^H| I H| ladhukshdthdm ^P^^^k or WVmj ^
3* VJUfA adkukshata or ^'^ adugdha H^HIIfll adhukshdtdm W^lfff adhukshanta

f^ rfiA^ to anoint.

Vf^Hf adhiksham, &c.

1|(\|II|I^(\e or ^(^4^ "*
Vf^Himi adhikshdthdm
HfVuildl adhikshdtdm

2. lirVHim* or nfi^'W *

3. HfVlUfff or wfipV '^

uRwJIhI^ adhikshdmahi
^•nnfli or nftfli *
HftlHlfl adhikshanta

Second Aorist.
Jir�/ Form.
$ 3^3- Verbs adopting this form take the augment, and attach the
terminations (First Division) of the imperfect to a verbal base ending
in w a, like those of the Tud form.

^ aghukskadhvam or ogM^hcam.
' adhmkikadkown or adhugdkvam.
^ adhikskaihdli or adigdkd^.
^ adhikshata or adigdha.

^ alikshadhvam or a/l^gttvam.

^ adhikshdvahi or adihvM.

^ adkikshadkoatn or adkigdkoafn.

-� 367.



f?r^�icA^ to sprinkle.

I. -viPti^ a9icham
a. wAeW asichah

1. vP^I^ asiche

2. vftpnrn aslchathdh

3. vfVl^A (uichata

Pres. flv^tVTflr iifichdm;

1lftl^|t| anchdva
nfVl'^ifl (uichatam
^rfirWJKi asiehatdm

W(Vl^iq(^ asichdvaki
nftl^1|( asichethdm
^mf^Ani asichetdm

Impf. ^vfisKv arincham.

%On\H anehdma
^Ryi^i anchata

uHl^lilf^ asichSmahi


3. IQfV oAva/


I. ^I3| aAve

a. ^Qpin ahvaihd^

3. VJIA aih^a/a


IQfM akoadkoam

;finfiv hvaydmi ; Impf. ^1^ aAvay

V^l^ffe ahvdoahi
vj|^t ahvethdm
Vdjni ahvetdm


^ 364. Roots ending in ^ (i, ^ e^ ^ i, drop these vowels^ and substitute
a base ending in v a : ^ Av^ substitutes S| hva, Aor. ^l^ ahvam ; ^ ivi
substitutes iff ha, Aor. mff oAvam. Roots ending in if ft, and the root
^9(rfn^> to see, take Gupa (Pfti^.vii. 4, 16), and then form a base ending
in short va: ^9ri^ to go, "WPCH^asarat ; "^^dfii^ to see, ^'^;^adafriaL

^ 365. Roots with penultimate nasal, drop it: lia^kand^io step^mifi^ a^^odam.

^ 366. Irregular forms are, VJH avocham, I spoke, from ^w t;acA (according
to Bopp a contracted reduplicated aorist, � 370, for ^RT^r avavacham) ; ynu
apaptaniy I flew, from VMpat (possibly a contracted reduplicated aorist for
Vinrt apapatam) ; w)^ aneiam, I perished, Kkd, on P&n. vi. 4, 120 (possibly
for Winrir ananaSam) ; ^ffifi oHsham, I ordered, from ^n^ tds; ^m^ dstham,
I threw, from ii^a#. (P&p.vii. 4, 17.)

� 367. Roots which take this form are,

V^M, to throw (V1^ dstham), ^B(^vach, to speak (IR^^ avocftam), WHihyd, to speak

{W^ akhyam), if the agent is implied. (Pft?. ill. i^ 52.)
ffS^^lip, to paint> ftl^McA, to sprinkle, 7 hve, to call (irregularly ^Tf ahvam), in Par.,

and optionally in Atm. (Pip. in, i, 53, 54). Par.^rf�WH^a%a/, Atm. mt^nnaKpata

or vCmn alipta.
The verhs classed as "^^T^ puskddi, beginning with ^ptcfi (Dh. P. 26, 73-136), ^Im^

dyutddi, beginning with ^<2yu^ (Dh. P. 18), and those marked by a technical "(Ef 2s

in the Parasmaipada. (PAq. hi. i, 55.)

B b 2

188 AORIST. � 368-

The verbs ^ �r�, to go, ^rn^^(2�, to order, and ^ n� to go (int dram), in Par. and Atm.

(Pi^. III. 1, 56.)
Optionally, verbs technically marked by ^ tr, but in the Parasmaipada only (P&9. iii.

I, 57). ^jfi^CT oftAida/ or ^B^f^Ftff^abhaitsit.
Optionally, \jrij to fail, W^stambh,iiO stiffen {^f^3PTf[^astabhat or xtvin\f{^astambhit),
^^^mruch, to go (^t^^amruchat or ^f^^tt^tHamrochtt), T^^mlitchy to go, ^^gruch,
to steal, �g^5f/ttcil, to steal, 'T^^^gluHch, to go (Wng^a^ZitcAff^ or '^i-rj^li^
aghtftcMt), ftl irt, to grow (irregularly ^T^H^ahat), but in the Parasmaipada only.
(Pin. III. 1,58.)
� 368. There are a few verbs, ending in WT ^, ^ 6, ^ 0, which take this form of the
second aorist in the Parasmaipada; also ^bM, to be. They retain throughout the long
final vowel, except before the ^ uh of the 3rd pers. plur., before which the final WT ^ is
rejected. In the Atmanepada these verbs in W ^ take the Second Form of the imt aorist,
and change W ^ to 1( t.

^ddfto give. Pres. ^jl^fk daddmij Impf. -^iq^l adaddm,


1. m[f addm W^T^ addoa ^<i�i addma

2. W^ addk ^ V^lft addtam ^qia o<ii!^/a

3. V^TW a<i^ V^lili addtdm ^* odtiA

)J[,6At2, to be. Pres. H^ltf^ bhavdmij Impf. ^BHY? o^ilavam.


1. ^^ abkdvam* ^^^ o^Ai^va ^^^ abhuma

2. ^ir^: o^AflA ^^^ abhUtam ^fjif a6Ai2/a

3. ^r^o^A^/ ^r^lff a&A<(^^m ll^[}1�^ a6Ai2ran

Verbs which take this form are,
^ yd, to go $ ^ c2tf, to give ; ^ dA^, to place ; Vi[ pd, to drink ; ^9n sthd, to stand ; '^ de,

to guard; ^do, to cut; ^6Ai2, to be. (P&]>. 11. 4, 77.)
Optionally, ITT ghrd, to smell ; V dhe, to drink ; ^ ib, to sharpen ; ^ chho, to cut ; ^ so,

to destroy. (Pin. 11. 4, 78.)

� 369. The nine roots of the Tan class ending in t^n or ^n may form the and and 3rd
pers. sing. Atm. in >7Tt thd^ and Ifta, before which the final nasal is rejected. iTv^ton, to
stretch; Aor. WirfffV aianishfa or Wilir atataj ^riPHSK atanUhthdfi or WiHTT: atathdfi
(Pi^. II. 4, 79). These forms might be considered as iiregular Atmanepada forms of the
second aorist, or of the first aorist II, with loss of initial ^�.

Second or Reduplicated Form of the Second Aorist.

J 370. A few primitive verbs, and the very numerous class of the Chur
roots, the denominatives and causatives in m^ ay, reduplicate their
base in the second aorist, taking the augment as before, and the usual
terminations of the imperfect.

* Irregular in the ist pers. sing., dual, and plur., and in the 3rd pers. plur.

-$374- AORIST. 189

� 371. The primitive verbs which take this form are,
'^iri, to go, ^dru, to run, Ig 9ru, to flow, 'W^^kam, to love (PAp. iii. i, 48), if expressing

the agent. Ex. ^rf^fVftpn^a/iVWyaf.
Optionally, f^ hi, to grow, ^ dhe, to suck (Pii^. iii. i, 49), if expressing the agent.
Ex. ^V^^^adtuihat, � 364, (or WJXf^adkdt or Wjr^ftf[adhd8tt.)
Their reduplicative syUable, as far as consonants are concerned, is formed like that of the
reduplicated perfect.

H 0(1 fvi 4| ^ (UUriyctt, he went, ^g gs i|^ adudruvat, he ran. w^^^i^aMMrvva^, he flowed.
W^mmtachaJ^amat, he loved. ^V^y^adadhat, he sucked. V Q(| Pm It A aiihiyat, he
grew; also Sec. Aor. Wl^oivaf and First Aor. WWftH^ahayit (P&9. iii. i, 49).
% Ave, to call, forms its Aor. Caus. -^^^t^ajUhavat (P&9. vi. i, 33).

J 37a. The verbs in in^ay drop ^BP^ay, and (with certain exceptions*)
reduce their Gu^a and Vriddhi vowels to the simple base vowels : WT a to w a ;
^eto^i; Vtoto7f�; ^,^ar,to^ri; ^<r to if ft. (P&9.vii.4,7.)
Thus IT^irfTr madayati would become n^ mady (Aor. ^nifN^ amimadam,)
^?pif}r bhedayati — — fil^ bhtd^ (Aor. ir4K)l^ abibhidam,)
lft^^fn nwdayati — — ^mudy {Aor. xtffg^ amiimudam.)

� 373. In the exceptional roots, which do not admit this shortening process^
vr a, ^ ^, ^ e, ^ ai, "mily^o^^au are represented in the reduplicative syllable by
W&, \ty ^1, ^t, TfiiyTfUy Tfiif.

^Tr^ithf mcUayatiy YCtmx^ amamdlam* ^AlPqfir fikayaii, ^fiHi afitikam.

c^^^Pil lokayatiy W^tftW aiuhkam.

� 374* In the vast majority of roots, however, the shortening takes place^ thus
leaving bases with short ^a,^iy'9u,^fi. Here the tendency is to make the
reduplicated bade, with the augment^ either yj — yj or yjyj^. Hence all roots in
which the shortened vowel is not long by position, lengthen the vowel of the
reduplicative syllable {amiimudat). Those in which the vowel is long by
position, leave the vowel of the reduplicative syllable short (ararakshat).

Where^ as in roots beginning with double consonants^ the vowel of the
reduplicative syllable is necessarily long by position^ it is not changed into the

* These exceptional verfis are (PA?* vii. 4, a, 3),
Certain denominatives : From mTSl mdld, a garland, is formed the denominative ^RT<nfll

tndlayati, Red. Aor. ^HH I t6(\amamdlat j ^U^^ ^ds, Caus. ^iitiMPn idsayati, he punishes.

Red. Aor. V ^1 ^11 ^ i\aiaidsaU
Those with technical '^ ft: ^V^hddh, to hurt; Caus. '^PI^^ hddhayati ; Aor. ^BRWIVil

^SX^^bhrdj, to shine, "^^^^hhdSi to shine, ^^T^hhdshf to speak, ^^cf^, to lighten, 4l^ilD, to

live, ^tt^mU, to meet, ^^(^piit to vex, shorten their vowel optionally. Ex. >9X^hhrdj:

^ ^ tH N ((ababkrdjat or V filM �t ^abibhrajat (� 374).
t ^t^^veshfay, to surround, ME^cheshtay, to move, take either ^ i or Wa in the
reduplicative syllable ; ^mHU^avaveshfat or ^ f^^ ft i\avivesh(aL WtK^dyotay, to lighten,
takes \i; m Pt^^ii r[^adidyutat.

190 AOKIST. � 375-

long vowel {ackuchyuiat, not achdchyutat). In roots beginning and ending in
two consonants, this metrical rhythm is necessarily broken (achaskandat).
� 375. In the roots which do not resist the shortening process,

W a, l?�, ^�, ^r* are represented in the reduplicative syllable by
Waori^i, l(i^ 7f�, ^i; and all lengthened, where necessary.

Second or Reduplicated Form of the Second Aorist,

I. \J — \J n

Vl^^pach, to cook, rvi^^fwpdchdyati ; m4iH%\dpip€ic?Mt *.
i^bhidf to cut, ^^^^^hf bheddyati] Jsr^tfk^dbibhidat.
^mud, to rejoice^ ^t^^vfnmoddydti; Wfffp^dmilmfAdat.
^Vfit, to exist, '^ii^fiK vartdyati ; ^T^t^K^dvivfiiat.
ip^mry, to cleanse, ^rk^fif fndrjdyati ; ^rfttjpn{^dmimtijat.
wnkrit, to praise, '^ItfMX kirtdyati ; ^(^li^pR^^dcMkfitatf.

The lengthening becomes superfluous before roots beginning with two conso-
nants, because the two consonants make the short vowel heavy {guru).

nn^ tyqf\ to leave, nn^nriw iydjdyati ; mfjm^rn^dtityqfat.

WtH^bhrdj, to shine, >gXW^fjf bhrdjdyati ; ^tfn^awn^dbibhrajat.

f'^p^kshipf to throw, '^^f^fJ( kshepdyati ; vPqfv| M 1^ dchiksUpat,

'^pi^chyuty to fall, ^ftn^fix ckyotdyati ; w^g^9n{^dchuchyuiat.

'^svriy to sound, 7^[TtJlfif svdrdyati ; ^^^[W^dsisvarat,

2� sj yj — •

xys^raksh, to protect, v^[^fH rakshdyaii ; ^eax^^drarakshait^
fk^^bhiksh, to beg, f^T^^hf bhikshdyati ; ^vP^f^'ndhibhikshat.

� 376. If the root .begins and ends with double consonants, this rhythmical law is

W^prachh, to ask, Vi^S^(fff prachchhdyatij V W^Hdpaprachchkat.
^ffi^ akand, to step, ^S^^rfk skanddyati; V ^ ^^^ dchaskandat,
� 377. Roots with radical ^n or ^H, followed by a consonant, may optionally take
the \j — \j or \j \j — forms.

♦ VI^S^^ gandy and VP^ kathdy take ^ < or W a optionally ; ^lft�nn'i(^4;fy�?''' o'
'NII'I^U^ djagai^t.

t The following verbs take ^ a instead of 1(t or \i in the reduplicative syllable of the
aorist in the causative :

^ �iir�, ^rffi, Wl^ tcar^ V^prathy ^ mrad, ^ stH, W^tpad,

"^^smfis Cwx%, W^KJ^ smdrdyati : Aor. ^^W^^^<&a��flra^
The same verbs which, as will be shown hereafter (� 474), reduplicate ^R^av, (the Gu^a of
7, "S �,) in the desiderative by 7�, take 7tt instead of l(� in the reduplicated aorist:
'^nu; Caus. H 1'^ ^ Pil ndvdyati; Des.'^H 1 4 0^ M fil tdndvayishatij Aor, of Caus.^ •in �i dnHnavam*
X Radical V a is reduplicated by W a if the root ends in a double consonant.

-� 38o.



^iJUvjit, to be, ^w^lfir vartdyatij W4l^ff II dchofitat or V^^fl fidoavartat. (PItn. vii. 4, 7.)
ramft;, to cleanse, Tm^rfk mdrjdyati: H*fl*|H <|^ dmUmfijat or VHH 1 4 fl dmanUhjat,
WKkfit, to praise, ^An^lflr ktrtdyatij H ^ f A 1^ dckikfitat or H f^ ifl fi 11 dchikirtat.

j 378. Roots beginning with a vowel have the same internal reduplication^
which will be described hereafter in the desiderative bases.
Thus W|^ ai forms the Cans* Wffm&idy. This after throwing off ysm ay,
and shortening the vowel, becomes ^i^oi; this reduplicated^ wif^jiai-ii;
and lastly, with augment and termination, VTf)(l4 dS-ii^am.
In the same manner, ^nf^ archichamf vH^% au^ifam, &c. (^ 476.)

� 379. Are slightly irregular :
1|T pd, to drink, which forms its causal aorist as infhm^ dpipyat (instead of VMflMMfl

dpipayai), P&n. vii. 4, 4.
?QT Bthdi to stand, Which forms its causal aorist as Vfkf^in^ dtishfkipat (instead of

Wr ffhrd, to smell, which forms its causal aorist as nftlftlMl^ dfigkripat or vOflim^

Reduplicated AoBisf .
Vfltr^nrnt a^iraydrm Vf^^VPYPV afiiraydma

"vif^l^Mn oHirayatam nf^l^^A ailSrayata

vOiI^iIaI aiiirayatdm v(V^M�^ cMrayan

1. Vf^fl4 diUrayam

2. Vf^^^I oHiraycLfi

3. 11(^11^^ aMrayal


I. ^if^f^R ahiraye vf^lVMI'Mf^ aHiraydoahi Vt^Vl^llirf aiiiraydmdki

a. vt^l^^^K (Uiirayathdh irf^TBR^ aiiirayethdm ll(^fim4 adiirayadkvam

3. irf^TBRif aiiirayata VP^milrti a^Urayetdm vf^|9|4ll tMrayanta

� 380. In the preceding ^^ occasional rules have been given as to the
particular forms of the aorist which certain verbs or classes of verbs adopt.
As in Ghreek, so in Sanskrit, too, practice only can effectually teach which
forms do actually occur of each verb; and the rules of grammarians,
however minute and complicated, are not unfirequently contradicted by the
usage of Sanskrit authors.

However, the general rule is that verbs follow the first aorist, unless this
is specially prohibited, and that they take the first form of the first aorist,
unless they are barred by general rules firom the employment of the interme-
diate ^ u Verbs, thus barred, take the second form of the first aorist.

The number of verbs which take the third form of the first aoiist is very
limited, three roots ending in ir m, and roots ending in ^ ^.

The fourth form of the first aorist is likewise of very limited use ; see ^ 360.

As to the second aorist, the roots which must or may follow it are

192 FUTURE. � 381-

indicated in � 367, and so are the roots which take the reduplicated form of
the second aorist in ^371.

Roots which follow the second aorist optionally, or in the Parasmaipada
only, are allowed to be conjugated in the first aorist, subject to the general




� 381. Terminations.



1. ^■nf'V ishyami ^^■QT^I ishydva^ ^^llPn iihydmah

2. ^Vlftr ishydsi ^^TOt ishydtha^ ^^Pf^ ishydtha

3. ^^^ ishydti ^�int iskydtaft l^viflv ishydnti


I. ^[1^ iihyd ^�ii�i^ ishyavahe ^^^T^V^ ishyimahe

3. ^iRIfr iskydse ^^m ishy4the ^^>M ishyddhve

^,^^ishydte ^^ ishy^te ^^ ishydnte

The cases in which the ^ t of ^i^r^ ishydmi &c. must be or may be omitted
have been stated in chapter XI, $ 331 seq. For the cases in which |( i is
changed to ^ ^, see ^ 340. On the change of ^ aha and ^ �a, see $ 100 seq.
On the strengthening of the radical vowel, see chapter XII, ^ 344 seq.

^ 382. The changes which the base undergoes before the terminations of
the strengthening tenses, the two ftitures, the conditional, and the benedictive
Atm. are regulated by one general principle, that of giving weight to the base,
though their application varies according to the peculiarities of certain verbs.
See illustrations in ^ 344 {bJiamshydmi) and ^ 345 {mdrkshydmi). These
peculiarities must be learnt by practice, but a few general rules may here be
repeated :

1. Final ^ e, ^ at, lit are changed to ^ ^; 9^ ffai, to sing, nr^lTf^

ffdsydmiy &c.

2. Final ^i and ^ ^, 7 tf, TR t2, ^fj and 1^ rt, take Gu^a ; fttjif to conquer,

^(W^jeshyami; ^bkd, Hf^mAr bhavUhydmi; m Art, ^vfrBrrfiT karishyami;
w drt, to tear, ^[fbVTftr darishydmi or l^^SNlfH darUhyami, There are the
usual exceptions, ^ Artt, to sound, ^ftr^irrfiT kuvishyami. {� 345, note.)

3. Penultimate ^t^ 7tf, iffi, prosodially short, take Ou^a; y^rt becomes

i^ir; ^ budh, i|1l\imR| bodhishydmi ; fW^ bhid, ^^RrfiT bhetsydti.

-$ 383-


1. '^fVimfH bodhishydmi

2. '^ftfw^ri^ bodhishydsi

3. ^"^ Pm ^ Pfl bodhishydti

1. "^t^A bodkishy^

2. iHiVm^ bodhishydse

3. '4)rimA bodhishydte

1. I! Ill Hi eshydmi

2. l(V|fVl eshydsi

3. imDl eshydti

1. ^iVetfily^

2. 4(^lt eskydse

3. I!V|^ eshydte


"J^ ^�fAy to know^

with intennediate ^t.



^fV|*ll*|J bodhUhyivafL
■ft Phi 'Ml bodhishydthat^
Wtftnmn bodhiskydtdhk

WHV^IT^ bodhiskydvahe
^\(H^^ bodhishy^the
Wtf^raW bodhishydte

^ �, to go,

without intennediate ^ �'.

inVT^ eshyavafk
\l eshydtafk

^m^ eshyavahe

7^^ eshyithe

K^in eshydte



IllVlllWl bodhishyimah
^tfVr�nf bodhishydtha
^tftnofV bodhishydnti

Wi^^\H\ bodhishydfnahe
^hfinWt bodhishyddkve
"W^ftrafn bodhishydnte

W^ffm eshydmaft.
I!*|V| eshydtha

lilW^ eshyamahe
^VM eshyddhve
K^n eshydnte

� 383. The future is changed into the conditional by the same process
by which a present of the Tud class is changed into an imperfect.

ip^ budh, to know,

inth intennediate ^ t .





1. V tfl (\| ij dbodhUhyam

2. W^ftfV^ abodhishyafk

3. V ^ Pm Vl II abodhUhyat

1. V^*^Pvv| dbodhishye

2. iNtftnOf^ abodhishyathdlt

3. V^r^VId dbodhishyata

1. |l� o&iyam

2. %^ ttishya^

3. ^■IH^aisAya*

WiftftrsjT^ abodhishydva
^innfv^QfT ahodhishyatam
^^HV^QHf ahodhishyatdn

V^r^miPtS abodhishydi
Wftfisi^t^ obodhishyetMi
vftfVwilf abodhishyetdn

without intennediate ^t.

F^TT^ aishydoa

%vnii aishyatdm

VWtPMm^ abodhishydma
HWIPM^IA ahodhishyata
wftfV^Q^ abodhishyan

^ ift Ph mH Pig abodhishydmahi
V^PUWI abodhishyadhoam

^vrni aishydma
H^A aishyata
ry^ aishyan



J 384-

1. ^^ ahhye

2. K^W* aishyathdd^

3. H*IA aishyata

^m^fiE aishydoaki
F^nf aishyethdm
K^M aishyetdm

^milP^ aishydmahi
KWi aishyadhvam
$^ir oMhyanta

Periphrastic Future.

^ 384. The terminations are�

^mW itdsvah

1. ^AliVl itism

2. ^AlfVl itdsi

3. l^i^

1[in^n itisthah



1. ^Alf itdhe

2. ^WTmitase

3. ^JKXitd


I^AI^^ itdsvahe
f[KtwA itasdthe
\HW itarau

These terminations are clearly compounded of in td (base f tfi)^ the common
suffix for forming nomina affentis, and the auxiliary verb H^o^^ to be. There
is^ however, with regard to TIT tdy no distinction of number and gender in the
ist and 2nd persons, and no distinction of gender in the 3rd person.

On the retention or omission of intermediate ^ i or ^ ^^ see j 331 seq.
On the strengthening of the radical vowel, see � 382.

ira budh, to knoW;

with intermediate ^ t .


^(Vfll^jll bodhitagoafi
WtfVAlW bodhitdsthah
WtftfilTu hodhitdr


1. ^ f^ fl I (\m bodhitdsmi

2. ifHVllTftr bodhitdsi

3. ^ftf^f^ bodhitd

1. Wi (V A I ( bodhitdhe

2. ^llVflld bodhitdse

3. ''ft^ffn bodhUd


1. rKjfm etdsnU

2. 4>AlfVl etdsi

3. Jnnetd

^AfWira^ bodkitdsvahe

^tftnrnn^ bodkitdsdthe

^JHhITFu bodhitdrau

without intermediate ^ t .

^irm: etdsthaft



WtftrnW bodhitdunah
•ftftiJIIW bodkudsiha
wH^HfRt bodhitdraf^

^tfkWJmi% bodhitdstnahe
yftfy^mk bodkUddkve
^(VlfllU bodhitdrafk

Criimt etdsmaf^
WKTWf etdstha
^UTT! etdrah

-{ 3^8. BENEDICTIVE. 195


I. WKtf^etdke innwiw etdsoahe W^fUWW etasmahB

3. ^Wrir etdae WfXlwiv etisdthe ^ITM etddhve

3. ^ilT eti Filro etdrau ^HTC eldrafL

$. 385. The 80-caIled benedictive is formed in close analogy to the
optative. It differs from the optative by not admitting the Ml modified verbal
base, and, secondly^ by the insertion of an ^� before the personal termina-
tions. In the Parasmaipada this ^� stands between the ^ yd of the optative
and the actual signs of the parsons, being lost, however, in the and and
3rd pers. sing. Thus, instead of

Opt. ^, ^, ^ft\� ^rw> ^^9 'mit, ^iw, ^niT, ^,

ydm, ydh, ydt, ydva, ydiam, ydidm, ydma^ ydta, yM, we have

Ben. urt, mif w^^9 in^, in#, ^TOit, irw, ^nw* ti^t*

ydsam, ydfi, ydty ydsva, ydatam, ydstdm, ydsma, ydgta, ydsuh.
As the optative is a verbal compound of the modified base with an ancient second iorist
of the root ^ yd^ the benedictive seems a similar compound of the unmodified base with an
ancient first aorist of ^ yd. In ^^ydh and WKydt we have contractions of ^n^^ydss
and ^TT^y^/. In the Veda the 3rd pers. sing, is 'mi yd^. (See Bollensen, Zeitschrift
der D. M. G., vol. xxii. p. 594; and Pan. viii. 2, 73—74.)

In the Atmanepada the ^� stands before the terminations of the optative,
e. g. iSm siya instead of ^ iya. Besides this, the personal terminations originally
beginning with 1^/ or ^^A take an additional ^�. Cf.^351. Thus, instead of

Opt. pt, ^^m, fjKf t^, pf^9 ti'mrf, ^nftr, ^9 t^�

iyd, Uhd(^ Ud, Mhi, iydthdm, iydtdm, imdhi, idhvdm, irdn, we have

Ben. ^rfhr, TUmij >rfhf, Tft^fV> iftTIWf, Vl^llidf} TrtufVf ^'IW, ^v^�

Hydy aUh^kdhy tUhfd, sivdki, stydsthdm, tfydstdm, strndhi, Mhvdm, Hrdn,

The benedictive in the Atmanepada is reallj an optative of the first aorist. Thus fW>m
^bkdy Aor. iwfiffti abhavUhit Ben. ^ffWh? bhucisMyaj from ^ stu. Opt. Atm. t^�i1n
stuvUa^ Aor. ^t^hiWastoshfa, Ben. ^sWv stosMshfaj from t6M, Opt. Atm. jMiU^krintran,
Aor. ^ mnn akreshatOy Ben. ^ifl i�|^ kreshiran.

� 386. Verbal bases ending in V^ay (Chur, Cans. Denom. &c.) drop W^ay before the
terminations of the benedictive Par.: ^JtncAoray, Ben, ^fArti chorydsam j but in Atm.
WIv^JIm chorayishiyd. Denominative bases in^y drop ^y in the Ben. Par. : jdl^^/wMy,
Ben. ^ptimvi putriydsamj but in Atm. J^Omlll putriyisMyd,

� 387. The benedictive Parasmaipada belongs to the weakenings the
benedictive Atmanepada to the strengthening forms {� 344)� Hence from
fwi^cAi/, Par. fVnonf chityasam, Atm� ^fWhl chetishiyd,

� 388, The benedictive Parasmaipada never takes intermediate l( u The
benedictive Atmanepada generally takes intermediate ^ i. Exceptions are
provided for by the rules (331 seq.

c c z

196 BENBDICTIVE. � 389-

Weakening of the Base before Terminations beginning with ^ y.

� 389. Some of the rules regulating the weakening of the base, which is required in the
benedictive Parasmaipada, may here be stated together with the rules that apply to the
weakening of the base in the passive and intensive.

� 390. While, generally speaking, the terminations of the benedictive, passive, and
intensive exercise a weakening influence on the verbal base, there is one important, though
only apparent, exception to this rule with regard to verbs ending in 1( t, 7 u, ^ ft. Fmal
^t and 7�, before the ^y of the terminations of benedictive, passive, and intensive* are
lengthened (Pft^. vii. 4, 35), but not strengthened by Guna.

f^ cAt, to gather ; Ben. ^^hmi cAly/t / VMS.^^ft^kchiydie: Int. ^^Mn chechiydte.
Final ^ r� is changed to ft r�. (Pftn. vii. 4, a8.)
^*ri, to do; Ben. fiCTTW *riy//; Pass, flw* Jtrtyrfife. (The Intensive has ^wiImw
chekriydte, P&i[i. vii. 4, 27.)
In roots, however, beginning with conjunct consonants, final ^ fi is actual^ strengthened
by Gu^ay and appears as ^ or, (Pft?. vii. 4, 39.).
^^nift, to remember; BeD,^ATf(smary(itj Pass. Wn^smarydte; Int. ^iwMn sdsmarydte.
Also in ^ ft, to go ; Ben. ^fktl(^ary(it j Pass. wW arydtej Int. ^wrtn ardrydte.
Final ^f^ is changed to f|^ ir, and, after labials, to 'WS^itr.
^stfi, to stretch ; Ben. wAn{jittrydt j Pass, ^Wfl^ stirydtej Int. toMw testtrydte.
\PT^> to fill; Ben. '^tHi^piirydtj Pass, ^ikptlrydtej Int. '^tfifk popHrydte.
Exceptions : ^^ is changed to Ifn^ay,
^ A, to lie down ; (Ben. "^ffWTfiiayydt does not occur, because the verb is Atmanepadin);
Ptos. "^vn^ Sayyd^e: Int. '^fft^f^i^ id�ayy(Ue. (P&9. vn. 4, 22.)
^t, after prepositions, does not lengthen the final ^i in the benedictive.
\h to go; Ben. \^B^^yit; but ^HftlHTi^^samty/if. (PAn. vii. 4, 24.)
^R^ Hhj to understand, after prepositions, is shortened to "^T �A. (P&n. vii. 4, 23.)
Ben. ^Hm^tfAy/zy VdAS.WS^Hhydte,
Ben. Ti^ V I f^samuhyat; Pass. ^i^|9Vn samahydte.

� 391. The following roots may or may not drop their final �(n, and then lengthen the
preceding vowel. (P&n. vi. 4, 43.)

f^yan, to beget ; Ben. Wl^lXfiJdydt or "^^^^IHiJanyit ; Pass. ^HT^ftjdydte or W^janydte;

Int. UTifnrt jdjdydte or ITiP'In Jailjany dt e.
^�a�,to obtain; Ben. '^imVU^sdydt or "W^nHjtanydt; Pass. Hl^fl sdydte or ^*hH sanydtej

Int. Iffnrnnf sdsdydte or ^TRYn samsanydte,
^^^hhany to dig; Ben. Itnni^itMy// or 'WC^lt^khanydt ; Pass. ^ihH khdydte or ^•Mii

khanydtej Int. 'mfIN) chdkhdydte or 'ilS'^Irt chankhanydte.
In the passive only, K^tan, to stretch; Ben. 'W^nf(^tanydt ; Pass. ni��n tdydte or �*hH

tanydtej Int. flff�<IA tantanydte,

� 392. According to a general rule, roots ending in < at and w o change their final
diphthong in the general tenses into WT d: ^ dhyai^ VIHTir dhydydte. Roots ending in
W^ retain it: Vpd, Tff^ji pdydte, he is protected. But the following roots change their
final vowel into ^lin the passive and intensive ; into ^ e in the benedictive Par.; and keep
it unchanged before gerundial '^ ya. (P&9. vi. 4, 66, 61, 69.)

-$ 395. BBKBDICTIVB. 197

The six verbs called ^S'Ak*, and the following verbs :

Passivb. Imtsnbivx. Bbnbdictivb f. Gbrxtnd.

l!ldd, to give ^f^ cUydte \^W dedtydte \^^^deydt W^ praddya

�IT md, to measure •fl^n miydte ^^t^i memiydte ^^HW meyit HRFT pramdya

^n 8thdf to stand WIha sthiydie wlhl^ teshfMydte '^k^Tn8theydt H^THT prasthiya

v^^ot^tosing •\\^giydte Vft^k jeffiydte ^hni^^ey/t WTP^pragiya

^p^, to drink Tlnitptydte MmImA pepiydte ^mt^peydt V^Hlprapdya

9 A4, to leave flu^ Mydte W^^jeMydte ^VU^heydt Tt^prahdya

^�o, to finish ^^hs(ydte ^ifl^M seshfydte ^mjjf seydt J[Wmpra$dya

� 393. The following verbs take SamprasHra^a in the benediotive (P&9. ill. 4, 104),
passive, participle, and gerund. (P&9. vi. i, 15.)
^racA, to speak; ^'(.wapj ||, to sleep; ^vo/ (PUp. vi. i, 20), to wish; and the

^■iilq yajddi, i. e. those foUowing ^l|l^ yq;.
Ben. 9M\\wihydt: Ft�9.'9'^ uehydte; Fait. TWH uktdh : Ger.'9W uktvd.
The M�nR^ are, (23, 33-41) ^ya;, to sacrifice; ^rop, to sow ; ^ vah, to cany ; ^f^vas,
to dweD; %w, to weave; ^ryc||,to cover; ^ibv^H, *o <�U; f^tJoJ, to speak;
f^ irt||, togrow.

� 394. The I following verbs take SamprasAra^a in the benedictive, passive, participle,
gerund, and intensive. (Pft^. vi. i, 16.)
JX^grah, to take; l^fjydy to ftul; W^vyadh, to pierce; ^T^vyocA, to sonound; IH^
vra^ch, to cut; H^pracM, to ask ; WH^ hhrajj^ to fry. As to 9^^oap, ^IHT ^yom,
and ^vye, see � 393, note ||.
Q^^aA; Ben. ^fni|[^^Ay/iry Pass. ^JIW gjihydtes Part, 'pihn gtihUdta Ger. ^l^lrVT
giihUvd; Int. lO'jfIA jarigxikydte,

� 395* ^(n^ /<^, to rule, substitutes 6(1^ ^A in the benedictive, passive, participle,
gerund, intensive, also in the second aorist. (P&9. vi. 4, 34.)
Ben. f^r^rH^Hshyii J Pass, f^vjw iiskydte; Part, f^t Ush^dh; Ger. f^fT Ushfvd:
Aor. Wf^MJ^i^Aaf.
Roots ending in consonants preceded by a nasal (which is really written as belonging to

the root) lose that nasal before weakening terminations (Kit, Nit, P&i^. vi. 4, 34). Thus

* This term comprises the six roots ^pn^> ^^> ^� ^^> 3f^^> ^^^ ^* ^ varieties of
the radicals ^ dd and VT dhd; but not ^T^and ^^, i. e. ^fTfif ddti, he cuts, and ^nrfv ddyaii,
he cleans (P&n. 1. 1, 20). Hence (jl^ln diyate, it is given; but ^inn ddyate, it is cleaned.

t In other roots, ending in VT ^ or diphthongs, and beginning with more than one con-
sonant, the change into ^e in the benedictive Par. is optional (P&9. vi. 4, 68). fl glai, to
wither; fplVH^gleydt or J!IVIin{jgldydt. WTAAy<^,tocaU; fU I III ((khydydt or IW ^ I ((khyeydt.

X '^Tl^svdp, to send to sleep, takes Samprasftrana in the reduplicated aorist (P&9. vi.
i> 18). H^m^ atdshupat.

II I^T^ nap, to sleep, ^IH^ tyamy to sound, and ^ vye, take Sampras&rana in the
intensive also (Pft?. vi. i, 19); iftjUlfl soshupydte, �ftnwin sesimydte, *tNlMfl veviydte.
fHlibt takes Samprasdrana optionally in the intensive (Pftn. vi. i, 30); ^JV^^^Tn ioHiydte
or $m1^ii ieMydte. ^ hve forms Int. "ift^lk joMydie (PIk?. vi. i, 33). In the intensive
VT^cA(fy forms ^<?fhn^ cheHydie (P&9. vi. i, 2 1) ; W^ pydy, ^f(t^ pepiydte (P&Q. vi. i , 29).




from ^woww. Part. 0W srastdh. Pass. B^ srasydte, Ben. H^^ srasydt, Ger. tin^i
srasivd. Int. ^�fifl4jl|) satnUrasydte, Aor.'^fB^dsrasatj from ti^rafT;, Ben. vsqiil^ ro/y^/,
Pass. Tilrir ra;V(f<e, Part. t�: rdfe^cif , Ger. TW roArW (or tw rahktvd, P&n. vi. 4, 32).

� 396. With regard to the benedictive Atm. see the general rules as to
the strengthening of the base, � 344, and particularly � 348 seq. Remember,
that if the benedictive Atm. does not take intermediate ^ t, penultimate ^ t,
7 ti, If rj are left unchanged, whereas in other strengthening tenses they take
Guiia (f 344). Final ^ fi, too, remains unchanged, and y^ri becomes fj <r,
or, after labials, 151^ dr. f^kship, to throw, ftp^ kshipsiyd; -^pri, to fill.




U ^[VnH budhydsam
s. ^UIU budhydf^
3. ^pWl^^^klAy^f

^piira budhydsva
^vn^ budhydstam
^jmr^ budhydstdm


I. ^Wrfrf bodhisMyd
3. ^tVuflg bodhishishtd

^tVHl*lfi bodhishivdhi
^tf^f^iVTWIfi bodhishtydsthdm
'^rtWNrert bodhishiydstdm

^MIIW budhydsma
^piira' budhydsta
^vn^ budhydsut^

Wtf^^fhff^ bodhishimdki
lf)fVl/1l9 bodhishidhvdm
^tP^fWtXj^^ bodhishirdn



^ 397. The passive takes the terminations of the Atmanepada.

Special Tenses of the Passive,
^ 398. The present, imperfect, optative, and imperative of the passive are
formed by adding ir ya to the root. This ir ya is added in the same manner
as it is in the Div verbs, so that the Atmanepada of Div verbs is in all
respects (except in the accent) identical with the passive.

Atm. fltn^ ndhyate, he binds ; Pass, iftn^ nahydte^ he is bound.

� 399. Bases in 1R^ ay (Chur, Cans. Denom. &c.) drop 1R^ ay before ^ ya of the

^iVP{bodhdyy to make one know; ^U|n bodh-ydte, he is made to know.
^)T^ chordyt to steal ; ^V^4n chor-ydte, he is stolen.

Intensive bases ending in ^y retain their ^y, to which the ^ya of the passive is added
without any intermediate voweL

jSttgJlllokiy, to cut much ; 9^^'UIM lohlyydte, he is cut much.

-$ 40I-



InteoBive bases ending in ^y> preceded by a consonant, drop their ^y.
^i^nfbebkidy, to sever; ^iSnn bebhidydte, it is severed.

?fN^ didhi, to shine, ^^ vevt, to yearn, ^fi^^i daridrd, to be poor, drop their final vowel,
as usual.

?^Mt didhi, ^(hllV dtdhydte, it is lightened, i. e. it lightens.

� 400. As to the weakening of the base^ see the rules given for the

benedictive, � 389 seq.





Pres. ^bMyS
Impf. V^ dbh4ye
Opt. ^{3^ bhUy^a
Imp. ^ bMyai

Pres. ^f^Pl^bhdyivahe
Impf. ^i^fpj^lffl dbkHydoahi
Opt. ^^ff ^Al/y^aAt
Imp. ^j!7Tra% bkdyivahai

Pres. ^i?nil^ bMyatnahe
Impf. ^EI^pnHf^ <^My^^At
Opt. ^j^ff^ bkHyimahi
Imp. ^^H^ bkAyimdhai

W^TTOn dbUyatMt^
V^m". bUyithdt^
^pi^ bhdydsva


^V)J3^^ dbMyethdm
^^tVr^ bMy^ydthdm
^^(^ bMyithdm


^nqii^ bUyddhve
^V^|1|1S| dbMyadhvam
^gl^ bkdy^dhwtm
^im bUyddkoam

^i^|inr dbh4yata
^P^ bMyita
^}init bMydtdm

W^j3^ dbhdyetdm
^^1*1 bhdyiyiUlm
^l^ni bMyitdm

^f0 bhdydnie
^^J^ dbhdyania
^^^ bMyiran

Qeneral Tenses of the Passive.
� 401. In the general tenses of the passive, if yd is dropt, so that, with
certain exceptions to be mentioned hereafter, there is no distinction between
the general tenses of the passive and those of the Atmanepada. The ifya of
the passive is treated, in �eu^ like one of the conjugational class-marks
{vikaranas), which are retained in the special tenses only, and it differs
thereby from the derivative syllables of causative, desiderative, and intensive
verbs, which, with certain exceptions, remain throughout both in the special
and in the general tenses.

Beduplicated Perfect.
The reduplicated perfect is the same as in the Atmanepada.

Periphrastic Perfect.
The periphrastic perfect is the same as in the Atmanepada, but the
auxiliary verbs ^r^ as and ^ bhil must be conjugated in the Atmanepada,
as well as ^ kfi. (^ 342.)





^ 402. Verbs may be conjugated in the three forms of the first aorist
which admit of Atmanepada, and without differing fix)m the paradigms given
above, except in the third person singular.

The second aorist Atmanepada is not to be used in a purely passive sense *.

^ 403. In the third person singular a peculiar form has been fixed in the
passive, ending in i( i, and requiring Yriddhi of final, and Gu^a of medial
vowels (but ma is lengthened), followed by one consonant.

Thus, instead of nn^ftv dhvishfa, we find iVc9Tf% dldv-i, 1

Wfkftv abodhishfa^
WBpf akritay
wf^ adita^
"W^f^ asttrshfaj
%f^ adaffdha,
^vfirHTir adikshata,
W^J^ aghukshatOf
nfMHIill alikshataf
v^iqir adhukshata,
^rftnrw adhikshata,

witNaiodh-i. J
m'^lf^ akshep^,
HfUHv andy-i.
^mf^ akdr-i,
^I^tAt addy-i,
^rarft (utdrA,
W^ff^ asarj-i,
H^^rf^ addh-i.
^i^fig adeiA.
tPT% agilh-i.
unf^ aleh'4,
m^tf^ adoh-L
wnf^ adeh-i.

First Form.

" Second Form.

Fourth Form.

� 404. Verbs ending in W ^ or diphthongs, take '^y before the passive l( t.
^ dd, ^I^tAt addyiy instead of Wf^ adita,

� 405. Verbs ending in ^V^ay (Chur, Cans. Denom. &c.) drop ^Ray before the passive
If t, though in the general tenses, after the dropping of the passive ^ya, the original VVoy
may reappear, i.e. the Atm. may be used as passive.

'^P^hodkay, ^rrtftf ofcocttty 'InTI'^cAoray, ^^tftachori: Tlinir^'cy, ^HTlftf ari^ff.

In the other persons these verbs may either drop ^V^oy or retain it, being coi^ugated in
either case after the first form of the first aorist.

IfPI^&A^ay/ ySP^^^X^^ abhdmshii VHlHllfi; abhdoisk^hdhy ^^^tf^ ahhM: or HMI^Dlh
nhhdoayuM, ^HI^DlVU abhdtayishfhdlt, m^^[\f^ abhdoi.
� 406. Intensive bases in ^y add the passive l( t, without Gu^a.
Int. ^t^J^bobMif, H^^fll abobh^.
Intensive bases ending in ^y, preceded by a consonant, drop \y, and xefuae Gu^a.

Int. ^ftW 6�ftAirfy; Aor. Hf (W(^ abebhidi.
Desiderative bases, likewise, refuse Gupa.

Des. ^|Wtftl^&i(&o(iAtsA^' Aor. VVVtAlftt abidfodhishi.

* This would follow if kartari extends to P&9. iii. i, 54, 56.

-J 4"- PASSIVE. 201

( 407. Thfl following are a hw irregular formations of the 3rd pers* aing. aorist passive ;

X?^ rabh, to desire, forms irtfif arambki, (Pft^. vii. z, 63.) See � 345, ^^

T^ radk, to kill, — infll arandhi. (Pft^. vii. i, 6z.)

W\Jabht to yawn, — WPfftv ajambki, (Pft^. vii. i, 61.)

4l^ bkoHj, to break, — Wfflf abJMJi or ^Hllftr a&il^ft. (P&V* vi. 4, 33.)

IfP^IoftA, totake, — ^^ftk^alambki or ^K^StSlf aldbki. (P&9. vii. i, 69.)

With prepositions W^ labh always forms HHi^ aktm^ilt.
in(/mi, to beget, — Vliril ajani, (PA9. vii. 3, 35.)
^ftoiU, to strike, — WWflf oftodlib'. (P&n. vii. 3, 35.)

( 408. Roots ending in H^am, which admit of intermediate H t (� 33a, 16), do not lengthen
their radical vowel. (Pft^. vii. 3, 34.)

IP^iaiii, ^l||fll aiami; l^^oni, WW^ atanUj bat 1|l^yaiii, IRlftV aifdnU.
P&^ini excepts VT^^Aom, to rinse, which forms ^H^lfll dekdmu Others add H^Aom,
V^ vam, ^ nam (PA^. vii. 3, 34, vArt.).

� 409. Thus the paradig;ms given in the Aimanepada may be used in the
passive of the aorist^ with the exception of the 3rd pen. sing. (See p. i8a.)

^raftrf^ ttlaviihi ^raAp^rf^ ahmUkoaki VMlV^ff alavUkmahi

Vd^DlVi: alaviikthd^ Hc^Himilf alaoishdthdm V^Olul or ^ alavidkoam or -^vom

^nrftr oZtfvfl V^Pmini aktrw^^ mvfm alavi$hata

The TuH) FkUures^ the ChndUianal, and the Benedictioe Passive.

^ 410. These fonnations are identically the same in the passive as in the
Atmanepada. Hence

Fut. iftflH^ bodhishyS, I shall be known.
Cond. VtWl^ dbodhishySf I should be known.
Periphr. Fut iMWint bodkudhe, I shall be known.
Bened. ijWr(hl bodhishtyd^ May I be known !

Secondary Form of the Aorist ^ the Two Futures^ the Conditional, and

Benedictive of Verbs ending in Vowels.

� 411. All verbs ending in vowels, in V^ay, and likewise ^han, to
strikci ^1^ driif to see, gf ffrcA, to take, may form a secondary base (really
denominative), being identical with the peculiar third person singular of the
aorist passive, described before. Thus from 1^14 we have MTsAalctvi, and
firom this, by treating the final f t as the intermediate ^ i, we form.

Sing, I. pers. VMll^lDl aldvi-shi, by the side of iTRFftrf^ alam-shi.

%• Hc^lHlli: aldvi'Shfhdi, — — Vdf^Vi; alam-skthAh.

3. ^iwiftfaMw, — — invrftra/A^.


202 PASSIVE. $ 41 1 -

Dual J. pers. V^lPml^ aldoi-shvahi, by the side of ^RSfpi^ alavi-shvahi,
%• WM I fi m ^ i aldvishathdm^ ^— — WeSf^mvit aldvi-shaiham*

3. Vc9l(V|Uldli aldvishdidm^ — — ^BRyftRTWf aldvi-shdidm.

Plur. I. pers. ^V^^rf^^f^ aldvi-shmahif by the side of WcftPv^ng aldvishmahi.

2. w^slPw aldvi'dhvam or ^'4^vam — wnss^^aldm-dhvam or ^.

3. VMlHiMrt aldvi-shata^ — — v^HmA aldm-shata.
Fut. ?9Tftr^ Idm-shyej by the side of cVfn^ Idvi-^hye.

Cond. VcdlHlvi aldvi-shye^ — — ^BWftl^ aldvi^kye*

Per. Fut ^rftnni l&m^tdhe^ — — ^f^nn^ lavi'tdhe.

Ben. ^ir^iflil Idvt-shtyaj — — cVftrifhT IdvisMya.

From ff chi, to gather, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. ^V^rfir achdyi; hence
Aor. V^TniHl achdyishiy besides iB^fir acheshi, &c.
Fut. ^^rftri^ chdyishye^ — ^^ cheshye.
Cond. v^lOlv) achdyishye^ — iff^W acheshye.
Per. Fut. ^vrf^nn^ cMyitdhe, — ^Jhn^ chetdhe.
Ben. ^lOliflil chdyishtyaj — ^^ cheshiya.

From Wfghrdf to smell, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. VRift aghrdyi; hence
Aor. fiHiniPil agkrdyishi^ besides WTf^ aghrdsi.
Fut. lirfin^ ghrdyishye^ — "WB^ ghrdsye.
Cond. wurftr^ aghrdyishye, — WTP^ aghrdsye.
Per. Fut. nrf^nn^ ghrdyitdhe^ — Wnnl ghrdtdhe.
Ben. inftr^hl ghrdyishiya^ — 'Vnrhl ghrdaiya.

From if dhvri^ to hurt, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. V�nft a^Avdri; hence

Aor. W9Tftf^ adhvdrishiy besides VS|fW adhvrishi or WiqftfiT adhvdrishi.
Fut vnfc^ dhvarishyCy — sufic*^ dhvdrishye.

Per. Fut. svrfbn^ dhvdritdhe^ — I9%T^ dhv&rtdhe.

Ben.S9Tft:^ dhvdrishiya^ — ^lJi(^dhvri8hiy a or %SffK!^dhvdrishty a*.

From fi^ haUy to kill, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. V^tAt aghdni; hence

Aor. worftrf^ aghdnishiy besides (w^Mkavadhishi). P&n.yi.4,62t*
Fut. "^rftn^ ghdnishyej — 1[fip^ hanishye.
Per. Fut ^rftnn^ ghdnitdhe, — ^TTT^ hantdhe.

Ben. inftrtN ffhdnishiya, — (^fWhr vadhishiya).

From wm driS, to see, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. ^I^l(t adarii; hence
Aor. v^n^Hl adarHshiy besides W^ftf adfikshi.
Fut. ^flj^ darHshye^ — ipaj^ drakshye.

Per. Fut. ^fi^irr^ darSitdhey — T^ drash(dhe.
Ben. ^flfhfhr dariishtya, — 7^ drikshiya,

♦ See � 332, 5.

t Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11, p. 270, seems to allow V^fn ahasi.


From jff^ffrahy to take^ 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass. ^RfHl agroM; hence
Aor. MiJUif^Dl affrdhishif besides Vil^fM agrahUhu
Fut. JXtf^ grdhishyey — Ji^^t^ grahUhye.

Per. Fut. ilir^fll^ ffrdhitdhe^ — Jf^hcik ff^^Mtdhe.
Ben. ijif^iflii ffrdhishiya, — IT^ifhl grahishiya.
From T�n^ ramay^ to delight, Caus. of n ram, 3rd pers. sing. Aor. Pass.
vd^T or ami or ^TCrfiT ardmi; hence

Aor. irrfilft aramishi or ^mfivft ardmishi^ besides fKHpilfVi aramayishi.

� 413. Certain verbs of an iutransitive meaning take the passive ^t in the 3rd pen. sing.
Aor. Atm. Thus ^iMWn utpadyate (3rd pers. sing, present of the Atmanepada of a Div
verb), he arises, becomes Q^SMlf^ udapddi^ he arose, he sprang up ; but it is regular in the
other persons, 9<JUWIril udapatsdtdm, they two arose, &c. (P&9. iii. i, 60.)

� 4 1 3. Other verbs of an intransitive character take the same form optionally ( P&9. iii. 1,61):
^h(^J^ (^1u|H dtpyate, he burns, Div, Atm.), V^lf^ oJIjm or WfliMS adipiihfa.
^H^jan {mMnjdyate, he is bom, he is, Div, Atm.; it cannot be formed from Wfjau

(Hu, Par.), to beget), Hiir�f (njani or V�ir�if ajanishfa,
^biidh {^^^ budkyate, he is conscious, Div, Atm.), ^Tftf^ abodhi or ^HJV abuddha,
^Kp^ {^pthf p4rayati, he fills, Chur.), ^^ft ap^ri or ^^fiL� apHrish^a,
lCX^idy (irniW tdyate, he spreads, Bhii, Atm.; really Div form of Tan), WITrf^ atdyi or

Vflir^llf atdyishfa,
^*f(^^pydy (yiU^ pydyate, he grows), ^huPh apydyi or W^mftlF apydyishfa.



^414. The participle of the present Parasmaipada retains the Vikara^as
of the ten classes. It is most easily formed by taking the 3rd pers. plur. of
the present, and dropping the final ^ t. This gives us the Aiiga base, from
which the Pada and Bha base can be easily deduced according to general
rules (^ 182). The accent remains in the participle on the same syllable
where it was in the 3rd pers. plur. If the accent falls on the last syllable
of the participle, and if that participle does not take a nasal, then all Bha
cases and the feminine suffix receive the accent. (Pa][^. vi. i, 173.) Thus





Ace. H^IT

Instr. H^ilT &c.




















^O'Nni &c.




D d











Wt^pfflr Intens.

^it^H Nbm. 8. ^ftw^ Ace. 'ftuli Instr. ^*ti.l|fll &c.

cAorcfyoiU eAorcfyaii ehordyantam ehordyatd














































^f^^f^TT (� 184)

j 415. The participle of the future is formed on the same principle.

6ilaowAyi6i<t ftAovwAyc^ bhanshydn hhaviskydntam hhaoishyaU

j 416. The participle of the reduplicated perfect may best be formed by
taking the 3rd pers. plur. of that tense. This corresponds, both in form and
accent, with the Bha base of the participle, only that the ^�, as it is always
followed by a vowel, is changed to ^�A. Having the Bha base, it is easy to
form the Anga and Pada bases, according to ^ 204. In forming the Anga
and Pada bases, it must be remembered,
I. That roots ending in a vowel, restore that vowel, which, before ^ �^,

had been naturally changed into a semivowel.
%. That, according to the rules on intermediate l( t, all verbs which, without
counting the T. �(, are monosyllabic in the 3rd pers. plur., insert ^ t.
(See Necessary f t, J 338, i ; Optional ^ t, J 337, 8.)

3rd P. Plur.




Instr. Sing.

Nom. Sing.

Ace. Sing.

Instr. Plur.










fljflj^n'lrt 143) firfi;^

didwdn didwifhsam

1 "^ _ft-L M— "^ �* • •





choraydmdsd^ ckoraydmdsdskd ekorayd/ndshdn ehoraydmdsivdihsam choraydmddoddbhift

-� 419-



3rd P. Plur.






Instr. Sing.

Norn. Sing.

Ace. Sing.














Inatr. Plur.


n *^_n_-


( 417. In flye verbs, where the insertion of ^t before ^vm is optional (� 337, 8), we
get the following forms ;




3rd P. Plur. Instr. Sing. Nom. Sing.

Aoc. Sing.

Instr. Plur.'







jaffmivdn orjaganndn

jaghndthd Jaghnivdn OTJaghanvan jaghnivaihSi

^ ^ �^^^^^^^ �^J^^^^^^ X^^^^^M

nii^jm w^wnn or TWT^nf^m i^niyni

vwidoin or vividivan vividvdihsam

^k^^^^^^ ^^^^�^^^^^ �^m^^!g�


ffwiwdn or vwiswdn vprinmiduoM

jagmivdih$am jagmwddbhili



dadfi^hd dadfUvdn, or dadfUhdn



dadfihiduam dadfihddbhi^

j 418. The participle of the reduplicated perfect Atmanepada is formed
by dropping f)c ire, the terminatioii of the 3rd pers. plur. Atm., and
substituting WH dna.

wq[fft babhUvirS — Wfffm babkdvdnd^
^9fi<t^ chakrirS — ^nm chakrdnu^
ffp^ dadiri — ^^nn daddnd^
� 419. The participle present Atmanepada has two terminations, — ifHI
mdna for verbs of the First Division (� 295)9 imi dna for verbs of the Second

In the First Division we may again take the 3rd pers* plur* present Atm.,
drop the termination 1^ nte^ and replace it by ifT^i: mdnai*

In the Second Division we may likewise take the 3rd pers. plur. present
Atm., drop the temunation in) ate, and replace it by mtm dna^.

* The ssme optional forms run through all the Pads and Bha cases.




Second Diviaion.
^9^ aunv-dte — ^^r^TfTI wmr-AwfJ
"mjl^dpnuv^e — ^[T^V[^.dpnuv-dn6i>
iT^ ianv-dte — flt^M; tanv-^nd^
lit^ krtn-dte — nfhlTR: krtn-dnd^
^^ ad-dte — W^x ad-dndi
ispir^ juhv-ate — '^j^rmjuhv-dna^
rundh'dte — ^vr: rundh-dnd^

First Division.
bhdvornte — H'^itr: bhdva-mdnai
g^ tudd-nte — j^HM* tudd-mdnalf,
. ^Wil divya-^e — ^1�M�IM* divya^mdnai^
^it^Si chordya-rUe — ^^frt'WTO: chordycMndiiah
Pass.^vi^ tudyd-nie — ^^[IPTR: ttidyd-mdnaJ^
Caus.tfni^ bhdvdya-nte — m�|i|HM: bhdvdya-mdnah
Des. "^^ff^bubhUsha-^e — '^f^^f^mibubhiUha'mdnah
Int, '^t^fick bodkdyd-nte — f^^MHHI bobhUyd-mdnab

^ 40,0, The participle of the future in the Atmanepada is formed by adding
ifTfT: mdnaljk in the same manner.

Hfnoi^ bhavishyd-nte — HDliMm^u; bliavishyd-mdna^
iiyik neshyd-nte — ^^'Vliinir: neshyd-^mdnai
ift9^ totsyd-nte — if^iljJHH: totsyd-mdnah
^f\|iqi^ edhishyd-nte — ^fv^qviFH: edhishyd-md'oah

^421. The participles of the present and future passive are formed by
adding �!T9Tt mdnah in the same manner.

qnqiJ bhdyd-nte — >|3WR: bhdyd-mdnai.
^wft budhyd-^e — 'JuiifT'r: budhyd-mdnaf^
^^ stuyd-nie — ^{J^HM: stdyd-mdnai^
ftlAk kriydrfUe — ^flim�mr: kriyd-mdnak
HT^ bhdvyd-^e — HT�niFT: bhdvyd-mdna^

bhdmshyd-nte — bhdvtshyd-mdi^i

ndyishyd-nte — ndyishyd-mdnai
Or like the Part. Fut. Atm.

The Past Participle Passive tn in t^Iji and the Qerund in WT tvL

^ 422. The past participle passive is formed by adding ir: tdft or it: nd^
to the root. ^ *rf, ipn kfitd^, done, masc, ; ^ kfitd, fem. ; ^ kritdmj
neut. ^ m, TgHl Mndfj^^ cut.

This termination ir ia is, as we saw, most opposed to the insertion of inter-
mediate l[ if so much so that verbs which may form any one general tense
with or without i( i^ always form their past participle .without it. The number
of verbs which must insert ^ i before K ta is very small. (^ 332, D.)

Besides being averse to the insertion of intermediate i( t, the participial
termination n ia, having always the Ud&tta, is one of those which have a
tendency to weaken verbal bases. (See ^ 344.)

^ 423. The gerund of simple verbs is formed by adding pit tvd to the
root. ^ ^9 ipWT kfitvd, having done. ^ pd, yg^piltva or, from "^JJ^pdii,
V^mpavitva, having piirified.

The rules as to the insertion of the intermediate ^ i before pit tvd have
been given before. With regard to the strengthening or weakening of the


base^ the general rule is that T^ tvd without intermediate i[ t weakens, with
intermediate ^ i strengthens the root (Pan. i. 2, 18). It always has the
Udatta. In giving a few more special rules on this point, it will be con-
venient to take the terminations 7 ta and m tvd together, as they agree to
a great extent, though not altogether.

I. in td^ and nT tv&, with intermediate ^ i.

� 434. If TR toft takes intermediate ^ t, it may in certain verbs produce Gu^a. In this
case the Gul[^t before iWT tvd is regular.

^ ii^, to lie down, ^ffinrt ^ayitd(t (P&i;l. i. 2, 19) ; ^iftlf^ iayitvi.

f^^ md, to sweat, ^�K?^! neditd^ or f^nii svinndfi,: ^f^[7VT moeditvi.

ftr^ midy to be soft, mfy^\ meditdfL : HfljT^ meditvi.

ftp^ kshvid, to drip, ^^R^ffS kshveditdhj I^Rji^l kshveditva.

^ dhfisk, to dare, vf^ dkarshitdt^j vA^T dharskitvd.

^[^jnfish, to bear, Tf^Wt marshitdh (patient), (P&9. i. 2, 30) ; H(Mif I marshitvd.

^J9il,. to purify, IfftnR pavitdfi (P&a. z. 3, 33) ; V^(fWt pamtvd, from ^jp^ii. See No. 156.

� 435. Verbs with penultimate 7 u may or may not take Guna before If ta with inter-
mediate ^ t, if they are used impersonally.
l^dy�/, to shine, ^fiifi dyiUitdm or ^ftfici dyotitdmj it has been shining. (P&9. i. 3, 3i.)

� 436. If nr tvd takes intermediate ^t, it requires, as a general rule, Gui[ia (P&p. i. 3,
id), or at aU events does not produce any weakening of the base. ^vrtV, to exist, qfiir^ii
vartUvd. ^ii^^sranu, to ftdl, lif^ttm sraihsitvd (P&n. i. 3, 33). ^ pd (i. e. ^J^pdn), to
purify, vfi^n^X pavitvd (PkQ.. i. 3, 33).

Verbs, however, beginning with consonants, and ending in any single consonant except
^y or ^o, preceded by l(, ^t or 7, "9 u, take Gu^a optionally (P^^. i. 2, 26) : l^l^dytif, to
shine, CnfilKII dyotitva or ^Ofrm dyutitvi. The same option applies to jp^tjrish, to thirst ;
Ip^mmA, to bear; ^S^ibri/, to attenuate (P&n. i. 3, 35) ; fOvni trishitva or llfw^ larshitvi,

� 437. Though taking intermediate ^ i, W\ tvd does not produce Gu^a, but, if possible,
weakens the base, in ^ rud, to cry, ^R(i4l ruditvd(Pkn. i. 3, 8) ; fl^ vid, to know, Dlf^im
viditvi: ^\mu8h, to steal, >|f9?n mushitvdj Vfffrak, to take, "^ptfiWl gfihitvd j l{Vmfii,
to delight, ^^SFH mriditvd (Pftn. i. 3, 7); ^ mric?, to rub, •[(qm mriditvdj ^if^gudk, to
cover, '^Ijl^Ft^ ffudhitvd ; fff9(^klU, to hurt, tftifigF^ kliiitvd : ^vad, to speak, tRjRT
uditvd; ^r^vof, to dwell, Vf^IRT ushitvd,

� 438. Roots ending in '^th or ^j^A, preceded by a nasal, may or may not drop the
nasal before WT tvd (P&9. i. 3, 33) ; ilf^ifl granthitvd or nftlWT grathitvd, having twisted.
The same applies to the roots ^^vaiich, to cheat, and ^X^luflch, to pluck (Pftn. i. 3, 34);
JHmi vaHehitvd or ^fwiT vachitod.

II. in t^b f^^ 1^ tv4, without intermediate ^ i.

� 439. Roots ending in nasals lengthen their vowel before VS tafi and RT ^0^ (P&n. vi. 4,
15)* ^^^am, to rest, l^lfin ddntdh, ^ifr^l idntvd,

llf\^kram, to step, may or may not lengthen its vowel before riT tvd (P&n. vi. 4, 18).
Hl^ kram, nhd krdntdh, aIi^I krdntvd or 4v^ krantvi; also Wflfrm kramitvd.

� 430. The following roote, ending in nasals, drop them before Wt /aA and nT ^^. (P&9.
VI. 4, 37-)


ip[yam, to check, inR yatd^, liWT yaivd*; X^^ram, to sport, TSU ratdft, TSWX ratvdj 1*^ nam,
to bendy IflH natd^, "^^naivas ^ han, to kill� ipfl haidf^^ l^ilt haJtoi: f^^aniy to
go, TIR ^o/iA, ^f^gatvaj ^9^^man, to think, TIR matd^, ^i(fW\matvdj ^F^voHy to
ask ; in(fan, to stretch, HIH tatdfi, HUT toWy and the other yorbs of the Tan class,
ending in 9(�.

Note — Of the same verbs those ending in 9(fi drop the nasal before the gerundial ^ya
and insert 1^^; Jf^npramdtya (Pftj^. vi. 4, 38) : those ending in ^m may or may not drop
the nasal before the gemndial Vya; TPtn pragdtya or TPTf^ pragdmya*

$ 431. The following verbs drop final ^U9 and lengthen the vowel.
l|9(ya�, to bear, IfHRi^o^, mAXjdtvd: IP^foii, to obtain, iniR#^ajl, ^XS^fdMl:
^S( khan, to dig, WTIH khdtafky WH^ khdivd.
I. Roots ending in ^ ohh, or ^9, substitute 9^/ and ^4. (Pft^. vi. 4, 19.)
V^praehh, to ask, ^^pfishfaf^ ($ 135X ^[f^pn^hfvd; t^cliv, to play, l^�n dj^ibut^
a. Roots ending in "^ rehh^ or ^ro, drop their final consonant. (P&9. vi. 4, 3i.)
f^m�rcAA, to funt, ^^ mdrta^j f^ (uro, to strike, l||k tdn^.
$ 432. The following verbs diange their ^9 with the preceding or following vowel into
Btf. (P4n. VI, 4, 20.)
W^jvoTf to ail, ^I^Jtirna^, ^^hj4rtvdj J^ Ivor, to hasten, ^k ftfr^oA, "^tf tdrtvd:
%^ mD, to dzy, ^W! nUtaft, ^VT sfiUvdj V^ oo, to protect, ^Rf : Itta^, IKWT ilM^
1^mat7, to bind, ^fJH mUtah, ^^^mdivd.
$ 433. Roots ending in % at substitute IH dj �( (Myat, to meditate, �iifii dkydtaft^
vnTVT dhydtvd: or ^ l�* *( ^at, to sing, ^ftin ^o^, 'ftiVT ^f^tf. Final It e and W\ 4 too,
are changed to %i; ^pd, to drink, ^ItKlpUaft, ^fitWlpUvdj ^dhe^ to suck, ^HwidkUal^

f 434. The following roots change their final vowel into l( t .
?ft do, to cut, f^in ditah, fi^ dUvd (Pft^. vii. 4, 40); ift <o, to finish, f^iR tUah, ftnWf
titvdj Wlmd, to measure, flunnit^aA, ^fffHrnUvdj Wtttthd, to stand, (VVflt<lii/fl^,
f^mr sthUvdj VT dM, to place, f^pin i&tfa^ flErVT Ativtf (P&9* viz. 4, 43); ^ A^ to
leave (ift^ Jdnaf), f^TVT Aifv^ (P&n. vii. 4, 43).
$ 435* ^ ^0, to sharpen, and ^ cAAo, to cut, substitute ^ t , or take the regular IH d.
Ifft ioy f^nn Htd^ or ^mR idtd^^ f^RVT it/v^ or IRRT idivd (Pft^. vii. 4, 41).

$ 436. Exceptional forms :
^ (24 to give, forms !(1R daitaftf, ^W dattvd (P&9. vii. 4, 46).
9V^ �pA^� to grow, forms FlEhn ipMaft (P&9. vi. i, 33).
^slyot, to caU (with Vpra), forms mrhn proMtUait (PA9. vi. i, 33) and VnA^t proiUma^

(PA9. viii. 3, 54).
^^ot, to curdle, forms )|ft^ iitM^, and ^fhnil/a^, cold; but d^^l^l* samiydnaf^, rolled

up (PA^. VI. I, 34, 35).
^(V^pydy, to grow, forms iftlRiiliiaA^* but ^fftHtpydnaf^ after certain prepositions (Pft^.
VI. I, 38).
( 437. The verbs which take Sampraslbrauoa before Kl to^ and i^ tvd have been mentioned

* See verbs without intermediate ^ t. (� 333, 13, and 16.)

t After prepositions ending in vowels, ^ da may be dropt, and the final ^ t and IT 11 of a
preposition lengthened. l^piR pradaitat^t mn pratta^ ; ^^ ndattdt^^ ^9X Mtah.



^ � 393' ^ undergoing the same change in the benedictive and passive, ^^nvach, to
speaks "9%^ uktafi, "^W uktvd, &c.

� 438. Roots which can lose their nasal (� 345, ^^) lose it before IH tafk and t^tod, W^^
troths, to tear, €R7! Mrastah, cnm srasttd.

But ^K^fAam?, to stride^ forms its gerund ^fS^skantvd, and ^4^�yaiuf, to flow, ^4rWT
syantvd (P&n. vi. 4> 31), although their f^it is otherwise liable to be lost. Part. ^ORT skannah,
^m syannaft,

'H^^nad, to perish, and roots ending in l^y, otherwise liable to nasalization, retain the
nasal optionally before nT tvd (P&9. vi. 4, 33). 1f^ naihshfvd or vffT nashpod (but only
'^^.nash^ai); VIRranktvd ot XMXraktvd (but only XXraktaft); H^majj, to dive, iHff
manktvd or VfW maktvd (P&9. vzi. i, 60).

^ 439. Causal verbs form the participle after rejecting mr aya ; iimOf
kdrayaii, iirfbn kdritah, but ^hKDlHIl karayitm.

$ 440* Desiderative verbs form the participle and gerund regularly;
f'rtKWr chikirshati, fw^itfftm chikirshital^, f^^AflpfT chikirshitvd.

� 441. Intensive verbs Atm. of roots ending in vowels form the participle
and gerund regularly ; %ivhn^ chekrh/ate, ^nlOmi; chekrtyiiait, ^ftlRfHIl
chekriyiivd. After roots ending in consonants the intensive ^ y is dropt ;
'^fWvir bebhidyaiey iHWf^ bebhiditaJ^, ^l^fllKII bebhiditvd.

Intensive verbs Par. form the participle and gerund regularly; ^f%fl
charkarti, ^tf^tm charkrita^, ^%ft7IT charkaritvd.

ft: na^ instead of m talji tn /A� Po^^ Participle.

� 442. Certain verbs take Tf: n^f^ instead of 1R tdijk in the past participle
passive^ provided they do not take the intermediate l( t.

1. Twenty-one verbs of the Kri class, beginning with ^ Id, to cut^ tgHl

Idnai (Dhfitup&tha 31, 13 ; P&n. viii. 2, 44). The most important are,
i{3T: dkdnah^ shaken ; irt^ jtnai, decayed. Some of them come under
the next rule.

2. Twelve verbs of the Div class, beginning with ^sd (Dh&tup&tha 26, ^3—35 ;

Pan. VIII. 2, 45)* The most important are, ^l ddnai^, pained; jftm
difuif^y wasted ; irhir: prinaiky loved.

3. Verbs ending in ^r', which is changed into f[^ir or 'm^dr, Wstft^

wiP^. stirnahy spread ; "^^X itrna^, injured ; i(Ai din^i^, torn ; ifhft:
jlrnaljk^ decayed.

4. Verbs ending m'^d; f^bhid, f^.bhifinal^y broken; f^chhid, fv^t

chhimu^y cut. But 11^ mad, ^W• mattaj^, intoxicated. In ^ mud, to
push, f^ vid, to find, and ^ und, to wet, the substitution is optional
(P&n. VIII. 2, 56) ; gw# nufmafi, or gw: nuttal^.

5. Verbs which native grammarians have marked in the Dh&tup&tha with

E e


an indicatory ^o; ^^bh^i {ti^ bhujOf DMtupfttlia 289 124), to bend,
^7^ bhugnal^.

6. Verbs beginning with a double consonant, one of them being a semivowel,
and ending in ^ <:{, or ^ e, ^ at, ^ 0, changeable to VT <J (Pc^ii* viii. a,
43) 9 ^ ^^^^ W^* gldnajjk^ faded. Except %!( dhyai^ to meditate, vnin
dhydtai^ {Pk^. viii. 2, 57) ; WT khyd^ to proclaim, firnn khydtai. In
^/rat, to protect, i[\ghrd, to smell, the substitution is optional ; ?inn
/r4na^ or WIK /rd/a^J (P&9. viii. a, 56.)

7� Miscellaneous participles in tf: na^ : ^^ p4rnaby only if derived from
^|?dr, and then with an optional form ^[ftin pAriial^ (P&n. vii. 2, 27);
while the participle of ^pfi is said to be ^ pitrta^ (P&n.yiii. 2, 57) ;
1l|hin kshinajjky from ftf ^M�, to waste ; vsft dydnai, from f^ ifit'^ to
play, (not to gamble, where it is ^w: dydtai)*; WW* lagna^y from csv^
&i^, to be in contact with (Pav.vii, 2, 18); also from '^X^^lajy to be
ashamed ^ ^fhn ^Jnai^ and 71TR: iydnafk^ coagulated, but ^pftiH if/a$, cold;
l^hin hrina^ or iftv: hrUah^ ashamed (P&i^. viii. 2, 56).

� 443. Native grammarians enumerate certain words as participles which, though by
their meaning they may take the place of participles, are by their formation to be
elassed as adjectives or substantives rather than as participles. Thus ^TRS pakvd(t, ripe ;
^^littshkafk, dry (P&n.vi. i^ 306); "^[VfilkshdmdhfWe&k; '^f^flkrisdhfihin; U^'\hI prasiimd^,
crowded; Tg^lphulldh, expanded; 'isflm ksMvdh, drunk, &c.

� 444* By adding the possessive suffix "^vat (� 187) to the participles
ia jf ta and �T na, a new participle of very common occurrence is formed,
being in fact a participle perfect active. Thus ^flC. kritdi, done, becomes
^mn^ kfitdvdn^ one who has done, but generally used as a definite verb, n
^ ^nm^ sa kaiam kfitavdn, he has made the mat ; or in the feminine ^
^in?/^ sd kfitavati, and in the neuter in^K^tat kritavat. They are regularly
declined throughout like adjectives in "^vat.

Oerund in ij ya.

^ 445. Compound verbs, but not verbs preceded by the negative particle
W a, take ir ya (without the accent), instead of W\ tvd. Thus, instead of
^fJWtbhdtvdy we find '^St^sambhuya; but wftfiin ajitvd, not having conquered.

� 446. Yerbs ending in a short vowel take m tya instead of ^ ya* ftr ji,
to conquer^ ff(mjitva, having conquered; but f^rf^ra vijitya. '^ bhfi, to
carry, ijm bkritvd; but wspn sambhritya^ having collected. Except ft| ksM,
which forms Tf^lffriprakshtya, having destroyed (P&n. vi. 4, 59).

* Pftn. VIII. 2, 49, allows 1|�T dyHna in all senses of the root 1^ div, except in that of
gambling; see Dh&tupatha 36, i. ^^ dyiina and m(V.�^ paridyHna, pained, come from
a different root, fi^clt9> to pain^ Dhfttup&tha 33, 51.



� 447. Causative bases with short penultimate vowel, keep the causative suffix 1R^ ay
before ITya (P&n. vi. 4, 56) : ^^^^fiX sangamdyati, H^lPn sanffomdyya, having caused to
assemble. Otherwise the causative suffix is, as usual, dropt : n 14.44 fn tdrdyati, THnApratarya,
having caused to advance. ITHnifif prdpdyati forms im prdpya and HHI^ prdpdyya,
having caused to reach (Pft^. vi. 4, 57).

i 448. The verbs called ^ ghu (� 393 *), ^ md, to measure, ^HT Mthd, to stand, TT gd, to
sing or to go, ^|i^, to drink or to protect, fT hd, to leave, ^ to, to finish, take W d, not
^ i (PA^ VI. 4, 6^), 1^ do, to cut, IWJR avaddya ; FIT sthd, U^JM prasthdya. But VJpd,
to driqk, may form hhim prapdya or Vl^f\li prapiya (SAr.).

� 449. Verbs ending in ^ m, which do not admit of intermediate l( i, may or may not
drop their 'Tm. Ex. "^f^nam, to bow, Vflf^ prandmya or Hmnprcu^tyaj V^gam, to go,
WRTV^T dgdmya or VMIM dgdtya. Other verbs ending in nasals, not admitting of intermediate
^t, or belonging to the Tan class, always drop their final nasal. Ex. ^�(Aan, H^nprahdtyaj
HH tan, Hnn pratdtyaf, ^R{^khan and ^^jan form ^Rl hhdnya or WHT khdya, W^jdnya
or ^T^jdya,

� 450. Verbs ending in ^fl change it to i|t ir, and, after labials, into '9(^4r. Ex. 1%iAm
vUiryOj having crossed; V||[l sampdrya, having filled.

� 451. Certain verbs are irregular in not taking SamprasAra^a. Thus % ve, to weave,
forms Hms pravdyaj mjjyd, to fail, fMvlf R vpajydya; ^vye, to cover, mPlpravydya,
but after Vtftpari optionally Vf'fyi^ parivydyn or h?k^\m parimya (PA9. vi. i, 41—44).

� 453. Some verbs change final ^ t and \i into WJ d. Thus ^i mi, ^Hif^ mindti, he
destroys, and fk mi, ftf�ftflT mindti, he throws, form f�RPT nimdya; ^ di, to destroy, T^^HI
vpaddya; ^ li, to melt, optionally t^^X^vildya or f^ti\^t3il%ya (PAn. vi. i, 50-51).



Verbal Adjectives in inq: tavyah (or tavySh), ^V^fhc aniya^, and 1K yafe

(or y5h and yah).

^ 453. These verbal adjectives (called Kritya) correspond in meaning to the
Latin participles in nduSy conveying the idea that the action expressed by the
verbs ought to be done or will be done. ^vS�n kartavyah, in?ir)in karantya^y
^smh kdryaff. %, iaciendus. Ex. ii^^iRT W^: dharmas tvayd kartavyai^ right
is to be done by thee.

t Versus memorialis of these verhs : <ft3ft*fHl ^ftrCg^jniT ffWftf; I W^ ^BTO ftplf

^^♦^ ^ "fg ?^ T^ "

X Another suffix for forming verbal adjectives is liPrW: eUma^, which is, however, of
rare occurrence; Vl^pach, to cook, ^ftWT m^ll packelimd mdshdf^, beans fit to cook;
fn^fcOT; hhidelvnah, brickie, fragile. (P&n. iii. i, 96, vftrt.)

� e 21




� 454. In order to form the adjective in m: tavyal^, take the periphrastic
future, and instead of WT td put mt tavya^.

Thus ^ (2tf, to give
M^ai, to sing
ftf j�, to conquer
^bh4, to be
^ Aft, to do
^jr<, to grow old

flff^ kshvid, to


^f^AfwA, to draw

Jf[nn ddtd
Hftnn hhavitd


^[TmS ddtdvyah ^fHl^ ddnfyah \m dfya^

�iin^t gdtavyah VT^ftm gdaniydh ^Nb ^�ya^

^rfrW^: ^AaWf ooyo^ H^�11^ bkmantyai, H^6Aaoya$

"^iW^: ikar/avya^ 4ilUl^� kara^iya^ WThI kdryaf^

^ fXri <M: jaritavyali WfJthUljarai^iyah W^^jdryalt

kshveditavyafL kshvedaniya^ kshvedyafi

wtf^nn bodhiid ih fM A m hodhitaoya^ ^ ^ hI ^ • bodhaniyah '^ft^mbodkyaft

WVTor'flRT^ ^ii^orllSf^^ ^Q^lfl ^� karsha^yah '^f^kfiskyah*

9 '^ Am cA^ytosqueeze ^(^in kuchitd ^f^A^i; kuchitavyah ^^tO^t ^ucAanlyaA ^piftihtci^a^^

fH^im A, to sprinkle ^?n mc^
Tl^^^ram, to go itiTT ^aii<^

"flF (H^^ to see

ifs^ (^973/, to bite

Cans. HT^ftWipay, to
cause to be

l>eB.^^f!!{bubhdsh, to
wish to be

Int. ^t^^bobMy



'fWX drashfd
^frr damshfd






J|<I*|I gantavyah
7J|[f^ drashtavyc^
^S^* damshfavyafi


'T^vftin mehaniyah ^Ht meAy o^
<i�i�flM� gamaniyafk ^T^mgamyah
^[^fiftm darsaniyafi '^^If! driiyah
^91 vO M: dam^afUyaJlk '^^pCdantfyaf^





















$ 455' I>^ order to form the adjective in ^nfhn aniyab^ it is generally
sufficient to take the root as it appears before ipq: tavyaj^^ omitting, however,
intermediate !^ t, and putting X[^(tm aniyaJ^ instead. Guna-vowels before
^Bn^)in aniyaik have, of course, the semivowel for their final element, and
there can be no occasion for the intermediate ^ t. The V^ ay of the
causative and the 11 ^ after consonants of intensives and other derivative
verbs are, as usual, rejected, '^budh, iftmrfk bodhayati^ ^^^^X bodhani-
yaf^ ; f^ bhidy iH^nn^ bebhidyate, itfk^9(tm bebhidaniyaJ^

� 456* In order to form the adjective in in ya^ {WH^wat^ &c.) it is

^ karshfd or krashtd, ^ karshfavyah or krctshfavyali, ' � 456, 3.

^ Never takes Gu^a (� 345, note), except before terminations which have ^ tI or ^ �.
This termination is ^PT ^lya/.


generally sufficient to take the adjective in mftin aniyah and to cut off W^
ant Thus Wf^ft^X bhav-ani-^faj^ becomes H�|: bhavyai; ^^infhv: chet-ani-yal^,
^trni chetyah; ^ipfhK vay-anUyaJ^, nm veyaj^; ^wtv^Ain bodh-ant-yahy wtui:
bodkyaj^, A few more special rules, however, have here to be mentioned :

1. Final iTT a, ;^ e, ^ ai^ ift Oy become ^ e. ^ dd^ to give, ^ deyaJ^;

fiffai, to sing, himgeyai^. (P4^. in. i, 98; VI.4, 65.)

2. Final ^i and f^t take Gupa, as before wn(\iiantya; f9i Jiy ^Ijeya^, to

be conquered, different from i|vn Jayyctik, conquerable ; ft| kahi^ to
destroy, i|i|: ksheyaf^^ different from '^uc kahayyaik^ destructible (P&9.
VI. I, 81). Final V u and 9 i2, under the same circumstances, are
changed to w^ av, or, after ^R^ avaiya, when a high degree of
necessity is expressed, to w^ dv; H^v: bhavyai^ or VCf^ilMlvi: avaiya^
bhdvyaJ^ ; ft^ ^S^^^*^ ^^^ viprena hichind bhdvyam^ a Br&hman must
be pure. Final T t� if it appears as 'nuv before V?^ aniya^ appears
as ^tf before ^ya; ^igu, to sound, r^jif^i^ guvanlyay ^gUya.

3. Final ^ fi and ^fl before in ydfki hut not before W^rtin aniyai^, take

Yriddhi instead of Guna. wAl kdryai^ ; vAi pdryaJ^, (P6n. in. i,
lao, 124.)

4. Penultimate ^ fi, which takes Gupa before WPffm aniyal^, does not take

Guna before in ya^, with few exceptions ; ^w: vfidhyai, ^^^ dfUyaf^
(Pan. III. I, no). But ^^jf, to do, forms W^ht kalpyah; ^|f^ckf%t, to
kill, ^: chartyai {Pk^. in. i, no) ; tp^t^-t^A, to sprinkle, ^: vrishya^
or ^n4: varshyai^ (P&n. in. i^ 120). Penultimate ^ff becomes ^ Jr;
ifT^ krtt, iA#: ktrtyah*

5. Penultimate ^t and w take 6u9a before in ya^, as before mAin antyai;

f^ vid, ^v: vedyai^ ; ^ it<�A, ^fN: ioshyai.

6. Penultimate iv a, prosodially short, before in yal^, but not before mftin

aniyaJ^y is lengthened, unless the final consonant is a labial (P&p. in.
I, 98; 124); ^has, to laugh, "fmi hdsyai; '^^vah, nm: vdhyal^.
But ^^op, to curse, ^(pilt iapyah; isvf^labh, W^l labhyaJ^, The m a
remains likewise short in ^[R9: iakyai^ from ira iak, to be able ; in
^Hn^aAya/l, from m^ah, to bear (P&n. in. i, 99), and some other verbs*.
^(^khan forms Win kheyah (Pft?. in. i, in), which, however, may be
derived from ^ khai^ to dig ; f^han^ ^vn vadhyal^ or ^QTTV: ffhdtyai.

* P&nini (iii. i, 100) mentions only iW^fl^^i ^ f^ad, ^^char, iWyam, if used without
preposition. The S&rasvatt (in. 7, 7) includes among the S^ak&di verbs, ^1^ iak, W^ sahj
Vi^gad, ^^mad, ^t^char, IWyom, IHi/aiir, l[|^/a�, ^PH^chat, in^^yfl/, Hl^pa/, IP^jcm,


� 457. The following are a few derivatives in m yafi, formed against the general nilea:
^ guhy to hide, may form ^^Iguhyak or WVn: gohyd^ (P&n* m* I9 109, K^ik&); ^W/ufA,
to cherish, ^^iiuAya^; JX^gTaK to take> ^TVI gftkyahy alter Vfll j^rafi and vfw
api; '^vad, to speak, TVt mdyatLt in composition (Pit?, iii. i, 106; 114. TIVtVT
Mm hrahmodyd kathd, a story told hy a Br&hman); ^bM, to he, ^bMiya, in
composition (P&9. iii. i, 107. MH^ TVt brahmabh4yamyatafL,9!myed at Brahmahood);
'^^n^/(E29, to role, f)(r>n ashy all, pupil.

We find 1^ t inserted before ^ yah, in analogy to the gerunds in '^ ya, in the following

verbs :
^ t, to go, ^?n ityafi; ^ stu, to praise, ^m* stutyahj ^[^vrt, to choose, ^TH vfityah;
^ dfi, to regard, ^^ djityahj 1} 6Af-i, to bear, l|W: bhrityaftj ^ kri, to do, ^fVR
krityaft. But many of these forms are only used in certain senses, and must not be
considered as supplanting the regular verbal adjectives. Thus ^JVI guhydfi and
Wt^ gohyafi, both occur; ^H. duhyaft and ?(l!fn dohyaft, &c.

� 458* Verbs ending in ^ cA or ^ j change their final consonant into V ib or >? ^ if the
following ^ ya {i^yat) requires the lengthening of the vowel. Vi^pach^ ^^ pdkyamj ^11
bhuj, to enjoy, hM bhogyam, but ^Jtilf bhqjyam, what is to be eaten (Pft^. vii. 3, 69),

There are, however, several exceptions. Verbs beginning with a guttural do not admit
the substitution of gutturals. Likewise the following verbs : V{^yaj, VlP^^ydeh, ^^ruch,
W^ pracaeh, ^l^n'cA, W^tyaj, Y^P^J^ f^^i> Jt^^vraj9 'ii^^vaflch (to go). Thus
W^^^yH^yam, ^^^ydchyoMy ^^nrochyam, Um^pra9dchyam,W^arehyatn, mtn ty^jyam,
^^p^'yam (P)�kriylL�Kaumadt, p. 55 b),

If^nitive in ^ turn.

� 459. Hie infiDitive is formed by adding 4 turn, which hsB no accent.
The base has the same form as before the WT ta of the periphrastic fixture^ or
before the imn idvyai of the verbal adjective. ^ budhf ^tfi^ bifdhitum.
(See � 454.) Ex. ^ni ^ mrfv kfUhistam drashfuin vrafati, he goes to see
Kriahpa; )jt^ ^iTcR bhoktum kdla^, it is time to eat

Verbal Adverb,

� 460. By means of the unaccentuated sub�x if am^ which, as a general
rule, is added to that form which the verb assumes before the passive ^ i
(3rd pers. sing. aor. pass., ^ 403), a verbal adverb is formed. From ^ bhiff,
to eat, (jhi bkdjam ; firom ^ pd^ to drink, vm payam. Ex. n^ )dir inrAr
agre bhojam vrajati, having first eaten, he goes. This verbal adverb is most
. j^quently used twice over. Ex. h^ ijtif inrf^ bhdfam bhojam vrajati, having
eaten and eaten, he goes (Pa^, iii. 4, 22). It is likewise used at the end of
compounds; IhNnt ^t;au2AaAA:(2ram, having divided ; 9€;4ill uchchaij^kdram,

-� 4^2. CAUSATIVE VERBS. 215



^ 461. Simple roots are changed into causal bases by Guna or Yriddhi
of their radical vowel, and by the addition of a final l^ t. The root is then
treated as following the Bh4 class, so that j^i appears in the special tenses as
mn ay a. Thus ^bhil becomes KTfll bhdvi and Hmflr bhdvdyath he causes to
be ; iji^ budh becomes wtfW bodhi and ^fhfivflr bodhdyati, he causes to know.
The accent is on the d of dya.

� 462. The rales according to which the vowel takes either Guna or Vjiddhi are as
follows :

1. Final ^t and ^1, V� and 9tf, ^ p and ^ff take Vriddhi.
Thus f^ 9fni, to laugh, WPHthf smdyayatif he makes laugh.

f|ft ni, to lead, niH^rn ndyayati, he causes to lead.
TXplu, to swim, H I ^ l| fff pldvayaii, he makes swim.
^6M, to be, HT^nrfir bhdvayatiy he causes to be.
^ kfi, to make, WTt^Vflf kdrayati, he causes to make.
V kfi, to scatter, lIK^lOl kdrayati^ he causes to scatter.

2. Medial ^i, V�, ^fif'^li, followed by a single consonant, take Qu^a; ^ri becomes

Thus f^ffid, to know, Mf^^dt vedayati, he makes know.

W^6im2A, to know, WtV^OfiT bodhayati, he makes know.
^11 Ap/, to cut, linllOl kartayati, he causes to cut.
f(kfip, to be able, 4<!M4f)l kalpayati^ he renders fit.

3. Medial V a followed bj a single consonant is lengthened, but there are many exceptions.

^ sad, to sit, ^i^^iPn sddayati, he sets.
V\pat, to M, ^nnAf pdtayaH, he fells.

Exceptions :
I. Most verbs ending in W^om do not lengthen their vowel :
f^^ram, to go, ^•t^fn ffomayatij he makes go.
W^kram, to stride, TPHVflf kramayati, he causes to stride.

Verbs in IPl^am which do lengthen the vowel are,
V^itom, to desire, Wt^mi kdmayate, he desires; Cans. WV^fif Mnoya/t, he makes

^PVam, to move, WlPdl amati, he moves ; Cans. HW^lPil dmayati, he makes move.
"^cAom, to eat, ^^mflf ehamatiy he eats ; Cans. ^IH^Ol chdmayaU, he makes eat.
I|n/aiii, if it means to see, IHMlHl ddmyoH, he sees ; Cans. l^W^Al ddmayoH, he shows ;

but ^nnifViamayafi, he quiets.
'^yam, unless it means to eat, '^^ifiKyaehchhati; Caus. MmH^n ydmayati, he extends;

but ll'Rifif yamayati, he feeds.




V{^nam, to bend, optionally lengthens its vowel if it is used without a preposition;

nmHPn ndmayati or nnMOi namayati, he bends. If preceded hj a preposition, the

vowel always ought to remain short (Dh. P. 19, 67).
^^vam, to vomit, optionally lengthens its vowel if it is used without a preposition;

mnnin vdmayaH or i^i^ifli vamayatiy he makes vomit. If preceded by a preposition,

the vowel always ought to remain short (Dh. P. 19, 67) *�
II. A class of verbs collected by native grammarians, and beginning with ^ gha^ (Dh. P.

19, i), do not lengthen their vowel. The same verbs may optionally retain their short

vowel in the 3rd pers. sing, aorist of the causative passive (� 405)* The following list

contains the more important among these verbs ;


1. ^^gha(f to strive

2. ^n|[ vyathy to fear

3. TC^prath, to be famous

4. ^ mrad, to rub

5. W{hrap, to pity

3rd Pers. Sing. Pres. Pfer. 3rd Pers. Sing. Aor. Passive.

xrnriw ghatayati
'nnrfir vyatkayatt
inwflf prathayati
^^^rfll mradayati
HWrfH krapayati
r^nrftl tvarayati

6. iW^ tvati to hurry

7. W^i^ar, to bum with fever WOrfll jvarayati

8. vl? nof, to dance �17^rfif nafayati

9. in^iiraM, tokill
10. ^Plf^van, to act t
zi. Wc^y^a/, to shine t
13. ^ wiri, to regret

^ITRfir haikayaH
H^nMfif pravanayati
Hiicl^UI prajvaktyati
vi^mIii smarayati

13. ^ dri, to respect, (not to tear) ^X?lfTf darayati

14. W M, to boil Wnrfk hapayati

15. ^jMy to slay, to please, to %^hh^ jliapayati

sharpen (?), to perceive

16. ^IH chal, to tremble "^coHfn chalayati

1 7. IV^ mad, to rejoice, &c. Hq^fh madayati
18. 19^ dAran, to sound, to ring SIpnTfll dhvanayaii

19. |[c^ dalf to cut

30. ^TT^ valy to cover

31. Wft^skhal, to drop

33. W^trap, to be ashamed
33. ^ kshai, to wane

W^ft or WUrfir aghafi
tH'^lftr or H'Mlftl ttvyatki
VII P(| or Vnrftf aprathi
HVf^ or VWf^ amradi
Wnf^ or Vnrftl aibr^M
Wfft or in^rft a/rart
V^iVft or m^lf^ o/vori
Wiff? or W�nf7 anafi
W^fftl or IWnftl aprathi
inwftr or HPnftf pr^om
Hl'Ufci or UmittA pr^^vaU
UWftlor Umifi oMfiart
V^IV or "viqitV. aclart
tnjft? or WIlfM ah-api
Vffff^ or V^jJlPM tnjfiapi

W^ffty or H^llVft acAa/t
Wffif or VHlD^ amitft
mC|f�T or VS^rfH adhvemi
W^f^ or V^rf^ adaU
"w^fco or V^lPcft flci/t

^fft'^Ol dalayati (optional)

�ico*ifil valayati (optional)

HMfi^Ql skhalayati (optional) VWfcV or Vlill(c4 askhaU

^IMMPh trapayati V?lft or ^c^iPh aM/�

"Bpnifll kshapayati V^ftl or W^tft? akalupi

* Dhfttupfttha 19, 67. HW 3|W 1R5 "iWf V�}M4l'll8l (fNl^)
^4P<iM4(l||l|inV^III UUKmyiUl). It seems indeed that the verbs without prepositions
only, are optionally nUt (i.e. short-voweled), while with prepositions they are mil, and
nothing else. See, however, Colebrooke, Sanskrit Grammar, p. 317, note.

t Without a preposition, and optionally with a preposition. See note '*'.


24. 'fFf^jan (Div), nasci W^r^janayati ^niftf otW^tfH ajini

^5* \JJi (P^^)> *o ff^^ old m?fflljarttyati 'Wift Of ^WltVflrfori

26. tl^roiiy (Bh^),to hunt, to dye* TSPlfil orX^ rajayati or ratija- WCftf or WOf^araji

^7' JP y^t or flfflai, to fiide J^'lflf or JJ^Rft g^ayati '■JjIV or ^•JfTPj ojrKipt

a8. HT �i4 1, to waah imfll or WnPlfll sruqfoyati ^Wlftl or HHlfVl (UN^pi

39. ^ rant, to cherish ^^Hlfll or ^M^PlI vanayati ^nf^ or Wnftf avani

30. in^pAof^, to go 'QRRfilor MIIQ 4 ni(?)pAa(iaya<f WiAf or V mRu c^MOfi

Note — Some of these yerhs are to be considered as mt7, i. e. as having a short vowel in
the causative, if employed in the sense given above; while if they occur again in other
sections of the DhAtup&t^^a and with different meanings^ they may be conjugated likewise as
ordinary verbs.

� 463. Some verbs form their causative base anomalously :

I. Nearly all verbs ending inwjd^ and most ending in ^e, ^ai, ^o, change-

able to ^mdf insert \p before the causal termination, (Pftn. vii. 3^ 36.)
Thus ^ddj to ffye, ^^rfk daddti, he gives ; ^nPlflr ddpayati^ he causes
to give.
'^ de^ to pity, ^1^ day ate ^ he pities ; ^HRflr ddpayati, he causes pity.
?^ do, to cut^ ^rfir ddti or vfir dyaii, he cuts ; ^nPlflr ddpayati, he

causes cutting.
^ dai, to purify^ ^J^hf ddyati, he purifies ; ^T^irftr ddpayatiy he causes
to purify.

II. Other irregular causatives are given in the following list. Their irregu-

larity consists chiefly in taking \p with Qnr^B, or Vriddhi of the radical
vowel ; sometimes in lengthening the vowel instead of raising it to Gu^a ;
and firequently in substituting a new base.

1. I( �9 to go, in ^r^ adhlte, he reads ; Cans, mimnvflr adhydpayati, he

teaches {. {Fin. vi. i, 48.)

2. '^tiyU>go,'^^imfkrichchhati; Cans. v^^aTT^firya/t^he places. (P&9,vii.3y36.)

3. jf^{knily,iow)\mdyjgf}fi(knilndti; Caus.iJt^^Avu^paya/tyhecausestosound.

4. nft kri, to buy, nftarflr krif^i; Cans. jfVP^ krdpayati, he causes to buy.
5* ^rr^ kshmdyy to tremble, T^rniT^ k^hmdyate ; Caus. ^gn^nflf kshmdpayati,

he causes to tremble. (P&n. vii. 3, 36.)

* If the causative means to hunt, the �^ � is rejected; ill ^ Hi ^TTv^ rajayati ffifigdn,
he hunts deer; iirnfir ^^l(Vl rafijayoH vastrdi^i, he dies clothes. We may also form
trtftf flrait/t, but W?:tftf ardHJi is wrong, Wlil^'^M^MIHl^tl ^^lllll): (iH� %> i� ^|).

t With a preposition, but optionally without a preposition. The usage of the best
writers varies, and Indian grammarians vary in their interpretation of Dhlltup&tha 19, 67-68.
See note (on preceding page).

X wa + ^prati-^ifto approach, forms its causal regularly when it means to make a person
understand, HrnHH^prcOydyayati, Otherwise the causative of l(t is formed from l^^^am.



6, f^ chif to collecty finfrfk chinoti; Caus. ^vninfir cAdpayati, or regularly

ifT^^Tfir chdyayati, he causes to collect. (Pin. vi. i, 54.)
7. 1^ chho, to cut, 'Wthf chhyati ; Caus. KPRfk chhdyayaii^ he causes to cut*
8. W^jdgri^ to be awake, HfUtf^jdgarti; Caus. mtlK^i'iijdffarayati^ he rouses.
9- f^Jiy to conquer, "Wffi^jayati; Caus. ^^T^^jdpayatiy he causes to conquer*

10. (^fic^T daridrd, to be poor, ^frjrfir daridrdti ; Caus. ^flcjf'rfiC daridrayatiy

he makes poor.

11. ^M^irfA^, to shine, ^hfll^€?�{/AI/�; Caus.?fh|iTfff^t^Aaya/t,he causes to shine.
17,. ^lH^dttsh^ to sin, ^v|f^ dushyati ; Caus. {[V^fir ddshayati, he causes to sin ;

also ^hnrftr doahayati, he demoralizes. (PUn. vi. 4, 91.)

13. \dhHy to shake, >{�ftfv dhdnoii; Caus. ^�Hfif dMnayati, he causes to shake.

14. ^j9<!^, to drink, frwflK pibati ; Cbms. Jippifff pdyayatiy he causes to drink;

also %pai, VX^ pdyatiy to be dry.

15. v^ pdy to protect, V[\f^ pdti; Caus. 'qicV^fv jt^d/aya^i, he protects.

16. ittpri, to love, ifhonfw/Tr J(id^2 ; Caus. lAnRftr/TrJnaya/f, he delights.

17. vr^Mrajt;, to roast, ipffv bhrijjati; Caus. WRfw bhrqjjayati, he makes

roast, or Hllilfir bharjjayatiy from vp^ dAry.

18. )A Mf, to fear, f^iHfir bibheti; Caus. tvnnn^ bhdpayate or Whnii^ bhtshaytUe^

he frightens; also regularly ^THRflf bhdyayatu (Pan. vi. i, 56.)

19. fir miy to throw, finftfir minotiy and lift mf, to destroy, rHHlHl mindtiy form

their Caus. like HT md.
aa T!t rf, to flow, or to go, iflini riyate; Caus.\iniffT repayati, he makes flow,
ai. ^ ruhy to grow, O^fd rohati; Caus. ^firfir rohayati, t^Rfir ropayati^

he causes to grow, (P&n. vii. 3, 43.)

22. r^/^, to adhere, fc!nnf)r/ini/t and c^tir?^%a/e; Cau8.cA^fi|fiT/fmiya/t,c9nRflI

Idpayatij and cVHRfir Idyayati; and, if the root takes the form cST /^, also
cAlceiiffl ldlayati{J?&x)..v\i. 3,39). The meaning varies; seePan.vi.i,48;5i.

23. ^t'^i, to blow, ^rfirt^d/i; Caus. ^T�nrfk va/aya^i, if it means he shakes.

24. ^ vf, to obtain, ^fk ve^t ; Caus. ^qirfw vdpayati or ^T^nvfir vdyayaii, if it

means to make conceive. (P&n. vi. i, 55.)

25. ^ve, to weave, '^f^fnvayati; Caus. ^nnrfwvdyaya/i, he causes to wea^e.

26. ^wiveviy to conceive, ^^fft vevtie; Caus. ^^iffir vevayati.

27. 'ft rye, to cover, iqirflwyaya/i; Caus. ^Pitimhfvydyayatiy he causes to cover.

28. ^ r/^, to choose, f^pirfH v/ind/i; Caus. ^^nvfir vlepayati, he causes to choose.

29. ^ Jorf, to fiJl, ^{fhnr iiyate; Caus. ^rnnrAl idtayati, he fells ; but not, if

it means to move. (P&n. vii. 3, 42.)

30. ^io, to sharpen, 'pififiyati; Caus. ^rnrafir jdyaya/t, he causes to sharpen.

31. few sidh, to succeed, f^rvrfw sidhyati; Caus. ?nv^rfir addhayaiiy he performs ;

but ^Virflf sedhayaii, he performs sacred acts.

32. Bt sOy to destroy, ^qfir ^a/i ; Caus. ^nnriii sdyayati, he causes to destroy.

^�4^6. CAUSATIVE VBHBS. 219.

33'^^9phur, to sparkle^ ^^fdif sphurati ; Caus. fiWiiiPA sphdrayati and
^CM(ii aphorayati, he makes sparkle.

34. ^^Bif^spMyt to grow, cqnv aphayate; Caus. micfiiPff sphdvayatif he causes

to grow.

35. f^smi, to smile, w^smayate; Caus. 9inni^ smdpayate, he astonishes;

also wuniht atndyayatiy he causes a smile by something. (P&n.vi. i, 57.)

36. ^ hriy to be ashamed, ftf^ Jihreti ; Caus. ^vmfH hrepayati, he makes

ashamed. (P&i;i� vii. 3, 36.)

37. % hvBy to call, spirfk hvayati; Caus. SfPHTflr hvdyayatiy he causes to call.

38. ^Aan, to kiU, fflKhanti; Caus. ^nnyflr^Ad/aya/i, he causes to kill.

� 464. As causative verbs are conjugated exactly like verbs of the Chur
class, there is no necessity for giving here a complete paradigm. Like Chur
verbs they retain v^^ ay throughout, except in the reduplicated aorist and
the benedictive Parasmaipada ; and they form the perfect periphrastically.
The only difficulty in causative verbs is the formation of their bases, and the
formation of the aorist. Thus ^ Aft, as causative^ forma Pres. Par. and Atm.
HKirfir, ^, kdrayati, -te; Impf. ^trsnXTn^, �W, akdrayaty -ta; Opt. ^vn^, %
kdrayet, -ta ; Imp. 4iKi(^, �ilt, kdrayatu, -idm ; Red. Perf. WPTvN^iTCy ^^^,
kdraydnchakdray -chakre ($ 34:^) ; Aor. W^lWi.!^, �W> achikarat, -ta ; Fut
^Kni^uOl, �T^, kdrayUhyati, -te; Cond. WBnxAnm^, % akdrayishyat, -ia;
Per.Fut.WTTf'mkdrayiid; Ben. wAl^kdrydt ; <�l J^Hl f kdrayishUhfa.

^ 465. If a causative verb has to be used in the passive, ^TQ ay is dropt (^ 399)9
but the root remains the same as it would have been with ^P^ay . Hence Pres.
iiT$i^ kdryatey he is made to do ; ^xq^ ropy ate, from ^ ruh, he is made to
grow. The imperfect, optative, and imperative are formed regularly. The
per&ct is periphrastic with the auxiliary verbs in the Atmanepada.

^ 466. In the general tenses, however, where the ^ ya of the passive
disappears (^ 401), the causative iffi^ ay may or may not reappear, and we
thus get two forms throughout (see Colebrooke, p. 198, note):

Fut. ^T^f^n^ bhdvayishye or HffW bhdviskye.
Cond. ^(^i([^!hA abhdvayishye or ^i^iv^ff^abhdvishye*
Per. Fut. ^ImDiiIIC bhdvayitdhe or HT^nn^ bhdviidAe.
Ben. HN(^4)M bhdvayishiya or HlfVmli^ bhdvishiya.
First Aor. 1. 1. p* wrrsifirf^ abhdvayishi or ^mrf^lfil abhavishi.

2. p. ^nrrd^rvr: abhdvayishfhdi^ or ^raif^: abhdvishfhd^.
3* p. ^nnff abhdvu

F fa




� 467. Deslderative bases are formed by reduplication, the pecidiarities
of which will have to be treated separately, and by adding ^� to the root.
Thus firom ^bM^ to be, '^gff^liibhilsh, to wish to be. Hie accent is on the
reduplicative syllable.

j 468. These new bases are conjugated like Tud roots. 'J^[]m1^ bubhd^
$hamiy "J^ITlftl btsbhUshasi, ^[^wfir bubhUshatiy '^iJPm buAhdshdvaiy &c.

j 469. The roots which take the intermediate ^ i have been given before
($ 33i> 340), as well as those which take intermediate %i. Thus firom fti^vuf,
to know, fq Pi n^ 1^ vividishy to wish to know; from Ittri, to cross, fwKfK^titarish
or finrd^^titartshy to wish to cross.

� 470. As a general rule, though liable to exceptions, it may be stated that bases ending
in one consonant may be strengthened by Gupa, if they take the intermediate ^ t. Thus
^diiJA forms yftf^^fil bubodhishatij f^div, Rj^ftHPlI dideviskati: also W kri, f^wft^lfil
chikarishaH: "^dfi, fij^fblfk didarishati. But f^^ bhid, Des. f^riWnrfir bibhitsati (P&9. i.
^f ^o)i ^ 9^^f ^S^^' jughukshati (Pftii.vii. 3, 13). In fttct, no Gupa without inter-
mediate ^t.

� 471. But there are important exceptions. In many cases the base of the desiderative
is neither strengthened nor weakened ; ^ rod, ^^r^^fn rurudiskati. Other bases may
be strengthened optionally; ^^dyui, (^^Pimn didyutiskate or f^vHlT^ didyotiskaie.
Certain bases which do not take intermediate l(t are actually weakened ; ^n(,wap, ^jmOi

I. Verbs which do not take Gu^a, though they have intermediate ^ t.
^riMi, to cry, ^5^fijwfll rurudiskatij "fll^ wrf, to know, flfftlflj^fil vwidiskaiij ^JW mu$ky
to steal, If^nmril mumuskiskati, (Plii^. i. 2, 8.)

3. Verbs which may or may not take Guna, though they have intermediate ^ t.
Verbs beginning with consonants, and ending in any single consonant, except ^y or ^ v,
and having ^ t or T ti for their vowel. (Plk^. i. 2, 26,)

^H^dyut, n^^Pn^n didyutiskate or l^flJtflRn didyotiskate.
But fl^ div, f^l^Oliini dideviskati or, without ^ t, Jt^Ol dudyiUkati (P^^. vii. 3, 49) ;
^�fit, f^^fnin vivartiskate or ftpjwfif vtOfitstUi,

3. Verbs ending in ^t or Tfu, not taking intermediate ^ t, lengthen their vowel; final ^p
and ^fl become ^^r, and, after labials, ^IR l2r. (Pk^, vi. 4, 16.)
ft|j�, to conquer, ftpft^ftf ii^rfeAort,' ^ yu, to mix, ^^jrfll yuyiiskati.
TJ ifcfi, to do, f^RMfil ckikirskatij ^ ^, to cross, finrWll titirskati,
i| mp, to die, •I'j^ffl mum^rskatij ^pri, to fill, ^^(ffi pup4rskati.
If, however, they take intermediate ^ t, they likewise take Gui;ia.
ftff smi, to smile, ftimftlMfl sismayiskatej ^|H^, to purify, ftnPWW pipaviskate; 'I ^rt to
swallow, Oil 'I di^ Ol jigariskati ; ^cfp, to respect, Q{^(V.Hfl didariskate.



4. ^gam, to go, as a substitute for ^t, to go, and V^han, to kUl, lengthen their vowel

before the ^� of the desideratiye. (PA9. vi. 4, 16.)

nf[ffam, ^M^*i\n^ aihijigdmsate, he wishes to read; but ft l ilftnO l jigamtMhaH, he
wishes to go.

^Aan, fkl I1I4I Hi jighdmsatiy he wishes to kill.

5. K^ tan, to stretch, lengthens its yowel optionally. (Pip. v. 4, 17.)

K^ tan, rnnttiPn titdihsati or fMlrfir titam$atij but also ftnrfVnflr titanishati. (Pk^.
VII. 3, 49, vArt.)

6. JR^san, to obtain, drops its ^^n and lengthens the vowel before the \s of the desiderative.

(Pin. VI. 4, 43.)

^*(i�, f^m^ifttsishdsatij but ftrafHlff manwAa/t.

7- V%ffrah, to take, l^.'^^'P, to sleep, and in| p-acAA, to ask, shorten their bases by
Samprasftra^a. (Pin. i. 2, 8.)

V^ grah, fU ^ m Qi jighfikshati. JST^nap, If^rf^T muhmptati.

^{prachh, ni^r^Hfi piprichchhishaH.

8. The following verbs shorten their vowel to\i before the ^s of the desiderative, inscri

l{^t (Pin. VII. 4, 54), and reject the reduplication.

•ft mi (^HSnnUndti, to destroy, and flnfrfk mtno/t, to throw), Des. f^fWfH mitsati.
>IT md (iflfw mdti, to measure^ (Wik mimite, to measure, IPI^ mayate, to change), Des.
nnvflf mitsati, fHWw mitsate,

^ dd {^^ daddti, to give, cI^Jl, Dh. P. 35, 9, <2<f^, Dh. P. 33, 33 ; irfTT dgati, to cut,
ifo, Dh. P. 36, 39 ; but not ^Tflf cWft, to cut, i2^, Dh. P. 34, 51, because it is not ghu,
cf� � 392; ^'^ day ate, to pity, <fc�, Dh. P. 33, 66\ Des. fipirflrdf^Mlt, fljTVi^ dilMle.

VT dAi/ (^pnfw dadhdti, to place, Mlrflr dAaya<�, to drink), Des. fWnrfir ifAt/solt.

9. Other desideratives formed without reduplication :
X^rabh, to begin (V^rabhate), Des. r<.md ripsate,
W^labh, to take (I^Wff /a5^/e), Des. fl^HIA lipsate.

^1^ /oA;, to be able (^lltOlia^o^t, Id'WVfir /a^a/t), Des. f^Ufflr ^'ib�Aa/t.

^^pat, to fall (^l?ilflrpfltah), Des. ftmrfk/yi^satt.

^|ia(f, to go (^Umpodyate), Des. f'iKWk pitsate,

^■F^^, to obtain iyfvitht dpnoti), Des. f[^erf)r l|p�ah'.

IT^ j^flji, to command (yf^'Bfyt j^payati), Des. IjINrfkyillpsa/t.

^I^^fidtft, to grow (^iftfk fidhnoti), Des. ^I#f)r lr^�ah'.

I^e2am6ft, to deceive {^fitf^dabhnoti), Des. W^^rfktfMpMft or 6mrf)f JAtpMh'.

^^^nmch, to free (^^fif mttfEcAa/�)> ^^' ^'VV^^ moibsAa/e or ^p|^(W miiiii�Jb�Aa/tf , he wishes
for spiritual freedom.

TT^r^A, to finish (m^hPii rddhyati), Des. H Hi (VlV Hi prati-ritsati, in the sense of injuring

(Pii?. VII. 4, 54, virt.), otherwise ftjJwHt rirdtsaii (not (XlXjUni riritsati).

� 473. Certain verbs which are commonly considered to belong to the Bhti dass are
really desiderative bases.

ni^Ari^, r^h�Rin chikitsate^ he cures. ^^ gtg^y ^J|Hlfl Jugvpsate, he despises.
tV^/y, flffir^^ tUikshate, he bears. TR^ mdn, Hlnt^fl mimdmsate, he investigates.


W^ badh, ^Hmd hibhatsate, he loathes. ^^^ ddn^ ^^�ik diddmsate, he straightenB.
^rr�(i!^, ^1^1 (<in Hidmsate, he sharpens.

Reduplication in Desideratives.
� 473. Besides the general rules of reduplication given in � 302-'3i9*^
the following special rules with regard to the vowel of the reduplicative
syllable are to be observed in forming the desiderative base :

Radical m a and irT a are represented by ^ � in the reduplicative syllable
(Pan. VII. 4, 79).

^^pach, HmUfOl pipakshati ; Tmsthd^ OlVKinr tishthdsati,

� 474. ^R^ov and ^Vr^<^> standing as Gui^a or Vfiddhi of radical Tu or Hi 4, are
represented by ^ t in the reduplicative syllable, provided they be preceded by \py ^ph,
\b, ^^bh, \fn, \y, ^r, T^Z, ^u, ^j (Pftn. vii. 4, 80).

^ptf, ftlM 1 4 Hv M Pa pipdvayishati, (Red. Aor. V m1 M^ 4^ apipavat) See � 375.
^bkH, f^Hl^rwPd bibhdvayishatiy (Red. Aor. ^VWf^^^^iH^abibhavat.)
^ yu, f^HiHnfn yiyavishati, and Cans. Desid. ffpmf^mfif yiydvayishoH.
^jv, f^ l| I ^ n^ H Of jijdvayishati, (Red. Aor. V^l! 1| M (^ ajijavat.)
But ^ flitt, �}�i I ^ (^ H Pit nundvayishati, (Red. Aor. V �|H^ 11 on^naro/.) See � 375 1*
� 475. Roots ^snc, to flow, ^^f to hear, Ve^ru, to run, ^pru, to approach, ^pluy to
swim, ^ cAy�, to fall, may under similar circumstances optionally take ^ t or 7 � in the
reduplicative syUable.

^sru, P^I^IMP^hPhi sisrdvayishati or ^ti m P^ N Ph susrdDayishati j but the simple desidera-
tive ^^^[5^ susrHshati only.
Wir^ndpay, the Cans, of W^^svttp, forms ^l^vniftniflf sushv^ayishaH,

j 476. Roots beginning with a vowel have a peculiar kind of internal
reduplication^ to which allusion was made in � 378. Thus (P4]Ql. vi. i, 2)
im ai forms iri^9l + ^^ oHi + ishati.
W^ of forms wft^ + ^^ a^f ^ + ishati,
WS{^ aksh forms wf^ra^+ ^^ achiksk + ishati.
^v ttcAcAA forms vf^R^ + ^^ uchichchh + ishati.

� 477. If the root ends in a double consonant, the first letter of which is �^f�, ^<i, or ^r�
then the second letter is reduplicated.

H^arcA, ^Hfiftwft arehich'ishati. ^ und, ^R^P^HPfl undtd-ishati,

"^^ubjy Trf^fftf^fil ubjij -ishati.
In ^^lr�Ay the last consonant is reduphcated.

t]i^l'r�Ay, ^f^OmPlI irshyiy-ishati or ^PftPMMPd irshyish-iskati, (P&9. vi. i, 3, v&rt.)
In the verbs beginning with Wf^f^ kai^yati (� 498) the final ^^ is reduplicated.

ikf^kan^Oy, ^fpHftlMPjl ka^yiy -ishati.

* Exceptional reduplication occurs in (^^HhPa chikishati, besides fVnA^ill chicMshati,
from f"f chi (P&n. vii. 3, 58) ; in (^^H^i jighishati from f^ At (PA?, vii. 3, 56), &c.

^� 481. INTENSIYB VERBS. 223



j 478. Intensive^ or, as they are sometimes called, frequentative bases
are meant to convey an intenseness or frequent repetition of the action
expressed by the simple verb. Simple verbs, expressive of motion, some-
times receive the idea of tortuous motion, if used as intensives. Some
intensive bases convey the idea of reproach or disgrace, &c.

� 479. Only bases beginning with a consonant, and consisting of one
syllable, are liable to be turned into intensive bases. Verbs of the Chur
class cannot be changed into intensive verbs. There are, however, some
exceptions. Thus w^ afy to go, though beginning with a vowel, forms
^VTTBjp) afdtyate, he wanders about ; WS{^ aiy to eat, Vljll^il) aidiyate ; ^ fi,
to go, W^T^ ardryate and mjF9 ararti (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 2 1 6) ; ^s^ Urnu^
to cover, wift|4|) ilrnowdyate (P&v. iii. i, 2%).

J 480. There are two ways of forming intensive verbs :
I. By a peculiar reduplication and adding ^ yd at the end. This yd has

the accent.
a,. By the same peculiar reduplication without any modification in the final
portion of the base. The latter form occurs less frequently. It has
the accent on the reduplicative syllable.
Bases formed in the former way admit of Atmanepada only.

Ex. ^IMy Wt^in^ bobhUydte.
Bases formed in the latter way admit of Parasmaipada only, though^ according
to some grammarians, the Atmanepada also may be formed.
Ex. ^iAt2, �itHifiril bdbhaviti or wt^ltfk bdbhotu
The Atmanepada would be wt^ bobhUte,

Roots ending in vowels retain the ir ya of the intensive base in the general

tenses ; roots ending in consonants drop it. Hence ^t^f^nn bobk&yitdy

but fTt^f^ill sostichitd* (P&;)i. vi. 4, 49.)

j 481. When J^ya is added, the effect on the base is generally the same

as in the passive and benedictive Par. (^ 389)- Thus final vowels are

lengthened: ff chi, to gather, ^NN^ chechiyaie; ^ im, to hear, l(fh{ini

ioirUyate. irT (i is changed to ^ T- VT dhd, to place, ^^hlir dedhlyate. "^ r'

becomes ^<r, or, afler labials, '9xAr: \tri, to cross, iCfdi^tetlryate; ^/>r*,

to fill, ^ft^[^ popHryate. Final ^ r�, however, when following a simple

consonant, is changed to tS r?, not to ft: ri ; ^ kriy to do, ^nifhni chekriyate.

When following a double consonant it is changed to V^ar: T^smifij to


remember, ^9r9T4lt sdsmaryaie* These intensive bases are conjugated like
bases of the Div class in the Atmanepada. It should be observed, however,
that in the general tenses roots ending in vowels retain ^ y before the
intermediate ^ �, while roots ending in consonants throw off the ^ ya of
the special tenses altogether. Thus from ^lA^ bobkdya^ wt^jfviCT bobki-y-Ud ;
from ^fWv bebhidya, ^(Nfl;�i bebhiditd,

� 482. When ^ ya is not added, the intensive bases are treated like bases
of the Hu class. The rules of reduplication are the same. Observe, however,
that verbs with final or penultimate ^ ri have peculiar fonns of their own
(� 489^ 490)9 and verbs in ^f*f start from a base in ^it ar, and therefore have
^md in the reduplicative syllable. Iftri, if^tar, WTvA tdtamd; 3rd pers. plur.
ViOhJOi tdtiraiL

� 483. According to the rules of the Hu dass, the weak terminations require
Guna {� 297). Hence from ^P^bobudhy ^ft^itf^ bobodhmi; but ^ftjvn b(H
budhmdf^. From ^t^ bobkd^ iJWH^ bobhomi, ^ipif^fts^ bobhav&m ; but ifl^?i:
bobhdmah* Remark, however, that in f • %. 3. p. sing. Pres., 2. 3* p. sing.
Impf., 3. p. sing. Imp. ^ t may be optionally inserted :

wH^fbr bobodhmi or W^^[4H^ bobudhimi; lA^AAf bobhonU or ^A^^t^ bobhavimL
And remark fiirther, that before this intermediate ^ <, and likewise before
weak terminations beginning with a vowel, intensive bases ending in con-
sonanter do not take Guna (Pft^. vii. 3, 87). Hence ift|pAftr bobudhimi,
^ JMiPh bobudhdnif wit^ abobtulham. From t^vid^

PmssBMT. Impbrfbct. Impbkatiyb.

^inw or ^n^nfmi vini^ ttm^iin

vevedmi or vevidinU avevidam veviddni

NmOu or ^ftn^tftt w^^ or 'V^fVi^: ^ftr%

vevetri or vevidtshi avevet or avevidik veviddhi

449fi or ^ftn^Jflr iwT^ or v^Piefli^ ^^ or ^ftn^

vevetii or vevidiU avevet or avevidit vevettu or veviditu

^fty: vevidvai^y &c. H^flV avevidva ^f^l^ veviddva

Rules 0/ Beduplication/or Iniensives.
� 484. The simplest way to form the peculiar reduplication of intensives, is
to take the base used in the general tenses, to change it into a passive base
by adding ir ya, then to reduplicate, according to the general rules of redupli-
cation, and lastly, to raise, where possible, the vowel of the reduplicative
syllable by Guna (P&n. vii. 4, 8a), and iv a to in i (Pft^i. vii. 4, 83).
f^ chif to gather, iftn chtya, ^^4hn^ chechtyaie; ^^flr chechetu
^Arui, to abuse, '^p^kruiya^ ^ft^^ chokruiyate ; "^ftlbf^ chokrosAfi.
W^ trauk, to approach, iffim trdukya, ft^tmk totraukyate ; lh?fH^ totraukH.



\w rei, to suspect, "^ rekya^ '^mk rerekyate ; ^fti rerekii.

^ kriy to do, ftm kriya, ^nfNl^ chekrlyate (Pin. vii, 4, ^7); ^rirfS charkarH.

^ A:r^, to scatter, iA^ Mrya, "^lA^ll chekiryate ; ^nnfll chdkarH. (� 482.)

^/^, to fill, "^pHryay ^^t^ln popHryate ; ^mf^pdpariu

19^ smri, to remember, 9T$ imarya^ irrertlir sdsmaryate ; ^S^Aft ^armiaWt '^.

1^ di, to give, ^ ctfya, ^i^Nli dedtyate ; i^n^ ddddti.

if hvCy to call, |rir Atfya, "^t^iRijohilyate ; ij^lftfiryoAo^i.

� 485. The roots ^^vaJScA, ^i^^srafh9, ur^^dhvams, ^i^^bhrams^ W^kas, VH^paiy ^pod,
'^b^ shandy place vft nl between the reduplicative syllable and the root. (P&9. vix. 4� 84.)

^i^ralCcA, to go round, ^ffN^RW va nl vachyatej ^ffl^^ni vantvaHcMH.

^l!^^sram8, to tear, tinltitMn sa nt sratyate; WSft^T^Hfw sanitraiktUi.

ti^^d/ujamiy to fall, ^�fi<�it54n da ni dhvasyate; ^^lui^HOl ii<mldArafh�lff.

^N^ftikram, to fall, ^�04^fl ba iU bhrasyate; "W^fi^Mflt boMhrmhtiti,

V^ kaSf to go, '^t(1�atjHil cha ni kasyatej ^tftmltfif chanHkaaUi,

V^paty to fly, MniHnn/'a ntpatyatej M •A M a1 Pfl panipattH.

^i^pad, to go, HvOnun |>a nipadyatej H tfl HffI Pa panipaditi,

^^ skand, to step, ^V�ft^Rln cAa nl skadyate: ^HllA^Rf cAanMafuftH.
� 486. Roots ending in a nasal, preceded by V a, repeat the nasal in the reduplicatiye
syllable (P&i;!. vii. 4, 85). The repeated nasal is treated like ^m, and the vowel, being long
by position, is not lengthened.

I^f ^om, to go, 4 � i#�i ft jahgamyate : ij J|lA Hi jaikgamUi.

�RI bhram, to roam, ^•sn bambkramyatej ihi'OOl ftom^AramCK.

^�^ Aan, to kill, it N "^ A jakghanyaU: �i ^ �A Hi jangkanUL
� 487. The roots fl.yap, to recite, ip^ya&A, to yawn, ^ dak, to bum, i^daM, to
bite, 4l^5Aai(;� to break, ^po/, to bind, insert a nasal in the reduplicative syllable.
(P&9. VII. 4, 86.)

IRjop, ^�i^n JaHjapyate; ^ �i 4) Pn jafijaptH,

?^daiM� ^q^Mn dathdaiyate; l^^|flPff dathdoAH.
� 488. The roots ^ cAar and ll^/iAa/ form their intensives as,

^^ntW ekaiick^ryate and ^^flPfl cAaflcAurl^ or ^^^flT ckafiek4rti,

Vl'y^^ pampkulyate and M l}c4l rttpampkuliti or Mi|PnA pampkulH, (Pin. viii. 4, 87.)
� 489. Roots with penultimate ^ ft insert ^ rl in their reduplicative syllable. (Pi?*

VII. 4, 90.)

^rpt, ^rthjWn va ri vfityatej Tfl^lftflf va ri vfitUi.
In the Parasmaipada these roots allow of six formations. (P&9* vii. 4) P'O
^^iHPn va r VfitiH, 'WW varvarti,

^ft^iftftf ca n viUiii, ^^iM(n varwarti,

•lO'jnltW 170 rl vjrititi, *lO*lfn varivarti,

* This form follows from Pii;i. vii. 4, 93, and is supported by the Mftdhavtya-dh&tuvritti.
Other grammarians give ^ETT^rf^ sdsmarti.


� 490. The same applies to roots ending in ^ rt, if used in the Parasmaipada. (Pft?.
VII. 4, 92.)

^ kjij ^iOni cha r kartti. '^•ffi charkarti,

^(V^OPdl cAa ft iflrl/i. '^(V.��ffi cAonitflrrt.

^flRfhrttfir cAa rl AarC^t. ^<.l*(n eharikarti.

� 491. A few frequentative bases are peculiar in the formation of their base *.
^Ti^svap, to sleep, ^^j^n soshupyatej but ^i^Pn sdsvapH. (P&9. vi. i, 19.)
^9nV syam, to sound, hDhmiH sesimyate; but TT^Tfif sanuyanti.
^ vye, to cover, %^ftTW veviyate; but ^milfil vdvydti; or (� 483) ^i^Oi v&oyeti.
^9f voi, to desire, ^N^^N vdvahjaie; CH^Ol vdvashti. (P&n. vi. i, 30.)
^m^cAtfy, to regard, ^*l^fl chekiyate; ^%flf cheketi. (P&n. vi. i, 21.)
'n^py^j to grow, ^Tft^i^q^lyflftf; ^ntlfilp^Py^'*' (P^� VI. I, 29.)
f^ M, to swell, l)[fh||5^ ioidyaU or |lv1^A ieMyate; ^^tfk ieiveti. (Pi^. vi. i, 30.)
^5^ Aan, to kill, ^ hI 4| fl jeghniyate ; ^^^n jahghanti. (P4n. vii. 4, 30, vftrt.)
Vghrd, to smell, ^ 111 ^ ri jeyhriyatej mU\iii jdghrdtL (PlLn. vii. 4, 31.)
vrr cfAmif, to blow, ^vrhnr dedhmiyate; (JIUUHl dddhmdti, (P&n. vii. 4, 31.)
'T yrt to swallow, If (*! �^ n jegilyate; ^fprfS itf^ar/i. (P&n. viii. a, 20.)
f^ ^', to lie down, T(n^l�n^ idiayyate; ^1^ /^/efi. (P&n. vii. 4, 22.)
^ 492. From derivative verbs new derivatives may be formed, most of
which, however, are rather the creation of grammarians^ than the property
of the spoken language. Thus from ^n^irfir bhdvayati^ the causal of ^ bkdj
he causes to be, a new desiderative is derived, fvHT^ftniflr bibhdvayishati, he
wishes to cause existence. So from the intensive ^^|inr bobMiyate, he
exists really, is formed wt^ifinfir bobhiiyishati, he wishes to exist really ;
then a new causative may be formed, ^t^ftrnrflT bobhUyiahayatiy he causes a
wish to exist really ; and again a new desiderative, wt^j^HlfWir bobhUyisha--
yishatif he wishes to excite the desire of real existence.

* The formation and conjugation of the Intensive in the Parasmaipada, or the so-called
Charkartta, have given rise to a great deal of discussion among native grammarians.
According to their theory ^T^ yan, the sign of the Intensive Atmanepada, has to be sup-
pressed by ^^ luk. By this suppression the changes produced in the verbal base by ^T^yan
would cease (P&n. 1. 1, 63), except certain changes which are considered as AnaAgak&iya,
changes not affecting the base, such as reduplication. Changes of the root that are to take
place not only in the Intens. Atm., but also in the Intens. Par., are distinctly mentioned by
P&nini, vii. 4, 82-92. About other changes, not directly extended to the Intens. Par.,
grammarians differ. Thus the Prakriy&-Kaumudt forms lihctfTT soshopti, because P&n. Vi.
1,19, prescribes ti^g'Mn soshupyatej other authorities form only ^Trarftf sdsvapti or ^HT^nrtfif
sdsvapiti, Colebrooke allows ^wfif cheketi (p. 332), because P&n. vi. i, 2 1 , prescribes ^WhUI
chekiyate, and the commentary argues in favour of ^Htrflf cheketi. But Colebrooke (p. 321)
declines to form ^f^n sesinte, because it is in the Atm. only that P&n. vi. i, 19, allows
MUi*^fl sesimyate. Whether the Perfect should be periphrastic or reduplicated is likewise
a moot point among grammarians ; some forming ^TtHTT^nVK bobhavdHchakdrOy others
^^ bobhUva, others ^HN bobhdva.





J 493. Hiere are many verbs in Sanskrit which are clearly derived from
nominal bases*^ and which generally have the meaning of behaving Uke, or
treating some one like, or wishing for or doing whatever is expressed by the
noun. Thus from 9^ iyena^ hawk, we have ^^RPnl iyendydtey he behaves
like a hawk; from '^putra^ son, Jj^ilDl puMydtiy he treats some one like
a son, or he wishes for a son. Some denominatives are formed without any
derivative syllable. Thus from ^1Q| kfishndy ^furfir krishndti, he behaves like
Krishna ; Scorn f^^pitfiy father, f^wrfif pitdrati, he behaves like a father.

These denominative verbs, however, cannot be formed at pleasure; and many
even of those which would be sanctioned by the rules of native grammarians,
are of rare occurrence in the national literature of India, lliese verbs should
therefore be looked for in the dictionary rather than in a grammar. A few
rules, however, on their formation and general meaning, may here be given.

Denominatives in if ji, Parasmaipada,

^ 494* By adding ir ya to the base of a noun, denominatives are formed
expressing a wish. From nt go^ cow, TpqfH gavyati, he wishes for cows.
These verbs might be called nominal desideratives, and they never govern a
new accusative.

j 495. By adding the same ^ya, denominatives are formed expressing one's
looking upon or treating something like the subject expressed by the noun.
Thus from ^putra, son, ^?fhrf)T fi^puirtyati iiskyam^ he treats the pupil like
a son. By a similar process uiHi^^rAprdsadtyati^ from wmx^prdsdday palace,
means to behave as if one were in a palace ; IcniT^ft^irfir ^f^iff fW^ prdsddiyati
kutydm bhikshuh^ the beggar lives in his hut as if it were a palace.

� 496. Before this ^ ya,

I. Final V a and VT tf are changed to \i; ^pTT sutd, daughter, ^^tTt^flT sutiyati, he wishes

for a daughter f.
a. ^ � and T ti are lengthened ; ^fftfpati, master, Hn\ H?n patiyati, he treats like a master ;

'^if^ kavi, poet, V^T^^rfff kaviyati, he wishes to be a poet.

* They are called in Sanskrit f<7^ lidhu, from Tc^ Unga, it is said, a crude sound, and
^ dhu, for VTJ dhdiu, root. (Carey, Grammar, p. 543.)

t Minute distinctions are made between Iff^ vfhvflf asaniyati, he wishes to eat at the proper
time, and VI )M Nfii a^andyatiy he is ravenously hungry; between 9 <^ 41 4 Pi! udakiyati, he wishes
for water, and 9 <{ ^^ Hi ndanyati, he starves and craves for water; between M^TPrfir dhandyati, he
is greedy for wealth, and V�fNf?r dhaniyati, he asks for some money. •(P&i^. vii. 4, 34.)

G g a


3. ^ ft becomes Xiri,^o becomes W^cw, W au becomes ^VT^do: f^pUfi, fittber,

fM^l ^Ol pitriyaH, be treats like a fatber; •n nau, ship, ni^ffl ndoyati, be wisbes
for a sbip.

4. Final �^n is dropt, and otber final consonants remain micbanged; M�i�\r4^'<m, king,

^Illl^Of rdjiyati, be treats a man Uke a king ; ^^fVPBf^payas, milk, Hst^^Pn payasyati,
be wisbes for milk ; ^fl^o^A, speecb, TRRflr vdchyati (P&9. i. 4> 15); vpl^ namaSf
worsbip, �nV9Vf)f namasyati, be worsbips (P4n. iii. i, 19).

Denominatives in iv ya^ Atfnanepada.

^ 497. A second class of denominatives, formed by adding ly yd^ has

the meaning of behaving like^ or becoming like, or actually doing what is

expressed by the noun. They differ from the preceding class by generally

following the Atmanepada*, and by a difference in the modification of the

final letters of the nominal base. Thus

!• Final w a is lengthened ; ^(^ iyena, hawk, s|i)hii|) fyendyate^ he behaves

like a hawk ; ^ro^ iabda, sounds ^R^ni^ iabddyate^ he makes a sound,

he sounds; )J9 bhriia, much, ^f^fn^ bhriSdyate^ he becomes much;

'WW kashfa, mischief, ^wrqi)' kashtdyate, he plots ; tM^ romaniha,

ruminating, ^^iR^rnn^ romanihdyate, he ruminates. The final f I of

feminine bases is generally dropt, and the masculine base taken

instead; ^ilT^ kumdri^ girl, 9�1K|I|)) kumdrdyate, he behaves like a

girl. (P4n. VI. 3, 36-41.)

2 and 3. Final ^ i and 7 ti, iQf n^ ^ 0, Wl a� are treated as in ^ 496 ; vft

inchi^ pure, iNtir^ iuchiyate, he becomes pure.
4� I^al �^n is dropt, and the preceding vowel is lengthened; tni�( rdfan,
king, TTUnn^ rdjdyaie, he behaves like a king; ^"^li^ tuhman, heat,
TSr^wik ushmdyate, it sends out heat.
Some nominal bases in ^� and j^^t may, others must (P&n. iii. i, 11) be
treated like nominal bases in w a� Hence from fHw^^ vidvas^ wise, fty^q^
vidvfuyate or ftvrqi^ vidvayatCy he behaves like a wise man ; firom ^^^payas,
milk, ^TXWi)' payasyate or inn^ paydyate, it becomes milk ; from W^R^
apsaraSy umu^) apsardyate, she behaves like an Apsaras ; firom ^mnbiihai,
great, ^ffpik brihdyate^ he becomes great. (Pap. iii. i, 12.)

� 498. Some verbs are classed together by native grammarians as Kai;)dvftdi's, i. e.
beginning vnWi Kandd. Tbey take ^ ya, both in Parasmaipada and Atmanepada^ and keep
it through tbe general tenses under tbe restrictions applying to otber denominatives in ^ya
(� 501)* Nouns ending in W a drop it before IV ya. Thus from Wl^ agada, free from

* Those that may take both Parasmaipada and Atmanepada are said to be formed by
W^ kyushy tbe rest by "�1^ hyah. Thus from Htftpf lohita, red, cStfljiTnfftf or ^ lohitdyaH
or "te^ be becomes red? (PAp. in. i, 13.)


illness, ^BPIlffir agadyati, he is free from illness ; from ^^T sukha, pleasure, ^wOf sukhyaii,
be gives pleasure ; from lir^iba^^^, scratching, ip^Pn or �T ka^^yati or -te, he scratches.

Denominatwes in ^ sja.
� 499. Certain denominatiye verbs, which express a wish, take ^ iya instead of '^ ya.
Thus from ^1^ kshira, milk, H|1<4M0|I ksMrasyati, the child longs for milk ; from m?f
lava^y salt, ^CHU^^Ol lava^^asyati, he desires salt. Likewise ^mtmin cJvtisyati, the mare
longs for the horse ; ^Nflinif Vfighasyati, the cow longs for the bull (PAi;). vii. i, 53). Some
authorities admit 9 sya and 1V9 a^<K, in the sense of extreme desire, after all nominal
bases. Thus from T^ madhu, honey, T^t^i Tit madhtuyati or l|l99Tflf madkvasyati, he longs
for honey.

Denomin<Uive9 in �ai�^ kftmja.

� 500. It is usual to form desiderative verbs by compounding a nominal base with
WT^ kdmya, a denominative from WtH kdma, love. Thus ^d �� i*^ Of putrakdmyati^ he has
the wish for a son ; Fut. ^�i �■ 1 r#<i n 1 putrakdmyitd. Here the ^y, it is said, u not liable
to be dropt. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 333.)

� 501. The denominatives in TV ya are conjugated like verbs of the Bhii
class in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. Pres. ^^i4lfl| putrtydmi^ Impf.
ivg?fH aputriyam. Imp. y^lMlfVl putriydni^ Opt. ^^ft^ putriyeyam* Pres.
:|^RT^ Syendye, Impf. ^�n|^in^ aSyendye, Imp. i|^^ iyendyai, Opt. ^ihrnHv
h/endyeya. In the general tenses the base is ^[ffi^putriy or ^^9rni[ iyendy;
but when the denominative ^ y is preceded bj a consonant^ 1^ y may or
may not be dropt in the general tenses (Pi^. vi. 4, 50). Hence, Per. Perf.
pf^inrnn putrtydmdsa (�325, 3), Aor. vi|^ini4N aputrtyishatn, Put. f^fKViinOr
putriyishydmi, Per. Fut. ^^Riffi putrtyitd, Ben� ^S^ifnt puiriydsam.

From ^^[^mn^ Syendyate, Per. Perf. ^^^rnimm iyendydmdaa, Aor. ivi^Tnftvf^

aiyendyishi, Fut. SI^HlPilii) Syendyishye^ &c.
From ^rOr^ samidh, fuel, irAmf)! samidhyati^ he wishes for fuel ; Per. Fut.

^rfllftinrT samidhyitd or ^rMVlTT samidhiid^ &c. (Pfi^. vi. 4, 50).

Denominatives in ^TT aja.

� 503. Some denominative yerbs are formed by adding W^aya to certain nommal bases.
They generally express the act impUed by the nominal base. They may be looked upon as
verbs of the Chur class. They are conjugated in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada, some
in the Atmanepada only. They retain ^Hl ay in the general tenses under the limitations
that apply to verbs of the Chur class and causatives (viz. benedictive Par., reduplicated
aorist, &c.), and their radical vowels are modified according to the rules applying to the
verbs of the Chur class (� 396, 4).

Thus from VT^pd^a, fetter, fMVT^Rfir vipd^ayati, he unties; from "^A^^varman, armour,
^W�*rn safkoarmayatif he arms, (the final �^n being dropt); from ^munda, shaven,
•ISMPn mw^yati, he shaves ; from ^P^ ^abda, sound, ^I^^Pa iabdayati, he makes
a sound (Dhfttup&tha 33, 40) ; from f<T^ mUra, mixed, flTBRflf miirayati, he mixes
(P&V- "I* i> 31; 35).


Some of these verbs are always Atmanepada. Thus from ^^puehchha, tail^

utpnchchhayate, he lifts up the tail (P&9. iii. i, 3o).
If ^naya b to be added to nouns formed by the secondaiy affixes W^matf ^ff{vat, ^(9(min^

ft�( vtji, these affixes must be dropt. From tlO^f^ sraffvin, having garlands^

tf^iMPn srajayati.
If ^TT aya is added to feminine bases, thej are generally replaced bj the CMresponding

masculine base. From ^�)�i1 ^en( (� 247), white� ^^n^fPn iyetayatiy he makes her

white (P&i^. VI. 3, 36).
Certain adjectives which change their base before ^ uhflui of the superlative, do the

same before ^TT aya, ^ mfidu, soft, M^llHl mradayaH, he softens ; {^ eUra, fkr,

. ^^T^flf davayati, he removes.
Some nominal bases take WM^ dpaya. Thus from Hm satya, true, ^iMIM^Ol satydpayatif

he speaks trulj; from W4 artha, sense, HMm^Pri artkdpayati^ he explains.

Denominatives without any Affix,

� 503. According to some authorities every nominal base may be turned into a
denominative verb by adding the ordinary verbal terminations of the First Division, and
treating the base like a verbal base of the Bhd class. W a is added to the base, except
where it exists already as the final of the nominal base ; other final and medial vowels take
Gu^a, where possible, as in the Bhil class.

Thus from ^ran kfishi^, f UllOl ibf�A^/�, he behaves like Kfishna; from H\W mUd^
garland, lUcilOl mdldtiy it is like a garland, Impf. ^H\iS\H^amdldt, Aor. VHIMrall^
amdldsttj from 'Wf^ kavi, poet, 'V^RfW kavayatiy he behaves like a poet ; from f^ of,
bird, ^nifk vayati, he flies like a bird ; from fV|^ pitr^� father, f^WKfft pitarati, he is
like a father; from TTW�^ r^an, king, MvunPn rdjdnati, he is like a king (PA9. vi.
4, 15)-



^ 504. The following prepositions may be joined with verbs, and are then
called Upasarga in Sanskrit (P&9. i. 4^ 58—61 f ^ 148).
nflr ati^ beyond. irfVi adhi^ over (sometimes fti dh%), WJ anu, after.
apa, off. nftl ajAy upon (sometimes f)| pi), ^rik abhiy towards.
ova, down (sometimes ^t;a). W[ d, near to. ^ ud, up. Tt| upa,
next, below, j: duJ^, ill. f^ fdy into^ downwards, f^ nil^, without
'^KX pardy back^ away, nftj^ari, around. Upra, before, vfifpraii,
back, flf vi, apart. H sam, together. ^ su, well. They all have the
tuldtta on the first syllable except v^ abh(,

� 505. Certain adverbs, called Oati in Sanskrit, a term applicable also to the
Upasargas (Pfin. i* 4, 60), may be prefixed, like prepositions, to certain verbs,
particularly to ^bhd, to be, ira^ as, to be, ^ kri, to do, and rff^ffam, to go.


dchchha ; e. g. WSttn achchhagatya, having approached (^ 445) ;
achchhodyay having addressed. ^Bi^ aJa^; e. g. ^:^ ada^kfiiyOf
having done it thus, ^tfttantar; e.g. wnfkn antaritya^ having passed
between. %ri alam; e. g. m?^^ alaUkfiiyay having ornamented.
mm astatn ; e. g. ir^mQ astaftgatya^ having gone to rest^ having
set. ^nft: dvih; e. g. HlWJj dvirbhUya, having appeared, firt: Hrai;
e. g. ^K^i^ HrobMya, having disappeared, ^l pural^; e.g. ^T^flil
puraskfiiya^ having placed before (^ 89^ II. i). Wgiprddui^; e.g. Hl^^
prddurbMya^ having become manifest* teh^ sat and ^rai^ asaty when
expressing regard or contempt ; e. g. Vin^TI asatlqitya^ having dis-
regarded, ^rnin^ sdkshdt; e. g. Hl^lrf M saksMtkritya, having made
known. Words like nft hckli, in ^jldf M iuklikritya, having made white.
(Here the final w a otwrfniukla is changed to ^ f. Sometimes, but rarely,
final w a or w d is changed to Wl d. Final ^ i and "Wu are lengthened ;
^ n is changed to Uri; final i|f( an and W^^as are changed to f^i;
e. g. <l^fiW rdjikrityay having made king.) Words like ^Rfl^ ilri, in
wff^ drtkritya, having assented. Words like WH^khat^ imitative of
sound; e.g. ^TTT^ khdtkfitya^ having made khdt, the sound produced
in clearing one^s throat.
� 506. Several of the prepositions mentioned in � 503 are also used with
nouns, and are then said to govern certain cases. They are then called Kar^
mapravachantya^ and they frequently follow the noun which is governed by
them (Pftn. i. 4, 83).

The accusative is governed by ^rfira^t, beyond; ml^abhi^ towards; ^|f)c
pari^ aroimd; vthi prati, against; WJ antt, after; imupa, upon. Ex. Tftf^-
^prflT %^^ govindam ati neivara^, Isvara is not beyond Govinda; ^ mfk
'^cSl^ci haram prati halahalam, venom was for Hara; nicgH��|�Qfl visknu-
manvarchyatey he is worshipped after Vishnu; wg ^^: anu harith surdi^,
the gods are less than Hari.

The ablative is governed by Tffji prati, "qft pari, wqapa, wd. Ex. nfe
irm^ bhakieh praty amritam, immortality in return for faith; wi ipft: d
mfityol^, until death; ^in? ftpnfwft ^ ^: apa trigartebhyo vfishfo deva^, it
has rained away fipom Trigarta, or ^ %n?n!�r: pari trigartebhyah, round
Trigarta, without touching Trigarta.

The locative is governed by '^upa and ^rfv adhu Ex. Ti| ftpalr ^VT^T^ upa
nishke kdrshdpanam^ a K&rshfipa^a is more than a Nishka; ^rfil ^rvi^inr^
adhi panchdleshu brahmadattab^ Brahmadatta governs over the Panchalas.

J 507. There are many other adverbs in Sanskrit, some of which may
here be mentioned.
I. The accusative of adjectives in the neuter may be used as an adverb.


ThuB from if^ manda^, slow, ihf ^ mandam mandam, slowly^ slowly ;
'^fti iighram, quickly ; ^ dhruvam, truly.

2. CSertain compounds, ending like accusatives of neuters, are used adver-

bially, such as 4|vj|^ir^ yathdiakti, according to one's power. For
these see the rules on composition.

3. Adverbs of place :

^irt antaVy within, with loc� and gen. ; between, with ace. ^IRT antardj
between, with ace. wjfbsr antarevia^ between, with ace; without, with
ace* ^rmi(^ drcUy far off, with abl. ^rfip vahil^, outside, with abl. ^RHIT
samaydj near, witli ace. f^HPn fdkasha^ near, with ace. T^ft upari^
above, over, with ace. and gen. 7%: uchchaiji, high, or loud, ^t)^
nichaiiky low. ^R^ adhaJj^, below, with gen. and abl. ^R^ ava^, below,
with gen. firt: tiraik^ across, with ace. or loc. !([; ihoy here. ^ purdy
' before, wv^samakshamy VJ^jnsdkshdt, in the presence. H9k\^i\f(8akdidty
firom. ^ puraJ^, before, with gen� jsm amdy w^ sachdy mw sdkamy
TfmJ samdy "m^sdrdhatny together, with instr. "vfkm abhitai, on all sides,
with ace. ^9Hinn ubhaycUdf^^ on both sides, with ace. Wffll^ samantdi^
from all sides. J[t dUramy far, with ace, abl., and gen. wfiNr aniikamy
near, with ace, abl., and gen. ^V^ fidhaky ^n prithaky apart

4. Adverbs of time :

HTUT prdtoTy early, ^mt sdyanty at eve. f^ rfira, by day. ^VJFT^ ahndya^
by day. ^^m doshdy by night. �rR naktamy by night* wm ttshd, early,
^innr yugapady at the same time, ^sir adyay to-day. wt hyahy yesterday.
^1^: pilrvedyu^y yesterday. "^ iva^y to-morrow. 'qtvfV paredyaviy
to-morrow, iift^ jyoky long, f^ chiramy fv^ chirenay fmpi chirdyay
f^tT\chirdt, f^t^C chirasya, long. TRT sand, ^RTI^ �and/, Tg^sanaty
perpetually. ^ aratn^ quickly. ^1%: ianaO^, slowly. WBl sadyaf^y at
once, wafn sampratiy now. "^p^punar, ^: mtiAtc$, ^[in bMyai^y ^R
vdram, again. TT^ sakrity once. ^ /wr<J, formerly. ^ pHrvamy
before. 'V^ Urdhvamy after, ^nif^ sapadiy immediately. VW^^paSchdty
after, with abl. Wf^jdiUy once upon a time, ever. ^V^�n adhundy now.
^^ItfT iddninty now. ^^ �a�{(!^ ?linf santatam, nfff^ aniiam, always,
^nv a2am, enough, with dat. or instr.

5* Adverbs of circumstance :
^ mrishdy fNmr mithydy falsely, mm^ mandk, fm^ &Aa/, a little. 1[S^
tilski^imy quietly. ^ vrithdy ^ mudhd, in vain, ^nftl *(Jmt, half.
V4hWli1^ akasmdt, imexpectedly. T^vt^ updmiUy in a whisper, ftwt
mithahy together, imn prdyahy frequently, almost. Vifhr a^^t^a, exceed-
ingly, nrw kdmamy ^fW JosAam, gladly. ^9^:|4 avaiyam, certainly.

<r*j 51a COMPOTJND WOBD& 233

Anv kila, indeed, n^ kJialUf certainly, finn vind^ without, with aec,
instr.5 or abl. ^ fite^ without^ with ace. or abl. tTRT ndnd, variously.
^ sushthu, well. ^ dushthuy badly, fipm dishtyd, luckily. ITffk
prabhfiti^ et cetera, and the rest, with abl. '^I^ffi kuvit, really 1
ilftn^ kachchitf really 1 v�r kaiham^ how 1 ^ t /t, ^ itiham, thus.
|[^ tt?a^ as ; ^frft^ A^r iVa^ like Hari. ^va/, enchtic; ^f^i^AarJt;aJ,
like Hari.

Conjunctions and other Particles,
� 508. wt| atlia^ w^ athOy now then. ^ iti, thus. '^ yatft, when*
vmf^ yadyapiy although, inrrf^ tathdpi^ yet. ^ cA�/^ if. iT 9MI> ''ft ^^9
not. ^ cAa^ and^ always enclitic, like que. f^ kitkcha^ and. m �9i4 or
IT W wkJ ���, not, prohibitively, m vd, or. ^ t;d— ^ t?4, either— or. ^nm
athavdy or. l^ tfra^ even, very ; {^W^sa eva^ the same.) ^ evam, thus.
^ ntJ^iam, doubtlessly. i|T^ ydvat-irx^ tdvat, as much— as. vm yaikd-^
iniT /a/A4, as -so. ^ yena—i(H iena, iTf yad-^K^ tad^ and other correlatives,
because— therefore, tnnf^ tathdhi^ thus^ for. 9 ^, ^ param^ ft]
Arin/u, but. fifi^ cAi/, "W^ chana, subjoined to the interrogative pronoun
tm kim, any, some ; as ilftn^ kaiehit, some one ; ^rqw^r kathafichana, any-
how. f^ kiy for, because. W �f/a, VWTf^ �/dAo, or. iTnT n4ma, namely.
ir^ pratyuiOy on the contrary. "^ ntc, perhaps. ^ nanu, Is it not 1
f%t^ spit, Mf^n^ Atmm^, perhaps, ^sf^ opi, also, even, ^vftf ^ apt cha^
again. 1^ ndnam, certainly.

� 509. ^ he, ^ bho, vocative particles. %|^ aye, ^ haye. Ah ! fk|i^ dhik,
t re, ^ are^ Pie !



^510. The power of forming two or more words into one, which belongs
to all Aryan languages, has been so largely developed in Sanskrit that a few
of the more general rules of composition claim a place even in an elementary

As a general rule^ all words which form a compound drop their
inflectional terminations, except the last. They appear in that form which
is called their base, and when they have more than one, in their Pada base
{� 180). Hence ^iRpf^ deva-ddsab^ a servant of god; UH^^H* r^jopvarusha^
a king's man ; HAJiJii: pratyagmukha^y facing west.



� 511. Sometimes the sign of the feminine gender in the prior elements of a compound
may be retiuned. This is chiefly the case when the feminine is treated as an appellative,
and would lose its distinctive meaning by losing the feminine suffix: 4|^|4u1l4lffl
kalydnimdtd, the mother of a beautiful daughter (P&n. vi. 3, 34) ; ^Hl9: kalMbhdryahj
having a Ka^ht for one's wife (P&n. vi. 3> 41). If the feminine forms a mere predicate,
it generally loses its feminine suffix ; ^i\�fH*fi4S iobhanabhdrydhy having a beautiful wife
(P&n. VI. 3, 34 ; 43).

The phonetic rules to be observed are those of external Sandhi with certain modifications,
as explained in � 34 seq.*

$ 512. Compound words might have been divided into substantival^*
adjectival^ and adverbial. Thus words Uke WrJ?^: tatpurushal^, his man,
'•Ac4^iMi4 nttotpalam^ blue lotus, ft^'^ dvigavamy two oxen, nO^T^ agni'
dhdmau, fire and smoke, might have been classed as substantival ; qjrfin^:
bahuvrihihi possessing much rice, as an adjectival; and ^(im^ifii yathdiakti,
according to one^s strength, as an adverbial compound.

Native grammarians, however, have adopted a different principle of divi-
sion, classing all compounds under six different heads, under the names of
Tatpurushaf Karmadhdraya, DvigUy Dvandva, Bahuvrthi^ and Avyayibhava.
I� TatpurtLsha is a compound in which the last word is determined by the
preceding words, for instance, Vi^gp^ tat-purtishaJ^y his man, or UHg^m
rdja-pumshah, king's man.

As a general term the Tatpurtisha compound comprehends the two
subdivisions of Karmadhdraya (I b) and Dvigu (I c). The Karmadhd-
raya is in fact a Tatpurusha compound, in which the last word is
determined by a preceding adjective, e. g. '^fh^tncV nilotpalam, blue lotus.
The component words, if dissolved, would stand in the same case,
whereas in other Tatpurushas the preceding word is governed by the
last, the man of the king, or fire-wood, i. e. wood for fire.

The Dvigu again may be called a subdivision of the Karmadharaya,
being a compound in which the first word is not an adjective in general,
but always a numeral : fgn^ dvigavam, two oxen, or f|r^: dviffuft, bought
for two oxen.

* Occasionally bases ending in a long vowel shorten it, and bases ending in a short
vowel lengthen it in the middle of a compound; '^^udaka, water, VJ^pdda, foot, ^^
hfidaya, heart, frequently substitute the bases ^n[�^tti�an (i.e. ^ uda), Vl^pad, and ^ hjrid.
^^�ii hjidrogahf heart-disease, or ^^MCiTt hfidayarogah, (P&p. vi. 3, 51—60.)

The particle ^ Aru, which is intended to express contempt, as ^Hlfl^I kubrdhmanah,
a bad Brfthman, substitutes "^l^ kad in a determinative compound before words beginning
with consonants : qijs* kadushfrah, a bad camel. The same takes place before r^ ratha^
^ vada, and "^ trina : ^^^ kadrathah, a bad carriage ; 4^1(1 kattrii^m, a bad kind of
grass. The same particle is changed to Wl kd before Vlhf^pathin and mf akska .* ^innn
kdpathali, and optionally before ^^^purusha* (P&i?. vi. 3, 101-107.)


These three classes of compounds may be comprehended under the
general name o{ Determinative Compounds, while the Karmadh&raya (I b)
may be distinguished as oppositional determinatives, the Dvigu (I c) as
numeral determinatives.

II. The next class^ called Dvandva, consists of compounds in which two words I

are simply joined together^ the compound taking either the terminations !
of the dual or plural^ according to the number of compounded nouns,
or the terminations of the singular, being treated as a collective term :
^vfnr^ agni'dhdmauy fire and smoke ; ^IVfV^^IVI* iaia-kuiorpaldidh^
nom. plur. masc. three kinds of plants, or HllfVMcftl^t iaia-kuSa-paldiam,
nom. sing, neut They will be called Collective Compounds.

III. The next class, called Bahuvrihi by native grammarians, comprises com-

pounds which are used as adjectives. The notion expressed by the last
word, and which may be variously determined, forms the predicate of some
other subject They may be called Possessive Compounds, Thus ^iJlAf^:
haJiU-vrihihi possessed of much rice, scil. ^^ deiah, country ; ^^MMIII^t
rUpavad'bhdryaf^, possessing a handsome wife, scil. ttut rdj&y king.

Determinative compounds may be turned into possessive compounds,
sometimes without any change, except that of accent, sometimes by
slight changes in the last word.

The gender of possessive compounds, like that of adjectives, conforms
to the gender of the substantives to which they belong.

IV. The last class, called Avyayibhdva, is formed by joining an indeclinable

particle with another word. The resulting compound, in which the
indeclinable particle always forms the first element, is again indeclinable,
and generally ends, like adverbs, in the ordinary terminations of the
nom. or ace. neut.: irfWf^ adhi-stri, for woman, as in wfvf^ >|C4l4lfVr
adhistri gjihakdrydniy household duties are for women. They may
be called Adverbial Compounds.

I. Determinative Compounds.

� 5^3* Thh class (Tatpurusha) comprehends compounds in which generally
the last word governs the preceding one. The last word may be a substantive
or a participle or an adjective, if capable of governing a noun.

I. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Accusative:
^UlinNfi: Jqriski(Ujt-6ritah, m. f. n. gone to Krishna, dependent on Kfishpa,
instead of "Sfvi fmn kfishiyam iritai. ^IWlftni dubkha-atttai^, m. f. n.
having overcome pain, instead of .^tirtnAir: dubkham atitab^ '^C^^itrm
varsha^bhogyabf m. f. n. to be enjoyed a year long. ?TPninr: grdma^
prdptabi m. f. n. having reached the village, instead of utr UTR: grdmum

H h 2

286 COMPOUND WORDS. � 513-

prapiab: it is more usual, howerer, to say UlHiflH: prdptagrdma^
(Pan. II. 2, 4). Similarly are formed determinatives by means of
adverbs or prepositions, such as vGrPilfl. aiigiri, past the hill, used as
an adverb, or as an adjective, ^Hfkfhf^ atigirif^^ ultramontane ; irfi|^?r
abhimukham, facing, &c.
%. Compounds in Ti-hich the first noun would be in the Instrumental :

MFVf^ dhdnya-arthai, m. wealth (arihaii) (acquired) by grain (dhdnyena).
^%m4v, ia^kuld'khafufa^y m. a piece (khaiiufai^) (cut) by nippers {ianku--
Idbkii). i^mP4m ddira'Chchkinnai^, m. � n. cut {chhitmaii) by a knife
{ddtrena). fflGSTTin hari^rdtai^^ m. f. n. protected (irdta^) by Hari, ^^q[^:
iieva'dattaiky given {dattaht) by the gods {devaihk)^ or as a proper name with
the supposed auspicious sense, may the gods give him {Bieu*do7m�).
f^f[mx pitri-^samal^j m. f. n. like the father, i. e. pitrd samai^. "HWffH^m
nakha-nirbhinnafy^ m. � n. cut asunder (nirbhinnaiJL) by the nails (nakkaiiL),
ftHhm^M: vUva-updsyahi m. � n. to be worshipped by alL ^ra^in
svayam-krita^, m. � n. done by oneself.
3* Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Dative :

i{ii|^T^ ydpa-ddrUy n. wood (ddru) for a sacrificial stake {yUpdya). ntf^ go-
hitahy m. � n, good {hitah) for cows (ffobhyai). f^rWT^ dvija-^artha^, m. � n.
object {artha), i. e. intended for Brahmans. Determinative compounds,
when treated as possessive, take the terminations of the masc, fem., and
neut. ; e. g. f|nin% ^(^P|* dvijdrthd yavdgA^, fem. gruel for Brfihmans.

4. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Ablative :

^ftert chora-bhayam, n. fear {bhayam) arising from thieves {chorebhya^.
^r^NAnn svarga-patitaJ^^ m. � n. fallen from heaven. iRin'n apa-grdma^f
m. � n. gone firom the village.

5. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Genitive :

HTj;^ tat-purushah, m. his man, instead of tasya^ of \x\m^puru8hab^ the man*.
^Hy^m rdja-purushaby m. the king^s man, instead of rajna^y of the king,
purusha}^^ the man. TTiT^^ rdja-sakhaf^y m. the king^s friend. In these
compounds sakhi, friend, is changed to sakhah. ^f^mt: kumbha-kdra^y a
maker {kdrah) of pots [kumbMnam) . vf^^^o- ia/am, a hundred of cows.

6. Compounds in which the first noun would be in the Locative :
illl|$U: aksha'iaun4ai^, m. � n. devoted to dice. T^^in uro-jab^ m. f. n.

produced on the breast.

* MoBt words ending in ^ /p or ^ ha are not allowed to form compounds of this kind.
Hence WZ^ WnT kafasya kartd, maker of a mat, not ^IT'rtT kafakartdj ^d ntIT purdm
bhettdt breaker of towns. There are, however, many exceptions, such as ^^^�i�a� deva*
pUjakah, worshipper of the gods, &c.


� 514. Certain TaApurusha compounds retain the case-terminationa in the governed
ti^tii^n: sahasd-kjitafi, done suddenly (P&9. vi. 3, 3). VIHftlimi: dttnand'Shashthal^, the
sbcth with oneself (P&9. vi. 3, 6). m.%NM<| parasmai-padam, a word for the sake of
another, i. e. the transitive form of verbs (P&9. vi. 3, 7, 8). f ^((IHIJf k^chchhrdl^
tabdham, obtidned with difficulty. If^tlJ^: namh-putrafi, sister's son (P&n. vi. 3,
33). fi^^T^flii divas-paUh, brd of heaven. ^T^F^fflR vdchas-patih, lord of speech*
^^prtftnt devdndm^priyah, beloved of the gods, a goat, an ignorant person.
n^^rflnrt gehe-paifditaf^, learned at home, i.e. where no one can contradict him.
V^C kkeckaraliy moving in the air. ^Rjf^mt $ar(m*jahy bom in a pond, water-lily.
^R(4^9^ hridi'Sprii, touching the heart. ^[fVffvC ifudkishfhirah, firm in battle^
a proper name (P&n. vi. 3, 9).

� 515. To this class a number of compounds are referred in which the governing
element is supposed to take the first place. Ex. ^9�ii|4<i pdrva-Myaft^ the fore-part of the
body, i. e. the fore-body ; ^^^i^� pHrva^rdtrahy the first part of the night, i. e. the fore-
night ; U�l4fl� rdjadanta^, the king of teeth, lit. the king-teeth, i. e. the fore-teeth (P&9. 11.
2, i). They would better be looked upon as Karmadh&rayas ; cf. � 517.

$ 516. If the second part of a determinative compoimd is a verbal base, no change takes
place in bases ending in consonants or long vowels, except that diphthongs, as usual, are
changed toWld. Hence ^w^-^ jalamuck, water-dropping, i. e. a cloud ; ^h^HIT Boma-pd,
Soma- drinking, nom. sing. tTi^Hii Bomapdli (� 339).

Bases ending in short vowels generally take a final 1^^; Oim f^ livihajity all-conquering,
from ftfis, to conquer. Other suffixes used for the same purpose are W a, ^tn, &c.

I b. Apposiiional Determinative Compounds.

^ 517. These compounds (Karmadhfiraya) fonn a subdivision of the deteis
minative compounds (Tatpurusha). In them the first portion stands as the
predicate of the second portion, such as in blacks-beetle^ sky-blue, &c.

The following are some instances of appositional compounds :
^IcJtf^A ntla-utpalamy neut. the blue lotus. tliHlMI parama-dtmd^ masc. the
supreme spirit. yiWlO^^: idka-pdrthivabf masc. a S^&ka-king, explained
as a king such as the S^&kas would like, not as the king of the 8^&kas.
^r^TTin sarvorrdtrab, masc. the whole night, firom sarva^ whole, and
rdtribi night. Bdtribi fern., is changed to rdtra; cf. "^^X^. pdrva-rdtrab,
masc the fore-night; iWl^l^ madhya-rdtraby masc. midnight; ^jmrnv:
punyorrdtraby masc. a holy night. ftTJM dvi^dtram^ neut a space of
two nights, is a numeral compound (Dvigu). iffTTJli: mahdrrdjaby masc*
a great king. In these compounds mp(^mahat, great, always becomes
n^mahd (PAn. VI. 3, 46), and TXW^rdJany king, xxw.rdjab; as ^l^junir:
paramorrdjaby a supreme king : but ^|IT1IT tu-^djdy a good king, fv^ifT
kimrdjd, a bad king (P&n. v. 4, 69, 70). finviR priya-eakhaby masc.
a dear friend. 11% sakhi is changed to Kir: sakhab. V[K!KTfl parama-aAaby
masc. the lughest day. In these compounds Hl^ ahan, day, becomes

238 COMPOUND WORDS. $ 5i8—

111^ aha; c� ^9inn^ uttamdhai^^ the last day. Sometimes ^tj[ ahna is
substituted for Hi^ ahan; ^\^* pArvakiiaf^, the fore-noon. ^fS^^^
ku'pwrushab^ mase. a bad man^ or ^iT]|p^: kdpurashaj^. in^T% pra-
dchdryaik, masc. a hereditary teacher, i. e. one who has been a teacher
(dchdrya) before or formerly (pra). VMivm; a-brahmanai^ masc. a non-
Brahman, i.e. not a Brfihman. w^^l an-aiva^, masc. a non-horse, Le. not
a horse. MH^^I^: ghana-tyama^^ m.f.n. cloud-black, from ghana^ cloudy
and iydmay black* ^mM'M* ishat-piiigalai, m. f. n. a little brown,
firom ishai, a little, and pi^gaia, brown. Hlfilf 4: sdmi-kritai, m. � n.
half-done, from sdmi^ half, and kritOy done.

� 518. In some appositional compounds, the qualifying word is placed last. Oni'ii^;
viprapauralk, a white Br&hman; <ini^�i* rdjddhamah, the lowest king; H^iirwH bharata-
ireshfhdhy the hest Bharata ; ^^^�mii* purusha-vydghrdfi, a tiger-like man, a great man ;
^fMl^TOir* govrinddrakah, a prime cow.

I c. Numeral Determinative Compounds.

j 519. Determinative compounds, the first portion of which is a numeral,
are called Dvigu. The numeral is always the predicate of the noun which
follows. They are generally neuters, or feminines, and are meant to express
aggregates, but they may also form adjectives, thus becoming possessive
compounds, with or without secondary suffixes.

If an aggregate compound is formed, final w a is changed to ^ ^, fern., or in
•some cases to m amy neut. Final Ht^an and w a are changed to ^t or ^ am.
vm^ pancha-gavamy neut. an aggregate of five cows, from pafichany five,
and gOy cow. Ttftgo (in an aggregate compound) is changed to Trr^gava
(Pfin. II. I, 23), and ^ nau to ifT^ ndta. ^f^^ pancha-gul^, as an
adjective, worth five cows (P&n. v. 4, 92). f|R^: dvinauhy bought for
two ships. V^ dvy-afigulam, neut. what has the measure of two
fingers, firom dviy two, and afiguliJ^, finger; final i being changed to a.
Vl[: dvy-ahaJ^y masc. a space of two days ; ahan changed to aha^ (P^� n-
I, 23). li^WlcS: pancha-kapdlai^y m. f. n. an ofiering (puroddiai)
made in a dish with five compartments, fix>m panchan, five, and
kapdlamy neut. (PSi?. 11. i, 51, 52; iv. i, 88). f^n^fMt tri^loki, fern,
the three worlds : here the Dvigu compound takes the fem. termination
to express an aggregate (Pin. iv. i, 21). Pd^iffj tri-bhuvanamy neut. the
three worlds : here the Dvigu compound takes the neuter termination.
^Vf^l'O daia-kumdriy fem. an assemblage of ten youths. ^VJ^ chatur^
yugam, neut. the four ages.

� 530. The following rules apply to the changes of the final syllables in determinative
compounds. Very few of them are general as requiring a change without any regard to the

-}5^0. COMPOUND WOBDS. 239

preceding words in the compound. The general rules are given first, afterwards the more
special, while rules for the formation of one single compound are left out, such compounds
being within the sphere of a dictionary rather than of a grammar.

1. ^^ficA, verse, ^pur, town, W^^op, water, ^ iAiir, charge, nh^patMn, path, add

final Wa (PILq. v. 4, 74); "w^-^i ardharckah, a half- verse. This is optional with
Vl^t^pathin after the negative Wa; HMtl apatham or ^rt^TH apanthdh.

2. TX^K^ rdjan, king, "w^f^ ahan, day, ^1^ sakhi, friend, become THT rdja, Wf aAa, ml

sakhaj 'V^KTf • mahdr^aii. (PHei. v. 4, 91.)

3. 7^ uras, if it means chief, becomes 7^ urasaj HHHi^ adcorasam, an excellent

horse (P&9. v. 4, 93). Likewise after HfiV/^ra^t, if the locative is expressed; P[IJT4
pratyurasarn, on the chest (P&n. v. 4, 82).
4^ nftf akshi, eye, becomes inif aksha, if it ceases to mean eye. <iqiq|! ffovdkshah, a
window ; but flltn 1111011 brdhma^idkski, the eye of a Brfthman. (P&n. v. 4, 76.)

5. ^nV^ anas, cart, ^V^T^ ahuin, stone, ^BR^ ayag, iron, ^T^ saras, lake, take final W a

if the compound expresses a kind or forms a name. �m(014|� kdldyasam, black-iron;
but n^Mi sadayah, a piece of good iron. (Pftigi. v. 4, 94.)

6. Illlf( dra&mafi becomes TV brahma, if preceded by the name of a country ; ^<l|Rilt

surdskprabrahmaitt a Br&hman of Surlishtra (P&n. v. 4, 104). After ^ ku and 1^
mahd that substitution is optional (P&9. v. 4, 105).

7. 'K^'^tdkshan takes final W a after VJ^grdma and ^KT? kautaj i|IHAII(* grdmatakshaft^

village carpenter. (P&n.v. 4, 95.)

8. ^P^ ^an, dog, takes final W a after vfk ah, and after certain words, not the names of

animals, with which it is compared ; lll%lmt dkarshahali, a dog of a die, a bad
throw (?). (P&n. v. 4, 97.)

9. W|t^ adhvan becomes Wl| adhva after prepositions ; IHW prddhvaft, (P&ijl. v. 4, 85.)

10. �i�i�|^ sdman, hymn, and fi^H*^ loman, hair, become inT ^ma and W^ Uma after Hfk

prafi, V^ anu, and ^1^ ova; ^•jcol'iJ anulomaf, regular; ^gcoi�i anulomam, adv.
with the hair or grain, i. e. regularly. (P&n. v. 4, 75.)

11. ini^ tamas becomes J(^^ tamasa after ^1^ ava, ^ sam, and Wl andha ; MHMH andha^

tamasam, blind darkness. (P&n. V. 4, 79.)
13. T^^ rahas becomes T!^ rahasa after V^ ante, W^ ava^ and W taptaj M^^^l
anurahasah, solitary. (Pft?. v. 4, 81.)

13. ^^^oarcAa�, becomes ^"4^ varchaga after TV ftraAma and ^^hasti; fin^-^ J brahma-

varchasam, the power of a Br&hman. (P&9. v. 4, 78.)

14. ntgo becomes ^mgava, except at the end of an adjectival Dvigu. ^"^'i^ palichagavam,

five cows ; but J"^�j; pailchaguh, bought for five cows. (P&igi. v. 4> 93.)

15. �n fiatf, ship, becomes vTl^ ndoa, if it forms a numerical aggregate ; 4-^ ni ^ paflehandoamf

five ships : not when it forms a numerical adjective ; 4"^�ilj paiiehanault, worth five
ships. (P&n. V. 4, 99.)

16. �1T nau, ship, after ^V^ ardha, becomes vTr^ ndoaj "^^ni^ ardhandvam, half a ship.

(PAn. V. 4, 100.)

17. ^lOibA^r^, a measure of grain, becomes ^9R AiA^^a as an aggregate; fb ^ 1 v dmkhdram :

also after ^r4 ardha; VMIMK ardhakhdram. (P&n. v. 4, loi.)

18. ^irfc9 afijali, a handful, after fw dvi or f^ ^ri, may, as an aggregate, take final ^H a:

Shlc^ dvyaiijalam or id^fci dvyailjali, two handfuls. (P&n. v. 4, 102.)


19. ^^jff9 anguliy finger, after numenJa and indeclinables, becomes ^^m angula: s^c�

doyaligulamy a length of two fingers. (P&igi. v. 4, 86.)
30. ^fw saJb^At, thigh, becomes ^RFQ saibMa after ^nK^uttara, ipT flifjjra, and ^|�<{nMi^

\||^^9^4 pibvaaaktham. (Pftn. v. 4, 98.)
ai. i.i(Vl rdtrit night, after ^ sarva, after partitive words, after ti^Hin samkhydiay ^piT

puny a, likewise after numerals and indeclinables, becomes T!l^ rdtra; n^Ki^i sarva^

rdtraf^t the whole night; ^9 il A I pHrvardtraftf the fore-night; fk vici dvirdtram^ two

nights. (Pftn. V. 4, 87.)
22. V^aAan, day, under the same circumstances, becomes H]| ahna; �si%p; �an7<�&iiii^s

the whole day: but not after a numeral when it expresses an aggregate ; V^tc^oyoAo^

two dajs.. Except also ^^m^ punydham, a good daj, and ^�kiI1 ekdham^ n. and m,

a single day. (P&igi. v. 4, 88-90.)

11. Collective Compounds,

^ 521. Collectiye compounds (Dvandva) are divided into two classes. The
first class (called ^iJXiliC itaretara) comprises compounds in which two or more
words^ that would naturally be connected bj and, are united, the last, taking
the terminations either of the dual or the plural, according to the number
of words forming the compound. The second class (called 'mj^pt^samdhdra)
comprises the same kind of compounds but formed into neuter nouns in the
singular, ^^iinv^ kasiy-aivauy an elephant and a horse, is an instance of the
former, ^^THgI hcLstyaivam, the elephants and horses (in an army), an instance
of the latter class. Likewise Mf UlH iukla-krishnau^ white and black ; ^m^
ffovdivam, a cow and a horse.

If instead of a horse and an elephant, f^iip^ hastyaivaUy the intention
is to express horses and elephants, the compound takes the terminations of
the plural, if^iinirr: hastyaivd^.

� 522. Some rules are given as to which words should stand first in a Dvandva com-
pound. Words with fewer syllables should stand first : fi(nnln(r^ Hva-ke^avau, Siva and
Kes'ava; not W^Plf^Pli kescmaiivau. Words beginning with a vowel and ending in W a should
stand first : ^^i^viif Ua-kfish^u^ tsa and Krishna. Words ending in ^ t (gen. Jtt eh) and
7 tt (gen. Wh of) should stand first : ^ft^Ci hari-harau, Hari and Hara ; also m^i^ftnir
bhoktfi'bhogyau, the enjoyer and the enjoyed. Lastly, words of greater importance should
have precedence : ^^f^m deva'daityau, the god and the demon ; l||f|iUH|()9l|r brdhmwftt"
kshatriyaUf a Brfthman and a Kshatriya ; fUnfinru mdtd-pitarcat, mother and Aither, but
m earlier Sanskrit 1^ H^IXH I A < I pitard-rndtard, father and mother. (PII9. vi. 3, 33.)

� 523. Words ending in ^ ri, expresuve of relationship, or sacred titles, forming the
first member of a compound, and being followed by another word ending in ^r*� or by
TgS putra, son, change their ^ n into Wl d (PAn. vi. 3, 25). 1TJ mdtri-\'f^ pitfi form
•1 1 n I r^ n Ci mdtdpitarau, father and mother; ^^ pitri-^-^g^ putra form fM rt'l ^(0 pitdputrauj
;i[Vf ilo/fi-h^fk^ potji form ^dlt(tAIU hotdpotdrau^ the Hotri and Potri priests.

� 524. When the names of certain deities are compounded, the first sometimes lengthens
its final vowel (P&n. vi. 3, 26). Thus OlUNI^IlJT miirdoarunau^ Mitra and Varu^a;
^••iT�M�it agnUhomau, Agni and Soma. Similar irregularities appear in words like

-$538. COMPOUND WOBDS. 241

mm^rW^i dydnd-jtfithwyau, beaven and earth ; Vm^TPnJi fuhdid-naktam, dawn and night
(Pan. VI. 3, 39-31).

� 525. If the compound takes the termination of the singular, then final ^ cA, ^ cAA,
IT y, 15 jh, ?r rf, \9h, and ^ h take an additional W a. ^^TT^tJ^cA+iWW tvach form ^nW^
vdJctvachamy speech and skin (P&n. v. 4, 106). W^ aAan, day (see � 90, 196), and kS^
rdtri, night, form the compound v^^idi ahordtrafi, a day and night, a wx^rffupw
(P&9. V. 4, 87).

� 536. Wni^ bhrdtarau may be used in the sense of brother and sister; ^J^putrau in
the sense of son and daughter; Vkni^ pitarau in the sense of fiather and mother; m^M
hahrau in the sense of father and mother-in-law. Man and wife may be expressed by
yi\^\mi\ jdyd-pati, ^i^Kth iampati, or i{Mrfl dampati,

III. Possessive Compounds.

� 527. Possessive compounds (Bahuvrihi) are always predicates referring
to some subject or other. A determinative may be used as a possessive
compound by a mere change of termination or accent. Thus iftcSttm^ nilor
uipakmij a blue lotus, is a determinative compound (Tatpurusha, subdivision
Karmadharaya) ; but in HlcJtrMcii ^ETt: nthtpalam sarahy a blue lotus lake,
nilotpalam is an adjective and as such a predicative or possessive com-
pound; (see P&n. 11. 2, 24, com.) In the same manner w^fv: anaival^y
not-a-horse, is a determinative, W�f^ T^ anaivo rathal^, a cart without a
horse^ a horseless cart, a possessive compound.

Examples : uiH^^iit IHH: prdpta^udako ffrdmaJ^, a water-reached village, a
village reached by water. '^RfT^s'Tyi'^ Hiha-ratho 'na4vdn, a bull by
whom a cart (raihai) is drawn (il4ha). W^^n^^^ ^: upahrita-^aiA
rudrai^, Rudra to whom cattle {paSuh) is offered (upahrUa), ^ftlri^
fft: pita-ambaro JiariJ^y Hari possessing yellow garments. OTil: pror
pan^al^y leafless, i. e. a tree from which the leaves are fallen off.
W^l Orputral^f sonless. f'<RV^ chiira-ffu^, possessed of a brindled cow.
4M4il9� rdpavad'bhdryai^, possessed of a beautiful wife. f^T^t dvi^
mUrdhal^y two-headed : here mUrdha stands for mUrdhan. ft^j^dm-pdd^
two-le^ed : here p&d stands for pdda, ^^ su-hfid, having a good
heart, a friend. ^PutdlNHli: bhakshitarbhikshaf^^ one who has eaten his
alms. Hl<A^iSI<4My* nila-ujjvala-vapuJ^j having a blue resplendent body.

� 538. Bahuvrthi compounds frequently take suffixes. The following rules apply to the
changes of the final syllables in possessive compounds :

1. ti(V^ sakthi, thigh, and ^Puf akshi, eye, if they mean really thigh and eye, take final

^aj Wft^lSr^l kamaldkshdfi, lotus-eyed. (P&n. v. 4, 113.)

2. ifgffe anguli, finger, substitutes final W a if it refers to wood ; if^pV ?^ dvyahgulam

ddru, a piece of wood with two prongs*. (P&n. v. 4, 114.)

♦ ^*jfa^^y i <<M<i VranfijfriMWTlf , PraknyA-Kaumudt.

I 1

242 COMPOUND WORDS. � 529—

3. ^fi[^fn4rdhan, head, substitutes final W a after % dvi and fiff tri; f^Pf^ dnmdrdkali,

having two heads. (P&n. v. 4, 115.)

4. col�i�\ toman, hair, substitutes final W a after IVIf^aii/ar and ^Vf^! vahiftj WW^THl antar"

lomaf^j having the hairy part inside. (Pfiiji. v. 4, 117.)

5. 'Hjfw^ ndsikd, nose, becomes �nT na�a, if it stands at the end of a name ; *ii�itii gonasafi,

cow-nosed, i. e. a snake ; but not after ^5? sthUlaj ^H�fTflra: sth(Ua-n4sika^,
large-nosed, i. e. a hog. The same change takes place after prepositions ; 9Wt
unnasaji, with a prominent nose. (P&i[i. v. 4, 118, 119.)

6. After Wa, j: dvit, or ^m, ^f<9 hali, furrow, and '^IfW^ sakthi, thigh, may substitute

final W ay V^cd* ahalah or W?{f?^I ahalifi. (P^* v. 4, I3i.)

7. After the same particles, Tndprajd, progeny, and ^VTm^cJA^, mind, are treated like

nouns ending in IV^o^y S^^^ durmedkd^, (P&9* v. 4, 123.)

8. Vmdharma, law, preceded by one word, is treated like a noun ending in Ht^on ; ^l^fWnwT

kalyd^dharmd, (P&9. v. 4, 134.)

9. 'm^jambhd, jaw, after certain words, becomes ^^^^ambhan; ^WT sujambhd,

10. W^jrffw*, knee, after Upra and ^ *ain, becomes I5J**' JP^prajHulk (Pll^. v. 4, 129).

This is optional after "WlA^rdhva (P&9. v. 4, 130).

11. WSn(^Udha8, udder, becomes "ira^f^efAafi; ^^^hA ibu^^iAnl. (Plli(i. v. 4, 131.)

13. H^^rfAantw, bow, becomes V^^f^dhanDanj ^ <H ir�4| | pushpadhanvd, having a bow of
flowers (P&ii. V. 4, 133). In names this is optional.

13. Wmijdyd, wife, becomes ^IHlP^jdnij ^pnnftft iubhajdmfi. (Pki^. v. 4, 134.)

14. 'TO gandha, smell, substitutes 'tf^ ^aniAt after certain words j ^^iftK sugandhifi, (Pftn-

V. 4. 135-137-)

15. m^pdda, foot, becomes X[(^pdd after certain words ; WHMI^ vydghrapdd. (PA^. v. 4�

t6. ^ danttty tooth, becomes !fV c^a^ after many words; fw^^dvidan, having two teeth,

(sign of a certain age) ; fem. %i^ll^ dvidati, (P&n. v. 4, 141— 145.)
1 7* ^^^ kakuda, hump, becomes �K^ JbaArvd after certain words and in certain senses ;

WlTHnS^ ajdtdkakud^ a young bull before his humps have grown. (P&i^. v. 4>


18. 7^ was and other words belonging to the same class add final �i ka: ^9iTW

vyH^koraskah, broad-chested. (P&9. v. 4, 151.)

19. Words in ^tn add final �iJba in the feminine; WJ ^ I ft 41 bahusvdmikd, having many

masters, from <aiRi�i,^^inm, master. (P&9. v. 4, 153.)

20. Feminine words in \i, like ff!^ nad(, and words in ^ pi, add final ^ ka; ^j^^iiOAk

bahukumdrikah, having many maidens; WJHJ*! 5aAtf&Aar/rtAa&, having many
husbands. (Pftn. y. 4, 153.)

21. Most other words may or may not add final �lita; W^fTc^fllK bahumdlakafi or^j�ii<oi^

bahumdldkafL or MHIcSS bahumdlafi, (P^* ^* 4� 154O

IV. Adverbial Compounds,
J 51x9. Adverbial or indeclinable compounds (Avyayibh&va) are formed by
joining an indeclinable particle with another word. The resulting com-
pounds, in which the indeclinable particle forms always the first element,
are again indeclinable, and generally end, like adverbs, in the ordinary
terminations of the nom. or ace. neut.

-$ 53^- COMPOUND W0BD8. 248

Examples : ^vAlfflc adhi-hari, upon Hari, instead of ivAf fu adhi harau,
loc. sing. v^Hviig anu-mA^ti, after Vishnu^ instead of w^ ftn^ anu
vis/n^umy ace. sing. T^^pol upa-krishnam, near to Krishna. f^4(\l|4
nhr-makshikamy free from flies, flylessly. ^vfilf^ atuhimam, past the
winter, after the winter, instead of ^rfk ffjR ati hitnam, ace. sing.
n^fHpif pradakshinamy to the right. VJIS^ anu-rilpamy after the form,
i.e. accordingly, instead of w^ ^ anu rilpam, ace. sing. imi^Pfb yathor-
iakti, according to one's ability, instead of ^llVlAm iaktir yathd, ^i^
8a�tfiiiam with the grass; Hf^UHTw satriiiam attiy he eats (everything)
even the grass, instead of ^%^ ;||f trinena saha, with the grass. 4||C|^4
ydvach'Chhlokam, at every verse, m^f^ dmukii, until final delivery.
Kf^im anu-ffohffam, near the Gang&� ^f^^lTll^ upa-iaradam, near the
autumn ; firom ^R^ iarad, autumn (P&n. v. 4, 107). Tinit^ upa-Jarasamy
at the approach of old age ; from wc^Jaras, old age {� 167). TV^ffNl^t^^o-
sarnU or lr^^M upa-samidhamy near the fire-wood; frt)m ^fri^T^samidhy
fire-wood. "W^tpi npa-^djamy near the king; from TT^rdjany king.

� 530. There are some Avyaytbh&vas the first element of which is not an indeclinable
particle. Ex. PnsQ tishthad-ffu, at the time when the cows stand to be milked ; s'^'W
paHcka-gangam, at the place where the five Gafigfts meet, (near the Mildhav-rlU) gh&t ftt
Benares); km*wn pratyag-grdmam, west of the village.

� 531. The following rules apply to the changes of the final syllables in adverbial
compounds :

1. Words ending in mutes {k, kh, g, ghy ch, chh,j, jh, fy fh, 4� (^� ^ '^> ^9 ^^9 P> P^j ^> ^^)

may or may not take final ^aj 9 M ^ Pi 4 upasamidham or ^Mti tn ^ upasamit, near
the fire-wood. (P&n. v. 4, j 1 1 .)

2. Words ending in IH^ cm substitute final ^aj HVITfR adhydtnuxm, with regard to one-

self. (P&n. V. 4, 108.)

3. But neuters in in^an may or may not ; Vipdi upachartnam or ^fT^ upacharma, near

the skin. (Pft^. v. 4, 109.)

4. W^\ nad(y MilS^I4ll paun^mdsi, Vli|(|4|4u1 dgrahdyaj^iy and ftftpm may or may not

take final ^aj '9V[^f^ upanacU or W^^ i^anadoffiy near the river. (P&n. v. 4, iio^
and 113.)

5. Words belonging to the class beginning with IJR]^ darad take final V a; ^h^v^

upadaradamy about autumn. (P&i^. v. 4, 107.)




Esoplanation of some of the Verbal Armbandhas or Indicatory Letters,

W a is put at the end of roots ending in a consonant in order to fiicilitate
their pronunciation.

Accent* — ^The last letter of a root is accented with the acute, the grave, or
circumflex accent^ in order to show that the verb follows the Parasmai-
pada, the Atmanepada, or both forms.

The roots themselves are divided into uddtta^ acutely accented, and anuddtta,
gravely accented, the former admitting, the latter rejecting the inter-
mediate ^ i.

W d prohibits the use of the intermediate ^ i in the formation of the Nishth&s
{� 333, D. a), Pan. vii. a, i6. Ex. i^ phullak from fH^^ iUphald.

j^i requires the insertion of a nasal afl^er the last radical vowel, which nasal
is not to be omitted where a nasal that is actually written would be
omitted (f 345,^^), Pan. vii. i, 58 ; vi. 4, 34. Ex. H^ nandati from ^ffif
nadi, Pass, ifini nandyate; but from iv^ or ir?^ manth, Pres. ihlflr
manthati. Pass, ifvqir mathyate.

^ ir shows that a verb may take the first or second aorist in the Parasmai-
pada (f 367), Pa^. iii. i, 57. Ex. ^r^^c^achyutat or m^tMlhi^achyotU
fit>m ^^f^chyutir.

^ i prohibits the use of the intermediate ^ t in the formation of the Nishth&s

(� 333* !*• ^)� P^^* ^"- ^9 ^4- ^^' "^'^ unnal^ from "ii^t undi.

7 u renders the admission of the intermediate \i optional before the genmdial
WT tvd (� 337, II. 5), Pan. vii. a, 56; and therefore inadmissible in the
past participle (Pan. vii. a, 15). Ex. ^rfNi^n iamitvd or ^|T?VT idntvd from
^ iamu; but ^7: Sdntaf^.

9 4 renders the admission of the intermediate ^ i optional in the general
tenses before all consonants but \y {� 337, I* a), P&n. vii. a, 44; and
therefore inadmissible in the past participle (Psln. vii. a, 15). Ex. ^^T
seddM or ^S^smsedhiia from fm^sidhd; but f^: siddhah^

^ ri prevents the substitution of the short for the long vowel in the redupU-
cated aorist of causals (f 37a*), Pfi^. vii. 4, a. Ex. Vc}cft^�i^ alulokat
from titsf lokri.


H fi shows that the verb takes the second aorist in the Parasmaipada {� 367),

P4n. III. X, 55. Ex. w^fffi^agamat firom ifj} gamli.
IT e forbids Vriddhi in the first aorist {� 348 *), P&i?. vii. 2, 5. Ex. WH^fh^ama-

thit from IT^ mathe.
W\ indicates that the participle is formed iaiina instead o( Kta(� 442, 5),

P&^. vjii. 2, 45. Ex. yftm pinah from vliqnft opydyt.
l^n shows that the verb follows the Atmanepada (PaQ. i. 3, 12).
H n shows that the verb follows both the Atmanepada and Parafimaipada,

the former if the act reverts to the subject (P&n. i. 3^ 72)*
f^ m shows that the past participle has the power of the present (Pa9. iii.

2, 187). Ex. -^.phullai^, blown, from f^(l!m8ST niphald.
^m shows that the vowel is not lengthened in the causative {� 462, note),

Pfin. VI. 4, 92; and that the vowel is optionally lengthened in the aorist

of the passive (P^^. vi. 4, 93).

BM Class {Bhvddiy I Class).

I. Parasmaipada Verbs.

I. ^IM, to be.
Parasmaipada : P. i. H^rrfti hhdvdmi, 2. �Rftr bhdyasi, 3. H^ Ihdvati,
4. WRt Ihdvdvahy 5. il^W bhdvathal^y 6. WTIH hMvataf^, 7. H^rnn bhdvdmat^,
8. H^^ hhdvathay 9. H^^ hhdvanti, I. i. im^ dbhavam, 2. inrr: dbhavak,
3. ^W^rfJAaro^, 4. ^ra^n dbhavdva, 5. ^V^TTIT dbhavcUam, 6, ^WWfff dbhavatdm^
7. ^EM^nr dbhavdma, 8. ^M^ dbhavata, 9. ^hdt^ atAovan, O. i. H^ bhdveyam,

2. ^ bhdvehy 3. )|%i|[^i/iat;e/9 4. H^ hhdveva^ 5. ^^ bhdveiam^ 6, *l^ bhdvetdm,
7. H^&A(ft;ema, 8. HTTr 5A(�t;e/a, 9.^^: bhdveyuhy l.i.^^'^ff^bhdvdni^ 2,>inbhdvctj

3. H^ bhdvcUUy 4. ^^nr bMvdva, 5. H^ bhdvatam^ 6. H^ bhdvaidm^ 7. H^THI
bhdvdmay 8. *TOr bhdvata, 9. >rt3 bhdvantu w Pf. i. ^^rq[jf babhuvaf (see p. 175),
a. W*jftnr *�**^^*'^, 3. ^T babhuva^ 4. ^^[J^ babhUvivdy 5. W>J!T^: babhttvatkutk,
6. W^S^g: babkdvdtuf^y 7. ^?^jNh babhilvimd, 8. ^^ babhUvd^ 9. W)j[j: babMvuJ^y
II A. I. ir^ dbMvam (see p. 188), 3. ^ar^: rfJAdiJ, 3. iff^jj^^d JArf/, 4. w^rfftArfm,

van, F. I. Nf^illDl bhaviskydmiy 2. HfV^oAl bhavishydsiy 3. ^rf^T^fw bhavishydii,
4. Hfr^irv: bhavishydvai^y' 5. nfinvnn bhavishydthaJjt, 6. )lf^mr: bhavishydtal^j
7. Hfrmft bhavishydmaJj^f 8. wf^nv^ bhavishydthay 9. Hfnoflf bhavishydnti,
C. I. ^mfr*! dbhavishyam, 3. mrf^: dbhavishyai^ 3. ^mftvn^ dbhavishyat,
4. ^emf^nm? dbhavishydva^ 5. ^BOrf^nmr dbhavishyatam^ 6. ^MfrmiT dbhavishyatAn,
7. ^cnTfnQT>V dbhaviahydma^ 8. ^nrfnw dbhavishyaia, 9. ^ilHf^fvv9( dbkamshyan^

t The reduplicative syllable ^ 6a is irregular, instead of ^ 6tt. The base, too, is irregular
(P&n. I. 3, 6) ; the regular form would have been ^JHI^ bvbhdva.


P. F. i.Hf^ifT^ bhamtdsmi^ a. ^vf^inf^ bhavitdsi, 3. >lftin bhavitd, 4. HftiWTW:
bhavitdsvabj 5. Hftuwr: bhamtasthab^ 6. HfV|irr& bhavitdrau^ 7. Hf^nn^: bhavi-
tMnab, 8. >iflnmw bhavUasiha, 9. vrfinfTC bhavitdrab, B. i. giro bhUydsam,
a. >Jin: AA%4*, 3. >J?nnM%(^, 4. >�[?n^ bMydsva, 5. ^in# bMydstam, 6. ^^qrai
bhUydstdm^ 7. ^[^n^T bhUydsma, 8. ^i^rRcT bhUydsta^ 9. ^in^: bhdydsub H Part.
Pres. VRf^ bhdvan, Perf. Y^^TT!^ babhUvduj Put. Hf^rq^^ bhavishydn, Ger. qj^
bMtvd or �^ 'bhdya. Adj. )|f%ipq: bhavitdvyaby K^^^ bhavardyaby WV.
bhavyab {� 456).

Atmanepada* : P. i. ^ iMt?�, a. H^ bhdvaae, 3. wir bhdvate, 4, H^n^
bhdvdvahcy 5. H^ bhdvethe, 6. vr^ bhdvete, 7. H^iH^ bhdvdmahey 8. H^ AM-
vadhve, 9. H^ bhdvante, I. i. ^m% dbhave^ a. ^nr^^rn dbhavaihdb, 3. ^DOnr
dbhavaia, 4. m^nf^ (�iAat;af;aAi9 5. ^m^^ dbhavethdm, 6. ^M^ dbhavetdm,
7. ^BWInf^ dbhavdmahi, 8. ^mw dbhavadhvam^ 9. ^r^nir dbhavanta, O. i. �r^
bhdveya, a. H^^t bhdveihdbt 3� ^'^ bhdveta^ 4. ^i^^rf^ AA<�t;�;aAi, 5. H^irnif
bhdveydthdm, 6, H%in?rf bhdveydtdmy 7. H^nff bhdvemahi, 8. H^ bhdvedhvam^
g.^iATj^bhdveran, I.i.vf^ bhdvaif 2.>f(^^bhdvasva, ^.v{^ bhdvatdm, 4.H^nrt
bhdvdvahai, 5. )IT^ bhdvethdm, 6. tl^nf bhdvetdm, 7. K^inf bhdvdmahaiy 8. )?^
bhdvadhvam, 9. H^tirf bhdvanidm 11 Pf. i.'W^ babhdvi (see note t* page 2(45)9
a. ^iiq[f^ babhUvisMy 3. i|�j^% babhdviy 4. ^T^jfn^ babMvivdhe, 5. W^fJIT^ babhit-
vdthe, 6. Wf}^ Idbhdvdte, 7. W^jf^ babMvimdhe, 8. ^f^ or "^ lalMvidhvi
or -^to^ (see $ 105), 9. "W^jflft: babMviri^ I A. i. ^mfTf<r c^AamAi^ a. ^WlftnrK
dbhavishfhdby 3. Wlf^ dbhavishfa, 4. iraftrvqrf^ dbhavishvahi, 5. ^^^rff^r^ <i5Aa-
vishdthdm^ 6. ^nifrmirf dbhavishdtdm, 7. ^nif^PRf^ dbhamshmahi, 8. imfw or ^
dhhavidhvam or -4^vam, 9. ^mftriTTr dbhavishata, F. Hf^ Ihavishyi Sec,
C. ^wf^ dbhamshye &c., P. F. i. Hftnn^ Ihavitdhe, a. >?ftrm% Ihavitdsey
3. >lftin bhavitd, 4. ^rftnira^ bhaviidsvahe, 5. ^fftmnrr^ IhavUasdthe, 6. Hftnn^
bhavii^au, 7. Hf9Bra% Ihavitdsmahe^ 8. Hfmid hfiavitddhve, 9. ^rftrmx:: AAavt-
Mra^y B, i. hMHt bhavisMyd^ a. HfWwT: hhavishishfhdb, 3. HfWlF 5Aaw-
shUhfd, 4. H(V|iflc|f^ hhavisMvdhiy 5. ^lOml^dijiif hhavishiydstkdmy 6. ^fWhrnSBrf
bhavishiydstdm, 7. ^vfinrt^ bhavishimdhi, 8. Hf%4M or ""^ bhavishldhvdm or
-^hvdm, 9. Hftr4)T5( 6AamAfrrf� u Part. Pres. )nilT^ ^Acfvamana^, Perf. ^^[^HT:
bdbhUvdndby Fut. ^fV�i|Hl4U* bhavishydmdiiab'

Passive : P. i. ^ 6A%^t> 2. gnro bMydse^ 3. ^^"n^ IhHydte, 4. ^iH^ 6Ad-
ydvahe^ ^.^^^bhUySthe^ e.^^bhUy^tCj 7. ^im^ bhUydmahe, S.^j^ bkdyddhve^
9. ^i?^ bhdydntey I. iv^^ (iM%e &c., O. ^1^ bhdyiya &c., I. ^ dA%a( &c. ii

* ^6^^ may be used in the Atmanepada after certain prepositions. Even by itself it is

used in tbe sense of obtaining : 9 ftnv H^ �a iriyam bhavate, he obtains happiness. (S&r.

P- 4� 1- 3O

t ^6A<I with W^ anu means to perceive, and may yield a passive.


P� "VS^ babhUvi &c., like Atmanepada, I A. i. imf^ or innftrftv dbhaviskiy
2. ^wftffx: or ^nnftrVT: dbhavish(hdi^, 3. vmftr dbhdvij 4. ^mf^miff dbhdvishvahi
&C.9 like Atmanepada, F. hAt^ or mfnit bhavishyi &c., C. imfV<^ or iMTftr^
dbhavishye &c., P. F. ^Tf^fWI^ or mftnnf bhcmtdhe &c., B. hMHt or ^nf^riA^
bMvishiyd &c. ll Part Pres. ^gjmXH: bkdydmdnab^ Fut. MftlHW bhavishyd-
mdnab^ Past ^ bhUtdb*

Causative, Farasmaipada : P. HT^infl! bhdvdydmiy I. imnr^ dbhdvayam,
O. HT^^ bhdvdyeyatn, I. MnnrrfW 6Mvrfyam 11 Pf. m^nrhnm: bhdvaydnchakara^
II A. Wir)H^ dbibhavam, F. Ml^lOilvilOl bhdvayishyamiy C. imnAn^ (i5Mt;a^i-
shyam^ P. F. Hl^fVflirm bhdvayitdsmiy B. m^ire bhdvyaaam.

Causative, Atmanepada : P. nn^ bhavdye, I. wm^ dbhavaye^ O. m^^
bhdvdyeya, I. HT^ bhdvdyai 11 Pf. HT^irNlk bMvaydnchakre^ II A. v4hl^
dbibhave, F. Hnftr^ bhavayishyi^ C. Winftnv dbhdvayishye^ P. F. KRftnn^
bhdvayitoAe, B. trr^rANhr bhdvayishiyd.

Causative, Passive.: P. m^ bhdvyS, I. imt^ dbhdvye, O. m^ bhdvyiya,
•I. W^ bhdvyai \\ Pf. Hl^ilNltiy �^l>iL^, �1IT^, bh&vayanchakre, -babhilve, -die,
I A. iRHFrftrf^ dbhdvayishi or Vimf^ dbhdvishi^ F. HPrftn^ bhdvayishyi or
vnf^^ bhdvishySj C. ^mnftn^ dbhdvayishye or ^nnfn^ dbhdvishye, P. F.
Ml^rilffl^ bhdvayitahe or HlfTin^ bhdvitdhe^ B. ^iT^ftnfN bhdvayishiyd or
^nf^nfhi bhdvishiyd.

Desiderative, Farasmaipada : P. w^gnqiftf bibhiishdmiy I. ^r^4 (fZ^Ati-
�Aai7�, O. ^^ bubhUsheyam, L ^^RTftr bubhUshdni w Pf. ^^irt^qiR bvhhUshdh-
chakdra, I A. wj^jfrt dbubhUshisham^ F. ^DlviirH bubhUshishydmi, C. H^^tfM
dhubhUshishyam^ P. F. ^f^nnf^T bttbhilshitasmi, B. "^J^ji^qT^ bubhUshyasam,

Desiderative, Atmanepada : P. ^1^ bubhushe^ I. ir^^aJ^Au^A^, O. ^^^
bubhilsheyaf I. ^) bubhiishai \\ Pf. ^|^[7lHTii bubhushdnchakre, I A. i. ir^ftrfv
dbubhtishishi, 2, Hg^rmi: dhuhhushishthdb, 3. V^[^[f^ dbtibhushishfa^ F-^^d^
bubhUshishyS, C. ^nj^f^ dbubhushishye, P. F. "J^f^nn^ bubhushitdhcj B.
^)|;f^|i(hr bubhushiahtyd.

Desiderative, Fassive : P.'y|i^6w6Aw*Ay^, I. ^1^^ dbubhushye, O. 'J^p^
bubhushy^ya^ l.^^fi^bubhiishyaiw Pt'^^jpA^lhbubhiishdnchakrey I A. i. VJ^f^f^
dbubhtishishij 2. vj^fMin: dbubhiishishihaJ^y 3. W^f^ cf&u&Ati^Ai (see ^ 406),
F. ^f^ bubhAshishyi^ C. ^V^f�n^ dbubhilshishye, P. F. ^{^[f^nn^ bubhUtshiidhej
B. ^J)j[f^riAiT bubhushiahiyd.

Intensive, Atmanepada : P. i. 'i^'^JoJAMy^, a. wtq^l^toiMydi^, 3. ^^^I^it^li^
bobhUydte^ 4. wt^f?n^ bobhuydvahe, 5. "^^>J3W bobhdyithe^ 6. ^t*^ bobhuyfte,
7. wt^illH^ bobhuydmahe, 8. wt^iT�9&o&My(�(2At769 p.^wt^^Jl^^otA^efn/e^I. i.V^ft^
dbobhUye, 2, ^nft^jpnni dbobhdyathdJ^j 3. vlW^^fTTH dbobhUyatUj 4. VVt^jL^RP^ rf6o-
bhUyavahi^ 5. Vih^^i dhobhdyethdm^ 6. ^rft�|[^M dbobhUyetdnii 7. ^nrt^j?n*rff
dhobhUydmahif 8. ^pft^fTIM dbobhiyadhvam^ 9. V^^4a dbobhdyanta^ O. Wt^fj^^

248 bh6 glass, pabashaipada verbs.

lohhdySya &c., 1. 1. 'i^gi^ lohMyai, a. wtfJW lobhUydsvay 3. ^W lobMydtdm,
4. ^fhjTqnl bobMydvahai, 5. yft^t^ bobhUydhom^ 6. wt^J^ bdbMyit&m^

7. WtijnVT'lt bobhUydmahai^ 8. 'w't)|im bobhAyddhvatn^ 9. W^i[?hrt bobMydnidm i
Pf. <ft ^4 f |f| fli bobhUydrkchakre^ I A. i. ^^^^l^ft dbobhUytshi, 2. ^nft^jftur. dbobhU-
yishthdh, 3. Hift^f^g dbobhUyishfa, 4. Wl^^nmr^ dbobMyishvahi, ^,%rft^gpm^
dbobhUyishdthdm, 6. H^'^^ftlMiHI dbobhUyiahatdm, 7. mft^PniMn? dbobMyishmahi,

8. ^rwt^ftw or �^ dbobhdyidhvam or -(f^vaniy 9. �^*1^f^H4 dbobhiiyishata,
F. -wt^fqi^ bobhUyishySy C. W^Phjfin^ dbobhUyishye, P. P. wt^df^nn^ bobhAyiidhe,
B. wt^tj^r^fhr bobkiSyishtyd.

Intensive, Pa�rasmaipada : P. i. wWVflf bdbhomi or ifrrrtfil bdbhavtmi,
2. ifMWl bdbhoshi or ^fbrtWl bdbhavishi, 3. iWWt MMo/i or tft>l^ffir bdbhaviti,

4. WtijJ^ bobhUvdh, 5. ^^ft^t^ bobhithdh, 6. ift^: bobhUtdh, 7. *^: bobMmdb,
S.'^t^ bobhiithd, ^.ift^gmflKbdbhuvati, 1. 1. iff^tw d AoiAat^om, 2. ^NWt: <f Ao*A�i
or VVt^: dbobhavify, 3. ^VWtH^^ dbobhot or fnft*le^^<^^ dbobhavtt, 4. ^w'tf? <fft<^-
6At2t?a, 5. ^H^A^ dbobMtam, 6. ^N^HT dbobhUtdm, 7. wf^ dbobhdma^ 8. ^BPf^
dbobMlOy 9. Wift^ dbobhavul^y O. Wt^J?rf bobMydmy 1. 1. "^ft^T^lftr bdbhavdfd,
2, "Wt^ft bobhdMy 3. ^vMtg bdbhotu or Y^T^ bdbhavUuy 4. ^ift^rin bdbhavdva^

5. ^ft^ bobkiUdm, 6. '^ft^ bobhUtdrriy 7. ij^^rm bSbhavdma^ 8. wtqjff bobhUtd,
P'^rt^^ bdbhuvaiu w Pf. lII^H^N^K bobhavdmchakdray 4. iflH�lNf 1 bobha^
vdmchakrivay 7. whT^t^Rpr bobhavdmchakrima ; also i. whin bobhava or 'ft^
bobhuvOy 2, Wt^jfro bobhuvitkay 3. wblT^ bobhdva or Wt^jC^ bobhuva, 4, '^ft^gpn
bobhdvivd^y 5. ^t^jr^ bobMvdthuhy 6. 'ft^fjrjJ bobMvdtuhy 7. ^"fhffini bobMvimdy
8. 'ftij? bobhdvdy 9. W^: bobMvdhy II A. i. HWt^ dbobhUvamy 2. ^f^Ug: dbobhdi
or ^N^^ dbobMvihy 3. ^N^^ dbobhUt or Uift<jj|1< ( ^ dhobMvity 4. WW^ ifJo-
bhitvOy 5. ^nft^ dbobMtamy 6. ^pft^Jjrf dhobhUtdm, 7. ^nft^ dbobhilfna, 8. W^t^^
dbobMta, 9, tnf^: dbobhivuh (not Vrt^^ dbobhdvan), I A. i.t ^Pfl^rfW
dbobhdvisham, 4. ^nhmft^ dhohhdmshvay 7. ^nf^HTf^^ dbobhdvishmay F.
^Inf^mDl bobhamshyami^ C. tnftHfW dhobhavishyaniy P. F. if^^f^nnf^ bobhO'
viidsmi, B. wt^ivm bobMydsam.

Note — Grammarians who allow the inteneive without ^ya to form an Atmanepada, give
the following forms : Pres. 'ft^pJ' hobhUti, Impf. ^r^t>j3f dhohhiUa, Opt. ^^4)fl bdbhuvita,
Imp. Wt^Jjrf bobhOtdm, Per. Perf. W^^^tNw bobhavdmchakre, Aor. inft^fillf dbobhavishlay
Fut. *n*lfNlR bobhavishydte, Cond. ^W^HfM*lrt dbobhavishyata. Per. Put. W^wPtJIT bobha-
vitd, Ben. ti\HO(ifllf bobhavishUhtd. (See Colebrooke, p. 194.)

* The form WT^nTT 6o6A�fnva is not sanctioned by any rule of P^ni.

t The first aorist is the usual form for intensives, but in ^dAt2 it is superseded by the
second aorist, this being enjoined for the simple verb. Some grammarians, however, admit
the first aorist optionally for ^&Al^ (Colebr. p. 193). The conflicting opinions of native
grammarians on the conjugation of intensives are fiilly stated by Colebrooke, p. 191 seq.


2. f^cAtV, to think, (f%?ft.)
The Annbandha ^1 shows that the participle in IH tah takes no intermediate ^ t.

5. f^frnry, 6. fufncj:, 7. f^F^ifin?, s.ftffrnr, 9. W^t, I A. i.w^fW, 2. "w^efli,

3. V^irtl^, 4. H^OlUf^ 5. n^flr?, 6. fi^ftnf, 7. U^fif^, 8. ^^fifF, 9. ^^ftijs,

F.^^finqfir, C.^^rftn^rn^, P.F.^flnn, B.ftiwT?(^H Pt.fwin, fwf^n^, Ger.^firwr
or fiffwi^, ""^wm, Adj, ^flnw:, ^inrHr:, ^ 11 Pass, ftwr^, Aor. ^B^, Caus.
wifufif, Aor. ^nftffifn^, Des. N^nilOl or ftrfifflRflf, Int. ^rf^Wn, ^^tV.

3. ^^chyuty to sprinkle^ (^finj-)
The Anubandha !(^tr shows that the verb may take the first and second aorist.

P. wtwfw, !• ic^Rtirn, ^' '^^'''l^ ^' ^"ft^ M Pf� I. 'IJ'"'^* ^- ^'ftflrT, 4. •^'gfns,
I A. i.w^aj^finl, a. ^r^ifWI:, 3. WRWh^, 9. ^rBftfiry, or II A. i.^^w, a. "w^do
3. i^in^, 9. ^ngin^, F. ^"Vfinofw^ C. ^v^'Vfinqir, P. F, ^qWinrT, B. ^Aiii^ h Pt.
^jfinr: or ^"Vfinr^ ^^h^K, Ger. ^"Vfrrr^ or tgftn'rr. Adj. �ftnni*i: u Pass, ^m^,
Caus. iq^mrfir, Aor. ^v^^^^ni^^ Des. ^fMira^ft or ^<i|n i Mf> i , Int. ^ft^gwi^, '^I'Rliftr.

4* 'W^ichyut, to flow, (l^[f)ll^.)

P.^itirfir, I.wvjhn^j O.iq^Th^^, I.^ftwjiiPf.i.^whr, 9.^'i5j:,IA. i.inritfW,
a. vvnfll;, or II A. I. ^v^if, F, vvHk^fir, C. ^rvftflrai^, P. F. vftfinn, B.

Note — ^This verb is sometimes written Vif.

5* n^manih, to shake.

P. ihifir u Pf. I. mi^, a. irtftnr, 3. inhr, 7. ^mfm, 8. hh^: (P&n. i. a, 5) or, less
correctly, nwvr%: {� 328, 4), I A. ^HiNftir, F. itftrnflr, P. F. liftnfT, B. vmr\
i� 3459 ^�) " Pt. iftnr, ^ir^ or ^fwi?^ (cf. $ 395, note), Ger. nf^tm or irfiim
(Pai^. I. a, 23; f 428),�'^ar, Adj.iffinra:, iHnfhi:, �N: h Pass.inan^, Caus.iNirfIr,
Des. fMfiRfir, Int. �nii�n^, imfti or irnHMir, Impf. 3. 'wnifs^-

Note — Roots ending in consonants preceded by a nasal, lose the nasal before weakening (kit,
nit) terminations (P&n. vi. 4, a4) ; but not roots written with Anubandha ^. The terminations
of the reduplicated perfect in the dual and plural are weakening (kit), except after roots ending
in double consonants (P&i^. i. 2, 5). According to some, however, the weakening is allowed
even after double consonants : %f^fi{fir I HwWt^iTjftniTO^: I ITHT ^ ll'ftMi^M^lIjA I
^^ftflfff^ ftnn I TTfJt <<1jri.ni 11 Roots, however, which thus drop the penultimate
nasal in the perfect, need not take ^ instead of reduplication : *cft\(V�ft ^flf %fm^ ^ff^l I
Prakriy&--Kaumudt, p. 7 b.

Native grammarians admit a verb inrf)r' (mathe), and another H^lfh, which supply a
variety of verbal derivatives.

6, il^ kunth^ to strike, (^f^.)

Roots marked in the Dh&tupfttha by technical final ^t keep their penultimate nasal throughout.

This root can take no Gu^a, on account of its final conjunct consonant.

P.f^, l.vf^, O.^f^, l.f^ II Pf. i.^f^, a.^fftni, p-tIy* -'^-^'



^ff^T^, 9. ^nJF^** ^- %^^wfw, P. F. ^ftnrr, B. ipqii^> (HP^fwiln^, � 99, not
with lingual K^, as Carey gives it) 11 Pt. ^fftnr:, ^^T'l* ��'* TIF^^'^* **^W,
Adj. ^rvrii�q: H Pass.'^sni^ Cans. ■y'Jnrfw, Des. ^^ftRfir, Int. ^ibjanr, ^ft^ftr.

7. ftn^ sidh, to go (ft^), and ftn^ sidh, to command (ftiv).

P. ^>ifir (ftf^vftr *), I. ira^n^ 11 Pf. i. fti^, 2. ftr^fim, 9. ftrftrv:, I A. ^vihAi^,
F. nPiiiiRf) P. F. 4i(Viiii9 B. Ojuik^.

In the sense of commanding or ordaining, this root is marked by technical
9 (ft^), and hence the intermediate ^ may be omitted. Thus Pf. a. f^V^

or ftni�, 4. ftrfiiftw or ftrfVM &c., F. ^ftnirfw or ^fw, P. F. ^ftnn or inr,

I A. V^ulljl^ (as before), or i. ^rew, a. H^HRIm 3. ^TOW^, 4. ^ShS, 5. ^W^,

6.^iilif, 7. "vfh^, 8. ir%i, 9. ^rtij: u Pt. ftnr, Ger. irfWnnr or fti^, �ftiiii, Adj.
^finw: or ^ir^in 11 Pass, fmxiky Cans, ^^qfk, Des. f^irfv^ or ftif^mrfir {� 103),
Int. irf^runr, ^^Ri.

8. m khad^ to be steady, to kill, to eat

P. n^fiii 11 Pf. f . ^WT^ (a), a. 'ifrftf^, 3. ^^rernr, 4. ^wift^, 5. ^^1^5*, 6. ^'wr^,

7. ^Wfi^, 8. ^W?, 9. ^^:, I A. HWT^ or WS^id), (P&o. vii. 2,7;� 348),

F. ^f^sifii, p. F. ^rf?^, B. ?nni(^ u Pt. wftfir:, ^fisi�(^, Ger. irfl^v^, ^ww, Adj.

wf^ir^: 11 Pass, miw, Caus. 91^^ fit, Des. Pwffipiflr, Int. ^ifiVA, ^^wflff.

9. IT7 gad, to speak.

P. 1^ (iiRuii^Oi), I. ^BR^ (niwn^), 0. 11^ I. �nf5 m Pf. i. vinf (fi),
3. ifirfipi, 9. vij:, I A. ^nrnfln^or ^nr^(a), (Pftn. vii. a, 7; $ 348), F. irf^i^irfiry

C. imfi^vn^, p. F. nfipn, B. ivn^ 11 Caus. in^nfw, Des. f�|iin;i|Qi, Int. UTtVl^,

10. r^ rad, to trace, to scratch.
P. TJ^ H Pf. I. TTP? (a), 3.>fij^, 9."^:, I A. ^RT3Rflnor ^R^(a), ($ 348.)

II. i^nad, to hum, (^0^.)
P. 'f^ (iWI^, uftR^) H Pf- 1. 'RT^ (a), 2. %f^, 9. ^, I A. mmfh^ or

12. ^ orrf, to go, to ask, to pain.

P. ^v^, L WT^ u Pf. I. ^iT�!^, a. ^ffHTf^, 9. w^i^, I A. ^snfft^^, F. irff^rfv n

Pt. irf^, not in%:, Bee also p. 166 H Caus. ^V^irtir, wrf^^, Des. wfffipifir.

13. ^ ind, to govern, (^fij.)

P. ^i^fir, I-"^^, O. ^^, 1. 1^ II Pf. ^^N*K {� 325) or ^^rnm or ^^[fw^,

* The change of ^ into 1^ is forbidden by P&nini VIII.3, 113, when f^H^ means to go.
It is admitted by the S&r. The Anubandha 7 is sometimes added to fri^ to go, but is
explained to be for the sake of pronunciation only. Colebrooke marks it as erroneous.
Its proper meaning would be that intermediate ^ is optional in the gerund, and forbidden
in the past participle (� 337^ 11. 5). The forms without intermediate ^ belong properly only
to fiT^ to command. This verb must change its initial Rafter prepositions ; fn^ufn.



lA. I. ^flf^, 2. w(fitf F. ^njiiOn^ C. ^flpifn^, P. F.^^fijHT, B, ^vn^ u Pt. i^flpn^ Perf.

4^t^9^l*i �^ ''^J^^ �' iil(Vl^l�|^9 Perf. Pass. i^^NniiV! or ^f^j^TT or wn8T�n.

14. fVf^ nind, to blame, (ftrfif.)

P. fthfflr (nfif^ or ivflih^y � 98, 8, 2) H Pf. fifftrf, I A. vfHOl^y ^' WJf'iflr,
P. F. r^R(fli> B. ftfvn^.

P. ftn^flf (niVinffify not nfsnifiry } 98, 8, 2) 11 Pf, fVrf)nff I A. nfHUilj^y

1 5, 'WWf^ukhj to go.

P. iihfffir (TBtuflf, � 43), I- ^rnn II Pf. I. "^nftif {� 3i4)> 2. 9^fViti, 3. ^tf^,
7. ^rf^n?) I A. wffli^9 F. vtftfivflr^ C. iDrfiiffly P. F. iftftfirr^ B. 9fi|ii^ 11
Pass. 'WWnf^ Caus. in^ilOly Des. wkftlftnifif.

17. ^H^ oncA, to go, to worship, (m^ and irfv.)

The Anubandha 7 u ot^S^aHchu allows the option of intermediate ^ t in the gerund, W%?VT
aiichUvd or VW aktvd^ and its nasal remains, except before weakening forms (see manM,
No. 5); but the Anubandha \% of V rV achi requires the nasal throughout (Dhfttup&^hay, 6).

P. ^Mk II Pf. I. ^mpr (J 3i3)� 9. Wf^: (but see No. 5, note), I A. wNh^,
F. ^H^rilflr, C. vlffVim^, P. F. ^K^irTy B. ^Nin^ (may he worship), mUTI^
(may he go), f 345, ^^

Pass* W9nr and ^iNnr, Caus. it^iifii, Des. ^f^f^NPil.

Distinguish between llPlffl worshipped, Ger. vf^i^l having worshipped, and VH?
moved (P&9. vil. 2, 53 ; vi. 4, 30) ; ^T^ never seems to lose its nasal when it means to
honour : Pass. ^Nl? he is honoured, W9|7 he is moved. The two roots, however, are
not alwa^ kept distinct.

18. ^sii^^dnchh^ to stretch, (wrftp.)

P. iriirfif � Pf. uRtif or niit (J 313)) I A. ^vhsrh^, F. nin^virii il Caus.

niiK^ni, Des. vir^OiiLMrii.

19. -^mruch, to go, (^.)
^Wfir II This and other verbs enumerated ^ 367 take optionally the first
or second aorist ; ^rW^ or ^r^^ H Pt. ^IK, Perf. ^^^T^? Ger. ^P^WT,
llH^ViilT (P&n. I. 2, 26), or ^pp.

20. ^ hurchhj to be crooked, (^%r.)

P. f*fk {� 143) II Pf. ^1*, I A. wpflH II Pt. ffthr: or |iS: {� 431, 2).

21. ^^vajf to go.
P. ^ilOl n Pf. I. ^^TRf (a)> 2. >wftfT (J 3^8), I A. vnih^ or V<TrW)<^,

. <lii|<*lln�

22. W^ t?rq;, to go.

P.mrfif II Pf. i.Tmif(^), 2.Tniftrv, I A. inmrti^^ ($348*) w Pt^rftni; u

Caus. iiii|4|0i, Des. fVnftrrfk^ Int. ^iflaiiir, TraftR.

K k 2

252 bh6 glass, pabasmaipaba vbrbs.

^3* ^^ Vy *^ S^9 ^ throw.
P. ^nrf^y I. ^mn^ ll ^ must be substituted in the general tenses before
terminations beginning with vowels. Before all consonants except i^ (Pap.
II. 4, ^6, v&rt.) this substitution is optional, i. e. both W^ and ^ may be used li

P� I. "Pttr (a), a. fiRHj or ftRftnr {� 335j 3)9 [^wftf^], 3. "flnni, 4. fliftw
(� 334)5 [^ftwj 5- f^'W^j ^' ^^wjt, 7. ftrftw [wrftw], 8. ftw, 9. fli^, I A.
n^fl?!^ [iiiHi!li(^], 9. v^Jm F. ^^?flr (J 332, 3), C. m^^n^, P. F. ^ht, B. ^rt^m^
[F. ^rftrafv, C. nrftrm^, P. F. ^Bftnn] 11 Pt. iftwt [ifftnn], Perf. fWN^
[^infinn?^], Ger. ^ftwr [nftn*?], *^^fhr, A^. kicmt [wftnw:], ^rofN:, wm n

Pass, ^fhn^, Caus. ^iii^fff^ Des. f^^nflr [wftlfti'^lfil], Int. ^4hi^ {^^kfw is not
sanctioned by P4nini).

24. f^ Ar^Af, to wane, tran�. to diminish, (Colebrooke.)

P. '^^fff II Pf. I. 'PfqT^ (a), 2. ftrif^ or f^qOivf, 9, f^ft|||:, I A. ^�j4li^9
F. %�rfir, B. 'sfhm^^ (� 390) 11 Pt. ft^: or i|hir: 11 Pass, '^fhli^, Caus. i^nnrfk;
Des. ffT^Wir, Int. ^^hVTT, ^%f)r. The Caus. Tfqirfk belongs to "^ (f 46a,

n. 23) *.

25. V^ kaU to rain, to encompass, {y�t)
The Anubandha ^ e prevents the lengthening of the vowel in the aorist.
P. iliTflr 11 Pf. ^RTTT, I A. ^wrth^(no Vriddhi, J 3481).

26. T^gup, to protect, (�j^.)

The verbs J^gvp, to guard, ^JJ(,rf^<(p� to warm, ftp^ rtcAA, to go, ^W^pflni, to traffic, ^/wm,
to praise, take ^n^ dya in the special tenses, and take it optionally in the rest.
(P&9. III. I, 28; 31.)

P. WV^inrfiT, I. wftmnn^, O. nVm^, i. ift^nrj u Pf. jnu i ^h4K ($ 325, 3)
or ^pft^, I A. wftmifti^, viWh^, or wift^(f 337, 1. 2), 6.imhit, F. if > M i ri|iMn i ,
�frfW4r, or liNqflr, P. F. iftrrrftmr, �ftftwT, or iflm, B. vft^mn^ or T^m\ n
Pt. ifrqrftnn or rpn^ Ger. ntqrftviirTf ntftwT, or j^T, Adj. nt^nftnnirrf nWnw:,
or irhin M Caus. iftquflr or ifhinnrfir, Des. ^^Wk, ^gfinflr, ipiMWk, or
^'ftMiniMfif, Int. iftg^, iiWHti.

27. ^ dkdp^ to warm.
P> ^Jjirvfw U Pf. YMii|N%K or ^^ (no Gu^a, because the vowel is long),
I A. viUMiiili^ or WUT^.

28. nm^tapi to bum, (J 332, 14.)

P. iRfir M Pf. I. mrn? (^), a, wirwr or i^ftnj (f 335, 3), 3. wirrv, 1 A. 1. mrra^
3. 'wr^:, 3. ^nn^T^, 6. mmit (f 351), F. Ti^wfir, P. F. inn, B. rm\ � Pt inn,

* The causative cannot have short a, and though both Westergaard and Boehtlingk-
Roth give the short a, they produce no authority for it. The participle t|ftnn is equally
impossible, and should always be changed into ^Hini.


lifVi^, Ger. ITJT, Adj. innq:, IW: (short, because it ends in ^, f 456, 6) n
Pass. J[^9 Cans, irmfv? Des. fkff^rfWf Int. VTV^f TfTWftr.

Note — With certain prepoBitions K^^ takes the Atmanepada (PAp. i. 3, 27) ; 9flMfl�
f^nnij^ it shines. It has an active sense in the passive (i.e. Div Atm.), if it refers to
iro austere devotion; IPOn IIHidlMil* the devotee performs austere devotion. In the
sense of regretting .(^ing burnt) it forms the Aor. Villi ; VfTniW himH �rA<ui he was
distressed by a sinful act. (Colebr.)

29. ^Vicham, to eat, (^.)

The following verbs lengthen their vowel in the special tenses (P&n. vii. 3, 75� 76) : ^ cham,
if preceded by VT ^, to rinse, Vl^wOl dchdmati ;. ff^skthiv, to spit, fl^Hl Bh^hivaH
(see No. 35) ; 113^ kram, to stride, mmPfi krdmati (see No. 30) ; HP^ittom, to tire, ^ifvrfv
kldmati. ^ guh, to hide, ^15 fn gHkati, follows a different rule, lengthening its vowel
throughout, instead of taking Gupa, when a vowel follows. (P&9. vi. 4, 89.)

P. ^nrftr, but after the prep. VT, m^Tlflr li Pf. i. "^^IPf (a), 7. ^tfk^ &c., I A.

w^ir^ {� 348*) H Pt. ^: {� 429), Ger. 'wtwr or ^fliiVT, Adj. ^fifinmy ^m�n

(P&^i. III. 1, 126) H Caus. ^m^ {� 462).

30. TfR kram, to stride, (HEf .)
H^ kram, to stride, Vrn| hhrdi, to shine, }g(^ bhUU^ to shine, ^ bhramf to roam, IVJ klam,
to fail, ?Rrt ^ra�, to tremble, ^ ^ruf, to cut, ^^Jash^ to desire, nuiy take ^ ya in the
special tenses. Hence VTITlTflT bhrdmyati or ^PTflT bhramatL (Pli^. iii. i, 70.)

P. unrfk or urnifir) I- vnim^^ or haimii^^ ii Pf, "wnspr, I A. vniAi^ (� 348*),
F. nftfufir, P. F. nftnn, B. umin^ u

IR lengthens its vowel in the general tenses (Hi) of the Parasmaipada
(Pftn. VII. 3, 76). Hence IKTHflr, but imi^. It takes no intermediate ^ in
the Aim.; Fut. lJS9n^, P.F. limy Aon^nJRV; but some grammarians admit
intermediate ^.

Pt. mhr:, Perf. wnnms^, Ger. ilfWT {&) or nfiVf^ {� 429), Adj. nsftnnq: 11 Pass.
HERH^, Caus. urniffir, $ 461, (after prep, also ntnT^rfir), Des. fvnAndir or fmim^,
Int. ^UMiff, ^Mil.

Note — It has been doubted whether HP^in the Div class also lengthens its vowel. It is
not one of the eight ?am verbs (P&n. vii. 3, 74) ; and in P&9. vii. 3, 76, ^yan is no longer
valid. The Pras&da gives ISRVfir ; but adds, ^Rl^ Q ^T^Vf^ ^^ HSmnftfw I The
S&rasvatt decides for fUMlOl, giving the general rule (11. i, 145) ^iHI((lH[i ^^ H^flT ^HIR
^1 and enumerating as ^RTf^f; V^^^V'^^iP^lP^'i^* But Jlf[ia not a S^amidi at all,
and instead of 1li>^we ought to read fpf, T4r&n&tha in the Dh&turiipadarsa gives HHrfir,
lUg&r&mas&strt supports HHTllfir.

31. vn yam, to stop.

The roots ft'^gam, to go, ^H^yam, to cease, and ^i^A, to wish, substitute Wchchha for

their final in the special tenses. (Pi^. vii. 3, 77.)

P. TRrtr, I. winw^ii Pf. i.^wm (fi), 2. irt^ or ^ftnr, 9. ^:, I A. ^btoi^($ 359),
F. iMirf P. F. liwT, B. vnrn^ � Pt. mr:, ^ftnn^, Ger. n;^, ^in^ or <^inir, Adj.


^inmu 'l^'H (ftntw?:) H Pass, imkj Caus. nmrfw (a), (� 461), II A. iffiAiRn^,

Des. Anhrfir, Int. im^^ or iWfir.


Note — 'V^ may be used ia the Atm. with the prep. ^, if it is either intransitive,
V|l|^A IT^ the tree spreads, or governs as its object a member of the agent's body ;
VN^ff HiUu he puts forth his hand. Likewise with the prep. ISIT, 9, ^, if it is used
reflectively ; ^^TSXH *fl^l�^ he heaps together his own rice. Likewise after TV, when it
means to espouse ; THft <nni�|mM4d R&ma married SiiA: here the Aor. may also be T^nnr;
like T^nnr he divulged another's &ults. (� 356.)

3 a. �f�^ warn, to bow, (?ffil.)

P. HhOi 11 Pf. I. ffffW (a), a. •TT'l or ^Anr, 9. ^t, I A. irNftl^ {� 359)9 F�
^h^rfWy P* F. iflfT, B. TTV^ni^&c., like i|ir. On the Causative, see � 461.

Note — ^^may be cox^ugated in the Atmanepada. (P&n. iii. i, 89.)
. The Anubandha 7 given to it by some grammarians is declared wrong by others.

33. 7T9f^gam^ to go, (jq.)

P. thkAi 11 Pf. I. iPTR (d), 2. iprfini or wi^9 3. 'snrpf, 4. ifrfn (� 3^8, 3),

5. unfy &c., II A. wnf(f( (� 367), F. nftr�iifir (J 338, a), P. F, if?n, B. iiriin^ 11
Pt. mrtj Perf. iifliw�^ or 9|ii�^r�f^, Gen itw, ��wi or **JTFr, Adj. ^nrm^ n^n w

Pass. 'WIT, Caus. vunifir) Aor. WsfbRnr^ Des. ftpiftnifir. Int. ^J|M|ri or �i�i(ii*

Note — ^With prep. � it follows the Atm., if intransitive. The Caus. too, with the prep.

ygt, may follow the Atm., if it means to have patience ; "�iim�im� ITT^ wait a little. In

the Atm. the final ^T may be dropt in the Aor. and Ben. ; ti�i�in or ^inniiT, ^'l^flVortiMtO^.

(See � 355.)

34. iffi^ phalf to burst, (ftnic5T.)

P. ii<9fir 11 Pf. I. MWc* {&)9 2, ^Pc^vi {� 3369 II- 2)9 3. imnVf 4. ^rfcW�

I A. wirarh^ {� 348 *)> F. lif^nrflr u Pt. "5^: (P&n. vm. 2, 55), Ger. yBfiimt u
Pass. H^, Caus. HHT^y Aor. ^nihicn^, Des. rMHifaHfl f , Int. ij^jl^n^, ^4^^^*
(PAn. VII. 4, 87-89.)

35. ftr^ shfhivj to spit, (flr^.)

P. iWJr 11 Pf. flfi^ or fti^, I A. Wft^^, F. ^firoflr 11 Pt. 1^: 11 Pass.
ft^vk (J 143), Caus. ^^irfff) Des. fJlslOmni or ff^^lflr (P�^n. vii. 2, 49), Int.
^'^Nqi^. No Intensive Parasmaipada.

Vowel lengthened in special tenses (see No. 39). Initial sibilant unchangeable (� 103).

36. ftf y�, to excel.

P.^nrfif H Pf. i.ftnTnr(i), a.ftni^ orftnifinr, 3.ftnTnr, 4.ftrfiTi^j s-ftf*^^*

6. (V|i4ig:, 7. fVrfhiir, 8. ftpir, 9. fir^:, I A. w^irt^^ (f 350)? F. ^^rflr, P. F. ^wt,

B. iflill^ u Pt. ftnrt, Perf. f^D|<||�^, Ger. fifi^, Adj. inrvf^ Tnfhn^ n^> and
if�n ($ 456, a), ftrw: only with ffti: (P^n. III. I, 117) II Pass, ifhl?^, Aor.
^nnftr� Caus. HmilOr, Aor. *vl�fl^MI(^9 Des. ftffHfiT, Int. iMhTn, ififfil- It
follows the Atmanepada with the prepositions iTCT and f%.

The change of IT into ^^in the reduplicated perfect is anomalous (�319). It does not


take place in UTT to wither (nnTTilT), although the rule of P&^ini might seem to comprehend
that root after it has taken Sampras&nu^a. w^ forms its reduplicated perfect ftfi^i.

37. Vfl^ akshj to obtain, (wi|.)
VH^oitsA follows also the Su class, WfUKnOl akthtioti &c.

P. w^fir M Pf. I. ^iFTw* 2. ^BRf^nr or vnnr, 3. wrsnij 4. vitfOum or wnnr,
5. WMmij!, 6. vi�mj[t9 7. vMrunii or vih^iH) s. ^rr^Rfj 9. vivi^:, I A. i. vrf^
or wnil, 2. ^nrfh, 3. wm^, 4. vi(\i|ui or vw, 5. nrftiT or ibw, 6. ^nftfvf or

in�f, 7. vifiiivH or wi^9 8. wft^? or ^�nf, 9. ^iTftfJt or WT^, F. vPhiviOi or

^V^^, P. F. YlfinfT or "m N Pt. ^Bir, Ger. HfjT or iRfl^T!^ 11 Pass, m^,

Caus. Wl^trfw, Aor. viiP^mi^^, Des. wrftfftf^fif (J 476)*

ir^, to hew, follows WS^ throughout, also in the optional forms of the

Su class,

38. ^ krishy to drag along, to furrow.

P. ^Sflr 11 Pf. I. ^nrt, 2, 'TifS^, 3. ^^j 4. ^ftw {� 335, 3), I A. i. wrif,
2. HNumfT:, 3. umuifTi^, 4. ^snrt^, 5. ^Wv, 6. w^vrvr, 7. viin^, 8. innt, 9. wr^;

or VflSTf &c., or I A. 4. iPfsf &c. If used in the Atmanepada, the two
forms would be,

I A. 2. 1. Wpf^j, 2. ^^vi., 3. W^9

I A. 4. 1, id. 2

I A. 2. 4. vf mP^, 5

I A. 4, 4. HfmNPi?, 5

I A. 2. 7. Hf HHOJ) 8

I A, 4. 7. ^mviff , 8

n^rapn:, 3. ^f^^9

VfH||V|f, 6. ^Tf IK(Tflf,

id. 6. id.

^^, 9. ^WiT,

^Tj^pff, 9. iPfslir.

P. H^rfw or iraftfir, P. F. hit or ^ n Pt. ^r, Ger. ^ 11 Pass, ipiqi^, Caus.
'^Eist^vfiri Aor, vw^c^ or Vift^^, Des. f^lffir. Int. ^O'fVfJly ^rfhlft or

The peculiar Guiia and Vriddhi of ^, viz. ^ and TT, instead of W^ and WR, take place
necessarily in ^i^, to emit, and '^S{, to see (Pft^. vi. i, 58) ; ^r?T, ^pFT, V^ltflll, and
VIJ[m|lH : optionally in verbs with penultimate ^, which reject intermediate ^ (P&n. vi. i,
59) i 71 ^ rejoice, T^ffH or ITRt, Aor. ^ni-JTf^^ W^T^rh^^ or ^qni^.

39. ^rt^A, to kiU.

P.^hcfirii Pf. I. ^dir, 2. ^OPhvi, 9. ^^, I A.^nd^, F.dftnrtr, P. F. ^
or Ttftmr {� 337, II- i).

40. 77 ush, to bum,

P. ^iWir, I. wTn^ II Pf. I. ^iW^wc or ^^i^w {� 326), 2, ^"sftflnr, 3. wt^,
4. -mf^ &c., I A. w^, F. wtf^iifir, P. F. ^tttfkmy B. ^rm\ 11 Pt. ^f^ or
^ittfkr. {� 425) II Des. fiirMPn�<frf.

41, fiff mihj to sprinkle,

P. wffn n Pf. I. fii^, 2. ftRi^, I A. ^wftrwn (J 3^�)' ^- ^^^' ^- ^'^ ^ "


Pt. iftffN Perf. i|)^T^(fifOld|T!()9 Qer. irt;jT � Caus. ^f^, wftfiv^l^y Des. f^vftn^y
Int. ^fiv^9 ^^fr, (^ftrftr, Westerg.)

42. 1^ dahj to bum.
P. ^ffir II Pf. I. ^(^(a), 2. ^1^11 or ?j^nf, F. v^iflr (J 118), P. F. f[iv, B.

ijirn^, I A. I. VMnif� a. wn^^ 3� ivinfln^j 4. wvwif, 5. h^hv, 6. ^Rfinif, 7. ^nn^y

8. ^l^mr, 9. WHT^: (see p. 185) 11 Pt. ipv: 11 Caus. ^TfiriT) Aor. H^^^fl^y Des.

ff^MttOr, Int. ^^;;inf 9 ?j^1Hr.

43- 'HT glai^ to droop ; also ^ mlai^ to fade.

P. ic^NOr, O. Tc9i^ M Pf. I. Vc^ ($ 329), a. irfrcTO or ITcSinr, 3. wn^j
4.''ifrcOT, s^Tnary, 6.if'7^r, 7. iifrcW, 8.n'cy> 9. ir^j I A. i.^riHifW (f 357)>

a. VMIH1:, 3. VJc4l^l<^9 4. VMllVlUf, 5. VMlHH^y 6. VMlfilsf, 7. VMlfXlVt

8. WcirftiF, 9. luwftrj:, F. THPwftr, P. F. t�ottt, B. Tnpni^or ifiuiii^ (J 392 1) n

Pt T75Tif:, Ger. Tc5T?n, ^nsypT, Adj. �m?W:, MHI^C , '^ n Pass, (impers.)
7Hnn^9 Caus. T^nnifif or Jg q u ilf (Dh. P. 19, 68), Des. fVfMI^Ol, Int. in-

44. s^^at, to sing; also^rai, to bark, %r Arat, to croak.

P. nnrfiT II Pf. irft, I A. wm?r^, F. irrwfir, P. F. imtr, B. 5t^ (J 392).

Mark the difference between ^ and rf^ in the Bened. 11 Pt. tj^:, Ger. Tf^^
�in^, Adj. TTira:, It^fHn, Jnn 11 Pass, ifhn^, Aor. virftr, Caus. Tirqirfir, Aor.

wifhnn^, Des. r^iii'^Of, Int. ^vrtivir, iinnflf.

45. wshfyaif to sound, to gather; also ^styai^ the same. {� 103.)

P. unirfir {� 103), I. ^BTPipn^ 11 P� wtd, I A. wrra^* F. mr^ivfr, P. F. wnrr*
B. vipvn^ or i^mi^ II Pt. wrsCi nirtw:, niftH: ($ 443).

Note — ^With regard to the initial lingual sibilant, the Pras&da quotes the VArttika to
P&9. VI. I, 64, as 4J�ii9H*�i��r�qI ^i^riMV: I A marginal note sa^, ^JH^fv^UlUl-

w^yi I iprfhiprf vif^ inn 3rfMi^iS�iirM^^ii<liiKin;(H<<H|Sifiv 11

46. ^ daij to cleanse, (^-)

This verb is distingruished by a mute ^ p from other verbs, like ^ dd &c. It is therefore
not comprised under the ^ ghu verbs (� 393 *) ; it takes the first aorist (3rd form),
and does not substitute ^1 or ^ e for WT d,

P. ^nrfir II Pf. ^, I A. I. n^ifW, 2. w^i &c., F. i^r^vfir, P. F. i^nn, B.
f[TOT^ II Pt. ^: n Pass. ^Tuir, Caus. ^nRflr^ Des. f);^Tirfir, Int. ^i^Pii^, ^r^.

47. ^ �/Ae, to drink, (^.)

This verb is one of the six so-called ^ghu roots (� 392), roots which in the general tenses

have for their base ^ <2tf or VT dhd.

P. wfir II Pf. i.^, 2. ^ftRor ^VT% 3. ^, 4. ^yftf^r, 5. ^vy> 6. ^^:, 7. ^fiw,
8-^> 9.^- It admits I A. 3. (J 357), II A. (j 368), and Red. II A. ($371):



I. inrf, 2. ^mij 9. wy,

I. ^K^9 2. ^r^yjf 9. ^■^H'^-

F. vnsnfir, P. F. vnn, B. ^^ u Pt. iftw:, Ger. irtwr, �wt h Pass, iftin^, Caus.

vnnifir (Atm. ^^ to swallow), Aor. v^lniii^, Des. fWnvfiry Int. ^^jhn^9 ^nnfir,

or, with the always optional ^ ^l^flr.

48. ^ driij to see, ("jflff^.)
This root Bubstitutes 'Wpfpaiya in the special teDses.

V. inprfir, I. iropn^, O. ^[^, I. iry^j � Pf. i. ^, 2. i?^;f^ or ^^ ($ 335),

3. ?^, 4. ^ifftiR, 5. ^fV!3*9 6. Tf^rg:, 7. ^15%^, 8. ^^, 9. T^?** I -^* i- ^5i�4�

2. ^BTJ^r^l^:, 3. Wjnjfh^, 4. Wpi^, 5. W^[T^, 6. ^r5[TFt> 7. ^"TJIB!!, 8. W^TF, 9. v^i^*

(J 360, 364); or 11 A. I. ^f^, 9. ^v^^9 F. "f^^flf^ p. F. "jpn, B. i^T^ni^^ W Pt.
"I^:, Ger. "jfr, ^^^f^T, Adj. "jn^^' ^^^^> '^T'* � I^^^s- '??''^� ^- ^?fifr"n^ ^^
7;i;i9if (j 41 i)j P. F, ^f^irr or "jfi, B. ^[fi^iftv or *^�|f^, Aor. ^l^, Caus. ^^ifflT)
Aor. V^l^^ll^ or ^i^^^f Des. fif^;^ (Atm.), Int. ^rftppnr, ^?^.

*^ and ^1^ take ^ and TT9 instead of v^ and ^n^, as their Gui^ia and
Yriddhi before consonantal terminations (P&^.vi. i, 58). See No. 38.

Other verbs which substitute different bases in the special tenses (P4n. yii.

3> 7^)' ^ forms ^f^acfir; ^jVWffw; ^j nft^ (Atm.); ^, ^^Hf; ^jfinflr;

49. ^ rij to go.

P. ^paKflr ("^iniflr, $ 44), I. ^^ih^^ 11 Pf. i. mt, 2. ^nfici ($ 338, 7), 3. ^w,

4. ^nfwj 5. ^nr^, 6. HI 14:, 7. HilViH, 8. VK, 9. wr^, I A. i. irfl, 2. Hrtft,

3. ^rtftr, 9. HT^: ; the Second Aor. Wit is generally referred to the ^ of the
Hu class, nnffi; F. wftimfir ($ 338, 2), C. WTftm^, P. F. ^, B. w^ ($ 390) 11
Pt. ^fm or t^J^r:, Ger. ^p^, ^i^w u Pass. H^, Caus. v4^, Des. nf<r<qfl l ,
Int. Wtl^, Wlf^9 wflcrfSj WTXjMir, wfbnftflf (exceptional intensive, f 479, with
the sense of moving tortuously).

50. ^ ^, to go.

P. ifRfflr always means to run, while "mfiK is used likewise in the sense of
going II Pf. I. ^WTC(a), 2. TWi {� 335, 3), 3, ^TOR, 4. ^a^, 5. ^r^, 6. V^*9
7.^^, 8.11^, 9. ^^9 I A. I. H^TM, 2. w^rpfft, 3. H4ll�ffll ; the Second Aor.
V^ is generally referred to the ^ of the Hu class ; F. ^ifb^fW^ P. F. ?a^,
B. ftpqrn^ {� 390) II R. npn 11 Caus. mij^, Des. fMHlfir, Int. il^INi^, ^Irfft

{� 490)-

51. ^ Sadf to wither, (^.)

The special tenses take the AtmaDepada.

P. lH^j I. V^ImA, O. ^^, I. jflKlH II Pf. I. '^Ifmn^ (a), 2. ^I^lr'il or $f^,



9. ^, n A. ^BH^, F. ^jfwnr, P. F. ijriT, B. ifn^ 11 Caus. ^itK^fk (^n^^ he
drives), Des. f^l^lwOl, Int. ^(IT^nn^, ^TT^ftr.

52. ^ sadj to perish, (nj.)

P. tftqHi (PHifl^ni) 11 Pf. I, iRn?^ (a), 2. irf^ or ^ERf^iT, 9. iijj, II A. vnn
(tsiw^jH^, ^* ''wfir, p. F. TniT, B. ^rerri^ ii Pt. ^rwt ii Pass, ^ranr, Aor. ^nrrfl;,

Caus. ^if^iiRf, Aor. ^nrt^^, Des. ftRi^fw, Int. ^mni^y ^TRfftr.

53. ^pd, to drink.

P. ftprflr n Pf. i. im^, a. Tifini or inrnr, 9. ^:, II A. vm^, P. ^n^rfir, P. F.
^fnn, B. ^nr^ {� 39a) u Pt. rftfti, Ger. tftwT, oijpT, Adj. impq:, ^irthK, ^� n

Pass, ifhn^, Aor. ^nnftr, Caus. 'qpnrflT (or �T^ to swallow), Aor. ^nfhm^ (P^.

VII. 4, 4), Des. f^nrafir, Int ^^A^, wmftt.

54. "VT p'Ari!^, to smell, to perceive odour.

P. ftmAr, I. ^jflre^^j O. ftrwi^, I. ftfuj ^' ^* '• ^^9 2- ^fft^ or vrvniy 9. ^rjj�
II A. ^nm^, or I A. wwr^ {� 368, 357), P. w^irflr, P. P. mm, B. "wnnn or

^'TH^ (� 39^ t) H Pt. "mn: or "flw:, Ger. 'ffWT II Pass. JmHtf Aor. vmf^^ Caus.
Wrrfir> undHMH^or liri|i\im^(Pslii. VII. 4, 6), Des. fVlHRlfk, Int. ^llhn^, iVT9Tfir,

55* VKl dhmd^ to blow.

P. vrflr II Pf.^, lA.wvrnili^, F. wnwflr, B.winm^^or i^im^ii Pt.vnir: 11

Pass, vmkj Aor, wunftr, Caus. vinnrfir, Aor. wf^^um^, Des. f^iHI4lQl, Int

56. FT? sthd^ to stand, (tt.)
P. flrrtf H Pf. Ww (ufwffTn), II A. W^qn^ (^"Wl^), 9. ^f^9 F. ^TP^rfk) B.

^^inT(^(f 392) II Pt. f^inn, fismm, ^^rni, Adj. ^imn^:, wTtihi:, ^^: 11 Pass. ^4)^9

Aor. ^Bl^infiTy Caus. liiflM^Ol, Aor. ^rfkftnn^, Des. firfTHflr, Int. wtfNny ITWTflf.

Note — ^Affcer ^, IR, IT, and ik, ^RTT is used in the Aim. ; also after W, if it means to affinn ;
with ^, if it means to strive, not to rise ; or with ^^^ if it means to worship, Sec : Plres.
fffvii; Red. Perf. TT^, Aor. wflWff, 9. ^P^w^n, Fut. WTFTw, Ben. WT^Hf.

57. W fnnd, to study.

P. 'Hffk II Pf. I. 'w, 3. fftni or iv^nr, 9. 'i^, I A.^Tjrraftn^, B. ^n^ni^or il^ii^ ti

Pt WWt H Pass, irnnr, Caus. ^mnfir, Aor. iriNiRi^^, Des. f^f^mfk, Int. in^n^9

58. ^ddj to give, (^T^.)

p. ^mflf * (nftnracfir) ii Pf. n^j II A. ^r[th^, b. ^in^^ {� 392) 11 Pt. ^, Ger.
CTiT (see No. aoo, P&ii. vii. 4, 46), �n^, Adj. ^TiT^:, ^mT^:?

TqT^nr, int. ^qPTn, ^T^fTTir.

59. 7 Am, to bend.


* After the preposition ^ it may be used in the Atmanepada.


9- ^4h^9 I ^' ^■3|r*X> 9* ^3|Tf:, P. jfficuflr ($ 338), P. P. ^, B. 31^
{� 390) 11 Ft. ^:, Ger. s|i^9 "^^9 Adj. ifkm:, 41.^^9 W^* ^ ^^b- 3|^�
Caus. JlKilOly Des. ^SJ^fk^ Int. insf^y viOjlffl.

60. ^is^ shandy to approach, (^iifl^-)
P. ^fe^ (^(VtA^r?! or ^riuk^Of, P&n. VIII. 3, 73, 74) II Pf. I. ^^9 a.^nsf?pV

or ^raRf^, 9. ^^: or ^^r^: (see ir^, No. 5), I A. nHilnfli^, 6. ^ffisNif,
9.i�^�n^; or nA.^^, P.^iaorfir, P.F.^hrr, B.^imn($345�^^) " Pt-^c

(J 103, 5), Qer. ^im ($ 438) 11 Pass. HEvi^, Caus. ^i^iiflry Aor. w^rORp^
(J 374), Des* f^ijifMOly Lit ^hI^m) ($ 485)9 ^•fl^Ol.

61. W ^r^9 to cross.

P. Tf^ II Pfc I. infR (a)j a. ^Ift.!!, 3. vvTC) 4. ^ftff, I A. incpAi^^ F. vft^iflr

or Wt^vvflr (J 340), p. p. irftlT or irrhTT, B. H^^. In the Atmanepada
we generally find the verb used as Tud&di, P. fird^, Pf. il^, Aor. mrtf
or ^inrfT:^ or vinchi, F. wftw^ (�)� B. wftc^tv or ift^tw II Pt. iM:, Ger. vt?^,
<*lM H Pass. lAfi^, Aor. wurfty Caus. WTrvfry I'cs. flnrft^flr or QiiiOhQi or

nifli>iin9 Int. mrnnry wnuv.

62. ti^ ran/, to tinge.
This verb and l^iam/, to bite, "i^^saiij, to stick, and ^tl^^oaff;, to embrace (Pftp. vi.
4, 35, 26), drop the penultimate nasal in the special tenses (� 345, ^^) and in the weakening
forms (� 344, 395. note).

P. vtfiHj I. ^JtifT^^, O. t^9 1* nfj M Pf. I. Tin, 3. ttftnr or ttw, 3. xjm^

4. TtftfW, 9. Tiljt� I A. mf^fh^, p. TVQifiry P. P. tw, B. <9iliq� Also used
in the Atmanepada : P. Tili^, Pf. i. ti^, 3. Tiftr^, I A. 3. wtl8, 9. ^itwv II
Pt T^, Ger. t:w or t�r (P4n. vi. 4, 31, J 438) II Pass, tsqi^ (PA?, iii. i, 90),
Caus. tiprfir or tunrfk to hunt (f 46a, a6), Aor. W^Qon^ or nxtifl^^, Des.
fi:t^(flr9 Int. i.l4jii|]), TTtftl.

63. f^ Ht^ to cure, (fiiir.)

This and some other verbs which are referred to the Bh^i class always take the desiderative
terminations, if used in certain senses, f^il^^/, if it means to dwell, belongs to the
Chur dass, or, according to Vopadeva, it may be regularly coi^ugated as a Bhtl verb ;
but if it means to cure, it is P^ftawPn chihitsati,

P. fcfftnnflr, !• ^rfM^iwn^ ^* '' ^' f^ftiWi^fiii, I A. vf^OiwI^, F. f^-
miHmin, -t • ^ . rfnimnfT.

In the same way are conjugated {� 47 a) :

1. ^(to conceal), ^^{^ he despises.

2. flfi^ (to sharpen), firfk^ he endures.

3. m^ (to revere), �fNher^ he investigates.

4. ^ (to bind), '^Ihi^ he loathes.

5. ^ (to cut), l|f)?;hlf)r he straightens.

6. ^n^ (to sharpen), ^[f^^rNrfk he sharpens.

L 1 2


64. ^patj to fall, (^.)

P- ^nrfir (irftRiffir) 11 Pf. x. ^toit, 9. %, II A. w^^ {� 366), P. ^flnqfk 11

Pt� ^rfinn H Pass. ^VTV^y Aor. ^rerflf) Caus. iflil'iinv, Des. (ViMfimni or fVnnfir

{� 337^ n. 3).

65. yf^vaSf to dwell.

P. ^rerflr 11 Pf. i. i^^ro (�)? a. Twflro or ^^m, 3. mr^^ 4. 'irf^, 5. vni:,
6. "VRfj:, 7. "^rf^, 8. w^, 9. "^ly, I A. I, vfTT^ (� 132), 3. vciifin*9 3. n^iwl^^y
6. trcnrf {� 351), F. ^wifir, P. F. trerr, B. tito^^ h Pt. •^finr:, Ger. irftwr,

**^ri| 11 Pass. ^, Aor. ^nrftr^ Caus. ^TIRfir, Aor. vrt^FI^, Des. ftmRfir,

Int. ^I^^^n, cimfVl-

66. ^ vad^ to speak.

P. ^I^ II Pf. i.TTIT^ (a), a. T^fif^r, 9.^:, I A. W^^T^, P. ^flfuflr, B,

ysm\ w Pt. "Tfinn, Ger. Tfl^ U Pass, ^w^j Aor. imrf^y Caus. ^l^^, Aor.
IRT^^, Lies. I^m^mn, Int. timiln, ^FnW.

67. f^ivi^ to swell, (TWtfti.)

P. "iTOflr II Pf. I. jpm (S) or fipivnT (a), 3. ^iirflnr or fitraftnr, 3- ^jp'w

or fip^rnr, 4. ^pgft^ or fijlfttftW, 5. ^J^^. or f^if^V^, 9. 15^ or fifrf^,
I A. vm^l^, II A. WWI^ or nfStlfVu^i^ and V9||(I4A9 F. Hfrimffl, P. F. ^P^mi,

B. ^gVJ^^ II Pt. ^: II Pass, ij^j Caus. "Vnnrfiry Aor. ^vf^r^PIl^, Des. f^raf^W*
Int. $H(|i|fl or ^j\9|i|ff.

II. Atmanepada Verbs.

68. w^^edh, to grow.

P. w^, I. ^, 0. 1^, 1. wirf II Pf. wwm*, F. irfVuT^, C. ^ftnw, P. F.
vftiflTj I A. I, ^ftrfW, 3. irf^fT:, 3. %ftiF, 4. $fli**ffig, 5. ^fMwnrf, 6. ^ftwnrf,
7. %ftfwf^, 8. ^flff or �s4, 9. ^ftrw, B. ^Mtw II Pt. ^ftnr: 11 Pass, mvkf Aor.

^, Caus. Pres. WV^j ^9 Perf, WHTW, F. ^vftraflr, ^, Cond. ^vftm^y

% P. P. wftim, II A. $fi^, % B. wftnftf , Des. ^fijflr^.

69. ^ fAr^A, to see.

P. ^0779 I� ^W> O- ^'B^* I� ^[^ffft II Pf. ^HfNff) I A. %f^9 F. ^ftfOVy

C. ^ft^w, P. F. ^ftjin, B. tfsi*v II Pt. ff^n: 11 Caus. ^Jpiflr, Aor. ^Pru^^,
Des. ^f^rftpiw.

70. T^ dad^ to give.

P. ^!�w, I. V^^ll, O. ^^, 1. 15;^ II Pf. 3, ^^ (} 328, i), 6. ^?J^> 9. ^^?fij^

(Pfiv. VI. 4, 126), I A. ^j?[ft;�, F. ^^flf^n^, P. F. ^f^, B. ^fipftr 11 Pt. ^[fljw: 11

Pass, ^(wkj Aor. ^R^, Caus. ^Rpifir, Aor. ^1^*1^^, Des. fl;^[fi^, Int. iipf^Vi^,

— — - - ' ■

* WV9 and Y^ are used in the Pamsmaipada, ^i^ in the Atmanepada. It is only in
the passive that IXm and ^1^ take Atmanepada terminations.

bhA glass, Itmakepada verbs. 261

71. "^BO^shvashk, to go.
p. ufUiAy I. Vii^uiH II Pf. w*f^9 I A. iiviruify p. Hl^^n, p. p. Vlf^illl,
B. wi^i*flif.

Note — ^The initial \ib not liable to become ^. (See No 45 ; P&n. vi. 1, 64, i. Colebrooke,
p. 319.)

7a. ^fH^ ry, to go, to gain, &c.
P. ^rtn, I- ^STnW M Pf. ^BT^^j I A. ^ttAtv, F. vO^ilfl, P. P. vf^KUT, B. wflj-
iftl II Pass. iQsiCA (lin^)� Caus. v^^filfy Aor. ^nftwif 9 Dee. vH^Him).

73. tIN^ wanj, to embrace.
^^^dami, ^C^saHj, WWisvaf^ drop their nasal in the special tenses (Pi?, vi. 4, 95). See No. 62.

P. w^9 I- ^�^rini II Pf. ^nari^ or ^^ (Pa^. i. 2, 6, vftrt.), I A. i. ^r^KWy

2. ll4J4<m*, 3. V^Hb, 4. ^I^Nnf^, 5. V^HIIVli, 6. HW^fTHf, 7. llljllHr^9 8- ^TO^j
9. ^whfW, F. ^hoiT, B. ^h(^ H Pass, ^BTSlTn, Caus. ^flilPlI, Des. fnN|n,
Int. Illl!l9l|n, ^EIT#%�

74. Jgr^trapf to be ashamed, (?f^*)
P. 1^, I. ^iznw II Pf. 3. ?rt (P&9. VI. 4, 1^2), 6. ^^, 9. ?|fift, I A. I.
watVrW or ^cflW, 2. V^rMfi: or w^pitn:, 3. ^•Wftf or ^tJXUj F. ^rfWit or V(^f^9
B. isif^nlf or 9^Rv.

75� flni^ '(;> to forbear.
. iHillHfn II Iri. lAlffOfl^lH, 1 A. VIIHillH|IP, r . TTITinEpmr, Jo. lfllAlf|mS N
Caus* T^nifk.

Note — See No. 63. The simple verb is said to form F1|W he sharpens.

76. "^rnpan, to praise.
P. 'qionji^y I. W^nrnnr ll Pf. M^UnN^ or ^ (without wn^). Thus likewise
Aor. wqnnDlIf or wiT%V� F. mu i Hlli lornftpqi^, B. MHIirnMlt or ^ft^Y 11 Caus.
ifinniflr, Aor. unfhrai^, Des. (ViiiOimii, Int. ifirao^.

Note — ^This verb (see No. 26) takes Wt^, but, as it is mentioned by PA^ini iii. i, 28,
together with V^, with which it shares but the meaning of to praise, it is argued that it does
not take WPT, unless it means to praise. It is likewise argued that 'q^, if it takes ^BT^*
43oes not follow the Atmanepada, because the Anubandha, requiring the Atmanepada, applies
only to the simple verb, ^^^^ ^HOV he traffics. Other grammarians, however, allow both
the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada. The suffix 1BT7 may be kept in the general tenses.
(Pft^. III. I, 31.)

77. V^ kamj to love, (w^.)

P. ironic, I. v^ipnnr ii Pf. iuHiiNi)i or ^v^, I A. n^^lnnfl or (without w^
^nnnnr (P&n. m. i, 48, vftrt.), F. ^if^nqi^ oncnvftnoi^, B. ^iftNlv or 4ii4ri|i(lf 11

Pass. 'W^^k (5), Aor. ^TcrfH (P&9. vii. 3, 34, v&rt.), Caus. mimflr, Des. fl^iftr^

or f^PBiff^niW, Int. ^4M|rf.

Note — ^This verb in the special tenses takes ^W, like a verb of the Chur class, and Vfiddhi
(PA9. III. 1, 30). In the general tenses W9 is optional. Or, if we admit two roots, the one
^f'^ would be defective in the special tenses, while the other ^ITR^is conjugated all through.

^62 BH^ CLASS, Itmanepada yebbs.

78. Vi^ ay, to go,

P.^niTy I. wmn II Pfi inihii% (P^. m* ij 37)> I-^* i. ^nftift, a. mr^si:,
3. viDis, 4. wrftcvrf^y g. mOimiriy 6. vinmiAiy 7. wifinfflf, 8. ^vrftnv or *^,
9. nrftnnr, F. ^rfViWir, B. irf^nAv 11 Caus. ^mnifir, Dea. nOiOm)).

With lin it forms ^I^KPl^ he flees (P&9. viii. 2, 19), Ger. ^IHHV; with II9 JH^it ; and

with nft:, irann^.

79. ^ ihf to aim.

P. ^[^, I. ^Tf II Pf, ^fNiiky I A, ^f^9 F. ff^^9 B. ff^iftv II CauB. ^jForfWy
Aor. ^f)|^9 Des. ^fVff^ii^.

80. 1^9^ kdi, to shine, (^nj.)

P. m^ II Pf. ^nr^ or ^nniirH^ {� 326)^ I A. ^nrfio^, F. iiifl(nqir 11 Caus.

^i^Hpff, Aor. innir^5 Des, f^mfifTviry Int. ^W^Mfl, ^141 ft.

81. HT^ kds, to cough, (^n^.)

p. nwn^ II Pf. ^^nirf^ {� 326) II Caus. ^nimflr, Aor. n^ran^ (� 37a*).

82. ftl^ siv^ to serve, (^.)

P. iNi^ (^fl^Kn^) II Pf. fti^, I A. ivirftn, F. ^flnoi^ 11 Caus. iNirfir, Aon

, vftra^, Des. fudOiilfl, Int. iwi|^.

83. m ^4, to go, (nnf .)

P. 3. vrkj 6. iin^, 9. mk^ ist pers. sing. St, I. imrf, iBt pers. sing. St, O. 5hr,

I. wMfl II Pf. 3. int, 6. innit, 9. ^ifWr? I A. i, vnf^, 3. wnwn, 3. wiiw &C.5

F. m^j B. iinrtv II Pass. ifNlt, Aor. ^Vinf^, Caus. ^innriir, Aor. ViflJIMI^, Des.

ftprraw, Int. ibit^Tk.

84. ^ rt�, to go, to kill (?), to speak, (^.)
P. ^"W II Pf. 3. ^^^9 6. ^^Mlil, 9. ^^^fWt, I A. n^Pnr II Caus. TlPprflr, Aor.
%fej^(� 474 and � 375 1).

85. \ d€j to protect, (^.)
P. ^'IW II Pf. X. flp^ (PAn. VII. 4, 9), 3.fi;&i|^, 3, flp), I A. I. ^vfl^, 2. ^lfijinJ�
3. ^Bflfffji. F. ^TFTn, B. ^\h\w II Pt. ^1K II Pass. ^|)^, Caus. ^FPriWy Des. n^WA,
Int. ^^1 MB,

Note — It is one of the "J verhs ; ^ , to protect, fonns ^Pln in the present, hut foUowB ^
in the general tenses.

86. ^pi^dyuti to shine, (ijK.)

P. rfhnr II Pf. f^ (PA9. VII. 4, 67), IA.invtfirv or i�^pn^^ (J 367 : P4n. i.

3, 91 ; III. I, 55), F. vMnqit, B, vtfMhr 11 Caus. wtlRflr, Aor. id?|[^in^, Dea.
l^^limn or i^�iin�in, int. l^ipnt � qWW.

Note-p-The verhs beginning with ^i^ optionally admit the II Aor. Parasmaipada (� 367).

87. ^ Vfit, to be, (^.)
P.'^M Pf. ^^, I A. ^Rf^ or n^in^, F. irfftiq?^ or ^qr?^, B.^iifNlf 11 Caus.

BHt GLASS, Itmanepada yebbs. 263

^[t^, Aor. I9tft�pn^ or ^n^fti^ (PA9. vii. 4, 7), Des. f^nfS^ or fti^Tfffir, Int.

Note — ^The verbs beginning with^, i.e. ^, ^, 3|^, m^,ip^, are optionally Parasmai-

pada in the aorist, future, conditional, desiderative (P&9. 1. 3, 91—93). The same verbs do

not take ^ in their Parasmaipada tenses (PA?, vii. 2, 59) ; as to |p^ see P&9. vii. 2, 6oy

and 1. 3, 93.

88. ^i^ syand^ to sprinkle or drop, (^>^-)

P.^iftfl^ H Pf. i.tM^, 3. H^fij^ or ^i^vi^, 4. H^n^H^ or ^ll^4l^, IA,3,ir^qflnfj

6. n^R^Niiit ; or w#ir (6. ^rwwnrf), or n A. irer^ (not W^^), F. ^qfif�ri>

or ^Qi^ or ^qURfir (PAp. vii. a, 59; see No. 87), B.^qfl^ or uhlfhr u Pt.

isqin, Ger.^qft[WT or ^ihwT (P&^. VI.4, 31) 11 Cans, ^i^piflr, Des. fti^R ' Mli or

ill4MNIn or (��4raln.

89. ^^ kfip^ to be able, (^0

P. ^c^n) II Pf . ^^Jm, I A. 3, n^iHiNf or v;gnr, 6. wjimmt, 9. ^Qji^vir, or II Aor.
Par. wj^, P. nf^PRi^ or iv^^n^ or ii5Wfir, P. F. 3. nfenn^ or iRind or
imrf^, B. ^rf^ii^hP or ^niftv U Pt. jtrj 11 Caua. i|^OTflT> Dea. (^^Osm) or
r^jjimni, Int. ^cdYjiuiA or ^fc94^n or ^^T^S^ifV.

90. �qi^ vyath^ to fear, to suffer pain.

P. �ir^ n P� ftfur^ (PAn. VII. 4, 68), I A. ^rmftre, F. ^qftrni^ 11 Pass, tnwn^,
Aor. WHftr (S), (J 462), Caus. ^iRRftr, Des. "Pr^fro^, Int. iTRpqi^, imftr.

91. T>^ ram, to sport, (t^.)

P. vfk; with fr, W, ^, ^n, optionally Parasmaipada; itiriffW (P&n. i.
3, 83) H Pf.\i^, I A. ^itw, after prepositions �qhrh^, F. twi^ n Pt. rir:, Qer.
TjV, �>^0B| or "Xn II Caus. TW^rfHy Aor. ^nfihOT^, Des. (VlnH, Int. tCiRH^, toftflr.

92. 1^ tvar, to hurry, (ftlfiro.)
The verbs If^^rar, J^tvar, ftr^�ri�, ^Bl^or, f^mw, substitute ^i^r, "^^r, ^^'^
'94, \mil (P&p. VI. 4, 30) before weakening terminations beginning with consonants,
except semivowels, and if used as monosyllabic nominal bases. Hence 1|^t jiin^,
1^1 Hhn^, ^in srCtaft, ^nit 4tah, ^fjfl mdtah,

P. iTO^ H Pf. Wi^, I A. 3. ^JfiVftV) 8. WRfW or HrVft^, F. RftlVIl^ U Pt. 1^:

(f 43^) <>r •''ft^ W Caus. rTC^ (J 4^^� H- 6)> -^or. WlfPTO^^ ($ 375 1)> Des.
nii*l(V.Hfill, Int. fl|ii|4d, lAl|fS.

93. ^ *aA, to bear, (^f .)

P.Wfi^M Pf.i|, IA.w^if?�, F.^Eiflr^, P.F.^rft[inor ^BftOT(f337, II.2) ii
Pt. ^ft?:. Adj. ir^ (f 456, 6) ii Pass, ^rar^^ Caus. ^errf^, Aor. ^ref^fi^, Caus.

Des. ftreTff^i^lir, Des. ftreff^. Int. ^rrraw, Trraftftr.

Note — ^^ and ^ change V into Vt when V would be followed by 7, the result of the
amalgamation of 7 with a following dental (� isB). P&9. vi. 3, 113.

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.
94. tm rdj, to shine, (tn|.)

P. tfuflr, *ir II Pf. Tinr, tti^ or \i^ (Pdn. vi. 4, 125), I A.^TOif^> irnftrf,


P. rffiBniifw> ^9 B. TT5iiTn^� Tjftnft? n Caus. tviRfky Aor. ircrnn^) Des. fcrrf^nflTf
% Int. trcRUT^, nnflr.

95* ^ khan^ to dig.

P. iRfir* II Pf.3.^wrFr, 6.^t^:, 9. ^ ($ 3�8, 3), IA.im^{a), {� 348),
but Atm. ^m(Pn only, F. ^irf^rqfir, B. w^^n^ or iimni^ (� 391) w Pt, imr:, Ger.

^m?lT or ^rftfWT, Adj. ?N: ($ 45^, 6) 11 Pass, w^ or ?rnn^ {� 391), Caus.
flH^Ol, Aor. il^l€�1(^9 I^cs. f^rarftmflr, �t^, int. ^^rili^ or ^IfllMli {� 39 ^)>

96. Y Art, to take, (^O

P. ?^ H P� i.'ffTt (a), 2.inr^) 9. "Tg:, I A. ^nfnffn, Atm. ^i^pr {� 35^)9
P. ^fbrtr, P. P. ^, B. fgm\ II Pt. ^:, Ger. fwr, Adj. ijrt: 11 Pass, f^,
Aor. H^lf^, Caus. ^R?>ri^, Des. ftf^Mflr, �n, Int. iil^t^, iffffi &c.

97- ^ i^� to l^de, (i||.)

3Jf ^i takes 9 l{ before tenxuDations beginning with vowels that would ordinarilT'

require Gu^a.

P. 'ujfir tt Pf. 1.^5^5 3. gi!^^ or ^jftr, 3. ipijf, 4. ijjf^, 5. g'^tj: &c.,

Atm. I. ^^, a. ^J^^ or ^Jjfl^ &c., I Aor. see � 36a, P. '[TfilOl or ^t^fl^rir^
P. P.'jf^ or iftir, Ben. Atm. >Tf^ift? or ^|^ {� 345) 11 Pt ijjr:, Adj. ijiK or
iftw (J 457) II Pass, ijiri^, Aor. ^V^, Caus. 1^^, Aor. W^JJfl^, Des. ^^W^

98. ftv iri, to go, to serve, (f^�)

P. wifk II Pf. I. f^RTR (o), 2. f^raftr^, 3. fi^ranr, 4. fipfiiftR, g. fijiftnrj:,
n A. nflirftRrn^ ($ 371), P. ^rftrofir, B. ^fhin^ 11 Pass. fftinJ, Aor. vinf^, Caus.

^mnrfir, Aor. vf^l^ill^, Des. fi^refW^ or f^lTBftirfir {� 471, 3; � 337, H. 3),

Int. ^iftflMn*

99. iTi^ yaj, to worship.

P.infflrn Pf. i.l^5m(a), ($311), a.^irf^or^i|?(j335,3), 4.^f^, 5.^1^

^� t?''?^ 7- f^^9 8. fif, 9. ^ip, I A. I. ^nin|, 3. ^Ndinth, 3. wrn|h^, 4* i^i'P*
5. vn�, 6. vorrf, 7. w^rre??, 8. wnv, 9. 'wn^, I Aor. Atm. i. mvf^, 2. ^nwi:,
3. vif , 4. viituff, 5. inrHjnrt, 6. wmtrnif, 7. viiish^i 8. ^m^^ (not ^Hiin4),
9.^nnTir, P. ^reiflr, P. P. im ($ 1^4), B. ^surn^^ {� 393) 11 Pt. ^:, Ger. ^,
�^ II Pass, ^1l^^, Caus. ifHRfk, Aor. %i|hnn^, Des. f^nnqfir. Int. ininqi^,

icx). ^vop, to sow, to weave, (j^.)
P. .^foflf II Pf. I. TTTR (a), 2. ■9'^ftnJ or ^97^9 9. "^IJt) I A. IW^h^^, Atm*

^nir, p. ^rt^lflr, P. P. ^ft, B. tsirth^ u Pt. ^h: 11 Pass. ^iqi^.

* The Atmanepada forms will in future only be given when they have peculiarities of
their own, or are otherwise difficult.


loi. ir^ vah^ to cany.

P. "�iiflr � Pf. 1. ^rwTf (i), a. Ti^l^ or ^dv, 3. ^rwif, 4. vf^, g. "aif^,
6. 's^r, 7. �r^�i, 8. "Wf , 9. "^:, I A. I. ^Rnr, a. im^^ft:, 3. inrufh^y 4. mrvir,
5. wftif 6. irftfft, 7. vmnH) s. v<h<s, 9. ^v^n^:, I Aor, Atm. i, nrvftf, a. ^rvtvr:,
3. ^N^, 4. ^nnirfTy 5' 'i^HirviI, 6. v^^iaI, 7. ^R^retri^^ 8* ^nft^, 9. w^^^ F.
.^^9rflr, P.T. ijtaT, B, ^nm � Pt. iw:. Adj. ^nr: n Pass, ^nri^, Caus. tnfi|flr>

Aor. mfNfi^y Des. Pi^mOl, Int. ^nni^^ ^irdfr.

loa. ^ ve^ to weave, (^.)

P. ^'ifir M Pf. 3. ^^, 6. '^wf: (or wrg:), 9. ^ (or iijt); or 3. ^r^Pf, 6. w^,

P' ''S* {� 3^^)> I -^^ i� ^nitftrf, a. ^RTllh, 3. VmWIl^, Atm. mra*, P. ^VF9Vfll'>
p. F. "mn, B. "Sim^, Atm. nrsftw U Pt. -m (Pft?. vi. 4^ 2) 11 Pass. "Qiin^ Caus.

^iM^iHiy Des, OiifiiiDvy Int. irnmTi ^nrfir.

103. ^ hve^ to emulate^ to call, (sl^.)

P. ^^Ol U Pf. I. ^?nr (a), a. ^?flni or ijft^i 3. ^ipT, 4. ^^ftn, H A. ^V3(1^
{� 363), Atm. ^RfW, or I A. ^H3|TOr, F. ifmfiif, B. ^im^^ n Pt. ^, Ger. ^ N
Pass. ^^T>, Aor. ^G|lflv^ Caus. sp^nvfir^ Aor. W|J|^ {� 371)? Des. ^tf^f^i
Int. iJVnWj lfh|^�

Tud Class {Tudddi VI Class).

I. Faxasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.

104. ^ tud J to strike.

P- J'jflf J^ Pf� ^w^* P- wtl^rfir, P. F. iftnTi I A. VfliNflif^ Atm. wjw 11 Pt. JWJ>
Ger. J^ n Pass, pr^, Caus. if^^^rflfj Aor. VTO^i Des. f{ivfir� Int. ift^Vn^

105. m^ bhrajj^ to fiy, (WH-)

�nS^6Arq{; takes Sampras&rai^a before weakening tenninationB, the same^s XP^srdh, "^Jy^
^t^oyf '^'(^vyadhy ^T^va^, ^Kf^vyaeh, W^vra^ch, IP^praehh (PAn. vi. i, i6). The
terminations of the special tenses of Tud verbs are never strengthening, but weakening^
if possible.

P. ^faifir 11 Pf. I. WW, a. 'TCftV^ or ^^iW, 9. WS^l (PAn. i. 2,5), or W^

&c. (Pftv. VI. 4, 47), I A. iranif^^ or m^fftn^, Atm. ^rav or unf , F. m^rflr
or H#flr, P. F. rswj or ifir, B. ^pipn, Atm. wff or �<fr 11 Pt. yp: 11 Pass,
ipiin^, Caus. vranvflr^ Aor. �^�l^l^ or vwH^nh^, Des. ftf^nfflr or fm|f)r9 Int

106. Y^AfMA, to draw a line. (See No. 38.)

P. 'fnfir II Pf.^i|J|, I A. VWHffl^ or wsn^, Atm. inpiv or iPfV, P. W^Ol
or TTOflr, P. F. nh or hwt, B. ^p^, Atm. ^fufhr 11 Pt. >ff : 11 Pass, ^nqi^,
Caus. v4i|f)r> Aor. ^nn^i^ or v^f Nl^, Des. f<l^p(flr, Int. ^Of^n.

M m


107. ^ muchf to loosen^ (T9*)
Certain verbs beginning with ^^ much take a nasal in the speoial tenses. They are,
^p^mucA, ^^^Mp9 ^ ^^^� ^^ ^*^> to find, f75^ lip^ to paint, HT^ stcA, to sprinkle,
^l^^ftV, to cut, ftr^ lihid, to pain, ftn^pi/, to form. (PAn. vii. i, 59.)

P. 5^rftr II Pf. ^�pft^, I A, 'Wf^, Atm, ^i^ {� 367), Des. ^[ip|f)r or ifl^


108. fte virf, to find, (ftlj.)

Pt. fnr*

109. f(9^%, to paint,

P. ffiirfv II Pf, fi^^9 II A. wflann^^(J 367), Atm. II A. vf^vmr or I A. iri^


II. Parasmaipada Verba
1 10. ^^7, to cut, (^nft.)

P. firfif (see No. 107) 11 Pf. ^it, I A. ^^f?(ft^^, P. ^ifftioflr or li?^ (J 337,
II. a), P. P. nffiin, B. ^vm^ 11 Pt. ^pr: 11 Pass, ^pqj, Caus. KT^^flr, Aor. V^mftl^
or infrfin^, Des. fVnflwflr or f^^i^rfk {� 337, II. a). Int. ^il^iMi.

III. 1^ kuf^ to be crooked, to bend.
Certain verbs beginnmg with ^�^kuf (DhAtupH^ha 28, 73-108) do not admit of Gona or
Vfiddhi, except in the reduplicated perfect, the causative, and the intensive Parasmai-
pada. (PAn. I. 2, 1 ; � 345, note.)

P. ^frftr II Pf. i.^pit^y 2.^5^firv, I A. ^irffiflu^, F.^fr^vfir, P. F. ^jf^ ii Caus.
^^hnrfk. Int. "^^9^), ^fWrt^.

1 1 a. J(^^vraichJ to cut, (^ftin|;)
P- ^Wfir (see No. 105) n Pf. i. 'ra^, 2. 'raf^ or tnw, I A. mr#l(. or
^'''TB'fH i� 337> I-^)� F. Trf^onrfir or ^a^iflr, B. ^fvqm^ u Pt. ^w:.

113. w kri, to scatter.

P. ftincfir n P� 3. ^ncK, 6. 'wurj:, 9. ^^inp (Pa?, vn. 4, 1 1), I A. imnftn, F.

iftiffir or ivlfNifir {� 340), B. iA^ li Pt. "iM: u Pass. iA^� Caus. HFCirfir,

Des. f^mft^rfk.

Note— After ^W and Hfir, "^ takes an initial ^ if it means to cut or to strike : ^HrVsivin
he cots,' Vinranx ; liniOjKfk he cuts or he strikes (P&i?. vi. i, 140, 141). Also V^ftlRn
he drops (P49. vi. i, 143).

1 14. ^^ spjiii to touch.

P.^^^^fif I' Pf.^W^, lA.irain^or^HWTlffl^or^R^^p^, F. Bi^lfv or H�$fll�

B. ^?im^ II Pt. ^jr. II Des. flw^pfflr, Int. mO^^^i), iwft^ft.

115. Jt^^prachhj to ask.
P.^lKflr (see No. 105) 11 Pf. l.^^w, 2.^niftCT or mit, 9-'^^^^* (� 3^8),
lA.%na9fh[^ F.nv^, B.^[�ni^ ii Pt.^: ii Pass.^pcri^, Caus. nw^lflr, De��
fll^f^fl^^fir. Int. vO^^HN.



1 16. ^ srij^ to let off.

P* ^fnfir II Pf. I. WtAj 2. OTf^ or ^I9v(8ee N0.48), I A* vomPi^f F. ^nsflf II

117. HH^ �uy/, to gink, (inill)

Vn^majj and vTl^iiai (Div) insert a nasal before strengthening terminations beginning with

consonants, except nasals and semivowels. (P&9. vii. i, 60.)

P. irarfir ii Pf. i. �rw> a. wPai^ or inrfVy I A. 3. wh^ (J 345)9 6. 'whrf,
s^ ^nrt^, P. �h9ifir� P. F. inn 11 Pt. ww.^ Ger. wm or iw (f 438) u Caus.

HVmOl, Aor. WlfWII^y Des. Dili Hi Ta^ Int, iTHI^jirRy TffftR .

118. ip^t^A, to wish, (^.)

P. ^idir (see No. 31), I. ^wi^ 11 Pf. i. ^^, 2. ^^iftw, 3. ^^, 4. ^W, 5. ^^•^

6. ^^, 7. ^flw, 8. ^, 9. ^, I A, ^i<h^, F. ^f^ii^fir, P. F. WT or irfWnT (f 337j

II. i) n Pt. ^ Ger. ^j\ or ^iVifT n Pass, l^ini, Aor. %flr, Caus. ^inifiry Aor.

WWT^, Des. ^fVrfVinfir.

III. Atmanepada Verbs.

119. ^mft, to die, (^O

\ mftj to die, though an Atmanepada verb, takes Atmanepada forms only in the special

tenses, the aorist, and benedictive. (P&9. i. 3� 61.)

P. ftnw*, I. wftnnf, O. fti^, I. firt u Pf. i. wrc^ 2. irt, 3. innt, 4. •iPw^?
5. T9^9 1 A. I. ^^[ftry 2. ^wpnj, 3. ^w^, F. iir<iini9 P. F. H^rf^y B. ^iftv 11 Pt.
fv: II Pass. f%in^, Caus. iimrftTy Des. ^^fily Int. ^lifhiit.

lao. '^ rfri, to observe, ("y^.)
P. f^ II Pf. ^, I A. w^, P. ^ftw^, P. F. i5*T, B. -jirtf II Pass, f^j
Caus. ^nilfir, Des. n^^Omfl (J 332, 5). It is chiefly used with the preposition
ITT to regard, to consider.

Div Class {Divddi, IV Class).

I. Parasmaipada Verbs.

lai. fij^rfw, to play, (flfj.)

P.^'ti^fw(f i43)HPf.fl^^,IA.ii^Th(^,F.^fV^ifw P.P.^f^, B.f^^iqn^^H

Pt.^tf: or ^ (} 44a, 7), Ger.iprf {� 431, i) or ^^[m 11 Caus. ^^irfir, Des.

fi{^flwfli or j^Or {� 474)9 Int. ^^)^.

122. "^njit, to dance, (^wt*)
P.^wfii H Pf. 3. •R#, 9. '^^U I A. Wtfiift^, F, ^inivifir or ifii^lfk (J 337,
II. 2) II Pt. ^|WJ I* Caus. �r8i|f)r, Aor. Htftilff or iHft^jinr 9 Des. ftnfffr^flr or

* Fmal ^ is changed to ft ($ i lo) in the special tensea of Tad verbs, likewise before the
1| of the passive and benedictive ( PIL9. vii. 4, 28). Afterwards ft again becomes f^, according
to P&9. VI. 4, 77.

M m 2


1 23- ^yr<� to grow old, (ij^.)

P. iMflr* II Pf. 3. mnr, 9. mr?: (Gu^a, � 330) or ihp ($ 328, 2), I A.
wnxfh^or n A. mpcn {� 367), P. nftiiflr or irtNrflr (J 340), B. iMrn 11 Pt.

Mt^ II Cans, ift^ (f 46:^, 25), Des. ftnrftnqfir or ftfiMfw {� 337, II. 3).

124. ^ io, to sharpen.

Verbs ending in ^ o drop ^ o before the 1| ya of the Div class (P&9. vii. 3� 71) ; e. g.

W chhOf to cut, ^UM), to finish, ^do,to cut.

P. ^nflr, I. v;^, O. ^{^, I. Tfiq 11 Pf. ifnpl {� 329), I A. ^viirnani^ or II A.
^tW^9 F. imsrfir, P. F. igmj B. ^imrm (f 392) 11 Pt. ^^mn or fimi: (f 435) n
Pass. 5Tir>, Cans, ^n^ivfir, Des. fi^^nrfir, Int. ^p^p^.

125. ^ �o, to finish.

P. ^iiflr II Pf. ^rar, I A. vuidli^, II A. ^nin^, F. vi^qfir, P. F. VIWT9 B. ihvm

($ 392) II Pt ftnn, Ger. �iniT 11 Pass. *qT^ {� 392), Cans, imnvflr, Des.

f^ivnrfir, Int. ^i4Nw�

126. iqv vyadhj to strike.

P. ftwflf (see No. 105) 11 Pf. 3. ftnqiy (f 311), 9. Pfftl^, I A. i. vqm,

2. nmnfl?^ 3. vmnfli^, 4. ir�ni^, 5. ^wrti, 6. ^nmvf, 7. fmui^, 8. ^rmvy
9. ^wn^:, F. vnorflr, P. F. iqir, B. ftrmn^ n Pt. fti; 11 Pass, flunii. Cans,
ninnifir, Des, fimirfir, Int. ^fViuii).

127. ig^/rip, to delight.

P. ^pHfftf II Pf. I. inrt, 3. inif^ or 111^9 or nv^j 3. inrt, 4. ti^^w or n^,

I A. Winffi^ or ^VirNfl^ {� 337, I. 3) or v^ern^ (see No. 38) or II A. ^if^,

F. wf^vffir or irtc^ or ?F9Tfw, P. F. irf^, irftr or ^nn, B. ^pm^ 11 Pt. ^ tt

Pass, ^^nr, Cans. ir^^, Aor, Vfll^Mif^ or unrif^, Des. ni^HfOl or fllflfQilfll,

Int. flOfi^A*

128. ^ muhj to be foolish.

P. ^isfti II Pf. I. ^^^9 3. ^ifrt^ or ^iftnf or ^iftf , 11 A, ^iq;^ (J 367, ^llflj) t,
F. ift^^ or iftfignrftr, P. F. iftxvT or ifteT (J 129) or iftf^ 11 Pt. ijni: or ip: 11
Pass. ipnCj Cans. lililuOl, Des. ^|^[^fir, ^'frt^piftr or y^fy^HOl, Int. ifl^pnTy 'JWtfril
or ifhfH^.

* Final ^, changed to ^, and lengthened before ^.

t The SArasvatt gives besides the second aorist the optional forms of the first aorist
^■ift^h^or VmUlll^ (� 337, 1. 3, Wrfij) or ^fJ^Tl^ (� 360). According to Pfti^. iii. i, 55
(� 3^7)} the forms of the first aorist are allowed in the Atmanepada only; but later gram-
marians frequently admit forms as optional which are opposed to the grammatical system
of Pftnini. Sometimes the evasion of the strict rules of P&nini may be explained by the
admission of different roots, as, for instance, in No. 130, where the first aorist Parasmaipada
V^pftl^, given in the S&rasvatt, which is wrong in the Div class, might be referred to the
Kri class.


Div CLASS, Itmanepada yebbs. 269

129. ^^naS, to perish, (^.)

P. inpiftr H Pf. 3. ^nmir, 9. ihj:, II A, w?nin^ (f^) or iri^ ($ 366), P.

iff^HRfiv or iTOfflr (see No. 117) � Pt. iTftj Ger. ^ or ifyr (J 438).

130. ^m Sam, to cease, (^O

Eight Div verbs, '^(^Jam^jntam, l^dam, V^^^om, "^S^bhram, "^p^ksham, W{^klom, f^maJ,

lengthen their vowel in the special tenses. (P&9. vii. 3, 74.)

P. w^nfif u. P� 3. ir^rm, 9. i^T' ^^ '^' ^'^P"^,' ^- ^rt^nrtr, P. F. i^ftnrr n

Pt. ijifif: (J 429), Qer. ^trfr or ^rfNnr 11 Pass, ^p^, Caus. ^ipifir (� 462) he
quiets, but ^n**^ or ^fh he sees. (Dh&tup&tha 19, 70.)

131. f9(^mid, to be wet, (firfti^.)

ftl^ mid takes Gu^a in the special tenses. (Pi^. vii. 3, 82.)

P. ^wflr II Pt. ftnn wet, or ^flpr: ($ 333, D. 2*).

II. Atmanepada Verbs.

132. "W^jan, to spring up, (ipft.)

^f\jan substitutes ^jd in the special tenses. (Pi^. vii. 3, 79.)

P.htoJ n Ff.^ ^ 328, 3), lA.wnfHw or Mnfn (�413), F.^^rfi^

iff^niTy B�.iift|ift? II Pt. irnn, Caus, ii�nri)r, Des, ftniffnwj Int. wrimw or

^33^ ^ P^^y to go.

P.'qvi^ n Pf.^, IA.3.wq!fi{($4i2), 6. ^rmmrf, 9. ^Rnnif F. ii?^, P. F. ^nm;

B. ^iiftf II Pt. ^v u Caus. ^T^irfir, Aor. n^fhl^, Des. flnin^ (J 47i> 9), Int

^'rt^ i� 485)-

134. ^ �tMfA, to perceive.

P� ^piri^ M P� ^ly^* I A. I. w^fhr, 3. 11311:9 3. wji or nwtftr, 4. ^v^jTiffli,
5. ii^wnrf* 6. v^i^Tirf, 7. ii^rCRff 9 8. v^, 9. iT^iinr} F. H'tRrV) p. F. iJtVTy B.

^nr^ II Pt. ^51: II Caus. ^Wqfir, Aor. ^I^^VI^) Des. ^pfFRI^ (3^ of the Div class
can never take intermediate ^^ see j 332, 12; see also Kuhn, Beitrage,
vol. VI. p. 104), Int. iftjuii^.

IIL Farasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.

135. ^ nah^ to bind, (^.)

P. fHfir or�^ II Pf. i.^THTf) 2. �m(J 130) or %f^9 Atm. ^, I A, i.lHfTWy

2. nHinnty 3. h�iiw1hj 4. wfTf^5 5. w^rnt) 6. vrorf? 7. iRiw?^ 8.inTO, 9. wiin^f
Atm. i.^RfV^, 2.iniiT:, 3.^�niv, 4.^1771^, s.^v^fm^, 6. ^nrrirTiif , j.^mmf^^

8. IR^, 9. iRfinr, F. ^n^rftr, P. F. thtt 11 Pt. ^Wj Ger. ii^, �>iw 11 Pass, ifinr
Aor. ViTTf^� Caus. �|lf qfiT, Des. fvlHWAy Int. �IMIIA*


Chur Class {Churddiy X Class).

Paxasmaipada Verbs only.

136. ^ chur J to BteaL

P. ^^ft^fif H Pf. ''ftiAii^^Kj I A.w^[5tl^� F.^fW^T^lfw, P.F.^fhcftrifT, B. ^^^m
{� 386) II Pt. ^Wtw:, Ger. ^ikPwT II Pass, ^ft^, Caus. ^ftrirtTr, Des. ^^Vr^ii^ni.
No Intensive {� 479).

137. f^ cW, to gather, (f^.)

The changes which roots undergo as causatives, take likewise place if the
same roots are treated as Chur verbs. Hence according to j 463, IL 6,
'ftr, as a Chur verb, may form P. ^^iRfir or ^nnifir, the vowel, however,
remaining short because, as a Chur verb, fv is said to be f^{� 462, note) 11
I A. ^NN^ or V^1^MI^9 B� ^^\\ or ^mn^.

Note — Several Cbur verbs are marked as i^fl^, L e. as not lengthening their vowel, some
of which were mentioned in � 462, among the causatives. Such are 9^ to know, to make
known ; ^l^to pound ; ^ to pound ; ^, if it means to feed ; WS to live.

138. ifEkfitj to praise.
P. isiftnfK {� 462, 2) H I A. WflTH^ or ^ifrtt^ {� 377)-

Su Class {Svddi, V Class).

I. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.

139- 1 ��, to distil, (g^.)

P.^^flr, I.3.ig($3�i*) n Pf. TOT� Atm. ^, I A. iwrrh^ ($ 332, 4) ;

the Sirasvatt allows also ^raHf^ (but against Pan.vii. 2, 7 a), Atm. imtv;
the Sdr. allows also wsf^ (but see P&n.vii. 2, 72); F. ^jh^fiT, P.F. ^fhn,
B. ^jni^ II Pass, ^in^, Aor. mrrf^, Caus. ^mfw, Aor. ^^^5^9 Des. ff;|v6r. Int.

Note — The "^ of ^ may be dropt before terminations beginning with ^ or I?, and not
"requiring Gu^a ; but this is not the case if "^ is preceded by a consonant. This explains the
double forms ^q^i and ^'ftj %%^i and ^M!, ll^�|^ and ^f^^j "^T' *�^ ^^^^ � ^^^
Atm. ^15^ or ^p^^* ^g�i$ or ^^9 I^^J^rf or H^p^y ^^13^ or ^l^'^lfV. The
same rule applies to the Tan verbs.

140. fir cAi, to collect, (f%^-)

P. frnftfil II Pf. 3. fVlR or f^l^kR) 2. f^l^ or fVi%^ or, according to Bharadv&ja
{� 335> 3)9 N^ftnr or fw^ifV^r, 9. fw^. or fv^, Atm. f^ or fri^ (Pap. vii.
3, 58), IA.^i%^, Atm.'W^, F.^^1^, P.F.^, B.^*^ II Pa88.^<hnr,
Caus. ^Tipvfir or ^mWir {� 463, 11. 6, and No. 137), Des. f^^fNfir or f^ra!Nf)r
(Pap. VII. 3, 58), Int. ^"^hnr.

141. ^ strij to cover, (ij'f.)

P. ^ilfWw II Pf. inSTCtj Atm. ir^9 I A. ii4fllNTl^9 Atm. mrftl (not %fW^9


if ^nflf) or "npf {� 332, 5, a rule \rhich applies to the Atmanepada onlj),

P. wftwflr {� 332, 5), p. F. issh^ B. ^sAuf^f Atm. ^jtfh or wfbAv ($ 332, 5) 11

Pass, irti^, Caus. WTDVfw, Des. fklfHKk, Int. TM^.

142. ^ tTJ, to choose, (^.)

P. ^lulftf II Pf. 1. "wrc (d), 2. '^Rflcr*, 3. ^TTt, 4. "'c^, 5. ^wy, 6. ^mj:,

7. ^, 8. ^TO, 9. "^, I A. ^WT^ (f 332, 5), Atm. HRfty or H^lftv (f 340) or

^■T" ($ 337� II- 4)9 ^'^ ^ft'rf^ or ^t^'rtr? P. F.^ftirr or -^dm^ B. ftnnn^, Atm.

^rWhr (not ^tWIf� P&9. vn. 2, 39) 11 Pass, ftmi^, Aor. V^nft, Caus. ^nt!irf)r,

Des. OmfXHOTf flrrftirtiT or ^f||lf)f, Int. TTtinr.

II. Parasmaipada Verbs.
143. f^ At, to go, to grow.

P. MMti � Pf- ftrvnr (P&^. vn. 3, 56), I A. ^b|*i^, F. ^^rflr, P. F. %irT,

B. iJHvn^ II Caus. ^Tinrfw, Aor. Wiflipn^ (Paa. VII. 3, ^6)^ Des. ftnfhlfir, Int.

■S a^ S

144. 9^^aA:, to be able, (^.)

P.^rxMr II Pf.3.^B[^rni, 9. ^:, I A. ^rinin^, F.^rwflr, P.F.^rw n Pt.^r[ii: 11

Pass. IR^qi^ (i|� ^mii it can be done)^ Caus. ^fTV^flr, Aor. lll|fl9�l^, Des.

f^^fir> Int. ipnfpnw*

145. ^ hrUy to hear.

This verb is by native grammarians classed with the Bh{i verbs, though as irregular. It

substitutes 3[ ^' for ^ hu in the special tenses.

P. 3. If^Wf, 6. IJ^fl:, 9. 9|ipini ; 4. sj^^i or ij^ II P� i. ^1VT�r (a), a. ^vh^
($ 334* 8), 3. ^JW^, 4. ^^, 5. ^^^, 6. ^1^^, 7- '^I^* 8- ^[^� 9- ^5^->
I A. mfh(h(^� F. ^fNrfir, P. F. xiftWT, B. t^^ini^ W Pass, ^ijjrir, Aor. vmftTy Caus.
WWfw, Aor. H^lRH^or irfijre^($ 475)> Des- TJ^ (Pftii. i. 3, Sl\ Int. ^ft^.

146. ^BTTt, 4p> ^ obtain, (wj.)

P. 3. viMtPd, 4. WT^i, 9. viijcjni, I. viNl4^� O. vnj^ni^, 1. 3. ^nrftj, a. ^nij% 11
Pf.im, Aor.^n^, F. wt^irftr, P.F.^rnn 11 Pt.^fTH: 11 Pass.mtqrry Caus.^mnrftr,

Aor.Wfftrnr, Des. ^mOf.

III. Atmanepada Verba

147. W5^ ai, to pervade^ (''^O

P� 3. ^'^i ^� ^^^tn^, 9. ^^'Mfli 4' ^■^[^> I� !• ^TT^ftf, 2. ^n^pin:, 3. iii^fl�
4.^rf^^> 5. w^^ivii, 6. viq^iiii, v-^TT^'ifif, 8.^ni|i4, 9. vifgcifi, 0.^v^4hr,
I. I. w(i^, 2. v^M, 3. w^wf, 4. w?nwt, 5. ^r^^nrt, 6. w^^nif, 7. wmi^^,
�.w^, 9.^1^^ II Pf. i.nR^, a.wpff^ or �^, lA-i.^rrfw, a.^wnr:,

♦ According to P&n. vii. 2, 13, we might form ^^ ; but Pftn. vn. 2, 63, would sanction
W^rft!^. The special restriction, however, of ^^ to the Veda in Pftn. vii. 2, 64, is sufficient
to fix ^prf^ as the proper form in ordinary Sanskrit.


3.WI�, 4.Wrerf^9 5.VIII|l^i, 6. VIHIKli, 7. VIHHr^y 8.W^, 9. VlHlff; or i.wrf)[lf^9

2. iiir^fK> 3. wrfljv, P.F. HIT or wf^nrr, F.m^ra or v(^iiA^ B. ^nftw or vf^iftf n

Pt ^m II Pass. ^f^^9 Aor. ^nf^, Caus. HT^nrfir, Aor. vrf^n^i^y Des. irfi^fi^in^y

Tan Class {Tanvddi^ VIII Class).
All verbs belonging to this class are Parasmaipada and

Atmanepada Verbs.

148. 7T^ tan, to stretch, (ir^.)

P. Tpftflf, I. VA�0<^, O. ir^^vn^y I. TPftj ; Atm, P. 11^9 I. Wl^, O, iP^Aify

I- n^iA H Pf. 3. inrR, 9. n^u I A. hamIi^ or wnrti^ {� 348), Atm. 3, mfftn or
HWK (� 369), 2. HflHifi: or vinnty F. irf^^fir, P. F, irf�niT, B. irhi^, Atm. itfti-

fftf II Pt. WiK, Ger. imj or nPffi^i 11 Pass. WTUT^ or innr {� 391), Caus. wniivflr,

Aor. vifhrTi^, Des. finrfWk or flnrtafir, Int. viRn^.

Note — Verbs of the Tan class may raise their peDultimate short vowel by Gui^a j ^^TO

to go, Hwflr or ^^pnWr. trt^^^wit ^^ ^ fWr, sftr. n. u, 3.

149. ipi^ ksharif to kill, (^.)

• P. TfufH^ II Pf. H^rnir, I A. wqpif^ (� 348*), Atm. 3. WVfflov or W^K, a.

VI|IVlil! or mfW.

150. ft|^ kshiny to kill.

P. ffflnfT or ^fonAr II I A. H^Kllfly Atm� V^TlOS or Hft|?r.

151. v^san, to obtain, (^.)

P. ^nftflf II Pf. fRTRj Atm. ^, I A. iraTffh^ (5), Atm. iraf�nf or iranr (Pftn�

11.4,79; VI. 4, 42).

15^- f *r�> to do, (fy^.)

tf kfi before weak terminations becomes li^ kar, but before strong terminations '^ kur.
Before ^o and ^m, and the ^y of the optative, the Vikara^a 7ti is rejected, but the
radical 7 � is not lengthened.

P. I. oiOr*!, 2. in&fti, 3. 11OO19 4� lf%*> 5� "S!^^* 6. "y^iRj 7� ^^*9 8� ^f^�
9. ^jwfir, I- 1.11*1.4, 2. ^�a0.9 3. inrth^, 4. 11^9 5. ii^^i 6. vji^iii, 7. w^^

8. wfi^, 9. ^1%!^, O. I. f%, 9. ^:, 1. 1. vTTiAir, 2. ^, 3. wdj, 4. ''iTsrf,
g. "9^, 6. f^vf, 7. iww, 8. "^F^, 9. '^fii II Pf. I. ^"nst (�)� 2. '^*'5, 3. 'wntf
4.^f^, s-^ii^> 6. ^Ti5*> T'^^'V' 8. ^n, 9.iry, I A. i.iraR, 2. v^iin, 3.mnff^9

4.V4l4, 5.V�Mf, 6. VHTTf 7. W% 8. V^ili, 9. W|:, F. IbO^^ini, P. F. llffT, B.

I. ftww, 2. fnmi^ 3. fiiini^9 4. fVinnff 5. (Vmii^j, 6. Oiiiifrity 7. fiwroij 8. fiiimr�

9. fiiPn^t •

Atmanepada : P. i.f^, 2.f^, 3-lP5'^> 4.^^� Sf^j 6.1l%tT^> 7- 1F^>

8. ^^^5 9. ^^9 1. 1. IJ^flj 2. WJ^5^:, 3. Wfi^, 4. lV^|%f^9 5- If^l'^rtj 6. W5%Tlff>
7.W^^ftf, 8.1l^p^9 9.1l^f^9 O.i.^J^hl&c, I.i.H^, a.^^Vf, 3.^p^�4.mm^

5. ^%nrf� 6. "f^iirf, 7. *'<^iii^, 8. "f^iij 9. ^|%iif II Pf. I. ^i%> 2.^^, 3.^nk9


kb! class, parasmaipaba and Atmanepada Vebbs. 273

4. ^^�if9 5. ^nsrv, 6. wmtf 7. ^npi^, 8. ^'^j 9- ^ftftj I A. i, ^s^fk, 2. ^Rf^rty

3. 1R^, 4. Vf ^r^, 5. H^MIIff, . 6. Vf Minfy 7. Vf mff, 8. ^1^9 9. ^I^W> F.
^fiilriy B. 3. ^r^lTy 8. ^pft^ H

Pt. ^jnn, Ger. ^fi^r li Pass, filing, Aor. iRinft:, Caus. ^RRilflry Aor. V^ 4111(^9

Pes. r^4f)9ni, Int. ^hA^9 ^virfft &c., or ^nh^iir &c. (f 490).

Krt Class {Kryddi, IX Class).
1. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.

153- ^ *'•'� to l>uy> iV^^)
P. Ilfhinfif II Pf. I. f%HR (a), a. f^ivftr^ or f^ll^, 3. f^niPTy 4. fHfliftfr,

5. ftiftiPi^, 6. r^fM^:, 7. fwftisftnTj 8. fwftR, 9. f^finj:) I A. ^ii^^f^, Atm. 11^9
F. iR�rf)r9 P� F. iarr, B. nfhni^, Atm. ^iift? 11 Pt. nfhr: 11 Pass. lA^y Caus.

WM^flly Des. r^filiini, Int. ^nliffl.

154. ift m�, to kiU, (irt'^.)

The roots ^ mf, f)| mi (Su)� aod ^ df (Div) take final VT ^ whenever their ^ ^ or ^ t would
be liable to Guna or V|iddhi, and in the gerund in ^ya (� 45a). Pft^. vi. i, 50.

P. tflnifk II Pf. I. iwTj 2. iwnr or H?�m^ 3. irft, 4. ftrftaw, 5. fiiwi^jj 6. ftv^R^y

7. "ftfftir^, 8. ftiwr, 9. fti'j'' ^ '^' iiiiflu ({ 353)> Atm. inn^ (J 353), F. urerfk,

P.F. iniTT, B, irt^9 Atm. imAv li Pt. iftir:, Ger. ifliiiT, �*mT 11 Pass, i^^^

Caus. Hnnvfir (J 463, II. 19), Des. ftmrfiT (J 471, 8), Int. iMHii^.

155. ish^^/amJA, to support, (^.)

The verbs ^M ^fam^A, ^^�^�m6A, TJS^skamhh, l^^skumbh, and ^�ibi may be conjugated

as Krt or as Su verbs.

P. Hvrfir or ^ff^ihfir &c., I. ^nsran^^ O. %r^iiii^9 1. i.^raiftT^ a.iwR*, 3.HVT99

4' WVW, 5. HVMy d.H^lfhrfy 7. fcRIIHy 8. ^cl^ftlT, 9. WVJ II Pf. Tnrf>Tj I A w^eM^or

II A. ir�m^ ($ 367), F. wfimflr, P. F. #6nn, B. w;^ ii Pt wan, Ger. ^iHhiWT

or ^jajT II Pass. W^^ Caus. icNirfiT, Des. 01^(^111 Of, Int. iTPSn^.

156. JipA, to purify, (^.)

The Kri verbs beginning with ^ jptf shorten their vowel in the special tenses (P&9. vii. 3, 80).
They stand Dh&tup4(ha 31, la— 33. The more important are, ^/^, to cut, ^^/f^, to
cover, ^VT^, to choose, ^^k4, to shake, ^jpfi, to fill, ^dfl, to tear, ^ifC, to wither.

P. jfrflr? Atm. jm^ II Pf. ^in^, Atm. 55^, I A. wnfh^, Atm. imOif, F.
iif%�ifir9 P- F. "qrftnn 11 Pt, "jm, Ger. -jwr (^iftnr. and iifnwr (J 424) belong to

5]!^, ^ro^ (BhA dass), see f 333. D) 11 Pass, jr^^ Caus. ^n^irfiry Aor. n^llM^^y
Des. '^fjtfn (flRfinii^ belongs to ^, wikt BhA class, P&n. vii, a, 74), Int

* Krt verbs ending in consonants form the and pers. sing, imperative in 1IT�T I � 321, note a.

N n


157. ^ grah^ to take.

This root takes Sampras&nucia in the spe<^al tenses and before other weakening terminations.

(Pftn. VI. 1, 16.)

P. ^pGnfil'y Atm, ^lEifH^9 1- VJ|%|ll^� Atm. Vij%|lfl� O. ^!BfNn^> Atm. Jj^ff,

5- 'T^fT* ^- Mf3pj 7- '^T*^? 8. mj?, 9. ir^:, I A. i. ^m^ ($ 341 and f 348 *),
2. liicn, 3. ^il<i<^, Atm. I. ^Rnfn^'j 3. Hilf ivi:, 3. ^�irfi�, Jp.IT^THTF, r*. *.
mfhlTy B. ^|ini^> Atm. m^hftr \\ Pt. ^pftirty Ger. ^ilfhwr h Pass. ^^{flWy Aor, ^Wlfrff �
Fut. {|<1m4 or ijlPfilil &c., Caus. ntfifflYy Des. ftl^lffir, Int. ^O'j^liy WUlfiP
(not HWfr)*

II. Paxaamaipada Verbs.

158 . Ultjyd, to grow weak.

This root takes Sampras&rapa in the special tenses and before other weakening terminations.

(See No. 157.)

P- ftpirflf, I. irfVnnn, O. ftnfhnnj I. ftnn5 m P� i. ftniJT) a. fViifVi|ii or ftfi^t%
3. fVriiJT, 4. ftffsir^y I A. V3i(iMli^9 F. 9i|i<^rA, B. ifron^ ii Pt. iflif: (irtin as

participle would be wrong, see P4n. viii. 2, 44 ; but it occurs in the sense
of old (Am� Kosha, ed. Loisel. p. 135)9 and in the Vedic Sanskrit ; see Kuhn,
Beitrage, rol. vi. p. 104), Ger. irtRPr, ''^^J^ u Caus. iqmifVr, Des. flifiirmfll,
Int. iM)i|W�

159* 9T/^9 to know.

This verb substitutes ^jd in the special tenses. (P&p. vii. 3, 79.)

P. wnftr, I. ^�ii�iii^9 O- mnl ^11(^9 1, wnnj ii Pf. ^n^9 1 A. n^nrtir 9 P� ^TOrflfj
P.F. fmrr, B.9nni^or |hm^ 11 Pt. vnr: u Pass. 9^199 Aor. mnfVy Caus.iq^(a),

(see � 46a, II. 15), Aor. wftnRI^, Des. ftf9T^, Int. fninnr*

160. "W^handhj to bind.

P. 'WMTfif, I. wwiiTi^9 O- wifhnn^9 I- ''nnj 11 Pf. i. w^, 2. T^ftnr or w^i or
^4^9 lA. i.iwh^, 3. ^mInA:) 3. ymInA(^, 4.^cnitr99 5.wrti9 d.^nfif, 7.iMfi9Vf
8.^iwf�, 9- ^whj:, F. 4?9rfll, P. F. "#11, B. nmn^ 11 Pt. ^nr:, Ger. iip u Pass,
wvnt Caus. ^^irafir, Aor. vi^vi^, Des. f^Hnrfn; Int. "mwvi^, wnKv-

III. Atmaaepada Verbs.

161. ^ vriy to cherish, (^.)

P. ^^fB^y I. ^f^^9 O. ^fiAWj I. ^pifhif 11 Pf. ^ I A. ^fwfKt or w^idiw or wjw,
P. ^ftui^ or nt(^, P. F. nftjn or ^rftwTy B. ^ifMlv or ^jiftr II Pt. ^ n

Pass, flro^, Caus. it^rfk (d), Des. f%nif3c^ or fiwchn^, Int. ^f^lhdt, ^*fJI &c.
Contracted forms of the Des. and Int.^ ff^ ^^^ ^'^^l^*



Ad Class {Adddi, II Class).
I. Parasmaipada Verbs.
i6a. ^ ad, to eat.
P. I. wfti, -a.ltfte, 3. wf%, 4. 1IVS� B'^^*9 ^'^^*f 7. HIK, 8. IR^, p.H^flri

Li.vT^, s. unp (P&v. VII.3, 100)*, 3-^n^9 4-^nT9 5. ^■nl, 6. mnrf, 7*imr,

8. mVy 9. ^iq�\9 O, mm^^ L I. tf^rftr, a. iri^t, 3. w^, 4. w^iWi g. ^bw, 6. ^Rif^

7. ^i^, 8. HW, 9. ^Rfj II Pf. I. WVf(f 2. ^n(^ &c., or substituting ^11, i. fnmr (a),
a. WWftRI, 3. ilMIH, 4. Wf^y 5. fWy, 6. inVS?} 7* "fftP'* 8. Ifff, 9. TJJj II A.

I. ^r9#, 2. m�:, 3. iriin^9 F- ^nisiflij P. F. init, B. mm^ ii Pt. v^lTf Ger.

vm, ^'ifnii (P&9. II. 4, 36) n Pass, wnij, Caus. in?;^, Aor. vrfln^^ De*.

i63� 'm:\psd, to eat
P.^^ffk, 1. 3.VOT^^, 9.1Wnfl[or^i^ ($3^^t)� O.^lTOHf I*^*^ * Pf.tnir,

I A. mrrfh^, F. ^rr^oflr, P. F. ^mr, B. '^rrm^ or ^hm^ � Pass. ^iTvi^, Caus.
^immOi, Dcs. f^miiOi^ Int. MimiiiM.

164. ITT m&y to measure.

P. vfrfk) L 3. ^OTTi^9 9. ^ni]F[ or irj:, O. iitivti^9 1. 1^ m Pf. iwt, I A. ^wnrtu,
F. irmflr, P. F. mwr, B. iNii^ ii Pt flnr:, Ger. flrwr, ^^nm ii Pass, ^t^ky Aor.

Wirftly Caus. ifT^iffllf Aor. W^HMH, Des. fimrflry Int. ^iftiTWy ifWrfll or in^ftf.

165. ^ yd, to go.

P. irflii I- 3. wnn^^, 9. WQF^ or ^ij:, O. irnin^f L ^ ii P� iw, I A. mii^i^,

F. Hi^qfk, p. p. imiT, B. ^innn n Pt. imi: � Pass. *i^, Caus, inWHy Aor.
H^^MI^f Des. ftmrfhy Int. ^ilPTniW.

166. fVT A:A^a, to proclaim.
P- ?rt1f> I. ^IWTT^, O. ^qpm^, I. WTJ H Pf. ^w> II A. ^IWI^� F. WK^Hly

P. F. mrmy B. ^gnn^ or f^im^ ii Pt. wnr: ii Pass, ^nnm^ Aor. nwrAi, Caus.

WIMMflly Aor. vPmNMI^y Des. f^nrrafw^ Int. ^Wlilff.

167. ^ vaiy to desire.

This root takes SamprasArapa before the strong terminations of the special tenses, and in the

weakening forms generally.

P. I. ^flpV) a. ^ft(($ 125, im), 3.'WfVj 4. 'W* 6."W5� 6�'^n!'*^ 7�'^> 8. Tf,
9. 93^01, I. I. ^nti^ 2. ini^9 3. WT^, 4. w^, 5. wf, 6. Wft, 7. wpi, 8. wV,

9. w^9 0. 9)pni^9 I- 1, w^nftf, 2. ir^, 3. "^^ 4. ^^iw, 5. ^5 6. Tiff, 7. ^r^rw?

* H^ inserts W before terminations consisting of one consonant,
t When f^ is added immediatelj to the final consonant of a root, it is changed to nf
(P&9. vi. 4, loi); � 321, note i.

II In the tenses where ^K^ b deficient, ^^ is used instead.

IT This is formed from If^ to eat, a reduplicated form of ^. (PA9. 11. 4) 3^0

N n ^


8. ire, 9. "9^ II Pf. 3. 7?r(r, 9. "9^., I A. iRT|ftn(a), F. ^fiinqfir, P. F. ^rfipr,

B, TSpni^ll Paas. 7;^, Cau8. m^mfi!, Des. f^nfl(rrfir, Int. ^PT^inr, ^rrtf.

168. 1^ han, to kill.

Thia verb drops its final �(fi before the strong terminations of the special tenses, and in the
weakening forms generally, if the terminations begin \nth any consonants except nasals
or semivowels (PUn. vi. 4, 37). Before strong terminations beginning with vowels,
^�(A(m becomes H^ghn (PII9. vii. 3, 54). In the aorist and benedictive W^viufA is sub-
stituted. The desiderative, intensive, and the aorist passive are derived from ^^gkan,
the causative from Jnghat,

P. I. ^ftw, 2. T^p9f 3. iffwj 4. ^"K, 5. "?^j 6. ipn, 7. ?^n, 8. i[^9 9. lifTr, I- 1.
fT> 2. ^I?'^J 3. ^I?'^J 4� ^f^> 5� ^r?w> 6� v^ni) 7. vt^i, 8. ^vfir, 9. ^i^,
O. ^•<�if|^, I. I. irtfrfn, a. ifff (P&n. vi. 4, 36), 3. ^, 4. f^TPr, 5. ^, 6. fnf,

7. ffW, 8.^, 9. K| II Pf. i.WilR(a), (P&9. VII. 3, ^5\ a. inif^ or 1R%

3� ^im, 4. vif)|ii, 5. iin^�9 6. ire^9 7. ^fti^� 8. nil, 9. if^, I A. mrWh^, F.

fftpirftf, p. F. ffn, B. ^WIH II Pt. fw:, Ger. fwr, "^ ($ 449) 11 Pass. f�n^,
Aor. ^mf^ or inftl (� 407), Caus. 'miRflr, Aor. imlndl^, Des. fir^hrfii) Int.
ifipri^ or ^"^hn^ (P&9. VII. 4, 30, vfirt., he kills), iNf)r.

169. ^ yu, to mix.

Verbs of this class ending in 7 � take, in the special tenses, Vriddhi instead of Gu^a before
weak terminations beginning with consonants. (P&9. vii. 3, 89.)

P. I. wH, a.^rfti, 3.^^^, 4.^pn, 5.5^* ^•^''•^ 7'3'^> 8.5^, 9.5^fiT, 1. 1, wirf,
3. w:, 3. wn^, 4 "v^^, 5-^Pj 6.ir|7rf, 7. ^igf, 8.11^, 9- ^a^'n.j 0.510^^,
1. 1, irnftr, 2. gff , 3. iffj, 4. irw, 5. ^w, 6. ^Tif, 7. wm, s. gir, 9. f^ 11 P� 3.
gin^, 9. 53^:, I A. ^nirrtT^, F. ^ifturftf, P. F. ijftnrr, B. ^jn^^ 11 Pt. ^w: 11 Pass.

^, Aor. wnftr, Caus. inWir, Des. gipffif or f^ufciiiffl, Int. ift^, ^fhftfil.

170. >^ rtty to shout.

The verbs f fit, >^ r�, ^ ^^u may take \i before a// terminations of the special tenses

beginning with consonants. (P&n. vii. 3, 95.)

P. I. ^fll or T^^ftfir, a. w^I or T'ftf^, 3. ^ufif or vltfff, 4. ^: or ^<J)c|S, 5. "^tft
or ^ifhi:, 6. ^iK or ^"^t, 7. ^: or ^'?ftin, 8. ^^ or ^^A^, 9. ^^fli, 1. 1. wrt,
2, wttl or fnrth, 3. ^ron^or WSftl^, 4. l>^ or IV^^, 5. 11^ or iT^iAw, 6. V^nf
or v^^lllf, 7. ^BT^ or tr^*^, 8. ^1^ or W^^y 9. ^1^^, O. ^^\H^ or V^l^^lf^,
1. 1. r^nfftr� 2. ^f^ or ^'tfV, 3. ^ or tflftf, 4. T?tT?, 5. ^ or ^Hii, 6. ?5Hf or

V'HiTf, 7. ^rw, 8. "^ or ^"^hr, 9. ^^ 11 Pf. 3. ^'iN, 9. ^^J, I A. wrr^^,

F. TfN^qfir, p. F. tPnn, B. ^ini^ u Pt. ^: 11 Pass. ;cti^, Caus. TPHlflr, Des.

^^Mfff, Int. 0%^ff.

Note — ^The SHrasvatt gives WcNftfT , O^ft, and ^ftlT ; but see � 333, 4. It likewise
extends the use of ^ to ^ to praise.

171. ^ t, to go.

P. i.^fl?, 2. ^ft, 3.^^, 4. ^o 5�^�> 6.^:, 7. ff^. 8.^, 9. iff^r, I. i.tnifj


^� ^> 3. ^> 4' ^> 5� W5 6.^irf, 7. w, 8. CT, 9. wnr^, o. i(iTn^9 1* I. wififtr, 9* ^flf >
3� ^9 4� ^^'^* 5. jjKf <5. ^, 7. ^nn�r> 8. ^ir, 9. ifj 11 PC i. ^iirii (a), a. ipiflni or

l[^> 3- V^^9 4�t'^> 5-^^^ ^- 1'!*' 7-t^> ^-t?"^* 9-t5*> ^^ i.wrf (PAv. H.
4� 45X 2. ^nnJ, 3.wTni^j 4. wm, 5. wnw, 6. ^nmrf, 7. vrw, 8. ^rtw, 9. ^■J*

(� 368), F. iwfli, P. F. CTT, B. ^im^^ II Pt. ^:, Ger. ^?^t, �^iq 11 Pass. ^, Aor.
^Bnrfti' (� 404), Caus. ifiRfir (Pft^. 11. 4, 46), Des. fnJiOmHr (Pan. n. 4, 47).
But see � 463, II. i, and ^ 471, 4, with regard to this and cognate verbs if
preceded by prepositions.

17a. fVR[ vid, to know,

P. I. %fti, 2, %fW, 3. ^fti, 4. ftv, 5. PirHi:, 6. fliwj, 7^ ftwj> 8. ftnw, 9. f^^fh,

1. 1. 11^, a. H^ or ^1^ (pan. viii. 2, 75), 3. ^B^ (� 13a*), 4. wftw, 5. wfllW,

6. iBftlnf, 7. llOlfly 8. wftfW, 9. ^rf>l^ or ^iftjo O. 'Areni^y !• I. ^Iftftf (or ft^hltflfTflff
&c., P4n. III. I, 41), a. friVy 3. ^� 4. ^^, 5. ftw, 6. ftnif, 7. ^1^9 8. "PlW,
9. ft^ II P� fln?; or f^^NiiK {� 326), I A. iif^^)|[^, F. ^R^viOi) P. F. %(^,
B. Hivii^ II •

Another form of the Present is, i. ^, 3. ^, 3. ^, 4. ffi, 5. ft^, 6. fv^:,

7. fll?r, 8. "ftWE, 9. ftlj: II Pt. ftrfl^, Ger. flfl^ II Pass, f^nn^, Aor. ll%flr, Caus.
^npifir, Aor. H^Wl^, Des, ftlflffipifll (P&n. i. a, 8), Int. ^flV^y ^^ftt*

^73' ^<w, to be.

P. I. vfWy a. wfti, 3. nfiST, 4. W, 5. FTJj 6. W, 7. W, 8. W> 9� Hflf, 1. 1. ^TO,

2. 'viitil*, 3. Wnftn^, 4. WT5I, 5. ITTW, 6. Vlfdi, 7. 'WTOT, 8. ^inW, 9. WWR^, O. I. ^Blrf,

a. ^^:, 3. Fnn> 4- WW, 5. wiw, 6. wnri, 7. wit, 8. wnr, 9. ^, 1. 1. ^reiftr, 2. irfW,

3. ^R^ 4. iwmr, 5. ^9 6. ^, 7. wnif, 8. Wf 9. ^ II P� i. ^n^, a. wrft^ 3.^n^,

4. ^irf^, 5. ^w^^, 6. ^n^jt, 7. ^i(\i*i, 8. wnt, 9. ^bt^: ; Atm. i. iro, 2, wiftw,
3. mi^ 4. vifVi^f, 5. uraw, 6. vtbia, 7. ^wftw^, 8. wifw% 9. wiftrct*

174. ^ fi^liff ^ cleanse, (f^.)

This verb takes Vriddbi instead of Gu^a (P&9. vii. 3, 114); it maj take Vfiddhi likewise
before terminations that would not require GuigA, if the terminations begin with a vowel
(Siddh.-Kaum. vol. 11. p. 12a).

P. 1. iitM, a. irftt, 3. mfi (� 124), 4. ^pny g. ijr:, 6. iff :, 7. nm:, 8. iff, 9, ^lifii

or iTT^fir, I. i.UHliii 2. VHI^, 3. ^•ii^, 4.^'^pt, g. ^H^> 6. vijsf, 7.Wflf, 8. ^BUff;

9-''B^^ or wfT^, O.^iirrn^, I. i.irr^Tftf, 2. i|fv, 3.11^? 4. hi^i^, 5�1^� 6.^,
7. w4h, 8. iff, 9. ^^ or iirilg II Pf. I. iwi^, 2. Tfiftni or innf, 3. hh\% 4. n^ftfi

or inrfn^, 5. I^W^: or iT<nw^, 6. iViflfj: or imr^j:, 7. Hi|ft|il or iWin^H, 8. W[9(
or ififi^, 9. I^t or HMii^:, I A. VHUfTi^ or VHlnfTi^, F. HTf^f^ or vfndfh^ P. F.

Tlf^ or in#T, B. ^mni(^ h Pt. ^JWX, Ger. inf^fifT or ippr, ^'p'T, Adj. iii(Ma^: or

^^i^^— ^— ^ ■ ^^^^^ — ^■— ■ ■■ ■

t The perfect both in the Parasmaipada and Atmanepada is chieflj used at the end of
the periphrastic perfect.


'nfiK, Mpm: or m^. (Pi^. m. i, 113) � Pas8.^mT^, Aor. W�lf9, Caus, iinhfli^
Des. flppiflr or fN^rfn^flr, Int. lO^Hl), •Wlfi.

175. ^ vach, to speak.
P. I. ^ifOT, a. ^ftfj 3. ^rfli, 4. ^^, 5. ^PHK, 6. ^flB, 7. ^^^HJf 8. ^HP^f 9. ^^ffw <Mf

i|^*, 1. 1, ^rri, 3. vn^y 3. irn^, 4. inr�f, 5. wrtfc, 6. mrerfy 7. w^nHf 8. ^nut
9. irn^*, O. ^Tani^9 !• i� ^r^nftf, a. ^ftv, 3. ^, 4, ii^i^, 5. iri, 6. "^nrf, 7. ^^in
8.'nR, 9.^* M P�3.^^rf, 9-^, n A. inft^ ($ 366), F. ^ra^flr, P.F.^w,

B. '9Wn(^ H Pt. ^IB M Pass. 9iqi^9 Aor. ^TOf%, Caus. iinRflr� Aor. ti^ftT^^
Des. Dl^tinij Int. (||i|iMl*

176. ;5^ rud, to cry, (ijfl?^.)

The verbs ^ rud, W^foop, W^^h?a$, W( on, WWj^jaksh take ^ t before the terminatioiis
of the special tenses beginning with consonants, except ^y (P&9> vii. 3, 76). Before
weak terminations consisting of One consonant, ^ f is inserted (P&9. vii. 3, 98) ; or,
according to others, V a (PAi^i. vii. 3, 99).

P. I. ^Ifljfi?, 3. ^ftfifftf, 3. On^Pn, 4. ^5fi?^� 9- ^5^flf> I* i.^irfhj, 3.^rd^ or ^vd^^

3. ^rttflu or vO^i^, 4. ^^r<^% 9. ^^^, O. ^wf, 1. 1. O^lP*!) 3. ^n^f^y 3. ^tflj^jy

4. 'd^, 5. '^^f 6. ^^flfilf, 7. O^W, 8. "^fijW* 9- ''^^ M Pf, ^dlfy 1 A. ^Rthfh^ or
WC^9 F. Ol^^niy P. F. uRjAI) B. '^^Vn^ M Pt. ^f^A{ II Pass. ^Vff^ Aor. ^vdf^i
Caus. d'^^^) Aor, il^^'((l^, Des. ^^f^flflr or i^OR^hDi^ Int. ^^V^.

177. Wl^jakshf to eat^ to laugh ||.

Seven verbs, W^^Jakihi W^jdgri, to wake, ^ift^daridrd, to be poor, ^^K^^chakd$, to shine,
IJT^iiite, to rule, ^M iftcIAl, to shine, q^ftoeol, to obtain, are called V^mr abhyasta
(redttplicated). Thej take ivfw ati and W] atu in the 3rd pers. plor. present and
imperative, and V! nfi instead of W( an in the 3rd pers. plnr. imperfect (� 331 1)�

P. 3. ifftiflfy 9. ifnflf� I. niniln or wififi^, o. in^m^) 1. 3. viiiAi^ or wnfi^,
9. ^m^ {� 3^1 1) M Pf. iniw> I -A., mnifh^, F. ifft|iqflr.

178. W^Jdffiif to wake. (P&n. vi. i, 192, accent.)
P. I. WIW, 3. innffi, 3. Hinfff, 4.Wnpt, S.WT^^, 6.Wpl55 7. ^IPpUf 8.1|T^%

9. ^•nflfkf !• !• iwil, 3. ^�ii�i�j 3. wifPTt, 4. V4M|^9 5. vni'iriy 6.^nn'pit> 7. win^^

8. ^fH!^, 9. WIIMI^ty O. ^i<{<iifl|^9 I. I. lUIUfVlf 3. ifT'ir^^ 3. If'IJj 4. 1|I<K1^9

5. wrf, 6. iippvfy 7. wnciw, 8. ^fppij 9. TPRi M Pf. 3. ^nnnrt or itTTxt^mt (Piii.

III. I, 38), 9. inrm^9 I A. vnmilll^ (see preface, p. ix), F. ifpifbofir, P. F.
ifPlftKTj B. l||i|9n^ II Pt. HT'lfVjl* II Pass, ifprtffj Aor.mnnrft, Caus. ^hjiciiOi^
Des. ftwitflcrtr. No Intensive.

* The 3rd pers. plnr. present of ^T^does not occur (Siddh.�Kaum. vol. ii. p. X3o); accord-
ing to others the whole plural is wanting ; according to some no 3rd pers. plur. is formed

II in^to eat, from ^^; 1VV to laugh, from ^.

AD GLASS, Itmanbpada ybbbs. 279

179. ^flc^T daridrd^ to be p<KNr. (Pft^* vi. i, 192, accent.)

In ^ft^ daridrd the final VT tf ia replaced hy\% in the special tenws hefore strong tenni*
nations heginning with a consonant (P&9. vi. 4, 114). Before strong termin^tiona
beginning with vowels the W ^ is lost (PA9. vi. 4, 113).

P. I. ^fij^lfil} a. <(A.{[lfVly 3. ^(V^iPn^ 4. ^fiPj^i, 9. (^fVj^Ol, I. 3. W^IVj^llU

d.^i^ftfjnrfj 9. v^r<s:9 O. ^ftfjim^) I. i.^ft^ffftfj 2. ^fidf^[f%, 3. ^ftjTj, 4. ^ft{(i7>

(8iddli.-Kauiii.yoI. 11. p. 125), I A. H^Pcjfll^or ll^fV{[lifl<^(SiddIi.-Kaum. vol. 11.
p. 126\ F. ^fVjT^virA (Pftn. VI. 4, 114, vfirt.), P. F. ^ftf^ (not ^ftjUT).

180. "^^idt^ to command, (^TTf.) (P&n. vi. i, 188.)

IJT^iitfi is changed to fl^iis before weakening terminations begioning with consonants,

and in the second aorist. (P&9. vi. 4, 34.)

P. 1. 1IT%I, a. 9Tfw> 3. IRftf, 4� nilMli, 9. ^vfn, I. i. Wllld^ a. ^^H or Vl|ni^�

3. w|jn^ ($ 132)5 4- ^sfiBW? 5- ^■flp^j <5. vf^vf) 7. ^r^"Sj 8. vf^9 9" ^i^n^> O.
fiimi^t 1. 1, ^irarftr, a. ^prfti (J 132), 3. 91^ 4. ^itow, 5. fljt, 6. f^inft 7. ^unvi)
8. "ftjF, 9. 9111J II Pf. 9r9Tv> II -^^ 't'^i'tn^, F. iiiRRvifir, B. f^rmi^ 11 Pt. fljrfj n
Pass, fnf^j Cans, ^rnnrfir, Des. nn^iiOmni^ Int. ^fiirair.

II. Atmauepada Verbs.
1 8 1, ^m^ chaksh, to speak, (^ift(^.)
P. i.^, a.'^^ 3�^* 4-^'S^> 5. ^^i^, 6. ^^ikf 7.^i^l|; 8.^r^, 9-^V1|i$

1. 3. vw, 9. ^RfUTT, O. ^f^fhr, I. ^nrf 11 Pf. ^^•J'.

The other forms are supplied from fgr or WlfT, the Red. Perf. optionally^
(Pin. II. 4, 54, 55) : Pf.^l?ift M IIA.^i�|^or % F. ^qriwflr or �t^, B.^qrHTH
or l^im^, or Atm. ^TPiftv*

182. fl^ ii^ to rule.

The root i^U takes ^t before the and pen. sing, present and impevative (P&9. vii. 3, 77)*
^J{i(f and ^^F^icm do the same, and likewise insert ^t before the 2nd pers. plur.
present, [imperfect,] and imperative (Pki}. vii. 2, 78). The commentators, however,
extend the latter rule to ^9^tf. See notes to P&p. vii. 3, 78.

P. I. fl^, a. i(f^9 3. ^> 8. ff^[M> 1. 3. ^, 8. ^fifrt or ^^9 O. ^J^, 1. 1. ^,
8. ^(^^9 3. fit, 8. ff^M or f^ II Pf. ^^iNl^, I A. ^f^.

183. ^m^ ds, to sit.

P. ^iTB^, I- Mm, O. ^rr^hr, I. wmi ii Pf. wraNi^ (part, unfhi:, P&n. vn.

^j 83), I A, Vrf^y F. VlfViUn.

184. ^#d, to bear, {^.)
P. ^, I. ^1^, O. ^1^, 1. 1. ^ (P&V. VII. 3, 88), a. ^ly*^ 3. ^, 4. fwnf I

5> ITT'rt, 6. ^^nif, 7. ^ywitj 8. ^^ 9. f^ M P� ^^, I A* mf%v or wAv


{� 337j !• i)> F. Tifra?^ or ?fNn^9 B* ^rft^Av or ift^ w Pt. ^: (Pft?. vm. a,
45) II Pass, ^p^, Aor, ^T^rrfT, Caus.-^n^^, Aor. "Vf^^i Des. ^[^[^ (P&!?.
VIII. 3, 61), Int. ^rhrq).

185. ^ft it, to lie down, to sleep, (?ft^.)

The verb Ifl^it takes Guna in the special tenses (P&9. vii. 4, ax), and inserts ^r in the 3rd

pers. plur. present, imperfect, and imperative.

P. 1. 51^, a. "^t^^ 3, %T^, 4. $^, 5. 9niT^9 ^. "^f^f 7. ^'^j 8. ^N&, 9. %^ (P&n.

VII. I, 6), 1. 1, ^i^rf^, 2. ii^iHii:, 3. ^r^, 4. w^Rf^, 5. ^njnirirf, 6. wi(NiitI,
7. ^H^irf?, 8. ^v$i99 9. ^^^w, O. "^nrhr, 1. 1. 51^, a. "ir^, 3. ^wf, 4. "^nrra^, 5. ^nrnrf,
6.^nmrt, 7. ^nfwf, 8. th** 9. ^wt � P�f^, I A. ^i^rf^, F. ipftitqi^, B. ^nfhr ii

Pt. ^rftnn 11 Pass. ^TBl?^ (P^n. vii. 4, aa), Aor. ^R^tAt, Cans. ^iPRfir, Des.
f^i^^r�mi), Int. ^fl^im), ^$H^�

186. ^ f , to go, (if^.) (P&v- VI. I, 186, accent.)
This verb is always used with^rf^ac^At, in the sense of reading. (Siddh.-Kaum. vol. ii. p. 1 18.)

P. whr, I. 3. wSt((, 6.^mmiii (S&r. 11. 5, 8), 9. ^n^infy O. ^nrhflir, I- i.
^im^, 2. wiNf, 3. iNtirf, 4. vuiiii^^, 5. ^nftirnrf, 6. w^lhmrf, 7. ^wRwf , 8. inJM,
9. ^w^hnrt H K. ^rf^nnt (P&n. n. 4, 49), I A. 3. ^vStWy 6. ^iNnrf, 9. ^rftw, or

3. ^Wifhp (Siddh.-Kaum* vol. II. p. 119), 6. ^wrrtimif, 9.^nffnChnr, F.^iqiqT^,

Cond. ^rdigir or ^BupfNnr, P. F. ^djn, B. wWt? n Pt. ^aNhr: 11 Pass, irthri^,

Aor. fmnrfv or ^rvnf^. Cans, ^mnnrfv? Aor. umifVmi^ or vuiiflJiMi^, Des.

inftftwfir or vrirOfrni^ii.

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.
187. f)r( dvishf to hate.

P. i.irPTj a.^ftfj 3.irf^j 4-fiir�^j 9.fWfir, L 1.^1%^, a.^ii^, 3-^w^> 4.^rfir^,
9. ^rfk^ or nffj: {� 33it), O. f^ini^, 1. 1. %mf^9 2, %f^, 3. %^, 4. %^rT,

g. fw, 6. fkffy 7. INIH, 8. fllTF, 9. firi^ H Pf. n^sM, I A. ^R%1l)1^, F. T^^rflTf

p. F. �1T, B. fk�ni^, Atm. iyil|1v 11 Pt. flre � Pass, fk^y Aor. ^sitftr, Cans.
y^TiTiry Aor. VI^JiffMl^, iJes. l<$l|ll|lll, Int. ^^Tyvnr, ^ITF.

i88. Jgf duhj to milk.
P. I. ^Mw, 3. ^tftf, 3,^tfny, 4.S3p> S-S'^*^ <^. S'^f 7-5'f*> s.jni, 9.jffir9

I. I. ^R^, a. Wt^, 3. Wt^, 4. ^jaf, O. ^Wl^) I. I. 0^1 fn, 2. jfHl, 3. ^^,

4.^fi^W, 5-5"** ^•S'^j I'^^^W^, s.jni, 9.5^ II Pf.j^ftf, I A.^r^^&c. (see
� 362), F. \^^(fH.

189. ^ �fii, to praise, (^O

P. I. isftft or ^cNtftr (see No. 170), 2. W^flf or ^q^, 3. ^Nk or m^, 4.^rrt
pr ^y^hrt, 9. isjtfir, 1. 1. WsTJ, 2. ^BwJ or ^v^ssnft!, 3. ^Iwl^^ or VU<(1i^, 4. ^V^|7 or
^Wprt^* 9. ^'WJ^, O. iprn^� Atm. ^qln, I. i, Iri^tirHy 3. ^jf^ or Ig^ftf?, 9. WJ


or wtt^ II K 3. jfTif, 3. ptv, 6. ij^:, 9. jj^:, I A. v�rn(h^ {� 338, 3), Atm.
iwtF, F. wt^ihf, P. F. ^ifhrr, B. ^^m(^, Atm. ^if^^ 11 Pt. nw: 11 Pass. i{]>n^>

Aor. ^fniHiy Caus, ^MI^^dTy Aor. WJV^, Des. 3{[>lfir9 Int. lfk|^, iftvHVr.

190. \pm, to speak, ('^^.)

This verb takes ^ I before weak terminations beginning with consonants in the special tenses
(PA9. VII. 3, 93). The perfect WT^ dha may be substituted for five of the persons of the
present (P&n. iii. 4, 84). It is defective in the general tenses, where ^^ach (No. 175)
is used instead.

P. I. iRfrfif, 2. irWi or wm^ 3. inrtflf or wi^ 4. ifpu 5. tjjj: or ^nf^,. 6. i|Tn
or vTfj:, 7. Tjif:, 8. ipr, 9. "f^fir or wij:, 1. 1. winf, a. wmrt:, 3. innln, 4. wnjr,
5. w^y 6. wifwfy 7. wip^, 8. vifWy 9. ^■'yt'^j O. i[5n^9 1* i� iwrfij, a. '^ftr* 3. inrt^

4. ii^i�i, 5. ^, 6. njif, 7. KmHy 8. ijw, 9. ^fii*

191. "Qift i^r^K^ to cover, ("wJiT.)

This verb may take Vpddhi instead of Guna before weak terminations beginning with con-
sonants (PA9. vii. 3, 90, 91), except before those that consist of one consonant only. It
takes the reduplicated perfect against � 325, and reduplicates the last syllable (P&9. vi.
1, 8). In the general tenses the final 7 u, before intermediate \if may or may not take
Guna (P&131. 1. 2, 3).

P. 3. "^wfif or "^niffir) 9. "^i^^^ftTj I. wNnn^j ^' ''^'''^' ^* 'WJ ^' ^wfj m

P� I. ��9!T^ (a), 2. -wl^fft^ or ^l^^f^, 3. ^l^rW� 4. '^^[ft^j 5- ''tTT*
^' ^�l^lt9 7. ^K^^rciH, 8. ^5^|3^j 9. '''^^l'' ^ ^' wNftn^ or in^^lll^ or ^OTtl^ftl^
(P4n. VII. %^ 6), F. qHurn i qn i or ewjfilirfl, B. ^B|jnn^ n Pass. ^1^, Caus.
^t^ftl^ivflr, Aor. vf4|fi<iii9 Des. qH^ifuni or ^i^�ff^^fw or 9^�j(V|iinr, Int.

W|i�^ll9 ^WlmiTH.

Hu Class {Jvhotyddi, III Class).

I. Parasmaipada Verbs.

19a. W All, to sacrifice. (Plti^. vi. i, 192, accent.)

P. ^fHir, I. ^wj?^, O. ^JJ^, I. wjl^ II Pf. ^J?i^ or i{<cih�i< (f 326),

I A. Hfhrtu^, F. fNfir, P. F. fm^ B. |^m^ ii Pt. jw: u Pass, pi^, Caus. fiwirfir,

Aor, wi|j(MI(^9 Des. ^i^nOt, Int. ij^^n^, ift^tfw.

193. >* bht, to fear, (ftwft.) (P&n. vi. i, 19a, accent)

This verb may shorten the final ^1 before strong terminations beginning with consonants in

the special tenses. (P&9. vi. 4, 115.)

P. 3* fti^flr, 6. flwfhft or fM^^ 9. ftwrftf, I. 3. ^rfwi^, 6. ^Bftnflw or
wflrfiiw, 9. ^rf^wj:, O. finfhnu or fifinnn^, I. ft% n Pf. ftwR or flw-
^tHrto ($ 326), I A. ^i^irtu^, F. JNflr, P. F. hwt, B. ifhnu^ ii Pt. ^rtir: n Pass.
Whni, Aor. imftr. Cans, tmnvflr or mim^ or Ht^ini (see J 463, n. 18), Des.

ftwIifOiV Int. ^W^in^, ^l^flr.

o o

282 HU CLASS, Atmakepada verbs.

194. fjt hrtj to be ashamed. (Psin. vi. i, 192, accent.)

P. 3. fWj^, 6. ftfi^hn^ 9. ftff^pifif (f no), I. wfti^y O. r9i(1iiii|y I. fiff] n
PC 3. ftfiw, 6. Cfirc^j:, 9. fW|p|J or ftiprhwrit, I A. irif^fh^, P. i^rfk, P. F. jtin,

B. Jtm\ II Pt. thn or jftm (P&^. vm. a, 5^ 11 Pass. ifHA, Caus. t^iffir,
Aor. nftlf^ifi^^, Des. Afffhrfv, Int. ^nfhln*

195. "^prt, to fill, to guard.

This verb, and otbers in which final ^fl ia preceded by a labial, changes the vowel into
^tir, except where the vowel requires Guna or Vfiddhi. (Pftn. vit. i, X02.)

. I. nniTif, a. nwW, 3. nnnr, 4. IHJ5 :, 5. ni^[in, 0. ntjw:, 7. ni^, 8. imJm,
J. ftrjcflr, !• I. irf^wt, 3. wftro (or ^rftnro* S&r.), 3. ^rftnn (or iifVmi^)^ 4. ^rf^^^,
g. hTm^, 6. vfM^Mi^ 7. wfti^, 8. vf^^fl, 9. vrMM^*, O. f^Tj[]Sn^, 1. 1, ftnrofti,

3.ftt|[f$, 3.ftR5, 4.flrro^, 5. ft^JW* 6.ftl^[]l!T, 7.ftnrOW, 8. ftjW, 9. f^lj^ II Pf. I.

"'wr(�), 3. ^mOli, 3.''rnt, 4. MMfii, 5. wv^i or Mii^i, d.imq: or ^w{?9 7. ^nrfbi,

8. iTTC, 9. ^WF* or ny (Pai?. vii. 4, 1 1, la), I A. wxirt^, F. ^fbqfv (f), P- F.
i^fXill or Vlttm, B. ^[]ln^ 11 Pt. ^: (P&n. vm. 2, 57), ^:, and ffbR are referred
to f;^ (j 44a, 7), Ger. ^jfc, ^ 11 Pass. ^[IitI^^ Caus. ifRirfir, Aor. iv^Nn^^ Des.

5^[%ftr or ftnft^fw (t), Int. iflijj^Qff, ^mfw.

Several optional fonns are derived firom another root ^, with short ^.

Thus, P. 3. ftnifS, 6. (Vjija:, 9. ftnrfir, 1. 3. nftro, 6. vtM^Af, 9.^rf'TO^, O. ft^pm^ ti
I A. voT^Ti^, B. flnni^ II Pass, finnk ($ 390), Int. ^ifhinr ($ 481).

1 96. fT A^{, to leave, (w^lE^.)

Reduplicated verbs ending iaWld (except the ^ghu verbs, see � 392 *) substitute ^1 for VT^
before strong terminations beginning with consonants (P&9. vi. 4, 1 13). The verb ^ hd,
however, may also substitute ^� (P&9* vi. 4, 116).

P. I. ^ffifl^ 2. iffiftr, 3. HfiOi, 4. w^^ (f), 5. n^^^K (�), 6. if^hr: (?), 7. ii^^K

(0> 8.11^^ (t), 9. l|f fri, 1. 1. Vllft, 2. 'wncii, 3. WlTfTH^, 4. ^HH^ (?)> 9� ^■ftj**
O. mnn (P&n. VI. 4, 118), 1. T, irflfW, 2. Hlflff (r) or H^rf); (PAn. VI. 4, 117),

3. ^f(w% 4- i€i^> 5. "'rtW (t), 6. if^hrf (�), 7. iffTif, 8. ^inflw (?), 9. ir^ ii Pf. i. iif^,

2, i|f^ or �i^i^, 3. Hf^, 4. iif);v, 5. ^iff^, 6. W^:, 7. ^ifflpf, 8. Hf , 9. ilj:, I A.

^WfTlftT^, F. fT^irfir, P. F. fTHT, B. %inn 11 Pt. l^t^, Ger. f^WT (P&n. vii. 4, 43),
�^ni II Pass. (l4|i, Caus. ^nnriw, Aor. Vi^(M<(^, Des. ftf^FRfir, Int. ^^hri^.

197- ^r�, togo.

?• 3- f^> <5. ippn, 9. ^^, 1. 3. ^ (or ^'RH^), 6. ^^, 9. ^iT^, O. ^f|^�

1. 1, ^^nflir, 2. ^^, 3. iprf, 4. ^ro^, g. ^^, 6. ^^, 7. ^iinH, 8. ^^, 9. ^^ n
PCi.iwt, 2.infw, IA.^nri^^, 9- ^^T?^ ($ 364), F.irflciifiT> P.F.irir, B.iv^.

II. Atmanepada Verbs.
198. I|T mdy to measure, (*nil^*)

P. I. flw, 2. (ifirtM, 3. fMm, 4. ftnfhi^, 5. ftnn^, 6. Aiito, 7. fH'A'i^, 8. flf*ftd.


5. Bi*ir^I, 6. ftpvnrty 7. ftniw^, 8. flprtii', 9. ftiinit 11 Pf. i. w, a. •rww, 3. w, 4.1^1^,
5. iniw, 6. ^^TWy ?• iflw^, 8. iiftid, 9. ifftrt, I A� i. wnftr, a. wnwn� 3. ^btw^
4. vHiijit^, 5. iwwrwf, 6. wfTOTifj 7. iMfimf^y 8. iRn*i, 9. vmnr, F, iipnw,

P. F. mWT, B. i|Rrt� n Pt. fifir:, Qer. ftnfr, ^*^TO (not i(N, Pa^. VI. 4, 69) II
Pass, ^ftmif Aor. Wirftly Caus. HlM^Oly Des. ftlTEiTy Int. ^v^)i|w�

III. Parasmaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.

199. ^1 JAft, to carry, (yp^.)
P. I. ftwW, a. ftwfS, 3. ftwfW, 4. flfj^, 6' ^''^P^* ^' flriJlU, 7. ftfpit, 8. f^^,

9. Hi'tfOr, Atm. i.ftrVy a. 'Pri]^, 3. ^^^> 1. 3.^rfw:, 6.vfvi|iffy 9. vPvh^':, Atm.
3. ^tftpfff, 6. uPv^iaI, 9. vf^vni; O. f^i^fifn^y Atm. ftrelhry 1. 1. ftnroftff, a. Pt^f^,

3. flwj II Pf. i.ifHTC (a), a.iwt, 3-lPnT, 4. ^''^ (J 334; P^- vn. a, 13) or

ftird'mirt, I A.^wrffi^, Atm. mp, F. Hflnfir, P. F. ^, B. ftntmi^, Atm. ^f*� ii

Pt. i|ir: II Pass, fsni, Caus. mpc^, Des. ^{^cMir, or fmftmfir, if it follows the
Bhii class (Pftn. vii. a, 49), Int. ^Mhri^, wAfK.

aoo. ^ (fti, to give, (^^T^-)

The ^ ghu verbs (� 39a *) drop in d before strong tenmnations, when other reduplicated
verbs (see No. 196) change VTtf to \(. (P&9. vi. 4, iia, 113.)

P. I. fj^ifc, a. ?[^lftr, 3. ^^ifil, 4. ^, 5. ^TO, 6. ^, 7. !{in, 8. ^W, 9. ^^, Atm�
i�^, a. ^, 3.^, 4�^1%7 5'?^> 6.15^, 7. ^?H%, 8.^, 9. ^^9 Li.il^,

a. ^i^t, 3. ^^^11^, 4. m^, 5. n^, 6. ii^[irf, 7. infir, 8. in^9 9. w^, Atm. i. iRffly,

a. ^qm^iy 3*^'^� 4. fH^lPfy 5. V^^mt^ 6. H^^TIlt, 7. ll^?llft[, 8.W^, 9. H^^A,

O. ^^vn^, Atm. ^!(tir, 1. 1. ?f?Tftf, a.^ (P4^. VI. 4, 119), 3. i^i^tj, 4. ^^, 5. ^,

6. !jirf, 7. ^5^, 8.!{W, 9. ^^ Atm. I. ^, a. IJr^, 3.^, 4*?^T^> S-^'^T^* <5. ^^[nif,

7. ^^wf, 8. ^, 9. ^^ II Pfl I. ^, a. ^[fi^ or ^;^J% 3. ^, 4. (Bfflrf, 6- 'F??^*
<5.?^9 7-?fip'> 8.ipBf, 9.^, Atm. i.|(^, a.^[fl|^, 3.^, 4-^f^^> 6-^i^> 6.^^,

7. ^fi^9 S� ^fi?'^* 9. ^fl?t, II A. I. ir�f, 9. ^:, Atm. vfi^ (see p. 184), F. ^r^vfir,
**i^, P. F. ijTIfT, B. $im^, Atm. ?�wftF n Pt. ^ (J 436), Ger. ^w, ^'^m w Pass.
jfhlit, Aor. ir^lftr, Caus. ^nnifiry Aor. ii^1^i||^, Des, f);T9f)r, Int. ^^Nir^ ?{ITrf^�

aoi. ^ dhd, to place, (fWH.)

This verb is conjugated like t^t. It should be remembered, however, that
the aspiration of the final 1^, if lost, must be thrown forward on the initial ^;
hence and pers. dual Pres. VPT. &c. (J 118, note). The Pt. is ftpn, Ger. ffW,



aoa. ftfi^ n(/,.to cleanse, (flirftr^*)

The verbs f^H^^nt;, ftl^vi/, to separate, and ffWtns^, to embrace, take Gu^a in their

reduplicative syllable. (P&9. vii. 4, 75.)
Reduplicated verbs ((dfhyasta, � 331 1) having a short medial vowel do not take Gu^ia before

weak terminations beginning with vowels in the special tenses. (Pil^. vii. 3, 87.)

. I. HHIPI, 2. ^*TitI, 3. ntni, 9. nnTWnr, i. i. ^HHii, a. ^wTf, 3. ^�IH^�

7. n^fffiw, 9. ii^ft?i|:, O. ^Oisiiii^, I- 1. Hftnnftf, a. ^ftrfHi, 3. %^ n Pf. ftr^,

I A. mh(\l{ or II A. ^vf^fni^, F. ^^5rftr, P. F. ^, B. ftfiim^, Atm. fVnftr 11
Caus. ^w^Ot, Aor. W^Aftnilf � Des. fifftnffli; Int. ^Tvfiiln, nnfts.

Rvdh Class {Rudhddi, VII Class).
I. Para^nnaipada and Atmanepada Verbs.
203. ^ rudh, to shut out, (^Al^O

P. ^^Qr%9 I- w^iffn^, O. %viTi^, I. ^^m^ 11 Pf. I. ^dv, 2. ^5^rfirv, 3. ^iJlM,

7. ^^ftw, 9. ^^^j I A. ^rowftll^or II A. ir^�l^, Atm. IR^, F, ttRfflTy P. F. dlfi,
B. ^um^, Atm. ^nfhr u Pt. ^rt? 6er. ^i|T, ^'^iil II Pass, i^vfi^y Aor. uttftl*
Caus. ^hnrflr, Des. ^"^wfWy Int. Of^uin, dOOl.

II. Paraamaipada Verbs.

204. fi(R Hshf to distinguish, (f^�)
P. I. f^PfPlf, 2. fl(KfV|, 3. f)(RfV, 4. fi^Wj 5. flfhr, 6. fi[^9 7. "ftjNltj 8. fftWj

9. fi^^fir, I. i.^r^^Hy 3.^i%w, 3.wf^R^, 4. nf^fUTy 5.^^691^9 6.^ifl|iff> 7.wfl[Jw,

8. vRjiv, 9. vn(r>l�^9 O. f)#vni^9 I- i. f^HMlfVj) a. f^fj (or f^flfl?), 3. fijRJ M Pf.
fip^, II A. ^irfi^m^, P. ^9ftr, P. F. ^fT, B. fiimi^ 11 Pt. fljlfj � Pass. f^HQ^y
Caus. ^Nirfk, Des. f^fff^fiffk, Int. $0(1 1|), ^^^fk.

1^05. fl^ hifhs, to strike, (fl|f^.)

P.flpiftff, 1. 1. vHiH^} 2. vf^^: or v(V*n^9 3'^'rft['Ti^($i3^)> 4.^rt^9 s.^'flW^
'6. irf^pwf J 7. vfl^9 8. ^iflpBTj 9. nf^Hf^, O. f)^^iiTi^9 1. 1, fipwrftr, 2. flfftl, 3. f^*!^ M
Pf. ftcf^fir, I A. vf)(4ili^9 F. n^r^iini, p. F, t^ftniT} B. f^^ni^ H Pt. f)^ftnR 11

Pass. f^FTn, Caus. f)( 1141019 Aor. nfkiO^^i^) Des. rN(\|Am0l9 Int. ^0^4^) 9 ^flfftff.

206, 4^^ bhanjj to break^ (^T^.)

P. iT^, I. twHf 9 O. ^wTf^j I. ^TTf II Pf. wrftr, I A. 'wit^9 F- *a5iflr>

P. F. ^hSTf B. trson^ 11 Pt. ww. 11 Pass, wiin^, Aor. ^niftr or mnftf (� 407),
Caus. )il!iTf79 Des. f^^lfflr. Int. '^^Tiiiv, ^Mftl.

207. ^� anj, to anoint, i^^)

P. w<fAi9 1. ^1*1^9 O. wiirn^9 I. ^r^ ii Pf. w^9 I A. vfirti^y F. ^vftnfk

or ih^9 B. wmT\ II Pt. iniB, Ger. ^vfmWT or ^rm or WW (P�tn. vi. 4, 32 ;
� 438)9 ^Viir u Pass, m^j Aor. wfftr, Caus. fNnrflr, Aor. vfft|in(^9 DeB,


ao8. "fl tfihj to kill, (^.)

This verb inBerts ^ i^ instead of IT 9a before weak teiminations begiiiDing with consonants.


I. i.^npirt) a.^fji^^f 3. vfJil^f 4�^nRr' s-^'^j 6.iiij�l, 7.w|jVf 8. wi|V9 9.^1^!^*

O. ^ini^9 1. 1, fiOflOif 2. ^tj 3, ^^ M Pf. Tni%, I A, nil ^1^ or Wf[^i^9 F, flffiini
or imSflr^ P. F. irffirT or utr, B. ^im^ n Pt. "j^ n Pass, ^lii, Aor. imfty Caus.
Hf^, Aor, WWirtl^ or mflffl^i Des, flnifprfil or (kflffiry Int. iO^illlf rtirff •

III. Atmanepaxla Verbs.

209. ^ indhf to kindle, (f^r^.)

P.^ or ^, !.>?� or>nf, O.^irtw, 1. 1.^, 2.pw, 3.^ or ^ u Pf.
^Hhrik (or ^, P49.I. a, 6), IA.VfW, F.^ftwi, P.F.^, B.^fWhr M
Pt. ^ II Pass, noii^, Caus. ^^Rflr, Des. ^fl|[fVmr.


On the Accent in Sanskrit.

� I. Although m Sanskrit the accent is marked in works belonging to the Vedio period
only, yet its importance as giving a clue to many difficult points of grammar is now so
generally acknowledged that even an elementary grammar would seem imperfect without at
least the general outlines of the system of Sanskrit accentuation. I determined therefore
in this new edition of my grammar to mark the accent in all cases where it seemed to be
practically useful, but in order not to perplex the beginner with the marks of accent, I have
added them in the transliterated words only, so that a student may still leam his grammar
and his paradigms in Devan&gaii, unconcerned about the accents, until the accents them-
selves attract his notice, and enable him at a glance to see cause and effect in grammatical
operations which otherwise would remain unintelligible. Thus if we look at trdyaf^ tres,
but tribkQ^ tribus, and tfittya, tertius ; at Smif I go, but imdfi, we go ; at b^dhAni^ I know,
but tudami, I strike ; at vdktum, to speak, but iiktdh, spoken, we see at once how the position
of the accent, either on the radical syllable or on the termination, influences the strengthening
or weakening of the base, and how this strengthening and weakening rested originally on a
rational and intelligible principle.

� a. The accent is called in Sanskrit Svara, i. e. tone, and according to the description
of native grammarians there can be no doubt that it was really musical. It meant the
actual rising and fiilling of the voice, produced by the tension, the relaxation, and the >xdde-
opening of the vocal chords ; it was a musical modulation peculiar to each word, and it
corresponded to what we call the singing or the cantilena of the speaker, which, though in
modem languages most perceptible in whole sentences, may also be clearly perceived in
the utterance of single words.

Ex. Maria! rf) , "^ ^^5^ * ^^ Mdry! | fc "^ ■

Ma vi a Ma ry.

Whatever the accent became in later times, its very name of pro$odia, accenttu, i. e. by-
song, shows that in Greek and Latin, too, it was originally musical, that t(mo$ meant pitch,
oxySf high pitch, barys, low pitch, and that perUpdmenos, drawn round, did not refer origin-
ally to the sign of the circumflex, but to the voice being drawn up and down in pronouncing
a ciroumflexed syllable.

� 3. For grammatical purposes we have to distinguish in Sanskrit two accents only, the
uddtta and the svarita. The uddtta is pronounced by raising the voice, the soarita by a
combined raising and falling of the voice. All vowels which have neither of these accents
are called anvddtta, i. e. without uddtta, though they might with equal justice be called
asvaritdt without the narita. The anuddtta^ immediately preceding an uddtta or svarita
vowel, is sometimes called anuddttatara or sannatara*. (P&9. i. 2, 39-31.)

' * Bopp, following Professor Roth (Nir. p. lviii), calls this accent sannatatara, as if from
sannata, depressed; it is, however, derived from sanna, the participle of sad, to sink.


. In taraDsHterated words I mark the uddtta by the acate> the original svarita hj the

. Every syllable without either the mark of uddtta or svarita has to be considered as
grrammatically unaccented ; and an unaccented syllable before an uddtta or original tvaritaf
as phoneticaUy anuddttatara. If the anuddtta must be marked in transliterated words, it
can be marked by the gravii. Thus in ti itoardhanta, they grew, ti has the uddtta, d the
anuddtta. If the two words coalesce into ie 'vardhanta, then e takes the svarita, t9 *vardhanta.
Similarly, sruehi-^Xva become sruckivaj tr^+hmbakam become trydmbakam,
� 4. In Sanskrit the accents are indicated in the following way :
The uddtta is never indicated at all, but only the svarita, (whether original or dependent,)
and the anuddttatara (sannatara), i. e. the anuddtta immediately preceding an uddtta
or svarita syllable. The sign of the svarita is ■^, that of the anuddttatara is ^.
Whenever we find a syllable marked by _., the sign of the anuddttatara, we know that
the next syllable, if left without any mark, is uddtta j if marked by — , it is svarita.
Hence llO*|i is agnih, iPVi is kanyi.
A monosyllabic word, if uddtta, has no mark at all. Ex. IH ydh, ^ nd,
A monosyllabic word, if anuddtta, is marked by ^. Ex. ^ va^ W* nafi,
A monosyllabic word, if svarita, is marked by -^, Ex. ^ svaft.

� 5. As a general rule every word has but one syllable either uddtta or svarita, the
rest of the syllables being anuddtta. Any syllable may have the accent. But if an uddtta
syllable is followed by an anuddtta syllable, its anuddtta is changed into what is called the
dependent svarita. Ex. vO^ffl agn^nd. Here IVT ag, originally anuddtta, is pronounced
and marked as anuddttatara j f�T nt is uddtta, and is therefore without any mark ; cfT nd,
originally anuddtta, becomes svarita, and is marked accordingly. In transliteration thu
dependent svarita need not be marked, nor the anuddttatara. Both may be treated as
anuddtta, i. e. without grammatical accent, while their exact pronunciation in Sanskrit, to be
described hereafter, is of importance to Vedic scholars only.

� 6. If a word standing by itself or at the head of a sentence begins with several anuddtta
syllables, they have all to be marked by the sign of anuddttatara. Ex. Hl^^l'^i ^�o^6ia^ /
C^^ul^l hfidayyayd.

� 7. By observing these simple rules, no doubt can remain as to the grammatical accent
of any word in Sanskrit. The following is a list of the principal classes of accented words
in Sanskrit :

1. A word consisting of one syllable which has the uddtta, is called uddtta. Ex. m ydfk,

^ nt^ lk kdm.

2. A word which has the uddtta on the last syllable, is called antoddtta. Ex. wf^Tf : agn^,

Hftnn janitd.

3. A word which has the uddtta on the first syllable, is called ddyuddtta. Ex. 1^ indra^,

l^tni h6td.

4. A word which has the uddtta on the middle syllable, is called madhyoddtta, Ex. ^Pnnl

agnind, ^CnRfc agnCbkHL.

5. A word consisting of one syllable which has the original svarita, is called svarita^

Ex. 9 kva, f!i� sva^,

6. A word which has the original svarita on the last syllable, is called antasvarita*

Ex. 1V^ kanyi.


7. A word which haa the original svarita on the middle sylUble^ is called madkyatvarita,

Ex. ^^''^ hfidayySyd.

8. A word which has the original svarita on the first sjllable^ is called ddiwairUa.

Ex. liilOt! wSn^are,

9. A word without uddtta or tvariia, is called $arodnuddtia, Ex. ^ vah, vft fui^.

10. A word with two uddtta syllables, is called dviruddttaj ^fiMOi: hfiha^^i^. Here the

first syllable is uddtta, and is therefore not marked at all. The second syllable is
anuddita, and according to rule would become svarita. But as the next syllable is
uddtta again, the anuddtta becomes anuddttatara, and is marked accordingly. The
third syllable is uddtta, and the last, originally anuddtta, becomes svarita.
In mcii^^^ tnitravdrui^au, the first syllable is anuddtta, but becomes anuddttatara, because
an uddtta follows. The second syllable is uddtta, so is the thbrd, and hence neither
of them has any mark. The fourth syllable, being anuddtta, becomes svarita,
because it follows an uddtta. The laat syllable is omMtta and, as nothing follows,
is left without a mark.

11. A word with three uddtta syllables, is called triruddttaj i,f\^VMS Mhrdbfihaspdti.

� 8. If words come together in a sentence, the same rules apply to them as to single
words. Thus if a word ending in uddtta is followed by a word beginning with an anuddtta
syllable, the anuddtta syllable is pronounced as svarita. Thus ^ + ^, i. e. yd^i + clUi,
become vn ydhhd, where the mark of the dependent svarita on M cha shows that ^ ya
has the uddtta.

If a word ending in an anuddtta is followed by a word beginning with an uddtta or
svarita, the anuddtta becomes anuddttatara. Ex. ^•in^in djanayat + V tdm become
^4nM^ djanayat tdim>

If a word ending in a svarita, which replaces an original anuddtta, is followed by another
word having the uddtta on the first syllable, the general rule requires the svarita, being
originally an anuddtta, to become anuddttatara, so that we have to write ^TV IHlydi oka tdt.
Here we see that 'm ydft has the uddtta, because otherwbe, at the beginning of a sentence,
it would have to be marked with anuddttatara. As ^ eha has the anuddttatara, we see that
it was originally anuddtta, and became anuddttatara, because the next syllable IRitdt has the
uddtta, which need not be marked.

If instead of 'W^dt, which has the uddtta, we put ^* hyah, which has the svarita, we should
have to write ^TV ih yd4 cha hyah, the sign of the svarita on ik hyah showing first, that
wt hya^ cannot be uddtta, for in that case it would have no mark, and would require svarita
on the neirt following syllable; and secondly, that it cannot be anuddtta, for in that case it
could not be preceded by an anuddttatara.

If an original svarita follows after a final uddtta, it retains the sign of the svarita, but it
is then impossible to say whether that sign marks the original or the dependent svarita,
Ex. ^IJWn ill dtmd+kvU (Rv. 1. 164, 4). Only, if an uddtta followed after iji kva, its svarita
would renuan (see � 9), while the dependent svarita would become anuddttatara.

If a word such as V^4II^D4t aruijkaydgbhih, having the uddtta on ydg, stands by itself, it
must have the anuddttatara sign, not only under ^ fta, which immediately precedes the
uddtta syllable, but likewise under 1[ a and ^ ru. But if preceded by ^P�iJ affn{(i, which
has uddtta on the lust, the first syllable takes the svarita, the second requires no mark at all,
and the third keeps its anuddttatara mark ; vf^lft^lDjfM: affn�r arw^yiigbhiit.


If initead of lri^�n api^ we put ^ {ndramy which has the dependent svarita on the last*
uddtta on the first syllable, then we write ^^^^4114^ 04: {ndram arwfayiigbkihf because there
is no necessity for marking the anuddtta after a syllable which has the dependent svarita.

(9. If an original svarita is followed by an uddtta or by another original svarita, it would
be difficult to mark the accent. Thus if m iva, which has the original svarita, is followed
by V^ tdtra, we could not write either B IHf or 9 1l?t'� In the former case we should lose
the anuddttatara required before every uddtta and independent svarita; in the latter, the
sign of the original svarita being dropt, S itva would be taken for an anuddtta syllable.
To obviate this, the numeral S is inserted, which takes both the svarita and the anuddttatara
marks *, B^IHI^y &nd thus enables us to indicate what was wanted, viz. that Mt is svarita, and
td in tdtra is uddtta. Ex. ^ip^if-f ^^ become ^^P^l^^:; ^+^ become ^STjt
(Rv. 1. 105, 3).

If the vowel which has the original svarita is long, the numeral ^ is used instead of ^f
and the anuddttatara is marked both beneath the vowel and the numeral. Thus Rv. i. Z05, 7.
^ftvil + 'plr: become ^ipift^'plr:. Rv. 1. 157, 6. TwJ + Tjfiffii; = T�m^T!Mftltt�

Rv. X. 116, 7. ^19; + 1R|% + ^ become "^Tll^^siif^. Here kv8 and *dd^n have the
svarita, the first is marked by ^ni^^ , the second by ^^iP,

Rv. X. 144, 4. ^ + W^ become ^^s?^^]!. This sinking of the voice, as here indicated,
from the highest svarita to the lowest anuddttatara pitch is called kampa^ shaking.

� 10. If two vowels at the end and beginning of words coalesce into a new vowel, their
respective accents are changed according to the following rules :

1. Uddtta+uddttasri uddtta (PrUt. 197). Ex. ^WOT + ^= ^i||4lj^ti Jushd^+ii^asz

jushd^a, W^ + ^ = ^*tsii apsd+dsz apsvd.

2. Uddtta-\'anuddtta=zuddtta. Ex. ^ + 1^ = ^f)^ d+ihi=zShi. See exception 5.

3. Anuddtta+anuddttaz=anuddtta (PrUt. 198). Ex. '^ + ^^ = 'r^ mddhu+uda"

kdm = mddMddkam. nfir + W5W^= llil| ^'^prdti-^-adxHran^prdtyadfiiran.

4. Anuddtta+uddttasiuddtta. Ex. 1^ 4- ^ = ffi indra-\'dss Mtri. ^ + wfttv =

^IVf^lT dhehi'k'dkshitam = dhekydkshitam.

5. Svarita + uddtta = uddtta. Ex. 'ai + lp^^=lH^ ib3+// = ib^^ ll^ + lrtif�

^IV^S^ adydtyi-^-dvase^adydty^'vase (Rv. i. xi3, 24).

6. Svarita+anuddtta=svarita. Ex. |j|-f f^ = liR *r5-fwa =*�*?�. lji + 5<^i^ =

ik^ ^J^ kv3-\'iddn<m = kveddnim (Rv. i. 35, 7). •

There are, however, some exceptions :

a. If uddtta \ coalesces with anuddtta X, the long i takes svarita (PrUt. 188, 199). Ex. ^|iN +

^ = m(|f^ srucy+iva^sruchfva. If, however, the first or second i is long, the
contraction takes uddtta. Ex. i^ + f = T^f M+im = him (Rv. x. 45, 4).

b. If an uddtta vowel becomes semivowel before an anuddtta vowel, the anuddtta vowel

becomes svarita (Prftt. 1 88). Ex. ^t^ + g -f ^ = iftlfT ft^ ydja +n4+indra = ydfd

* Some MSS. write i^^K^.

t Professor Bopp (Grammatik, � 30, 5) gives this as an instance of a svarita followed by
anuddttatara and svarita. In this case we should have to write ^flt m�hR^- But the fact
is that in rdthyebhift the first syllable has the uddtta.

X The statement of Professor Benfey (Grammar, 2nd ed., p. 11) that the second svarita
is not marked is against the authority of the MSS.



nvindra, ^ + 1% + ^^ = ^'^ lliw evd-\'h{-\'asffa=zevd hyasya (Rv. i. 8, 8).
Also, �T^ nam, plur. tflh nadydh, but gen. sing. HilK nadydfi, because in the former
the termination is originally anuddtta, in the latter uddtta.
c. If an uddtta e or o coalesjces with an (elided) anuddtta a, it takes svarita (Prilt. i88).
Ex. n + W'rJif = llf�^^ t^+avardhanta=iti 'vardhanta.
According to M&ndiikeya all uddtta vowels coalescing with another anuddtta vowel,
become svarita. This is also the case in certain Br&hma^as; see Kielhom, Bh4shika-
siitra, I. 5.

The accents produced by the coalescence of vowels have the following technical names,
taken from the name of the Sandhi that gave rise to them :

1. Pra�U$kfa, the accent of two vowels united into one {samdoe^a, ekibhdva),

2. Abhinihita, the accent of two vowels of which the second is the elided a,

3. KshaiprOy the accent of two vowels of which the first has been changed into a semivowel.
.4. Tairovyafijana, the warita, replacing an anuddtta, if separated by consonants firom the

preceding uddtta. Ex. ^Dh^A agn^ tie,

5. Vaivfitta (or pddavritta), the svarita, replacing an anuddtta, if separated by an hiatus

from the preceding uddtta ^PrUt. 204). Ex. ^ J^ yd indra *,

6. Jdtya, the svarita in the body of a word, also called nitya, inherent. It is always

preceded by either y ot v, and points to a period in the history of Sanskrit in which

lAiese semivowels retuned something of their vowel nature. It may, in fact, be treated

as medial kshaipra; and it is important that where the peculiar pronunciation of the

different svaritas is described, that of the Jdtya and the kshaipra is said to be identical

(Vfij. PriLt. 1. 125).

� II. By applying these rules we can with perfect certainty discover which syllable in

each word has the grammatical accent, whether uddtta or svarita. Unfortunately many

words lose their accent in a sentence, particularly the verb which, in a direct sentence, is

considered as a mere enclitic of the noun to which it belongs. Only in relative and

cfonditional sentences, or when a verb begins a sentence, and under some other restrictions

which are fully described by native grammarians, does the verb retain its independent accent.

Vocatives also lose their accent, except at the beginning of a sentence, when they have the

accent on the first syllable t- With these exceptions, however, every student, by following

the rules here given, will be able to determine what is the real grammatical accent of any

* Besides the tairovyafljana and the vaivTritta, which we should call the dependent
svarita, other subdivisions are mentioned by some authorities. Thus if compound words
are divided (in the Padap&tha) by the avagrahay the tairovyafljana is called tairopirdma.
Ex. 'ns^tm gd 'patau. If a word is divided in the Padap&tha, the first half ending in a
svarita preceded by an uddtta, and the second half beginning with an uddtta, the svarita is
called tdtkdbhdvya. Ex. ira^*�fMlH. Here ta is uddtta, nd is svarita, then follows the
avagraha or pause of division, and after th^t na, which is again uddtta. Here a kind of
kampa takes place, and the svarita is marked accordingly. Though the name tdtkdbhdvya
is not mentioned in the first Pr&tis&khya, the peculiar accent which it is meant for is fully
described in Siitra 212. In the commentary on the V^. Pr&t. (120) it would perhaps be
better to write asaihhitdvat instead of svasatnhitdvat ; Weber, Ind. Stud. vol. iv. p. 137.

t See BhA8hika-s(^tn^ ed. Kielhom, II. 1-31; Whitney, in Beitrage zur vergleichenden
Sprachforschung, vol. i. p. 187.


word oocuning in tbe hymns of the Rig-veda. The system of marking the uddtta and
svarita in the S^atapatha-Brfthma^a is slightly different, as may be seen f^om ProfiBSsor
Weber's introductoiy remarks, and particularly trom Dr. Kielhom's learned notes on the

$ 12. Quite different firom the determination of the grammatical accent is the question
how the accents should be pronounced or intoned in a sentence, and particularly in the
hymns and Br&hma^as of the principal Yedas. This question concerns the student of the
Veda only, and different authorities differ on this point. The following short remarks must
be sufficient. According to the Rig-veda-PrfttisHkhya (187 seq.), the uddtta is high, the
anuddtia low ; of the svarita one portion is higher than uddtta, the rest like uddtta^ except
if an uddtta or svarita follows, in which case the voice sinks down to the anuddtta pitch.
This sinking down is called kampa, shaking. All anuddtta syllables, following after svarita
(whether original or dependent) are pronounced with uddtta pitch (195), except the last, which
is followed again by either uddtta or svarita, and takes the low pitch of anuddtta (196). This
pronunciation of anuddtta syllables with uddtta pitch is called the Prachaya accent (205).
We have therefore only three kinds of pitch, (no special anuddttatara pitch being recognized
in the PrUtis^khya,) which in their relative position may be represented by


Ki ■ - gJ rj M r-j

omMtta, udatta, svarita, prachaya.

Thus in TT^^V^ "^RR mdddyasva svarnare, TT m^ is anuddtta, ^dai� uddtta, nyau svarita,
^sva\a anuddtta, ^t^svSr is svarita, ^ nare, both anuddtta, but pronounced like uddtta.

flid dd yS sva soar nare.

In ^R^anRflV%f�Vt ddabdhapramatir vdsishfha^, W a is uddtta, l[^ dab is svarita,
Vm dhaprama are anuddtta, but pronounced like uddtta, fw ti is anuddtta, ^ ra is uddtta,
ft^�i�A is svarita, 7S fkah is anuddtta, but pronounced as uddtta*

dha pra ma tir vd sish thaJ^

Other S^ftkhfts vary in the pronunciation of the accents, as may be seen f^m their respective
Pr&tisftkhyas. Much confusion has been caused by mixing up these different systems, and,
in particular, by trying to reconcile the rules of the Rig-veda-Prlltisilkhya with the rules
of P&QinL According to Pftpini (i. 2, 29 seq.) the uddtta is high, the anuddtta low, but the
svarita is half high and half low, and the anuddttas following after svarita (original or
dependent) are pronounced monotonously {ekairuti), while the hust of them, immediately

* Long after this was written I saw Dr. Hang's description of the accents in the
Zeitschrift der D. M. G. vol. xvii. p. 799. He gives the intervals much smaller, so that if
the anuddtta is e, the uddtta would be d, and the svarita would rise to e. This is no doubt
right, and it will be easy to transcribe my own notation accordingly. I only retain it because
it is clearer to the eye. What is very important, as confirming my view, is Dr. Haug's
remark that in listening to the recitation of the Pandits he could not perceive any difference
between the uddtta and the anuddttas if pronounced ^th prachaya svara,

P p a


preceding a new uddtta or voarita, is lower than anuddtta, and hence called 9an$Mtara or, bj
the commentators^ anvddttatara. This system^ too> though different from the former, gives
us only three kinds of musical pitch, which may be approximately represented by



auiidattara, amtdatta, udatta, waritOt tka^rvH,

Eka^nUi is described as without any definite pitch (traiivary^avdda), and might therefore
be intended for mere monotonous recUalwe*,

* It is commonly used as synonymous with prachita; e.g. nddttamayam prwhitam
thahfUUi parydyah^ VIJ. Prilt. rv. 138.


Kon — ^Tht fi^rei refer to the �, not to the page.

akkd, mother, 338.
^rfiif akshi, eye, 234.
VP <1l| tl^ agninuUhf fire-kindling, 157.
Wnn^atichamUf better than an army, 337.
lini<4t|lA atUakshmi, better than Lakshmt,

iriiK^atiitrif better than a woman, m.f., 339.
W^adat, eating, 183.
'^W^-ciii, 191,
W^l]^ anadud, ox, 3X0.
wA'^anarvan, without a foe, 189.
Wn^f^ anehas^ time, 168.
V^r^ oiifMicA, following, 181.
W^^op, water, 3ii.
Wf%VT ambikd, mother, 338.
Wlff^^ayds, fire, 149.
^3�i�\^ aryaman, name of a deity, 301.
parrot, hone, 189.
^I^arvon, hmrting, foe, 189.
avaydj, prieit, 163*
V avdch, south, 180.
Wli avif f. not desiring, 335.
^fi�\a#an, blood, 314.
V^i^ atfij, blood, 161, 314,
"*ift� agthi, bone, 334.
m^ ahany n. day, 196.
H^ ahan, day, at the end of a compound,
197, 198,

^^M^ akarga^y month, 196.
^W^dtmanj soul, self, 191, 193.

d^afi, water, 149, 31 1,
Wff^R^^^, blessing, 173.
W^l9{^dBan, face, 314*
M\4M dsya, &oe, 314.
�^ -w, 303.
i^^S^^lc^, such, 174.
^'^ini^ -lyof , 306.

WW^^ft^^ukthaids, reciter of hymns, 177.
9^ udaka, water, 314,
9^tu2acA, upward, northern, 181.
^tf^udim, water, 314.
^m unni, leading out, 331.
QHinw updnah, shoe, 174.
v^in^fli^aiuM, nom. prop., i6g.
vfm^ ushu^, a metre, 174.
"V^^O, strength, i6z.
^^|fiWl^ n/rv , priest, 161.
^ V^*l fibhukshiny Indra, 195.
Wf^ kakubh, region, 157.
4|fk katif how many, 331.
WTJf^kirahhd, nail, 331.
1|Pt kavi, poet, 330.
^iW kdnta, beloved, 338.
^ihn kdntd, fern, bebved, J38.
ftpn^fttya^, How much ? 190.
fi^ kir, scattering, 164.
^plt kudhi, m. f. a bad thinker, 331.
^pfn9 kumdri, m. girlish, 337.
lA krt, m. f. buying, 330.
'^l^^kruHch, curlew, 159.



iftj kroshfu, jackal^ 236.

^nr khaflj, lame, 163.

^P^f^^^gariya8, heavier, 206.

ftlT^r, voice, 164,

^gup, guardian, 157.

^ ^*, covering, 174..

vft^o, ox, 218.

iftC^^goraksh, cowherd, 174.

Jim^grdma^i, leader of a village, 221

^VfH^^chakds, splendid, 172.

^nrani^ chakdgat, shining, 184.

f^v4^cA�Ur�, desirous of acting, 172.

f^nSffcl^ ehitralikh, painter, 156.

wm^^Jakshat, eating, 184.

WVH^jagat, world, 184.

^�i*<i^ jaganvaSf having gone, 205.

^ri^^^^^jafffnwas, having gone, 205.

lf^^f^(^^jaffhanvaSy having killed, 205.

�i (k ^ ^ jaghnioas, having killed, 205.

1|U jard, old age, 166.

Hc^llli jalakri, m, f. a hujer of water, 2

H c^^^a/atitttcA, doud, 158. '

^TVH^jdgrat, waking, 184.

'l(^^taksh, paring, 174.

(t^^takshan, carpenter, 191.

nfll ttOi, so many, 231.

inst^ tantri, t, Inte, 225.

Vd tari, f. hoat, 225.

Ol?^ Hryach, tortuous, i8i.

^rrerf twdgdh, Indra, 175.

FT^^ocA, skin, 158.

fiW^/vMA, splendour, 174*

^clof, tooth, 214.

^;^dadat, giving, 184.

^fv dadhi, curds, 234.

^W^dadhinsh, hold, 174.

^ danta, tooth, 214.

^^^y^^daridratf poor, 184.

^ ddtri, giver, 235.

^m^^ddman, rope, fern., 179, 193.

^JTJl ddrdh, wife, 149.

fl^tiH^c^te^AaisA, desirous of hurning, 174.

fl^itv and ^ dyu, sky, 213.

u![3F d�^, showing, 174.

fi^cK/, country, 174.

5^ duh, milking, 174/

^r^q duhitfi, daughter, 235.

Ip^irin^M, thunderholt, 221..

ll^^dfii, seeing, 174.

^^H cfcp^', worshipper, 162.

t()Ht(^ c^osAan, arm, 214.

^V^({o�, arm, 172, 214.

^ dyu and fijf^cKr, sky, 213.

ift dyo, sky, 219.

1I| druh, hating, 174.

yr^ dvdr, door, 164.

(f^lil) dviddmni, having two ropes, 194.

fW^dv%8h, hating, 174.

^fn^ dkanin, rich, 203.

Vl^ dhdtfi, n. providence, 235.

^ dhi, m. f. thinking, 220.

ift dhi, f . intellect, 224.

ifN^ dhhariy wife of a fisherman, 193.

U(^^dhvas^ fftUing, 173.

�n^ nad(, f. river, 225.

^ naptfi, grandson, 235.

fTn 1M1/, destroying, 174.

�T^fu�, nose, 214.

�Tf nah, hinding, 174.

AW^ndman, name, 191.

tfrf^irr ndsikd, nose, 2x4.

fipfN^ nintvas, having led, 205.

fn^v nirfara, ageless, 167.

^ fiff, man, 237.

WHj^fiidf m. f. dancer, 222.

^ ftotf, ship, 217.

^n^nyach, low, 181.

^i^pangu, m., H^pangd, fem. lame, 230.

Vftipati, lord, 233.

V^lf^pathin, m. path, 195.



iV^poJ) foot, ai4.

^nft papi, m. f. protector, 222,

^^[^31^ paramaniy m.f. best leader, 321.

vlftJ(nparwrilS> mendicant, 162.

^Ay3f^JpaT1^hvas, leaf-shedding, 173.

HA^^poTvan, joint, 191,

^ifjp^^K, m. f. n. pale, 230.

^^VX^ -pdd,{oot, 207.

VJ^pdda, foot, 214.

f^imum^pindagras, lump-eater, I70�

fl?5 pUfi, father, 235.

f^mW(^pipak8h, desirous of maturing, 174.

tirtft^^pipafhis, mshing to read, 171.

^ff^pUu, m. n. a tree and its fruit, 230.

ifl^plpflw, fet, fem, ^^Opivari, 194*

^'ST^jMmarbM, re-bom, 221.

^jnim, man, {purhs\ 212.

^/}�r, town, 164.

^^^^^l^^purudgmd€L8, Indra, 168.

^Cisivl^jniro^, an offering, 176.

^J^pUshan, name of a deity, 201.

^prity army, 214.

^nm pritandy army, 214.

'^J^^jpfishat, deer, 185.

M r^ <i t^pecAtva�, having cooked, 205.

H �i I H Pn prdjdpati, lord of creatures, 233.

U Ml (<^ s�t^ pratidivan, sporting, 192.

TPff^pratyach, western, 181.

Wfipradhi, m.f. thinking eminei^tly, 221.

WHpradhi, fem., 223.

H^i^praidnif quieting, 178.

Jtl^prdch, eastern, 180.

W^prdchh, asking, 160, 174.

lA^prdfichy worshipping, 159.

Wfif badiy dark fortnight, 149.

�Vi�it|^ bahurdjan, having ma

^5^�itfl bahu^eyaH, auspicioi

^^^ baMfj, very strong, 161.

^p^dttdA, knowing, .157.

^^6r�^^, great, 185.


mP^ brahmany creator, 192.
m^fibhavatf Your Honour, 188.
w^^bhishaj, physician, 161.
)ft bhi, f. fear, 224.
^bM, being, 221.
^bM^f, earth, 224.
^ bkilr, atmosphere, 149.
^JH^ bhfijj, roasting, 162.
VPi^ bhrdj, shining, 162.
�T^ bhrdtjif brother, 235.
\^bhril, f. brow, 224.
•f^�i�\ moffhavan, Indra, 200.
TB^majl/, diving, 161.

^fH matt, thought, 230.
irfOf^ ma/Am, chuming-stick, 195.
T^PdC madhulih, bee, 174.
�'^�^-lnan, 191.
^^^mahat, great, 186.
irf^mi^m, meat, 214.
ITNt mdthsa, meat, 214.
ITJ mdtfi, mother, 235.
m^^mds, month, 214.
^m�A, confounding, 174.
^l^fff^mdrdhan, head, 191.
ipT mrt;, cleaning, 162.
^ mfultf, m. f. n. soft, 230.
inF^yaiban, liver, 214.
Wff{jfakrity liver, 214.
^n^yq;, sacrificing, 162.
^^*i yq;i7aii, sacnficer, 192.
trfifyahVas many, 231.
^nit yayl, f. road, 222.
^[^yuvan, young, 199.
^ y^Aa, pea-soup, 214.
^^(^yHshan, pea-soup, 214.
V^r^i, shining, 162.
TT^^^rdjan, king, 191.
TF# r^jfii, queen, 193.
^rwcA, light, 158,



^^^ru;, disease, i6i.

^^B^^rurttdv€Uf dying, 304.

^^nwA, anger, 174.

T rai, wealth, 217.

cTQ^ft lakshmif f . goddess of prosperity, 335.

c^ laghUf m. f. n. light,. 330.

fcS^ Hh, licking, 174.

^ M, m. f. cutting, 220,

M(*a^^vanij, merchant, 161.

**^-�a/, 187.

'fp^adM, f. wife, 225.

**^ -van, 191.

^kll varshdhf rainy season, 149.

^HVj^varshdbM, firog, 221.

^^W^ "Vas, part, perfect, 204.

"^J^ vdch, speech, 158.

qinH�i1 vdtaprami, antelope, 222.

^T^ vdr, water, 164.

^ift vdriy water, 230.

^'^fTf -rtfA, carrying, 208.

n^l^^VM^vo^, knowing, 205.

^H\9\^vipdS, a river, 174.

ftig�^!?tprtt�A, drop of water, 174.

f^^SX^Mhhrdj, resplendent, 162.

ftr^n^rtoaAr^A, desirous of saying, 174.

nrPra tntnJb^A, wishing to enter, 174.

f^n^vi^, entering) 174.

OiniHi vUvapd, all-preserving, 239.

(k 'Jii.i *! vihardjt universal monarch, 162.

fq ni^�^ w^MfV, creator, 162.

flr^mA, ordure, X74.

fin^^ oisAvacA, all-pervading, 181.

^pft^mkBhalU^ tree-hewer, 222.

'^^Vfiich, cutting, 159.

^i�iv^ /aAron, ordure, 214.

^fpflT/a^/, ordure, 214.

^f^Qlvn Sankhadhmd, shell-blower, 239.

^\H^4d$at, commanding, 184.

^f^ iwhiy m. f. n. bright, 230.

^nA hddkadM, thinking pure things, 221.

^ppA' iuddhadhiy a pure thinker, 221.

^^^ iu^ruoas, having heard, 205.

V^A iushki, 222.

^ M^ f. happiness, 224.

^iBv^ivan, dog, 199.

wRl^ ivetaiodh and ^hV^ hetavas^ 209,

^r^samoaf, year, 149.

rX^H sakthi, thigh, 234.

^91% sakhi, friend, 232.

?l^[^�q;W, friend, 172.

ti �� -q^ sadhryachf accompanying, 181.

ti�i^ samyach, right, 181.

mrr^ fomr^', sovereign, 162.

�4^^ sarvaiak, omnipotent, 155.

W^ sdnu, ridge, 214.

^nftf sdmiy half, 149.

(^�nnit sikatdky sand, 149.

^^ sukhi, wishing for pleasure, 222.

^<i4i^��^ati, ready reckoner, 154.

^"^ ^t^ suchakBhuB, having good eyes, 165.

^W^fn^n^yo/if, well-lighted, 165,

^11^ suUy wishing for a son, 222.

^^��<�9, well-sounding, 170.

^^ sudhi, m. f. having a good mind, 226.

^ft^rapw, well- walking, 170.

^^ra^Aril, m. f. having good brows, 226.

^•i�l t^ramanot, well-minded, 165.

'^a suM, well^farmg, 221.

^�fW susakhi, a good friend, 232.

^f^wAt^Tw, weU-etriking, 172.

^^;^ guhrid, friendly, 157.

^p^�rv> creating, 162.

tTltiHi somapd, Soma drinker, 239.

^pft 8tri, woman, 228.

ftf^ snih, loving, 174.

1J snu, ridge, 214.

^f snuh, spueing, 174.

^p(^spri^, touching, 174.

Tff^^traj, a garland, i6i.

CT^WM, fWling, 173.



^^ffficA, ladle^ 158.

19^ way am, self, 149.

Wi^svayambh4y aelf-existing, aai.

^1^ star, heaven, 149.

ira svasfif sister, 335.

lf|^�v^, having good water, an.

f^^Aan, killing, 202.
fftH^*art7, green, 157.
^1^ hdhd, 240.
|{|^ A|^, heart, 214.
^If^f hridaya, heart, 214.
jfi hri, f. shame, 224.


Note— The number refers to the number of each verb in the Appendix.

mS^^aibsA, to pervade, 37.

^t^aj, to go, to throw, (^ v(), 23.

W^aflcA, to go, to worship, 17.

iJNl af|;, to anoint, 207.

^ od, to eat, 162.

Wj^an, to breathe, 176.

^H ay, to go, 78.

H^ ardy to go, to pain, 12.

ire OP, to help, 92.

W|l 0^, to pervade, 147.

H^of, to be, 173.

irt^ dtlchh, to stretch, 18.

in^tf;>, to obtain, 146.

m^^, to sit, 183.

IRTiE dha, to speak, 190.

^*,togo, 171.

!^ t, to go ; wH adhi, to read, 186.

^ ind, to govern, 13.

j^tnJA, to kindle, 209.

^M, to wish, 118, 31.

^V iksh, to see, 6g.

fjH^i^, to rule, 182.

^ ik, to aim, 79.

^^ifibA, to go, 16.

ini t�A, to bum, 40.

^9n finjiu, to cover, 191.

^ r�, to go, (^^tfl fichohkati), 4

^ r�, to gOf 197-

^^erfA, to grow, 68.
1R7 kafj to rain, to encompass, 25.
W^^kam, to love, 77.
WTS^ib^, to shine, 80.
^KX^^kds, to cough, 81.
ftn^ibV, to cure, (WVnrtlf cAifciJ
^R kuf, to bend, in.
^P^ihmM, to strike, 6.
^ kfi, to do, 152.
fll ifcft/, to cut, no, 107.
"^^kfip, to be able, 89, 87.
Ip^itfMA, to furrow, 38.
^^ krish, to trace, 106.
Q q



W kri, to scatter, 113.

■^p^^Arft, to praise, 138.

W{^kram, to stride, 30, 29.

^ kri, to buy, 153.

Wl^klam, to tire, 29, 30, 130.

^pr ib�Aan, to kill, 149.

^1*^ ksham, to bear, 130.

nil' ib^Ai, to wane, to diminish, 24.

ftf^^�At>, to kill, 150.

^^Had!^ to eat�8.

Iff^ khan, to dig, 95.

fli^ khid, to vex, 107.

^7T khyd, to proclaim, 166.

1^ gad, to speak, 9.

xn? ^ram, to go, 33, 31.

m gdy to go, 83.

^^gvp, to protect, 26, 63.

^pnA, tohide, 97, 29.

^ gai, to sing, 44.

Jff^ grah, to take, 157, 105.

^ glai, to droop, 43.

^^^tf-class, 46, 47, 200.

ITT ghrd, to smell, 54.

^^SV^chakds, to shine, 177.

^^chaksh, to speak, 181.

^^^chapy to pound, 137.

^^T cham, to eat, 29.

^^ chah, to pound, 137.

fw cki, to collect, 137, 140.

f%ir cAt/, to think, 2.

^1^ chur, to steal, 136.

^t^^cAyti/, to sprinklcj 3.

^ chko, to cut, 124.

If^jaksh, to eat, 177, 176.

^9f!f^jan, to spring up, 132.

^(^jdgjit to wake, 178, 177.

ftf yi, to excel, 36.

^jti> to grow old, 123, 156.

Wl^Jf^ap, to know, to make known, 137.

V^jfid, to know, 159.

W^jyd, to grow weak, 158, 36, 105.
^Wtjvar, to suffer, 92.
1W^ taksh, to hew, 37.

Tf�^ <an, to stretch, 148.

Jf^^tap, to bum, 28.

in^ tarn, to languish, 130.

flrH^^y, to forbear, (fllfinfktitikshate), 75, 63.

3 *�, to grow, 170.

55 tud, to strike, 104.

fR^^nPi to delight, 127, 38.

^ trih, to kUl, 208.

WM, to cross, 61,

Vr{,trap, to be ashamed, 74.

?f^ ^ra*, to tremble, 30.

g^ ^ra/, to cut, 30.

R^ tvar, to hurry, 92.

^^^^dam^, to bite, 62, 73.

<?^ rfai, to give, 70.

^ dflfii, to tame, 130.

^ftf\ daridrd, to be poor, 179, 177.

<^ dah, to burn, 42.

^ <2^, to give, 58.

^ddytx) give, 200.

^^ddn, ^fl^flrfw diddfhsoH, to straighten, 63.

flf^c^tr, to play, 121.

^ rfl, to decay, 154.

^Wt c^CiAl*^ to shine, 177,

^ duh, to milk, 188.

^ c7f<, to observe, 120.

'^^^dfUt to see, (i|^p<i^, 48, 38.

5 dfi, to tear, 156.

^ de, to protect, 85.

^ dai, to cleanse, 46.

^ dai, to protect, 85.

^(^0, to out, 124.

^(dyut, to shine, 86.

iV^ (2&wA, to hate, 187.

^dhd, to place, 201.

\dM, to shake, 156.

y^dMp, to warm, 27.



V dhcy to drink, 47.

HIT dhmdy to blow, 55.

•T^nac?, to hum, 11.

^I^nam, to bow, 32.

•TS^ na�, to perish, 1 29, 117.

•T^ naA, to bind, 135.

fWv fit^sA, to kiss, 15.

ftn^ni;, to cleanse, 202.

Mf^ nindy to blame, 14.

^JH^npV, to dance, 122.

'WF />at^, to traffic, 26.

^Wf pan, to praise, 76.

^Kf(jpat, to fall, 64.

^pfl(i, to go, 133.

V^^paiij to praise, 26, 76.

^npTpo^a, to see, 48.

^ p^, to drink, 53.

fin^pi^, to form, 107.

\pd, to purify, 156.

^prt to fill, 195, 156.

TC^prachhy to ask, 115, 105.

^TTpstf, to eat, 163.

lic^ pAa/, to burst, 34. '

W>(5aiA, WIhWh bibhaisate, to loathe, 63.

^T^ bandh, to bind, 160.

^V 6ttrfA, to perceive, 134.

TlbrUf to speak, 190.

n^bhaflj^ to break, 206.

^ AM, to fear, 193.

^bhU, to be, I.

^ &Af�, to carry, 199.

WR(^bhrajj, to fry, 105.

OT bhram, to roam, 30, 130.

VrrSF &Ar^, to shine, 30.

^fTSI^bhlds, to shine, 30.

1^ majj, to sink, 117.

W^ mocf, to rejoice, 130.

T^ mantk, to shake> to chum, 5.

^^^mav, to bind, 92.

TT md, to measure, 164.

TT md, to measure, 198.
TF^m^n, *fl*lIflH mimdihsate, to search, 63.
fk mt, to throw, 154.
f^ mid, to be wet, 131.
ftrV miA, to sprinkle, 41.
^ ml, to kill, 154.
^^much, to loosen, 107.
^ m�A, to be foolish, 128.
^mrt, to die, 119.
qi^wify, to clean, 174.
VT mndy to study, 57.
^^mrttc^, to go, 19.
^nr yaj, to sacrifice, 99.
^yai�, to stop, 31, 58.
^yfljfi, to feed, 137.
VI yd, to go, 165.
^ y�, to mix, 169.
i^ra*!;, to tinge, 62.
T^ rad, to trace, 10.
^ram, to sport, 91.
T]i^r<!(;, to shine, 94.
^ rtt, to go, to kill, 84.
^ rte, to shout, 170.
^nki, tocry, 176. .
^^ rudh, to shut out, 203.
^^n�A, to kill, 39.
<9^/��A, to desire, 30.
t^^lip, to punt, 109, 107.
15^1. ^ttPi to break, J07.
^ Id, to cut, 156.
^^vacA, to speak, 175.
flfra;, to go, 21.
^ vad, to speak, 66.
V\vap, to sow, to weave, 100.
^uay, to go, 105.
^c^val, to live, 137.
'nivad, to desire, 167, 105.
^^va#, to dwell, 65.
T^ vah, to carry, loi, 93.
f^rV vichh, to go, 26.
Q q 2



ftlT vij, to separate, 202.

f^ vidj to find, 108, 107.

ft^ vid, to know, 172.

f^^riffA, to embrace, 202.

^ rl, see Wif c;.

^ vfi, to choose, 142 ; Parasmaipada.

^ vri, to cherish, 161 ; Atmanepada.

^�n*> to ^e, 87.

^ vfidh, to grow, 87.

^vr^, to choose, 156.

% vCf to weave, 102.

iNt vevi, to obtain, 177.

"•II^ryacA, to surround, 105.

^n vyath, to fear, to su�Per pain, 90.

^fir^vyadh, to pierce, 126, 105.

Wj^wo/, to go, 22.

Tl^^wadch, to cut, 112, 105.

9^ ^ak, to be able, 144.

^ iad, to wither, 51.

IfjM^am, to cease, 130.

Ig^^dn, ^fl^ltuni iUdfhaati, to sharpen, 63.

I(in9^/^, to command, 180, 177.

f^ll^iwA, to distinguish, 304.

llfi AfixiMe down, 185.

1^ ^jridh, to hurt, 87.

id^ io, to sharpen, 124.

^H^ichut, to flow, 4.

^9^hhyut, to flow, 4.

^P![iram, to tire, 130.

ftr iri, to go, to serve, 98.

^ ^, to hear, 145.

^O^ibof, to breathe, 176.

f^ M, to swell, 67.

W shtyai, to sound, 45.

fk^^shthiv, to spit, 35, 29.

^^^shvashk, to go, 71.

^N^Mfiy, to stick, 6^) 73.

?l^ �a(f, to perish, 52.

?l�(�aji, to obtain, 151.
?l^ sak, to bear, 93.
ft[^�tcA, to sprinkle, 107.
ftn^ sidh, to go, and ftl^ sidh, to com-
mand, 7.
ftl1(^ftp, to serve, 82.
^ M, to distil, 139.
^�il, to bear, to bring forth, 184.
^ ^, to go, 50.
^|9t <p}', to let off, 116, 38, 48.
^ 80, to finish, 125, 124.
IK skand, to approach, 60.
JSbl^^skambh, to support, 155.
^ sku, 155.

^^�Jb(m6A, to hold, 155.
^P^Hambh, to support, 155. •
^ 9tUy to praise, 189.
^ stu, to praise, 170.
^SP^stumbh, to stop, 155.
^ stfif to cover, 141.
W $tfi, to cover, 156.
?R styaif to soimd, 45.

^m sthd, to stand, 56.

^S^jpft^, to touch, 114.

^4^ tyandy to sprinkle, to drop, 88, 87.

ftr^mr, to go, to dry, 92.

^(if stai^it to embrace, 73, 62.

^D^^vop, to sleep, 176.

^Aoii, to kill, 168.

iphdyU} leave, 196.

f% At, to go, to grow, 143.

fi|l^Atih�, to kill, 205.

J Ati, to sacrifice, 192.

FS huTckh, to be crooked, 20.

^ Af�, to take, 96.

1^ hriy to be ashamed, 194.

ar hvfi, to bend, 59.

^ Ar�> to call, 103.