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Full text of "The Asatir [microform] the Samaritan book of the "Secrets of Moses""

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TOGETHER WITH

THE PITRON OR SAMARITAN COMMENTARY AND
THE SAMARITAN STORY OF THE DEATH OF MOSES

PUBLISHED FOR THE FIRST TIME WITH
INTRODUCTION, TRANSLATION AND NOTES BY

MOSES GASTER, PH. D,



LONDON



PUBLISHED BY THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY
74 GROSVENOR STREET, W. i.









PRINTED BY AUGUST PRIES / LEIPZIG



IN LOVING MEMORY

OF MY FATHER

THE CHEVALIER A. E. GASTER
1834 1927

AND

OF MY MOTHER-IN-LAW

BERTHA FRIEDLANDER

1843 1926



PREFACE

A preface to a little book with a voluminous intro-
duction of some hundreds of pages seems a superfluous
luxury. I believe, however, that such an introduction is
intended to give to a superficial reader a brief indication
of what he may expect to find in the book. The scholar
requires none of it. In order, therefore, to satisfy such a
reader, I will tell him briefly that I am publishing here
for the first time a Samaritan collection of Biblical
legends, a parallel to the Jewish Midrash and to the
pseudepigraphic literature. I claim for the "Secrets of
Moses" that it is the oldest book in existence of this kind
of literature, and I put the date of its. compilation to be
about the middle or end of the third century B. C. E. In
the introduction the reader will see how I have reached
a conclusion as startling to me as probably it will be to
him who will take this book for the first time into his
hands. It was very slow and uphill work, and I had to
cover a wide field, leaving no document unexamined
which might help to throw light on the date and origin
of this book. I have searched through the entire pseud-
epigraphic literature, in whatever language it may have
been preserved, and I have worked my way up to the
Hellenistic literature, to the Sibylline Oracles and Eupo-
lemos. Josephus has attracted me quite specially, and
I believe I have been able to put a new complexion on
the character and sources of his "Antiquities." The
Palestinian Targum has come under minute examination,
and in connection with it all the Jewish Midrashim.
The Sibylline Oracles have been traced down to their
latest development in the Tiburtine, and the mediaeval
oracles down to Matthew of Paris, and even to Slavonic
and Rumanian texts. In my re -examination of the
pseudepigraphic literature I have arrived at conclusions
which differ widely from those accepted today. I have



drawn attention to affinities with Mandaean traditions,
and I have endeavoured to give as literal a translation as
was possible of a text so old and unfortunately so corrupt
that even the joint wisdom of the Samaritans of today
lias been unable to solve many of the problems raised
"by it. A commentary prepared by them has also been
.added, which exemplifies the exact state of scholarship
.among the Samaritans of the last few centuries. Brief
but I believe sufficiently ample references to the entire
literature have been given in the footnotes, and a chapter
'Of the book has been given in transliteration, showing
-the pronunciation by the Samaritans of the old text.
I can faithfully say that I have spared no effort in trying
to elucidate a book which, by its character, claims
.special attention from more than one point of view. The
parallelism between Jews and Samaritans in all their
mental activity, to which I have referred in my Schweich
Lectures manifests itself here again. A Midrashic inter-
pretation of the middle of the third century points to a
fixed text of the Pentateuch, already considered as holy
.-and immutable in word and letter. The time is not yet
ripe to enquire into the primary source of these Biblical
legends. I have endeavoured, however, and I believe
rfor the first time, to lift some of them out of the narrow
confines of Palestine, and to join them to the wider cycles
-of world-legends, and a new view has been advanced,
.among others, of the origin of the Antichrist legend. It
must be left to others to continue this comparative study,
and to investigate the closer relations between them, and
the mutual influences which they may have exercised
-upon .one another.

It would be ungrateful on my part were I not to
rmention in the first place the assistance which the Sama-
ritans have tried to give me, especially the late high
priest Jacob the son of Aaron, and his son Ab Hasda,
.and to a large extent Abisha the son of Pinefras. From



time to time one friend or another has rendered me
valuable help, but a special debt of gratitude is due to
Mr. B. Bamberger, who, with sincere devotion and
scholarly acumen has assisted me in the final process of
shaping the book and reading the proofs while it was
passing through the Press. Last but not least I should like
to place on record my appreciation of the generosity of the
Royal Asiatic Society, which has enabled me to publish
the most ancient monument, so miraculously preserved,
of the Samaritan literature, truly "a brand plucked out
of the fire."

M. CASTER.

London, 193 Maida Vale, W. 9. June i6th. 1927.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION 1183

Character and Title of the Book i

Detailed Contents

Sibylline Oracles, Eupolemos and Other

Hellenistic writers 9

Abraham and Nimrod Legends

The Sibyl of Tibur and Other Oracles .... 42

The Cave of Treasures Methodius of Patmos

The Asatir and Josephus 61

The Palestinian Targum 80

Bileam Legends and Antichrist

The Asatir and the Cycles of Universal Sagas 99

The Universal King The Return of the Hero
The Child of Destiny The Antichrist Legend

The Pseudepigraphic Literature . 105

Enoch Jubilees Pseudo-Philo Adam-Books

Characteristic Points of Difference 120

Astrology Demonology Eschatology

Mandaean Affinities 125

Language and Anti- Jewish Tendency

Asatir and the Samaritan Literature 134

Markah Book of Joshua Ab Hasda El
Doweik Abdalla B. Shalma Meshalma

Chronology and Dates 141



Geographical and Others Names : Arabic Glosses 147

Samaritan Targum r Cryptograms

The Original Language 156

Date of the Asatir and Final Conclusion . ... 158

The Manuscripts and Edition of the Asatir . . 163

The Arabic Paraphrase 168

The Pitron: or Arabic-Samaritan Commentary

to the Asatir 171

Specimen of the Asatir Transliterated Accord-
ing to the Pronunciation of the Samaritans . . 174

Story of the Death of Moses 178

The Apocalypse of Moses and Josephus

TRANSLATIONS . 184321

Asatir . . . 184 320

Pitron or Commentary to the Asatir .... 185301

Samaritan Story of the Death of Moses . . 303 321

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . . 322

INDEX 327

THE SAMARITAN TEXTS 159



CHARACTER AND TITLE OF THE BOOK.



The best way to describe the Asatir is to call it a Midrash,
Aggadah, or legendary supplement to the Pentateuch.
Unlike other Apocrypha with which it has much in
common the author does not attempt to retail anew the
sacred history and to present it in a specific form, and
with a deliberate tendency. He is content to leave the
sacred scripture as it stands, without meddling with its
narrative and without trying to readjust the events re-
counted therein, according to a certain preconceived
system either legal or astronomical. The author takes for
granted the Samaritan tradition as he knows it, and does
not waste his ingenuity to prove its truth. The following
Table of Contents will show the exact character of the
book:

Chapter I.

Division of Earth by Adam (v. 2). Sacrifice of
Kain and Hebel on Mt. Garizim (v. 6). Killing of
Hebel and the darkening of Kain's spirit (v. 913).
Various dates (v. 24ff.). Adam separated from Eve
100 years (v. 26).

Chapter II.

Seth builds Antokia (v. i). Genealogies and build-
ing of towns (v. 2). Twice twelve precious stones
(v. 7). Lamech making images (v. 10). Sign of
birth of Noah (v. 16). Adam foretells the Flood
(v. 17). Children of Lamech and the towns built
by them (v. 20). Afridan son of Tubal Kain taught
by Adam (v. 35). Enoch buried near Mt. Ebal
(v. 38). Sanctity of Mt. Garizim (v. 40). Noah
studying Adam's Book of Signs (v. 44).

Asatir. . 1



Chapter III. ' % '

Death of Adam in BadaiT(y. i). Burial in cave
(v. 4). Noah studies the Three Books (v. 9). Afadan
builds Sion (Rock of Shame) (v. 13). Asur son of
Attidan marries Gifna (v. 20). The worship of sun
and moon in that place (v. 22). Mechanical contriv-
ances (v. 26).

Chapter IV.

Flood (v. 2). Division of Earth (v. 13). The Three
Books (v. 15). Death of Noah (v. 36).

Chapter V.

Tower of Babel (v. i). First War of the Nations
(v. 11). Nimrod (v. 12). Birth of Abraham (v. 14).
Seclusion of Women (v. 20). Death of Haran
(v, 28).

Chapter VI.

Death of Nimrod (v. i). Two Nimrods (v. 2).
Abraham going down to Egypt (v. 10). Fall of
idols (v. n). Punishment of Pharaoh (v. 14).
Sorcerer Turts (v. 18). First proclamation of
Faith (v. 23). Abraham rebuilding the first altar
(v. 27).

Chapter VII.

Amraphel and Sodomites (v. i). Turts going from
Hebron to Shinear (v. 4). Last Kings of Ham
(v. 7). Capture and rescue of Lot (v. 8). Advice
to Kedar Laomer (v. 12). Dates of Abraham's
movements (v. I3ff.)- Abraham in pursuit (dates)
(v. 14). Abraham in Salem with Melchizedek
(v. 17). Various dates (v. 26).

Chapter VIII.

Reign of Ishmael (v. i). Ishmael partner with
Esau (v. 5). Kings of Edom (v. 7). Abraham and




1 '.

Iren of AMmr and Joktan (v. 9).
^-Haran (v. 13). Genealogy of
coming to Egypt (v. 21).

prophecy about Moses
- \ /*' * -
arri's greatness (v. 27). Plti pro-

ies\ death by water (v. 35).

Chapter IX. *

Moses' birth (day and dates) (v. i). Moses' rescue
(v. 4). \Killing of the Egyptian (v. 15). Flight to
Midian (v. 14). God's appearafice to Moses .(v. 21).
Dates from God's appearance "to Moses to the
Death of Aaron (v. 24ff.).

Chapter X. \

Mertis (v. i). Balak and Bileam (v. f^, Bileam's

\ / \ . ^- *%'

seven gods (w. 5 7). Bileam's verses frus-
trated (v. I3ff.) Bileam and the daughters ,pf
Moab (v. i8ff.). Stations of the tribes (v. $ jf.)f
Pinehas and Zimri, miracles (v. 30 ff). War aga&st
Midian (v. 41). Death of Bileam (v. 47). % %

-.^ . --cs

Chapter XL

Joshua appointed (v. i). Death of Moses and
his prophecy (v. 20).

Chapter XII.

The Oracle.

The book is called by the" Samaritans the "Asatir," or,
as it should have been, "Astir," I have translated this
title "The Secrets of Moses, n *thus translating the Samari-
tan word "Asatir," so pronounced by the Samaritans, in
order to distinguish it at once fro*m the other books
ascribed to Moses, such as the "Apocalypse" or the "As-
sumption of Moses." The Samaritans themselves ..ycib
longer understand the title, and were unable to enlighten
me in spite of frequent questioning, but they at the same

1*



time emphatically repudiate the notion that the title may
be of Arabic origin. The word is one which has not been
taken by them into their language; it occurs neither in
their liturgical poems nor in any other book with which I
am acquainted, although they are quite familiar with the
Hebrew parallel form TfiDK from the passage in the Bible,
Deut. 31, 1 8., to which they attach overwhelming import-
ance. The fulfilment of the threat expressed by that sen-
tence in the Bible, marks according to them the starting
point of the Fanuta, the Hiding of God's presence. The
Hebrew word has not been retained in its Hebrew form even
in the Samaritan Targum to that passage. But in the case
of the present book, they have evidently retained the very
old name, the true meaning of which they have since for-
gotten. It is unquestionably the primitive Hebrew name
for that literature which has since become known under the
two Greek names of Apocryphon and Apocalypse, both
meaning something hidden or something revealed in a
secret form. A narrower meaning has been attached to
the word "Apocryphon," inasmuch as it has been given
to a set of books not received in what is called the Canon
of the Jewish Bible. Without entering upon any discussion
as to the meaning of the Canon of the Jewish Bible, what-
ever may be understood by it, it is clear that it cannot be
applied to any Samaritan writing, since the Samaritans
have only the Pentateuch, and outside this the Book
of Joshua and some fragments of Judges and Samuel.
These latter are treated by them as profane history. The
use of the title "Apocryphon," therefore, would have been
misleading, and as for "Apocalypse," it could only be
applied to the two last chapters, which deal with prophecies
connected with the very last hours of Moses upon earth.
I have, therefore, as mentioned before, chosen the title
"The Secrets of Moses" in preference to any other, for
it agrees much more closely with the character of this
book; moreover, "Secreta Moysi" ("Secrets of Moses")



appears as a title in one of the old lists of books excluded
from the Canon by the Church (see Charles, "The As-
sumption of Moses," London 1897, p. XV). It is not
unimportant to mention that in the Hebrew literature a
book has been preserved, to which reference will be made
later on (p. 52), under the title of "The Secrets or Mysteries
of Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai." It is a real apocalypse, and
contains prophecies concerning the end of time and various
events connected therewith. The Hebrew name of it is
"Nistarot," which is precisely of the same root as the
Samaritan form of "Asatir."

From the contents, and from the fact that it is ascribed to
Moses, the book might also be described as pseud-
epigraphic. True, it is nowhere in the text expressly stated
that Moses wrote it, but his authorship is assumed by
the title, and by the tradition still alive among the Samari-
tans, although in quoting the book, as will be seen later on
(p. 137, 140) the various Samaritan writers quote only "the
Master of the Asatir," or the "Author of the Asatir" (Baal
Asatir). They leave it undecided as to whether Moses actually
wrote it, or whether it is a tradition handed down from
Moses. Thus the Asatir belongs to the large number of
pseudepigraphic writings ascribed to Moses. It differs
completely however from the others, inasmuch as it is the
only one that starts from Adam and finishes with the
Death of Moses. It thus covers the whole of the Pentat-
euch. The Book of Jubilees carries its story from Creation
to the Exodus. The so-called Apocalypse of Moses is in
reality an Adam Book. It contains only the story of the
going-out of Paradise by Adam and Eve, the various in-
cidents connected with the first man, and closes with the
death of Adam and Eve. Another is the "Assumptio" or
rather the "Testament" of Moses, which is limited exclusi-
vely to the last days of Moses and closes with a prophecy.
The reason why an Adam Book should have been
called "The Apocalypse of Moses" has hitherto remained



obscure, as no reference to Moses is found in any of the
texts, neither in the Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Arabic nor
Ethiopian, nor even in the Syriac* ' Cave of Treasures, ' ' which
already goes beyond the more limited scope of the others.
In the light of the Asatir, this difficulty is now removed,
since it explains the reason for that title, as the text here
begins with the history of Adam and Eve and finishes with
the Death of Moses. The "Apocalypse" may, therefore, have
originally belonged to a similar full compilation. In fact,
the "Apocalypse" agrees in the main with the first
chapters of our book ascribed to Moses (cf. p. 115). From
this the "Apocalypse" has then been detached, but re-
tained the old title of the whole book.

The Asatir, then, is accepted by the Samaritans as a
book of Moses.

Although those who made copies for me from the older
original MSS. differ among themselves in the wording of
the title, still they are unanimous in ascribing it to "our
Master Moses." So it appears also in the Arabic
paraphrase, and in the "Pitron" (Commentary). More-
over, to the questions which I put to the Samaritans I
received the unequivocal reply that of course the book
was written by Moses, and although it did not enjoy the
same authority as the Law, none the less the facts which
were related in the book were all true and reliable. The
old tradition has thus been preserved unaltered down to
our very days. One must realise that the name of an
author was not considered to be of such a determining
value, as it is in modern times. Hence the reason why the
same book was at one time ascribed to one author, and
at other times to another author. Take e. g. the very same
apocalypse being ascribed in turns to St. Paul, St. Peter
or the Lady Mary. Most of the apocryphal writings are
practically anonymous, quite indifferent to the names which
were from time to time attached to them. They are
popular literature in the widest sense of the word, and have



been treated as such. Originally neither the Jews nor the
Samaritans would have enquired too closely about the
authenticity of any such legendary writing ascribed to the
one or the other of the Patriarchs. So little importance was
attached originally to the name of the author that those
older writings which were circulating under various names
were afterwards gathered under one heading, e. g. the
Enoch Books or the Adam Books or the Moses Books.
As Moses had written the Law, why should he not have
added another book of explanatory tales which completed
his narrative and did not affect the Law? The Asatir
keeps free of every legal prescription. The people, no
doubt, believed that Moses did not limit his work to the
Pentateuch. The Jewish tradition goes further. The whole
Oral Law is said to have been developed by Moses in
addition to the written and not a few very ancient legal
prescriptions are described distinctly as Laws (Halafra)
given by Moses from the time of Sinai. In the Bible itself
a psalm is indeed ascribed to Moses. Among their oldest
prayers the Samaritans have one ascribed to Moses and also
one to Joshua, the former, save for a few words, consisting
of verses from the Pentateuch. No wonder that to them
many a legend connected with the narrative of the Pentat-
euch should also have been the work of Moses. Thus we
have in our Asatir a book genuinely believed by the Sama-
ritans to be a work of Moses, the only man acknowledged
capable of writing such a book and foretelling the future.
That the book was held in very high esteem by the
Samaritans, and treated almost as a sacred book is proved
by the fact that it has exercised great influence on Sam-
aritan literature, as will be shown later on (p. 134) as well
as by another fact, which appears to be very simple,
and yet is of great significance. Anyone acquainted
with Samaritan MSS.will notice that no profane book,
whatever its character may be, has ever been written
on parchment. This material has been reserved for books



8

of a sacred or a semi-sacred character. It is only the
Law, some ancient prayer-book, or some very old philac-
teries, which were invested with a special character of
sanctity, that have been written on parchment, and no
other work. I have not found even a copy of Markah ? s
great poems on parchment The only exception is the
Asatir, in a copy which is still preserved among the Sam-
aritans of Nablus. From the end of the fifteenth century
they have ceased using parchment because by that time
the last remnant of the ashes of the red heifer prepared
a few centuries previously, had come to an end. They
were therefore no longer in that state of levitical purity to
handle and to prepare skins for sacred use. The fact that
the old copy of the Asatir was written on parchment, shows
the reverence with which this book was treated by the
Samaritans, in the belief that it was indeed a work of Moses.
Ever since I discovered the book for the first time among
the Samaritans in May 1907 I have endeavoured to trace
its origin and to compare it with the existant apocryphal
and pseudepigraphic literature. There were, apparently,
so many common traits that I felt sure by means of such
comparison, to be able to establish its true character and
the approximate date of its composition. I did not at
first fully realise its high antiquity, although I knew that
very little is found in the Samaritan literature written in
that language for which some high antiquity could not
be claimed. There are, in fact, very few works found
written in the pure Samaritan language, and one could a
priori consider it anterior to the time when Arabic had
become the literary language of the Samaritans. It also
differed from the language used since the period of the
revival in the fourteenth century. This was no longer real
Samaritan, but a peculiar Samaritan Hebrew. After a
careful examination, one after the other, the pseudepi-
graphic writings emerged as belonging to a more recent
period, than the date of the Asatir, and I was thus led



up the stream of the literary tradition to its remotest
sources through the Palestinian Targum, Josephus, until it
reached the Sibylline Oracles and the fragments of the
Hellenistic literature preserved by Eusebius. There seems
to be nothing of a high antiquity which could JDC brought
into some relation with the one or the other section of the
Asatir, and in the following pages I am now giving the
result of that slow and patient investigation which has
taken me so many years to complete. The first work
to be examined is the Sibylline Oracles. The Sibyl of
Tibur, Josephus, the Palestinian Targum follow in the
order of their approximation to the Asatir, and then, the
apocrypal and pseudepigraphic literature fall into their
proper place in their relation to the Asatir.

SIBYLLINE ORACLES, EUPOLEMOS,
AND OTHER HELLENISTIC WRITERS.

The Sibylline Oracles are a remarkable product of that
Jewish Hellenistic propaganda which flourished as early
as the second century B.C. and was continued for a long
time afterwards. It is a curious blend of old and new,
of pagan prophecies and of Jewish legends. Some of the
books are distinctly Jewish, but even here not a little has
been borrowed from .elsewhere, and incorporated in the
collection, not always systematically, and very often in a
haphazard manner. Much has been done to elucidate the
history of these oracles, the manner of their composition,
and to separate, if possible, the old from the new, the
Jewish from the non- Jewish. No one, however, seems to
have succeeded in finding the sources from which the
Sibyl has drawn her materials. The older pagan literature
has unfortunately perished, and except a few quotations from
that literature, the rest has been guess-work. No better is the
case with those portions which are decidedly Jewish in origin ,
as is shown by the spirit which they exhibit, by their virulent



IO

attack against heathen practices and beliefs, by the lavish
praise bestowed upon the Jews, and by the glorification
of the Jewish faith and hopes. Still, the direct sources
have not yet been traced, nor would it be an easy task
since the authors of the oracles have covered up as deftly
as possible all the traces, and very little, if anything, is
known of the contemporary Jewish literature. Some paral-
lelism, no doubt, has been found between the Messianic
outlook, or rather the prediction of woe and tribulation, as
found in the Sibyl, and that in some of the pseudepigraphic
writings. But a diligent search might yet reveal some more
points of contact, and this Samaritan text may prove to
have been one of the hitherto unsuspected sources of
portions of the Sibylline Oracles. The task is not an easy
one, for there is profound disparity between these two kinds
of writings. The one is a simple legendary complement to
the Bible, with no ulterior motive, whilst to the other the
Bible is merely a source to be used with very great dis-
cretion. Only a few historical points are vaguely alluded
to: the rest, however, must have been drawn also from
similar legendary elaborations of the Bible, and from the
eschatological literature, which had developed from the
time of Daniel. It is in books of legends that we have to
look for such information as we find in the Sibyl, and we
must rest content if under the pagan guise, we shall be
able to discover the Jewish original. If, then, we shall
be able to establish some parallelism between the general
outlines and episodes in the Sibyl, as well as in other
Hellenistic writings and the narrative found in the Asatir,
and if literal coincidences in expression and thought are
adduced, then the question of, at any rate, one source may
be considered as satisfactorily answered. Of course, such an
investigation must be carried on step by step ; small incid-
ents are not to be neglected, and even hypothetical assump-
tions must be allowed in one case or another, until facts
afterwards corroborate the accuracy of such hypotheses.



II

Among the prominent episodes in the Asatir are the his-
tory of the Flood (Ch. IV), the division of the earth by Noah
among his three sons, the covenant of peace which he makes
with them, the rebellion of Nimrod, who is represented
as a giant, and who causes the tower of Babylon to be built
(IV, 31, 32) which is afterwards destroyed by winds and
storm, his oppression of the other nations, the wars
which are initiated by him against seven nations, and their
destruction, the rise of Egypt to be the first kingdom after
their dispersion, immediately after which there is added
a peculiar history of Nimrod (V, 11.12). He, all the time
being the hero of this tale, is frightened by a sign which is
explained by the soothsayers, that a child will be born to
Arpachshad, son of Shem, who will destroy him and his
kingdom. He thereupon separates the men from their
wives, but his stratagem does not succeed, and Abraham
is born, who later on defies his authority, and is therefore
cast into the fire and saved by God. This abstract may
suffice now for our immediate purpose. In the course of
this investigation further variants and parallels from the
Samaritan literature will be adduced which complete the
tale, such as we find it in the text before us, which un-
fortunately seems to be corrupt and incomplete. But for all
this tale, there are only very slender allusions in the Bible,
which have afterwards been worked up until they have
assumed this more elaborate form.

Two points may however be noted, for they may be
helpful in elucidating the problems before us. Nimrod is
practically made contemporary with Abraham, though
in fact only three generations separate Nimrod from
Noah. This is a serious anachronism, and yet no notice
is taken of it. Further, the portion which Noah gives to
Shem is in the land of Afrikia, i. e. Phrygia (Ch. IV. 30).

We turn now to the Sibylline Oracles.

Book III of the Sibylline Oracles is universally acknow-
ledged as the oldest in the collection which has been preserved,



12

and is of undoubted Jewish origin. Scholars have been able
to establish the fact that the book is of a composite charac-
ter, some parts being older and others probably of a much
later date. But even the latest parts are not later than the
middle of the second century B. C., the time of Ptolo-
maeus VII Physkon. In its present state, it is composed of
many fragments which have been joined together, not
always very happily, and the book has suffered many
interpolations and changes. Moreover, it must be remem-
bered that none of the MSS. of the Sibylline Oracles hith-
erto known is older than the thirteenth or fourteenth cen-
tury: no wonder, therefore, at the incoherent character of
some parts of its contents. But on one point all are agreed,
that the book can be safely divided into three sections, of
which the first from line 97 to line 170 or thereabouts, is
unquestionably the oldest oracle.

The Fathers of the Church, especially Lactantius and
Eusebius, the latter quoting Polyhistor, all show more or
less complete knowledge of the first lines of this section.
Of real importance for our present investigation is the
first section from lines 97 121 and 154170 (reserving a
separate treatment later on for lines 122 153). The former
deals with the building of the Tower, the fight of the Titans
and the establishment of the first kingdoms, the destruction
of the giants, the history of Egypt, the rise of several
kingdoms, and an abrupt reference to Solomon. This is
that special section which has been quoted variously in
olden times as belonging to the Erythraean Sibyl, the
Chaldaean or the Hebrew Sibyl. We are, therefore, justified
in subjecting that section to a new examination, especially
as its Jewish origin cannot be doubted, particularly since it
seems also to have enjoyed a very wide reputation as such ;
for the story of the Tower of Babel and the subsequent
fight is not only told by the Sibyl, but we find parallel
legends in other writers not of Jewish origin. It is, there-
fore, obviously a legend which from the time of the Sibyl



had become widely known and had been appropriated
by writers in various countries, and modified in such
manner as to suit local history. This is a process generally
followed by all historians of olden times, and greatly
favoured by the writers of the Hellenistic period.

It seems, however, that the scholars, while admitting inter-
polation and amplification in the rest of the book and in
the other oracles, have not recognised that we have also
here two distinct narratives which have been joined to-
gether in a somewhat synchretistic manner. It will there-
fore be best for the time being, to eliminate lines 122 153
and to join lines 121 to 154, and to treat this as an undivid-
ed whole. The flow of the narrative is not in the slightest
way interrupted, and in fact, line 154 is a repetition of
line 121.

Now, as far as this section is concerned, I am not aware
that anyone has endeavoured to elucidate its source or
to answer the question as to how on the one hand, it came
about that the Sibyl should have woven into her poem
the tale of the giants just in connection with the Tower
of Babel, and on the other, why the Sibyl should have
traced the War of Nations and the origin of the Egyptian
Kingdom to the same period.*

The story of the Tower of Babel and its destruction by
a wind sent by God or by the gods is mentioned with
slight variations by Alexander Polyhistor, Josephus, Aby-
denos and the Armenian Chronicler Moses of Chorene.
In the Hellenistic writings collected by Eusebius in his
Praeparatio Evangelica, however, there are only very few

* The literature which has gathered round this portion is so vast
that it must suffice to refer to the principal writers where the biblio-
graphies complete one another. (Stahlin-Schmidt, in Christs Geschichte"
der Griechischen Literatur, vol. I p. 609 ff. 6l2ff., Munich 1920,
Schiirer, vol.111 p. 571 ff., Gruppe, Griech. Myth., Vol.2 p. 1483,
Krauss in the Jew. Enc., s. v. "Sibyl," Hastings Encycl., s. v. Sibylline
Oracles and above all now Rzach in Pauly-Kroll, Enc. Klass. Alt.,
s. v. Sibyll. Orakel.)



in which the story of the fight of the giants is given
with as many details as in the Sibyl. The names of the
gods against whom Titan fights are also changed from
chronicler to chronicler. Neither do we find in all these
any complete coincidence with the Sibyl nor any reference
to the beginning of the kingdom of Egypt.

It would be easy to multiply the parallels to this story
which, however, as cannot be denied, rests here ultimately on
the Biblical narrative. Another version has been ascribed to
Berosus, but probably without any reason. There is a con-
fusion somewhere. It is not likely that Berosus, who wished
to glorify Babylon and its past would insert into his narrative
a tale so destructive and humiliating as that of the rebellious
builders of the Tower which was destroyed by the wrath of
God. As he is more or less contemporary with Euhemeros,
and the latter quotes the Sibyl, the version ascribed to
Berosus is probably also of a later date and wrongly
ascribed to him. The Bible is the starting point, but we
shall have to seek in writings which rest upon it for
the primary source of this legend in the form in which it
now, appears as well as for the reason why the giants'
fight should be introduced here. A glance at the Asatir
may now fully solve the problem. I point to the fact that,
in its essence, we have to deal here with the Nimrod legend.

A certain Mar Apas Katina, reputed author of the
Syriac Armenian Chronicle used by Moses of Chorene,
has also a full reference to the building of the Tower
by the giants and its destruction and subsequent con-
fusion.* In this version the tale attributed to Berosus by
Moses of Chorene has already assumed a totally dif-
ferent colouring. Very little if anything is left of the
Greek legends, and although the story of the fight

* Langlois, Collections des Historians de I s Armenia, Paris, 1867,
Vol. I p. 15. Especially note I, where the whole literature is given.
By the way, the name of Mar Apas Katina as an author does not
occur in A. Baumstark, Geschichte d. Syr. Literatur, Bonn 1922.



15

between the brothers for the supremacy is retained, other
names are substituted and finally the legend is connected
with Bel. The Armenian writer whilst reproducing this
passage, recognises already that this legend is practically
an enlarged development of the story of Nimrod, and he
says distinctly that Bel or Nisus, who takes his place later
on is none other than Nimrod. * Here we have a writer
who is able to disentangle the legends which had been
gathered elsewhere and had been changed from writer to
writer; for he quotes also Abydenos and others, and
reduces the story, as far as his own purpose goes, to the
primitive form of the Biblical record.

We have here the reflex of the legend as found in
Christian literature, drawing its information not only
from the pagan writers, but in all probability also from
some of the ancient apocryphal writings, or some legend-
ary history of the Bible; and thus we are brought face to
face with the older literature as it has developed in the
course of time.

Before proceeding further, it is necessary that the
essential points of the legend as found in the Sibyl should
be briefly summarized, stripped as much as possible of
their mythological garb. The Tower of Babel is built by
people who rebel against God and is cast down by the
winds. Then, evidently, the surviving king has three
children, and in the tenth generation from the deluge (an-
achronistically) the whole earth is divided into three
portions among them upon oath of mutual peace. After
the death of the father, Titan rises up and fights his eldest
brother, and this is the beginning of war in the world;
but peace is established on the condition that all the
male children of Chronos are destroyed and they are
accordingly torn by the giants. But one male child
escapes and is hidden, and afterwards overthrows Titan.

* "Mais je dis que celui qu'on appelle Chronos et Bel est bien
Nemrod." (Langlois II, 61).



16

Then arises the kingdom of Egypt and seven kingdoms
are mentioned.

We have now only to introduce the equation Titan =
Nimrod, to assist us in solving the problem as to whence
the Sibyl has drawn her information as well as the
seqeunce of events, for if we follow also the identification
of older writers, we see in this the development of a legend
whose central figure is Nimrod, for, as indicated above
we have here unquestionably the story of Nimrod,
which has been greatly developed and to which many
incidents have been added not found directly in the Bible,
but probably deduced from it by that specific Midrashic
exegesis which interprets names and words in a manner
of its own. It is well known that one single word of the
Bible is often sufficient to become the starting-point for a
whole series of legends. This Midrashic exegesis connects
the name of Nimrod with the word 'maracT 'to rebel;' and
this was sufficient to spin it out into a long story of Nimrod
who is rebellious against God. The fact that he is men-
tioned as King of Babylon is, for the author of the legend,
sufficient proof that he must have usurped his power, es-
pecially when taken in connection with the history of Noah
and his three sons. Of these, Shem is the one appointed
king by Noah, and yet we find Nimrod as the first
king. Here is again sufficient reason for legendary activ-
ity to develop Nimrod's kingship into usurpation or fight.
Moses of Chorene does not fail to recognise that the three
sons between whom the power is divided, i. e. Zerouan,
Titan and Japhetos, are none other than Shem, Ham and
Japhet (Langlois II, 59). The fact that Nimrod is men-
tioned as 'Gibor' gives him pre-eminence in the eyes of the
maker of legends. Why should he be called 'Giber* and
what is the real meaning of that word ? In the LXX to
Genesis XVII, 4; X, 8. 9; we already find the Midrashic
interpretation. The word is there translated as 'giant.'
According to Samaritan tradition 'Gibor' is also the word



17

used regularly for 'giant.' This word is at once connected
with the 'Giborim* in Genesis VI, 4, a further corrobor-
ation for that interpretation of the word l Gibor y as mean-
ing 'giant,' inasmuch as the 'Giborim' here mentioned
are also translated 'giants' as well as is the word 'Nephilim'
in the same verse.

So deeply rooted had become the conviction that the
builders of the Tower were giants, that not only was
the translation of the word 'Gibor' as 'Giant' found in
the LXX as well as being taken over by the Peshitto
and even the Arabic translation, but Philo also accepted it
without hesitation and based upon it his own philosophic
explanations and discourses in his "Questions" II, 82 to
Gen. X, 8. There he not only takes it for granted that
Nimrod was a giant, but practically identifies him with
Titan, and refers to the war of the Titans with the gods, a
parallel evidently to the rebellious action of Nimrod
against God, and echoed by the Sibyl. This he further
develops in the special treatise upon the giants ( 14).
Here in his reference to Nimrod he says, "This man
was a giant upon the earth, the name 'Nimrod' being
interpreted 'desertion' (rebellious)." This tradition has
been handed down to the writers of the Middle Ages
where Nimrod is always described as a giant. It must be
mentioned that the Samaritan tradition knows nothing of
the fall of angels, nor of their marrying the daughters
of men. The "Bene Elohim" are to them the sons of the
mighty and their children the all-powerful giants.

Among the Hellenistic writers from whom the Sibyl may
have drawn some information, there is a certain Pseudo-
Eupolemos, a writer whom Freudenthal (Hell. Stud,
p. 82 ff.) has rightly separated from the other fragments
ascribed to the genuine Eupolemos, both quoted under
one name by Alexander Polyhistor, and hence by Eus-
ebius in his Praeparatio Evangelica. Freudenthal has
proved beyond doubt that the author of these fragments

Asatir. 2



18

must have been a Samaritan and he assigned to him the
date ca. 200 B. C. It will be seen later on that Freuden-
thal's conjecture is fully corroborated by our investigation.
Small though those fragments are, they offer important
parallels to the Asatir and to some extent also to the
Sibylline Oracle. The first fragment runs as follows:

"And Eupolemos in his history of the Jews in Assyria
says that the city of Babylon was first built by those that
escaped from the deluge; and that these were giants,
and dwelt in the tower about which we have spoken.
But this having fallen by the act of God, the giants were
dispersed over the whole earth. And he says that in the
tenth generation in a city of Babylon, Kamarina, *
which some call the city of Ourie (which interpreted
means 'City of the Chaldaeans') : in the tenth generation,
then, there was born Abraham, a man excelling all in
goodness and wisdom and who discovered the Chaldaic
astrology: and being intent upon piety he found favour
with his God. And he having gone to Phoenice at the
command of the God he dwelt there, and teaching the
Phoenicians the turnings of the sun and moon and many
other things he found favour with their king. And
later on the Armenians marched against the Phoenicians.
And they proving victorious and taking captive his younger
brother Abraham together with his household went to
the rescue and conquered the captors and took captive
the women and children of the enemy. And ambassadors
coming to him ordered that he might accept a ransom and
release them, he did not choose to trample on the un-
fortunate, but taking for the feeding of the young men
he released the prisoners. And he was entertained
with sacred honours by the city of Argarizin (which

* Kamarina i. e. Furnace. Pseudo Eupolemos knows therefore
the interpretation of the Hebrew word "Ur" as "furnace" thus being
the starting-point of the legend of Abraham and the furnace. At the
same time he goes on to say that Ur is the name of the town: true
syncretism.



interpreted means "Mount of the Most High" * and he
received gifts at the hands of Melchisedek who was a
priest of the God and also king."

We have now all the elements required for the re-
construction of the legend as it appears in the Asatir
and in the Sibyl. We have then only to identify Saturnus
with Noah and Chronos with Shem to see exactly how the
story resting upon the Biblical record could assume a
Greek form without altering in substance.

Josephus, whose close relation to the Asatir will be
discussed later on, has also worked up the subject. more
completely. According to him, Nimrod is not only the
rebellious king, but he and his associates are the builders
of the Tower, for he induces and forces the people to build
the Tower and thus to defy God (I, 4, 2, 113).

Then follows immediately in the Asatir as well as in the
Sibylline Oracles the War of the Nations. Here again we
must be guided by the Midrashic exegesis to find in the
words of the Bible a basis for this development. We
find in Gen. X, 1 1 "he went forth," which has been taken
to mean he went forth to battle against the other nations.
Again in the Biblical history (Gen. X, 6), we find that
directly after Kush the father of Nimrod, Egypt is men-
tioned. The fact that Egypt should have been mentioned
before any other country, is sufficient for the Midrash
to proclaim Egypt as the first kingdom. Thus from a few
stray threads drawn from separate words and then woven
together, we get a complete history of events for which
there is otherwise no warrant in Holy Writ. These legends
were evolved to satisfy the curiosity of the listener
and no doubt were the origin of many of the legends
circulated in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. In the same
chapter in Genesis, seven nations are mentioned, of which
no trace could be found and which even the most ingenious

* By calling Argarizin the "Mount of the Most High" Pseudo
Eupolemos gives decisive proof for his Samaritan origin.

2*



20

geographer of the time of the Sibyl could neither identify
nor localise. Throughout that period, every translator of the
genealogical tables endeavoured to substitute more modern
and better known names for those found in the Hebrew
text. But no identification had been attempted for the
nations mentioned in Genesis ch. X, 13, the Lehabim, etc.
They must, therefore, have perished in very olden times,
and are described in the Asatir (V, 9) to have been the
victims of the war waged by Nimrod.

Josephus, curiously enough, mentions in connection
with Nimrod, the disappearance of these very nations, but
evidently misled by the word Kush, which stands for
Nimrod, he transfers the time of the destruction of those
nations to a later period : he connects it with the legend of
Moses as told by Artapanos, but in reality the man who
is the cause of the destruction is none other than Nim-
rod. He must have found it so in his original source,
as otherwise there is no reason why he should have ment-
ioned their disappearance in the chapter where he deals
with the history of Nimrod. (Antiq. I, 6. 2.)

In the light of the Asatir, all that which has been ad-
vanced hitherto is now fully corroborated. Chs. IV, 31, to
V, 28 gives up a complete parallel in its primitive form, not
yet affected by Hellenistic tendencies. No one could other-
wise under stand how the Sibyl came to utter prophecies
of destruction against seven nations, in this connection.
They are the seven nations mentioned in the Asatir, but
with the difference that new names had been substituted,
in the Sibyl, for the old ones that had entirely disappeared.
Otherwise, it would be impossible to explain why these
nations should anachronistically be mentioned before Sol-
omon, line 167. It is only in the light of the above parallel-
ism that the disappearance of these nations can be ex-
plained.

Even the manner of the Destruction of the Tower, a
detail not mentioned in the Bible, which is described in



21

the Asatir as having been shattered, is found in the Sibyl
as having been destroyed through the action of winds
and storm. It is found in a Samaritan commentary to Gen-
esis by Meshalma, and in the Malif of an unknown author
of uncertain date, but perhaps anterior to Meshalma.
Although these books are of a more recent origin, they
have retained very old Samaritan traditions, and also
occasionally, readings of a slightly different recension of
the Asatir. In them we are told that God sent violent
storms and rains which broke down and destroyed the
Tower built by Nimrod and his associates.

That the legend rests upon a Biblical Midrash can also
be proved by stray references in various ancient Jewish
writings, but it appears almost in its entirety in another
book of pseudepigraphic origin, which stands in a pecul-
iarly intimate relation with the Sibylline literature. I refer
to the Revelations ascribed to Methodius of Patara, or
Patmos (see Sackur, Sibyll. Texte pp. 60 96).

The original source from which Methodius drew the
first part of his chronicle of the world for it purports to
be the description of the world from the Creation to the
End of Days and Final Judgment has hitherto not yet
been discovered, but the investigations of Sackur have
shown that, to a large extent, this compilation (of the
fourth or fifth century) agrees with the Syriac "Cave of
Treasures," and that it must have been composed some-
where in Syria or Palestine. But it is now evident that the
ancient source approximates more closely to the Asatir
than to the Syriac text, with which it has only a few traits
in common. The history of Nimrod, the building of the
Tower, the rise of Egypt, the fight of the Nations, and all
the other incidents, so characteristic of the Asatir and of
the Sibyl are found in this compilation of Methodius. In
the "Cave of Treasures" many of the older details have
entirely disappeared. They all have undergone a thorough
revision from a Christian point of view.



22

We have still to deal with that section of the Sibyl,
which, for the time being, was eliminated from the present
investigation: I refer to the lines 122 153, containing the
history of the agreement between Titan and Chronos, the
fear of the former that the succession may not come to
him, that the descendants of Chronos might prevent him
from becoming the ruler of the world, the destruction of
the male children, the clandestine birth of the male child,
the surreptitious removal of that child, the imprisonment
of Chronos and his wife, and later on how the child is
destined to destroy the power of Titan. Whence has the
Sibyl taken this story and why has she inserted it here into
her oracle, where we find it now in close connection with
the Tower of Babel ?

In the mind of the Sybil there must have been some
connection between the Biblical personages and this
continuation of the story of the Tower and the fight be-
tween the three sons of Noah, in which Kush or Nimrod is
represented by Titan. There must have been a legend
referring to Shem, or as we are dealing here with two or
three generations later, with Arpachshad or Ashur. Pseudo-
Eupolemos will now help us to find a guide by which to
trace back this story to some old legend connected with
Nimrod; for we must not lose sight of Nimrod, who is the
central figure of this whole passage. It is noteworthy that
the story of the Tower of Babel and the dispersion of the
giants precedes immediately without any break the story
of the birth of Abraham in Pseudo-Eupolemos, unless we
assume, for which there is no apparent reason, that
Alexander Polyhistor, who has preserved the words of this
writer, has omitted something in between ; but in that case,
the first section referring to the building of the Tower
would also have been omitted. The retention of this other-
wise irrelevant first section is clear proof that the com-
bination already obtained in Pseudo-Eupolemos' narrative.
We have in this portion of the Sibyl therefore to seek



23

for a parallel to the Abraham and Nimrod legend. After
the knowledge of the birth of the male child has come
to Titan, he imprisons Chronos and his wife, and
then the fight takes place between the members of the
family of Chronos and the Titans. This story of the fight
and the imprisonment seems to be out of place. Originally,
Titan must have imprisoned Chronos and his wife before
the birth of the child, for safety's sake, and the fight must
have been waged quite independently of that imprison-
ment, and only in order to vindicate their rights and to
punish Titan for his violence and cruelty.

Apart from the Sibyl, we have two parallels, one anterior
and one long after, the first being ascribed to Euhemeros.
His version of the ancient myths of the Titans, borrowed
to a large extent from detached fragments from Hesiod
has been incorporated by Ennius into his Latin trans-
lation and reproduced by Lactantius in his Divine In-
stitutes. (Book I. Ch. XIV.) He does not agree entirely
with the Sibyl; the names of the goddesses and the
hiding place of the child is different, but he also men-
tions that Titan encircles Saturn and Ops with walls,
and he adds, "the truth of this history is told by the
Erythraean Sibyl." This, as mentioned before, was the
very name by which our Sibyl was known and obtained
currency. In Bk. Ill, 813 the Sibyl protests against
this identification. As Euhemeros distinctly states that
he depends on the Sibyl he could not have been the
source for the Sibyl and the Jewish character and origin
of this story therefore cannot be called into question
But, of course, if she were to have any effect at all, the
Sibyl could not but assume heathen forms, and was there-
fore popularly identified with the Erythraean Sibyl, who
stood in very high veneration among the various nations.
But this does not in the slightest degree affect the true
origin of this Sibyl, nor would it prevent her from taking
some material from the Greek myths in a rationalised



24

form to further her own ends, so long as there was a sub-
stratum of Jewish legend to warrant her taking over such
material.

In the second account which is a variant ascribed to the
Berosian Sibyl by Moses of Chorene, the encircling walls
and the imprisonment have already disappeared. It was
felt to be incongruous in the place in which it stood, and
practically the whole of the remainder of that Oracle,
(11. 1 50 152), has entirely disappeared. It has already been
shown above that no higher antiquity than this Sibyl can
be claimed for the Chronicle of Moses of Chorene.

Now in the Asatir, there is what appears to be a com-
plete solution of the whole problem. Let us turn again to
Ch. V. 1 6 29. Here Nimrpd, after having captured Egypt,
reigns in Babylon. There he is warned by the Book of Signs
that out of the seed of Arpachshad, i. e. Shem, a child will be
born who will destroy him. He takes the advice of the astrol-
ogers and orders that all the male children of Arpachshad
should be imprisoned in one place whilst the women should
be imprisoned in another, in order to prevent the concep-
tion of the child, which, as he is told, will take place within
thirty days. His plan is defeated and a child is born. This
is Abraham, who is thrown into the fire but who escapes.
The story as told in the Asatir, however, is incomplete.
The book has evidently been preserved in a more or less
fragmentary condition and the rest of the story follows
in the main the narrative as given in Holy Writ. Some
details found in other variants, may therefore supplement
this story, which, as the author himself indicates, runs
parallel to that told of Moses. There, the children are
killed: Moses is born secretly and miraculously saved
from the wrath of Pharaoh. His father Amram is a man
of high rank, and afterwards Moses fulfils the pro-
phecy of the soothsayer and not only destroys the idols,
but is also able to bring about the destruction of Pharaoh
and the Egyptians.



25

All this has dropped out from the Abraham-tale in
the Asatir, but that it must have formed an essential
feature cannot be doubted in view of the fact that we find
this story with all the details in some Jewish versions.
There is first the Jewish-Arabic legend of Abraham
among the fragments of the Genizah once in my posses-
sion, now transferred to the British Museum. There the
story is put into the mouth of Kabelhaber, the well-known
companion of Mohammed. He was of Jewish origin and
is believed to be the author of many of the Biblical legends
alluded to in the Koran and found afterwards in various
Mohammedan commentaries. Unfortunately, the be-
ginning is missing in the MS., but what is left is quite
sufficient to prove the antiquity of this story. It begins
with the wizards and soothsayers warning Nimrod against
the descendants of Arpachshad. On their advice, he
builds an immense prison where he keeps all the women of
Arpachshad's family. Thus far, it is in agreement with
the Asatir, but unlike it, they are not imprisoned in order to
prevent pregnancy, but to await the time of their child's
birth. Every male child is then torn to pieces. The
mother of Abraham is able to conceal her situation and
when the time of the birth of the child approaches,
she quietly leaves the town, hides herself in a cave and
gives birth to Abraham. He is miraculously fed by angels.
He first goes to the house of his father, Terah, who is an
idolater, breaks the idols and also induces others to do like-
wise, he is then brought up before Nimrod where he defies
the latter 's claim to be worshipped as. a god, is cast into
the fire and saved by God.

So far, we have complete identity: the fear of Nimrod
(Titan) lest a son be born to Arpachshad (Saturn) who
will dispute his usurpation, since Arpachshad, according
to the decision of Noah, is to be ruler: the wise men
of Japhet advising him to build a prison or erect a wall
around the pregnant women of the house of Arpachshad



26

and to kill all the male children born ; Abraham (Zeus) is
born secretely in a cave, fights Titan and destroys him.
The same story occurs in Yakubi's* commentary to the
Koran, but it is not of Arabic origin, as is evidenced by the
fact adduced here. No allusion is made to it in the Koran,
where Abraham is merely described as a friend of God and
the only reference made is to the burning of Terari's idols. * *
But there is a Hebrew recension which agrees in almost
every detail with the Jewish Arabic, differing only in those
details where that version has assumed a more Arabic char-
acter. It is found in Elijah de Vidas, Shebet Musar, ***
where the story has been fully expanded with the exuber-
ance of Oriental fantasy, but all the important incidents
have been faithfully retained. They are as follows : Nimrod
declares himself a god, and demands to be worshipped
as such on pain of death. Through his knowledge of astrol-
ogy he knows that a child will be born who will destroy
him. Upon the advice of his nobles, he builds an immense
place and orders all the pregnant women to be gathered
there. He instructs the midwives to slaughter every male
child immediately after its birth, and thus no less than
70,000 male children perish. By a stratagem Abraham's
mother is able to allay the suspicions of her husband
Terah, and going out into the wilderness, she gives birth
to the child in a cave, which at once becomes filled with
light. There she leaves it. It is fed by. the milk which it
sucks from the finger of the angel Gabriel. When the child
is twenty days old it is already grown up, then various
incidents happen when Nimrod discovers the birth of the
child, such as the destruction of the idols of his father
Terah, the conversion of the multitude to the belief in God,

* v. Grunbaum, Neue Beitr. p. 94, and also Weil: Biblische
Legenden der Muselmannner, Frankfurt a/M. 1845, p. 69.
** See Geiger, Mohammed, p. 22.

*** Reprinted by Jellinek VoL I p. 25 34, and by Eisenstein,
Ozar p. 2 ff. For numerous variants of this legends see Gaster Exempla
no. 2 and p. 185 where the literature is given.



27

the fall of the idols in the palace of Nimrod when Abrah-
am goes to see him, and his miraculous escape from the
burning furnace, which is transformed into a beautiful
garden. Thus the story stripped of all the other elem-
ents. There cannot be any doubt as to the Jewish ori-
gin of the story. Not only do we find no trace of Moham-
medan legends, or any of the forms which the legend
has assumed in the literature of Islam, but almost every
one of the essential details is found already in the
ancient Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer (Ch. 25), notably the
very important fact that the child is hidden in a cave for
thirteen years; * the only incidents here missing are the separ-
ation of the men from the women and the killing of the male
children. Elijah de Vidas had access to a large number
of ancient texts,** which he reproduced in this and in
his other works, and thus fully corroborates the Jewish
origin of the Arabic Hebrew version found in my Genizah
fragments. We have here, moreover, a much more com-
plete parallel to the story of the slaughter of the male child-
ren in Egypt, with which the author of the Asatir com-
pares it, though in one or two of the details the version
of de Vidas differs somewhat from the Samaritan, for in de
Vidas the pregnant women are imprisoned, and the children
are slaughtered immediately after birth. In the Asatir
Nimrod imprisons the women in order to prevent them
from bearing children. In both, however, he through his
astrological knowledge forsees the birth of such a child.
In the main, this version thus agrees with the Samaritan.
Moreover, the same story is told in practically the same
words as in the Asatir in the Samaritan commentary to
the Pentateuch by Meshalma (see notes ad loc). In both
Samaritan texts there is a curious anachronism to be
noted, inasmuch as the Nimrod of the Tower here mentioned

* For many variants of this tradition vide Lurya ad loc.
** See Steinschneider, Catalogue of Bodleian 932 and Jellinek,
Vol. V, Introd. p. XIX.



28

is believed to be contemporary with Nahor and of course,
with Terah. The importance of this is more clearly seen when
we compare this story with that told by Pseudo-Eupolem-
os as quoted above p. 18. Here, as pointed out before,
Pseudo-Eupolemos passes immediately from the story of
the building of the Tower and the dispersion of the giants,
to the history of the birth of Abraham and his further
exploits. He thus brings Abraham into direct connection
with the giants. Although he mentions 10 (13) generations
in between, still, from the narrative, it is clear that the
history of Abraham seems to be contemporary with that
of the giants, for after mentioning the birth of a right-
eous man in a town called Kamarine, he then passes
on to Abraham's arrival in Canaan the land of the Phoen-
icians, whom he (Abraham) instructs in the "revolutions
of the sun and moon." Then the Armenians wage war
against the Phoenicians and capture Abraham's nephew;
Abraham goes to the rescue, defeats the Armenians and
then the story continues as previously told. Pseudo-Eupol-
emos, who was not writing a commentary to the Bible
but a romantic history of the beginnings of the people
of Israel, has substituted the war of Amraphel, king of
Shinear, and his confederates, against the Nations of the
Plain, for the war of Nimrod against the nations of Pales-
tine and Egypt mentioned in the older legends. He could
do it the more easily as none of his readers was inter-
ested in the fate of nations the names of which had per-
ished long ago, whilst he had the story of the Bible upon
which to rely. He thus could bring in Abraham as the hero
of the occasion, and curiously enough hereby entirely
agreeing with the Asatir, he places the story of this war
and the part which Abraham played before the story of
his going down to Egypt and what befel him there con-
trary to the record of the Bible.

True, there are some points in the Bible which, by
a Midrashic exegesis, help in transferring the battle



29

of the Giants to Palestine and making Nimrod contem-
porary with Abraham. These points facilitate, in a way,
the new presentation of it by Eupolemos and by the Asatir,
as well as by the Sibyl. In Ch. XIV of Genesis, Amraphel
and his associates first wage war against the Rephaim
and Zuzim in the northern part of Palestine; and these
appear in the LXX and in the Peshitto as well as in other
translations depending upon them, no less than in the
Palestinian Targum, as "giants and mighty men." Ifweadd
that in the Palestinian Targum and also in the later Rab-
binic tradition* Amraphel is identified with Nimrod, then
we have the same anachronism. The reason for iden-
tifying Amraphel with Nimrod may be found in a Midrashic
etymology of the name, which is not rare in the Targum.
In the last syllable one can easily recognise Bel, and if Nim-
rod is Bel and Amraphel also Bel, that would explain the
appearance of two kings of the name Bel in the Asatir
and in Pseudo-Eupolemos. How widespread such a kind of
legend was can be seen from Moses of Chorene's Chronicle,
quoting Mar Apas Katina, where these legends appear in
a new transformation (see above p. 14). Here we have,
Haig* rising up against Bel the giant, who has usurped the
power after committing acts of violence, and then leaving
the country. This is nothing else than another develop-
ment of the story of Abraham leaving the kingdom of
Nimrod and settling elsewhere. Bel afterwards attacks
the country where he is living : a messenger comes to warn
Haig, who gathers together his small force, attacks Bel
near a mountain in a plain and kills him. This is practi-
cally the same story as that told by Eupolemos and agrees
also in part with the Bible. One only has to substitute
Nimrod for Bel and Amraphel, as has been done by the
Palestinian Targum, to have the story complete down to
the names.

* Talmud, Sefer Hayashar; for references see Seder Hadoroth p. 31.
** Langlois I p. i6ff.



30

One might be inclined to see in the story of Aram
(Ch. XIII) in the Armenian version a duplication of the
same story, inasmuch as Aram fights with giants in the
west country, probably Palestine, which country is men-
tioned afterwards as Little Armenia. Here we have the Ar-
menia of Pseudo-Eupolemos. There is a faint reminiscence
of a similar story in the Samaritan literature, which has
also some other features in common with the Abraham
legend. I refer to the war between Joshua and Shobakh,
the giant of the Armenians, as found in the Samaritan
Book of Joshua. Joshua and his army are also encircled
through magic powers by seven walls, from which they
are saved through the advice of Kenas. However, it
would lead too far were I here to follow up the question
whether there is any closer connection between these
various legends.

If we now examine carefully the Sibyl we shall find a
remarkable parallelism which shows that the Sibyl must
have been well acquainted with Eupolemos' writings. For
when the Sibyl refers to the birth of Abraham, the name of
the town is identical with that given in Pseudo-Eupolemos ,
namely, Kamarine (III, 218).

It should be stated, however, that this verse is believed to
be peculiarly corrupt. The copyists have evidently not real-
ised that Kamarine is the Midrashic interpretation of the
word 'Ur' as meaning 'furnace;' therefore they either sub-
stituted another word for it or left it out entirely. So
almost every MS. has a different reading or a lacuna.
Alexander and others after him, like Opsopeus (Koch)
before him, completed this lacuna correctly by inserting the
word found in some other MSS. "Kamarine." Geffcken*
leaves the lacuna, but on the other hand** he says that
the subsequent lines were written to contradict the

* Die Oracula Sibyllina Leipzig 1902 ad loc.
** Komposition und Entstehungszeit der Oracula Sibyllina
Leipzig 1902 p. 6ff.



31

statement of Pseudo-Eupolemos (Geffcken thus agrees that
the Sibyl knew Pseudo-Eupolemos) that Abraham knew
the revolutions of the sun and moon.* Geffcken has entire-
ly misunderstod the passage in Eupolemos. The Sibyl
vehemently protests only against astrology and all kinds
of idolatrous abominations, not a word of which is to be
found in Eupolemos. Furthermore we have precisely the
same anachronism noticed in the Sibyl as in all the records
before and if we carefully examine the texts we shall
find the Sibyl like Eupolemos, mentioning 10 generations
that have passed between the deluge and the story of the
Titans, thus making the Titan (i. e. Nimrod), contemporary
with Abraham, whose story is told under the form of a
Greek myth.

Gathering up all the threads of the various parallels and
comparisons, two points stand out clearly. In the first place
there is the closest possible similarity between the essential
details in the story of the Sibyl of Titan, Saturn, and Japhetos,
of the slaughter of the male children, the imprisonment
of the parents, the secret birth and removal of the male
child, which is to grow up, avenge the wrong and finally
destroy Titan, with the drapings having been taken from
Greek mythology as told by Euhemeros, and the story of
Nimrod and Abraham as told by the Asatir and the Samar-
itan commentary on the one hand, and by the Hebrew-
Arabic and Jewish-Hebrew legends on the other. Again

* The real character of the statement that Abraham knew
the revolutions of the sun and moon, as mentioned by Eupolem-
os, can be understood only if viewed in the light of Samaritan
tradition. Abraham is not credited with any knowledge of astro-
logy, but with a knowledge of the Calendar, which according to
the Samaritans, is based on the direct teaching of God, who had
communicated it to Adam, and which then had been handed on
from generation to generation down to Abraham. The fixing of
the New Moon and of the year with them rested upon astronom-
ical calculations, and it is this knowledge which is the basis of
the Calendar, and which Abraham possessed and communicated
to the Phoenicians and others. (On this point see also further on.)



32

some of the details, e. g. the place of birth etc., show a
thorough acquaintance by the Sibyl with the writings of
Pseudo-Eupolemos .

With this, the parallelism is, however, by no means yet
exhausted, for besides that in the general outline of the
stories there are also some verbal affinities to which
attention must now be drawn. (Later on, I will return
again to the examinations of the other Sibylline Oracles in
their relations to the Asatir.) We find thus e. g. H4ff.:
The earth divided into three portions by Chronos and
the father laying an oath of peace on his three sons. So
Asatir IV, 14. 36. 140. Phrygia where the child is hidden:
Asatir IV, 30. The portion which Noah gives to Shem,
which is to be the birthplace of Abraham is Afrikia i. e.
Phrygia 155. This was the beginnings of the war: Asatir
V, 9. These are more than mere coincidences.

Returning now to Pseudo-Eupolemos, the parallelism be-
tween the latter and the Asatir is still more marked than
that with the Sibyl. So we find that after having told the
story of the fight of Abraham against the Armenians,
Pseudo-Eupolemos goes on to tell the story of what hap-
pened to Abraham in Egypt. Leaving out the first por-
tion in which he tells of the giants and of the war of Abra-
ham (given before,) he continues as follows :

"... But when the famine set in Abraham repaired to
Egypt, and there settled down with his whole family;
and the king of the Egyptians married his (Abraham's)
wife, because he alleged that she was his sister : in further
detail he records how he found no pleasure in his union
with her, and how his people and his household were de-
stroyed ; and how summoning his seers, they told him the
fact that the woman was not unmarried at all. How also
the king of the Egyptians thus found out that she was
Abraham's wife and how he returned her to her hus-
band. How also he dwelt among the Egyptian priests in
Heliopolis, i. e. The Sun City, and taught them many



33

things and introduced amongst them astrology and other
things. He (Eupolemos) says that the discovery of it be-
longs to Enoch and that he was the originator of astrol-
ogy, not the Egyptians. For the Babylonians say that
Belos was the first man (the same is Kronos) and from
him sprang a second Belos who was Ham and he begat
Cham who begat Chanaan who was the father of the
Phoenicians and he also begat Chus, who is called by the
Greeks Asbolos, the progenitor of the Ethiopians, and a
brother of Mestraim who was progenitor of the Egyptians.
The Greeks say that Atlas originated astrology, but Atlas
is the same as Enoch. The son of Enoch was Methusala
who learned everything through the agency of the
angels of God and we acknowledge this fact."
Now this story of Abraham's descent into Egypt with
all the details contained in Pseudo-Eupolemos is not found in
the Bible, neither has Freudenthal nor Beer, who has written
a book on all the legends referring to Abraham, been able
to find a close parallel in any Jewish Midrash. The nearest
approach to this story is the reference to it in Josephus,
but Josephus, in his usual way, has enlarged upon the simple
story and has omitted one or two of the essential details,
such as the peculiar illness of Pharaoh and his house-
hold. The closest parallel is now found in the Asatir Ch.VI,
i off. Not only, as remarked before, do Pseudo-Eupolemos
and the Asatir go together in putting the journey to Egypt
after the war with the giants contrary to the Bible, but
also most of the other essential details given by Pseudo-
Eupolemos are set out fully and in a much more coherent
manner by the author of the Asatir. The illness of Pharaoh,
the calling in of the soothsayers, the pointing out that the
woman whom he has taken into his house is the only cause
of the plague, then Abraham disputing or discussing with
the wise men and proclaiming the faith, are all found
there. It may be objected that Pseudo-Eupolemos may
have confused the story of Abraham's sojourn in Egypt

Asatir. 3



34

with the parallel story of his sojourn among the Philis-
tines. In the latter story some of the points to which
attention has been drawn, such as Pharaoh's illness,
consultation of soothsayers etc., are indeed to be.. found.
How great Pseudo-Eupolemos' knowledge of the Bible
may have been would be difficult to say, but this very
confusion proves absolutely the close relation, nay, the very
dependence of Pseudo-Eupolemos on the Asatir. For if
it be a confusion it is already in the Asatir which also
contains no mention of Abimelech, and tells the tale as
happening to Pharaoh only. The author has gone very far in
his Midrashic licence, and here as in other passages, he
does not hesitate to deviate from the record of the Bible
His was a book of legends, and has to be judged as such
and as such it served also as a source to Pseudo-Eupolemos
and other Hellenistic writers who did not hesitate to make
use of it as far as it suited their purposes, for the book
must have been invested with some authority.

There is one notable feature in the Asatir version, and
that is that mention is specifically made of a magician
(VI, i8ff.), who has studied in the Book of Signs, i. e.
the heavenly signs, and who is the man who tells Pharaoh
of the importance of Abraham. He explains furthermore
the reason for the falling down of the idols at the moment
when Abraham enters Egypt: both these incidents are
omitted by Pseudo-Eupolemos. What he says about
Abraham's teaching the priests of Egypt astrology, must
be understood in the same manner as the teaching which
he gives to the Phoenicians, where Eupolemos also uses
the word 'astrology,' but explains it immediately after by
his saying "the science of the revolutions of the sun and
moon." In Josephus, Ant. I, 8, we find the same elements,
and although they are worked up and amplified to a great
extent, one can easily recognise that he must have drawn
his information from the same source as Pseudo-Eupol-
emos and the Asatir. He also makes it perfectly clear



35

that Abraham did not teach astrology in the later sense
of the word, but he says deliberately that Abraham taught
them arithmetic and astronomy and adds that the latter
was of Chaldaean origin and that Abraham brought it to
Egypt. A characteristic of Josephus and a proof of his
later date is that he regularly omits definite details, such
as the reference to the magician, to his name, and other
similar details. Josephus prefers as a rule a general
statement in the rhetorical style of the time.

The stress which is laid in Pseudo-Eupolemos on Abrah-
am as the man who teaches the revolutions of sun, moon,
and stars, can only be best understood in the light of Samar-
itan tradition and by the importance which the Samar-
itans attach to the determination of the Calendar. To-
wards the end of that fragment of Pseudo-Eupolemos Enoch
is mentioned as the one who had been the first to discover
the science of astrology, which is entirely in keeping with
Samaritan tradition. According to the Asatir Adam pos-
sesses even a higher knowledge, for by certain signs in
Heaven he learns the death of Hebel (I, 22, 23) and he
also foretells the Flood. Artapanos also in the fragment
preserved, states definitely that Abraham was the first
to practise and teach the sciences of astronomy or astro-
logy and this statement has afterwards been taken up
by many subsequent writers (cf. Fabricius, p. 35off.).
No trace, however, which could justify such a claim seems
to be found either in the Bible or in the Rabbinic litera-
ture. The reference in Gen. VX, 5, where God asks Abra-
ham whether he could count the stars, only shows that
Abraham is not able to number the stars.

This question, however, assumes greater importance
if seen from the point of view of religious practice. To
the fixing of the Calendar, the determination of the New
Moons, and in consequence of the fasts and feasts, great
prominence has been given in the religious life of the
Jews, so intimately bound up with the days and months.

3*



36

This point is one of the principal sources of controversy
and strife between Jews and Samaritans. The proclam-
ation of the New Moon was considered by the Jews
as a special privilege of the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem,
and the method of intercalation was claimed as a great
secret.* The Samaritans, in contradistinction to the Jews,
did not base the proclamation of the New Moon only on
the sight of the reappearence of the sickle of the New
Moon, but they declared the calculation of the Calendar to
be a divine revelation made to Adam. Gen. I, 14, where the
luminaries are set in the heavens to be "for signs, and
for seasons, and for days and years," has been taken by
the Samaritans to prove that from the very beginning the
sun and moon had been appointed as means by which to
calculate the Signs of heaven and the seasons of the
festivals (the Hebrew word is "Moadim" which means
"Festivals") and that this knowledge had been imparted
to Adam. He was king, and high priest, and with him
the science of astronomy or astrology, which were both
identical in olden times, really began. He alone pos-
sessed the knowledge of that mystery. We find thus in
the Asatir, that Adam is the possessor of the Book of
Signs. Enoch learns from the Book of Signs given to
Adam (II, 7), Adam reads it to his children (II, 12),
Afridan learns from the Book of Signs of Adam (II, 36),
Noah learns the Book of Signs, obtains possession of the
Book of Signs (III, 9) and gives it to Arpachshad (IV,
15). All these get the knowledge of the revolutions of
sun and moon, i. e., the true astronomy applied in the
first place to the regulation of the Calendar. From Ar-
pachshad that knowledge is handed down to Abraham,
as the safe keeper of that mystery, to Joseph and to Moses.
Thus we have here the real source of the legend that

<.

* The first act of Jeroboam, when separating the North from

the South, was to introduce a new calculation of the Calendar
(I Kings XII, 33)-



37

Abraham teaches astronomy to the Phoenicians and to
the Egyptians. In the Book of Jubilees it is Noah to
whom the secret of the Calendar is revealed (ibid. IV, 1 7), for
with him the new order of the world begins, and Enoch
is also mixed up later on with the knowledge of astronomy
and astrology, the legend of his translation to Heaven
being more fully developed.

It is significant that in the Asatir not a word is found
of the late astronomical system of the Samaritans, which
rests on the assumed calculation made by Pinehas, son
of Eliezer the high priest, which he made soon after
the conquest of Palestine, taking as the basis the meridian
of Mount Garizim. So it is already found in the Samaritan
Book of Joshua, further in the Tolida of the eleventh
century (if not earlier), and it is repeated in every sub-
sequent work of the Samaritans, where they engage in pol-
emics with the Jews on this question of the origin of the
Calendar and the method of its calculation and regulation.

Returning now to the story of Abraham in Egypt, we
find in the Samaritan commentary by Meshalma not only
the same story of Abraham journeying to Egypt, as told
in the Asatir, but also the name of the magician and
one important detail which approximates his version to
that of Pseudo-Eupolemos. He states that the magician
had learned from the Book of Signs, which was the work
of Enoch. Meshalma must thus have had access to other
material, which he used extensively in his Commentary.
According to the Asatir, Nimrod also knew of the
Book of Signs, and thus far the Asatir indicates that the
Book of Signs was in the possession of the Chaldaeans
or Babylonians no less than in that of Abraham. This
is also stated explicitly in the Malif. This again tallies
absolutely with the final portion of the abstract of
Pseudo-Eupolemos, where he says that both Abraham and
the Chaldaeans trace the knowledge of astronomy back to
Enoch.



38

But there is still one more point in this last portion to
which attention has already been drawn before which
deserves special consideration. Two men of the name of
Belus are mentioned, a first and a second Belus. Some con-
fusion has arisen in the genealogy of these Belus and their
descendants, which Freudenthal* attempted to clear up,
but not successfully. This confusion is due to the similarity
of the writing of the names Ham, Hun and Hush.
I have substituted Hus for the corrupted Hun and then
no difficulty remains : this genealogy is then identical with
that given in Genesis X, 6. Chronos, of course, stands for
Noah, the first Belus is identical with Ham and then
follows Kush, the father of Nimrod, with whom the second
Belus is no doubt thought to be identical. But this mention
of two Belus has a reason of its own. There is a chrono-
logical discrepancy of hundreds of years, or close upon
a thousand years, between that Nimrod who is the son
of Kush and the other Nimrod with whom Abraham
is described as a contemporary. This anachronism is
partly obviated by the Samaritans, who mention a second
Nimrod as contemporary with Nahor the father of
Terah, just as the first Nimrod is contemporary with
the third generation from Shem: Shem, Arpachshad,
Ashur. This number "three" is probably the reason why
in Pseudo-Eupolemos two readings are found, where
Abraham is first described as being of the tenth generation
from the Flood and then of the thirteenth. Here the
thirteenth (13) is a corruption from the third (3), but the
Samaritans felt the discrepancy and thus there appear in
the Asatir two Nimrods. The Samaritans endeavoured to
explain the number of years which had elapsed between
the one and the other by inventing a second Nimrod.
Hence the two Belus in Pseudo-Eupolemos. That
Belus was meant for Nimrod has already been shown

* Hellenist. Stud. p. 93 ff. p. 95 ff.



39

above. In another fragment given by Eusebius (fol.
457) we f m< i Abraham also brought somehow into
connection with Belus, the builder of the Tower in Babylon.
The fragment, however, is too brief for any definite
conclusion to be drawn therefrom, except as a further
proof that similar legends of an anachronistic type were
circulating at an early period, anterior, no doubt, to
the period of the Sibyl.

The close coincidences between the Asatir and Pseudo-
Eupolemos cannot be the result of mere chance ; one must
depend on the other, and as the Asatir is free from any
synchretistic or Hellenistic tendencies, and as it follows
closely the narrative of the Bible, which it attempts to
enlarge and to explain, there can be no question as to which
is the older and which belongs to the later period. The Asatir
unquestionably represents the older source of this trad-
ition, but it is of course, impossible to determine how far
back that tradition can be traced in any literary mon-
ument of any kind. The Asatir must thus be a product of
an exegetical Midrashic interpretation carried on for some
time among the Samaritan inhabitants of Northern Pales-
tine. Nor can there be any doubt that the Samaritans
who wrote in Greek lived in Palestine and that they started
their activity at a very early date. The Jewish Hellenistic
literature did not start, as I have endeavoured to show more
fully in my Schweich Lectures on the Samaritans, p. 13 1 ff.,
in Alexandria or Egypt in general, but without doubt in
Palestine. In the Asatir we find corroboration for this
opinion inasmuch as those legends which really originated
in Egypt, such as those of Artapanos, and possibly also of
Eupolemos, are not found in the Asatir, whereas on the
contrary, parallels to the Asatir and other apocryphal
writings can be found almost exclusively in the writings
of Palestinian origin.

A brief reference to Artapanos must now suffice.
He is an Egyptian writer but his date is entirely



40

uncertain. * The whole style and the full development of the
story of Moses, which becomes a complicated romance,
on the contrary seem to indicate that he must have be-
longed to a somewhat laterperiod, contemporary with Eupo-
lemos, i. e., at the beginning of the third century. Artap-
anos was unquestionably a Jew living in Egypt, and he wrote
the history of the Jews with a definite purpose. He wanted
to show to the Egyptians that they owed their science,
their political organisation, nay, their very freedom to the
activity of Abraham, who taught them "astrology," to
Joseph, who divided the land and introduced fair economic
conditions, and above all to Moses, of whom he writes a
complete romance. The difference between Artapanos and
the Asatir is absolute. Moses, in fact, in Artapanos'
writings becomes almost the founder of Egyptian religion,
and the rod in his hand is the rod of Osiris. He is the
teacher of Orpheus, he teaches the art of ship-building,
and many other practical sciences. Not a trace, however,
is to be found of the story of the birth of Moses, and every-
thing that preceded and followed immediately, nor any-
thing resembling the full history as told by Josephus, of
Moses' behaviour when hugged by Pharaoh, whose
crown he tramples, and only a faint allusion to the war
against the Ethiopians, without ever mentioning the strat-
agem of Moses, and his subsequent marriage to Tharbis,
the daughter of the King of Ethiopia.**

In the same place where Alexander Polyhistor gives the
first excerpts of Artapanos in connection with Abraham,
he joins to it another excerpt from an "uncertain author,"

* I do not know on what ground Eisler, Orpheus p. 6, n. 6 states
that Artapanos must have lived about 332 B. C. E. This, of course,
if proved, would make all the parallels much older than has hitherto
been assumed.

** Freudenthal, Hell. Stud., p. 143 to 174, and texts 231 ff. V.
also Susemihl, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur in der Alexan-
drinerzeit. Leipzig 1891/92 vol. II p. 362, 606 and s. v. Artapan in
Pauly-Wissowa, Encycl. d. klass. Alt.



41

marking it off clearly from the former. Freudenthal in
reproducing the text (p. 225) has therefore rightly elimin-
ated it from the excerpts of Artapanos. The fragment
runs as follows (Eusebios IX. 18. 2. 420):

"We find in writings of uncertain authorship that
Abraham went against the Giants. That they inhabited
Babylonia but were annihilated by the gods on account
of their impiety. That one of them, named Belos es-
caped death and remained settled in Babylonia and
that erecting a tower he fixed his seat in it, and that this
was called Belos after its builder Belos. Moreover that
Abraham, learned in the science of astrology, went first
to Phoinicia and taught the Phoinicians astrology and
afterwards migrated into Egypt."

It is clear that this passage could not belong to Artapanos
and that it is another variant of the story of Abraham's
fight with the giants, of Bel and his Tower in a rather con-
fused way, and of Abraham's teaching the Phoenicians
the science of astronomy. It runs parallel with Pseudo-
Eupolemos, and is a faint reflection of the fuller story
told in the Asatir.

The question may now be asked whether the author
of the Asatir borrowed his legend from the Hellenistic
writings or whether on the other hand the author of the
Sibylline Oracles could use books like the Asatir written
in the Aramaic dialect? The answer to these questions,
however remote the contingency may be, is very simple.
The Sibylline, as well as all the Hellenistic writers, if
they did not know Aramaic, may have had access to
Greek translations made already in Palestine. Neither
the Jewish nor the Samaritan writings in Greek were
restricted to Palestine, but circulated far and wide,
and in the same manner as the Samaritan translation
of the Pentateuch reached Egypt, so also would the
legendary matter which had grown up round the texts
from a very early period have reached the same place.



42

The Sibyl would theefore use the legendary matter in such
a manner as was consistent with its character and purpose,
whilst it would have been impossible for the author of
the Asatir to have used the legends in the form which
they took in the Sibylline Oracles, in Pseudo-Eupolemos, and
other Hellenistic writings. Otherwise, it would be inexplic-
able why the romance of Artapanos should not have
been taken up by the Samaritans. The close connection of
the Asatir with the Sibylline Oracles will become still
more evident after further examination, of the other
Sibylline Oracles and primarily that of the Sibyl of Tibur.

THE SIBYL OF TIBUR AND OTHER ORACLES.

The last portion of the Asatir finishes in a peculiar
manner. It consists of two parts. The first, Chapter XI,
v. 20 v. 42, which I call the Prophecy, contains strong in-
vectives against the Jews; Eli, David, Solomon, Ezra
among others are clearly indicated, Samuel and Saul doubt-
fully and each of them is strongly condemned. The truth
of the Samaritan claims will at the end be fully vindicated
against the Jews, who will be converted to the Samaritan
faith and accept as true the Samaritan Book of Laws, where-
upon general happiness will ensue, but not without a period
of tribulation intervening. After this follows Ch. XII
which I call the Oracle : a list of anonymous rulers succeed-
ing one another. This list finishes with the last prince who
will "come with the rod of miracles in his hand" (ibid. v. 24),
meaning thereby the Taheb, with whom the period of
happiness will begin. It is quite sufficient for our pur-
pose to have before us only the frame in which the pro-
phecy and oracle are set. The form of the distich which
prevails in the latter is specifically characteristic of ancient
oracles as well as is its deliberate obscurity and ambiguity.

This brings the Asatir into line with other apocryphal
and pseudepigraphic writings which also end with



43

prophetic utterances. It is a common feature of this literature
which gives to it its peculiar character and importance.
The great figures of the past are made to utter prophetic
statements intended to lift the veil from future events. The
"Assumption of Moses" claims to be such a prophecy;
in other works such as "Biblical Antiquities" of Philo and
similar writings, this final prophecy also occupies a pro-
minent position ; and to a large extent is the one of the
reasons for the book's having been written (see anon)
Great events of a political character, profound upheaval,
stir the imagination and strike terror into the hearts of
their contemporaries and the people are anxious to solve
the riddle of the times and to obtain some consolation or
some warning. How rich that literature has grown can
be gathered from the fact that almost at every turn in the
history of the world such oracles come to light and are
widely circulated. The downfall of the Persian Empire,
the conquest of the East by the Romans, the irruption of
the Arabs who swept over the whole of western Asia and
spread as far as the north of Spain, the earlier invasion of
Europe by the Huns, the devastations by the Mongols
and last but not least, the conquering march of the Turks
up to the walls of Vienna, are each and all reflected in the
numerous oracles which have seen the light of day. Merlin's
more ancient prophecies may also be mentioned in this con-
text. But the messages from the past have also a polemical
character and principally so. Into the mouth of the great
prophets or of the Sibyls is put the condemnation of oppon-
ents and these denunciations often assume a minatory char-
acter. Evildoers are threatened with divine punishment,
and reward is promised to the pious. The hope is granted
to those who persevere that a time of happiness and peace
is in store for them. This applies a priori to the largest
part of the Sibylline Oracles, for this voluminous propa-
ganda literature is filled with denunciations of the sinners,
evildoers, idolaters, and wicked emperors. They are



44

threatened and their doom is proclaimed over and over again,
and against them is set, especially in the Jewish Oracles,
the sublime faith of the Jews and the ultimate salvation
of mankind. A reign of happiness and peace is promised
at the end, when the Divine punishment has overtaken
the wicked. The Sibylline Oracles thus run parallel with
this apocalyptic literature.

There is now one peculiar characteristic which one must
bear in mind; subsequent oracles are not always new: most
of them are simply the older oracles modified, altered and
re-cast to suit changed circumstances. Prophecies which
events have belied are deferred to a later time, when they
are sure to be fulfilled ; incidents alluded to are accordingly
altered. In the place of old names, new are substituted.
But such names are very rarely given. The general rule
is that no names are mentioned. At one period (Sackur,
Sibyll. Texte, p. 181) the name is referred to by the
numerical value of the initials only, leaving the reader to
apply it as best he can. Thus the oracle retains its outer
form, while the substance is often greatly enlarged by the
mixture of two or three oracles, all combined in one form.
In this way one can easily trace the successive development
in the literature of oracles. The simplest is the oldest and
the most complicated the most recent. Most of them
retain traces of their ancient polemical origin.

Two streams can thus be detected. Both by the way stand
in close connection with the Book of Daniel. In one the
symbolical element is predominant: the other is of a more
direct and simple character, and free from symbolism.
This is probably anterior to the development of the apoc-
alyptic type. To the simple type belong, in the first place,
the Sibylline Oracles and all the stages of its development
are fully represented by the fourteen Books of the Sibylline
Oracles, covering a period of at least 500 years. They are
of a minatory and polemical character. The God-fearing
Sibyl denounces heathen idolatry and wickedness, threatens



45

divine vengeance and concludes, as a rule, with a
hopeful outlook for the future. The Christian writers who
worked up the old oracles remodelled them to suit their
own purposes. They are no less minatory in their way, but
at the same time, they also foretell the future. In the
Assumption of Moses, the author deals with local prob-
lems, and the minatory character is fully retained, but above
all it has assumed a distinctly polemical character. Differ-
ent, as can be seen at a glance, are the prophecies in the
Book of Enoch with their peculiar symbolism, and still more
closely following Daniel are the visions in the Fourth Book
of Ezra, the Apocalypse of Baruch (X) and the Revelation
of St. John. The fusion between these two types will be
discussed a little later on.

We now find in the Sibylline Oracles, which are next
in order of comparison, in Book VIII in the introd-
uction (1. 4ff.) another reference to the Tower of Babel,
the Flood etc., the Kingdom of Egypt, then a description
of various emperors of Rome succeeding one another,
interrupted however by strong denunciations and long
complaints of the wickedness of Rome and of its impend-
ing doom. But more important is Book XII (XIV).
Here the chief portion of the oracle is filled up with a
list of emperors, probably of Rome, who succeed one
another. These are designated by the numerical value of
their initial letters, but their description is rather vague and
no scholar has yet succeeded in identifying precisely
the emperors that are meant. As far as the scheme is
concerned, it agrees entirely with the Oracle in the Asatir,
with a very significant difference, inasmuch as in the
Sibyl the rulers are indicated by the numerical value of
the initial letter of their names, whilst in the Asatir they
are still anonymous. We have in the Sibylline Oracles
a later development of a theme which seems to have its
oldest representative in the Samaritan text. This bears
out the principle laid down that oracles are remodelled,



4 6

amplified and adapted to altered conditions. The
reason for the absence of references in the Patristic
literature to Book XII (XIV) of the Sibylline Oracles
is no doubt the fact that this oracle contains nothing of
a religious character. It is purely secular in its contents
and outlook. As to the date, it is not of much consequence
to determine the precise period of the composition of
Book XII of the Sibylline Oracles in the form in which
we find it now, for it rests upon a much more ancient
oracle which in the same way as other Oracles has under-
gone some change in the course of time as shown. The
fact that one cannot identify precisely either the names
or the order of the emperors, shows that this adaptation
is of a later date, and made by a clumsy hand. In its
present form, it may belong to the second century, but
the original, however, is probably much older. It is,
very likely, the product of a Jew of Alexandria before
the Common Era, for he looks forward, just like the
Asatir, to a time when the Chosen People will live in
happiness with all the nations of the world (ibid.
w. 349 360). It may be sheer coincidence but it is no
less curious that the number of emperors mentioned in
Book XII is 26, precisely the same number which is
postulated in the colophon of the Oracle, Asatir Ch. XII.
In addition to that, we read in 1. 354: There will be at
that time an "equal light for the living" almost the same
phrase, in the same connection as Asatir XII, 25, "There
will be light and no darkness."

We turn now to the Asatir, Ch. XI. This prophecy is of
the simplest character. The verses owe their origin not to
any Daniel influence, but stand more under that of the
Song of Moses, and also of the Blessings of Moses (Deut. Chs.
XXXII and XXXIII). To the former profound eschatologi-
cal importance has been given by the Samaritans ; it con-
tains, according to their interpretations, the revelation of
the events to come here and hereafter in this world and in



47

the world to come and of the Day of Judgment. Thus the
prophecy in the Asatir has a distinctly historical back-
ground, quite in conformity with the character of the
book ; it is purely polemical, directed against the secession
which they connect with the name of Eli and concludes
with the change of the script which as they say, Ezra
carried out by substituting the later Hebrew, or rather
Aramaic square script for the ancient Hebrew alphabet
retained by the Samaritans. He is, moreover, charged
by them with having falsified the text by substituting new
readings for the old. One may add that the obscure
wording chosen by the author led to an anachronistic and
anti-Christian interpretation of Ch. XI. 29 found in the
Pitron and elsewhere. But the succeeding verses make
it impossible to apply the prophecy contained in v. 29
to any other period than that of Solomon and that in v. 36 to
that of Ezra. This will be shown more fully in the
notes to the text.

But much closer is the parallelism between the Oracle
in the Asatir and the oracle which is known as that
of the Sibyl of Tibur. * Sackur (Sibyll : Texte pp. 1 1 5 187)
who was the first to give us a critical text, traces it back
in its original form to the third or fourth century C. E.
Unfortunately no Greek text has yet been discov-
ered, but the Slavonic version and the Rumanian
which rests upon it, (published by me J. R. A. S. 1910,
and now reprinted in my "Studies and Texts" p. 21 iff.),
leaves no doubt as to the existence of such an old
Greek text, anterior probably to all the existing Latin
versions. Here the oracle has been thoroughly adapted
to Christian conditions and Christian views and. the story
of the Antichrist has been introduced as a fitting setting
for the End of Days. "In the Slavo-Rumanian version, .
this oracle assumes the character of a Biblical apocryphon,
inasmuch as the Sibyl is described as the daughter of King

* Kampers Werdegang p. 88 ff. and Rzach in Pauly-Kroll 1923
s. v. Sibyllinische Orakel col. 2170 ff.



4 8

David, and the whole first part differs considerably from
the other Sibylline Oracles. The Sibyl interprets a curious
dream of the Senators of Rome, who see one hundred
suns, but the Sibyl explains the meaning of only nine suns,
representing the constant deterioration of the world. The
figure "9," the tenth being considered Christ, is evidently
modelled after the type of the ten generations from
Creation to the Flood, or the ten generations from the
Flood to Abraham, or after the legend of the ten kings
who will rule over the whole world, God being the last
(see further). In another recension only seven suns
are mentioned, and here probably we have the more
primitive form of the seven nations that have been de-
stroyed (Asatir Ch. VI, v. 9) and the seven kingdoms sub-
stituted for them in the Sibylline Oracles Book III v. i67ff.
which has been treated previously. There is no astrological
meaning to be attached, as Kampers assumes. In between,
there appears a strong invective against the Jews, whose con-
version is forcibly urged and who are to be convinced
of the error of their ways when the claim of Christianity
will be vindicated. This episode seems to drop out after-
wards and after the ninth ruler a list is given of the kings
who succeed one another until the time of Antichrist,
when the final triumph of Christianity will occur. This
prophecy has exercised a profound influence upon the
writers and chroniclers of the Middle Ages, and has to
a large extent also influenced the revelations of the so-
called Methodius of Patara (Patmos, Olympus). It has
even been fully reproduced by an old English chronicler
towards the end of the twelfth century, borrowed after-
wards by Matthew of Paris in his Chronica Maiora and
introduced by Archbishop Parker into the second edition
of the "Flores Historiarum" (1570) which he believed to
be the work of Matthew of Westminster * In the Sibyl of

* H. R. Luard. Flores Historiarum London 1890 vol. I, XL Band
H. R. Luard. Matthaei Parisiensis Chronica Maiora, London 1872



49

Tibur, as in the Asatir, the kings are described very
briefly, with the only difference that here also as in the
Sibyl of Book XII the kings are indicated by the initials
of their names, a fact not noticed by Sackur, who has not
carried the comparison as far back as the Greek Sibylline
Oracles.

The Oriental origin of the Sibyl of Tibur, in spite of its
name, may be assumed by the fact that it is the only
Sibylline Oracle of which we possess translations into
Arabic and Aethiopic. * In these as well as in the Oriental
versions the kings referred to are the Arabic Khalifs.

In these recensions and in the Rumanian, the second
part, the Oracle of the Asatir is missing, but a portion of
the material has been embodied in the interpretation of the
nine dreams or nine suns. Yet it can be proved that such
a list of succeeding kings must have belonged to the pri-
mitive form of this Sibylline Oracle which, in its oldest
version must go back in all probability to a Syriac text,
resting upon a still older tradition, Greek, Samaritan
(Aramaic) etc. It is found, though transformed, in the
adaptation to the Italian and Prankish kings, and before
that, in the old Latin version and in the Byzantine lite-
rature, of which the most famous is the oracle ascribed
to the Emperor Leo.**

The existence of such an ancient oracle can best be
proved if we turn to the Hebrew literature where we find
that the oracle in which the future is described by a

p. 42 ff. An English translation of Matthew of Westminster has been
done by C. D. Yonge London 1853. Sibyl of Tibur in vol I. p. 69 ff.
* Ed. Schleifer, Die Erzahlung der Sibylle, Denkschriften der
Kaiserl. Akademie d. Wissenschaften, Philos. Hist. Kl. Band LIII,
Abhdlg. I Wien 1906.

** For the Western literature see Gfrorer and for the Byzantine
the exhaustive literature in K. Krumbacher, Gesch. d. Byzant. Lite-
ratur. 2nd ed. Miinchen 1897, p.628f. Vassiliev, Anecdota Greco-
Byzantina, Vol. I. p. 33 38. Moscow 1 893, cf. preface pp. XII XXV,
containing the text of Methodius greatly enlarged and mixed up with
the Daniel Apocalypse.

Asatir. 4.



succession of kings has its oldest representatives in the
Visions of Daniel. Here chiefly in Ch. XI a succession of kings
is mentioned, and at the same time many details are given
of an historical character which may fit a time from Alexan-
der's conquest of Asia downwards. At the same time we
find in Ch. VII and VIII a series of visions purporting to
describe future events. But here the kings, or the empires
are described in the similitude of beasts, armed with
horns of a peculiar character, and thus these chapters
are full of fantastic and allegorical imagery. Of special
interest for our purpose is the first class of anonymous
kings succeeding one another. The second lies entirely
outside our sphere of investigation, although it has had
a very great influence upon subsequent writers, especially
in the Similitudes of the Book of Enoch, the Vision of
Ezra IV, and later, as will be seen, in other product-
ions. The list of kings of Daniel Ch. XI, however, is
the one that approximates more closely with the Sama-
ritan Oracle. It would be perhaps an idle question,
as far at any rate as our present knowledge goes, to
enquire after the source from which Daniel drew this kind
of prophetic utterance. In its present form it seems to
have already undergone a certain elaboration and develop-
ment. The primitive form would have been, in all pro-
bability,, very brief, and not so pointed, for it is the very
essence of this kind of prophetic anticipation of the future
not to be too definite, but to leave room to the imagin-
ation, and for the re-adjustment of interpretation according
to circumstances. There is, besides, also some connection
between the Oracle in the Asatir, the Sibyl, and the last
chapters of Daniel, inasmuch as they all finish with the same
phrase of a happy and peaceful time to come, nay, they
use practically the same words ; and yet with a notable
difference. In Daniel we find the hope of resurrection
which is missing in the Samaritan Asatir. But leaving aside
this point, to which attention will be drawn presently, it is



sufficient to have pointed out this parallelism, and how
this prophecy may have become the starting-point of
a long list of similar oracles not without importance for
the history of that literature. In the chequered career
of Jewish mystical and apocalyptic literature, it is difficult
to follow the slowly developing prophecies of the future
through the ages. An intermediate stage is occupied by
the Palestinian Targum, to which a separate chapter is
devoted in this introduction. There as in the Asatir, such
a prophecy is placed in the mouth of Moses towards
the end of his life. Similar utterances referring more
especially to the woes at the end of time are mentioned in
the name of some of the sages of the first century. All this
will be elaborated later on.

To this class of similitudes and allegories belongs also the
Armenian version of the Daniel Apocalypse called the
Seventh Vision of Daniel.* This rests upon a Greek original
dating in its present form from the middle of the seventh
century, and it deals with the history of the Byzantine Em-
perors from Constantine to Heraclius. It is a very elaborate
counterpart of the Western recension of the Tiburtine. The
kings are described allegorically and by name, showing
that the old material had been utilised and adapted to the
conditions of the Byzantine Empire. Here we have a
complete mixture of the ancient Sibylline Oracles, the
Daniel Apocalypse, and the Antichrist Legend.

Of a similar character but from a critical point of view
of far greater importance is the Jewish- Persian Daniel
Apocalypse.** The date of that composition is difficult
to determine. Daniel is anxious about the future and
God tells him that a number of kings will arise who in
turn will do good or evil to the Jews, and that in the

* Kalemkiar in Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgen-
landes, Vol. VI, 1892, pp. 109 136 and 227 240. Armenian and
German Text.

** Ed. H. Zotenberg in Merx Archiv fur Wissenschaftliche Er-
forschung des Alten Testaments, Vol. I, Halle 1869, p. 385 ff.

4*



52

end a false Messiah will appear, and a Jewish parallel to
the Christian Antichrist and the Day of Judgment is
briefly given. Mohammed and his successors, the Khal-
ifa, are clearly indicated in that list of kings, which,
however, is not carried down to the destruction of the
Abbasid Dynasty. Among the signs which the Jews will
ask the false Messiah to produce in order to justify his
claim is also the Rod of Miracles of Moses, a point
which deserves to be noted, for as Zotenberg remarks, the
Apocalypse, though dealing with the events of a later period
rests in all probability upon a more ancient recension;
and what is still more important is his statement that the
Persian is in all probability a translation from an Aramaic
text, thus bringing it within the sphere of our investi-
gations. It assists in proving an Oriental origin for the
Sibyl of Tibur.

This view is further strengthened by a similar apoca-
lypse, the hero of which is Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai : *
he, like Daniel, is anxious to know the events of the future
and he also is shown a list of Mohammedan kings. This
belongs to the same period as the supposed Aramaic
version, and is likewise a later adaptation to actual con-
ditions of a much older text. It goes by the name of
Nistarot, i. e. "the Secrets," a word which resembles very
closely the Samaritan title of the present work, as men-
tioned before, p. 5. This title has thus been preserved in its
primitive meaning of "secrets revealed." In this connect-
ion may also be mentioned the mystical oracle, which,
like the Asatir, consists of a number of distichs and is
written in very obscure Aramaic. It is known as the pro-
phecy of the young child, Nah.man Ketufa. (Ed. Pr. Amster-
dam 1788 and ed. Satanov, Berlin 1793.) The problem of
the date of this composition has also remained unsolved,
but it suffices to mention that this oracle was already known

* Ed. Pr. Saloniki 1743, rptd. by Jellinek Beth Hamidrash III,
7882.



53

to Abraham, son of Maimonides (thirteenth century). The
only difference between the latter and other oracles con-
sists in the absence of any kings being mentioned; only
a sequence of events is described. I may also mention a
similar Hebrew-Arabic prophecy, referring to the time
of the Abbasid Khalifs and finishing with the Advent of
the Messiah, a fragment only of which has been preserved
in my collection of the Genizah documents, now in the
British Museum. All these show the continued existence
during many centuries of such apocalyptic oracles in the
East and among the Jews, no less than among the
Christians.

One of these must have been the origin of the oracle
which was afterwards known in its western recension
under the name of the Sibyl of Tibur. It seems in fact
that we have in the latter one of the oldest oracles, inas-
much as with the exception of the initial letter indicating
the name of the king, which this Sibyl has in common with
the oracle of Book XII (XIV), the rest is very brief,
no allegories are introduced and the influence of the
Daniel literature has not yet affected this Sibyl of Tibur.
If we compare it with theAsatir, the parallelism will in some
instances appear very striking. The way in which certain
kings are described agrees very closely, but we must
remember at the same time that the Samaritan text may
have suffered in its long transmission through the obscurity
of its language and the vague allusions contained therein.

One has to take into consideration the changes to which
all these texts have been subjected in the course of
time, and one must also remember that the obscurity of
the Samaritan may have caused some words or portions
of the text to have been omitted, while some of the verses
have also been hopelessly corrupted. Yet in spite of these
difficulties, there are too many details which the Sibyl of
Tibur and the Asatir have in common to be the result of
mere coincidence. It is curious that in the Sibyl only a



54

few kings are mentioned with the number of years of their
reign, and the same peculiarity appears also in the Asatir.
In the former about five are mentioned out of close upon
forty, and in the latter two out of twenty-five.

The corresponding passages are now given in parallel
columns, always bearing in mind that the Sibyl has been
adapted to Italian and Lombardian conditions and that
the simple, vague indication as found in the Asatir has in
consequence been amplified and more clearly defined
in the Sibyl. We find thus:

PARALLELS.
ASATIR, Ch. 12. SIBYL OF TIBUR.*

v. 4. A prince will arise After him shall arise a ...
strong in truth ; in his king. He shall be very great
days the salvation of and very pious . . . and . . .
the community will shall execute judgment and
be great. dojusticetothepoor(Sackur.

Sibyll. Texte p. 182).

v. 6. A prince, etc. ... in After them shall arise, etc.

his days the house of ... He shall build a temple

worship (?) shall be to the Lord (Sackur. ibid,

built. p. 181).

v. 8. A prince, etc. ... In those days shall arise,
mighty in the know- etc. ... he shall be very
ledge of truth: the mighty . . . and good: he
people will rejoice, shall do justice to the poor

and shall judge rightly.

(Sackur ibid. p. 182).

* It is a remarkable fact that in two or three places the version
found in the Matthew of Paris recension seems to contain some
ancient details missing in the Sibyl of Tibur, Sackur's text; e. g.
"barbarians" (Luard, Matthew of Paris p. 46) which is missing
in Sackur.



55

v. lo. A prince, etc. . . . Then shall arise two kings
rulers will perish in ... they shall be masters of
his days in secret; cities and provinces . . . All
a hundred will flee to the people of the East . . .
the borders of Sichem. shall be scattered (Sackur

ibid. p. 181).

v. II. A prince, etc. . . . The sin and punishment
Gog will perish in indicated in this verse are
grief; in his days the very fully elaborated and
people will turn back worked out in the Sibyl
to sin and they will under the Salic king, "a
forsake the covenant, brave man and warrior and

many of his neighbours . . .
will be indignant with him."
(Sackur ibid. p. 183).

Still more striking is the last paragraph in the Sibyl
in which the prophecies concerning a number of kings at
the end of the list have all been combined in the name of
the last, Constans (Sackur ibid. p. 1 8 5) (or rather, a play upon
the word meaning probably "steadfast") this suggestion
is fully corroborated by the reading in Beda: Nomine
Hanimo Constante (Migne P.L. XC, 1 183) and which has
undergone a thorough transformation at the hands of the
Christian scribe. The last king, Constans, is expected
to live 1 20 years; all the virtues and all the achievments
of the last princes in the Samaritan text have been combined
together in one; in both cases the final triumph of the
faith is proclaimed, and the man to bring about that
happy event is described in the Samaritan as holding
the Rod of Miracles in his hand (Asatir XII, 24). He is
a descendant of the house of Levi (ibid. v. 22) and is
probably no one else than Moses Redivivus, who comes
back with the Divine Rod. This is the Rod which, ac-
cording to the Persian Apocalypse of Daniel, the Jews
will ask the false Messiah to produce as proof of his



56

Messianic mission. This also is probably the rod or the
wood in the Sibylline Oracles Book VIII, 245 ff., which has
been misinterpreted as the Cross. In the Sibyl the Greek
Emperor holds the Cross. Again, in both cases the temple
of idols will be destroyed, and more significant still, both
quote at the end the same verse of the Bible, "Judah will
be saved and Israel will dwell securely," taken with a slight
variation from the prophecies of Bileam (Numb. XXIV)
to which Messianic importance has been attached, as
will be shown later on. This striking coincidence shows
that there must have existed a very ancient oracle
in Aramaic similar to that preserved in the Asatir, which
served as basis for the text, upon which the Tiburtine
Sibyl ultimately rests.

The Samaritan oracle finishes with the following words,
"Happy is he who will see it and reach that time," (ibid.
v. 25), which again is absolutely identical with the words
in the Sibylline Oracle Books III, 371, and a little more
concisely in IV, 192, "Most blessed shall he be who will
live to see that time," thus referring to the happy consum-
mation at the End of Days. It agrees with and yet differs
from the last verse with which the book of Daniel finishes
(v. 1 2) which runs as follows : ' 'Blessed is he that waiteth and
cometh to the one thousand three hundred and thirty five
days." It is, therefore, a very significant variant from
what must have been once a pious exclamation found,
probably, in the oldest form, and is also common to
Daniel, the Asatir, and the Sibylline Oracles. This at any
rate, is one more proof of the close connection between
that literature and the Asatir.

The similarity between the Asatir and the Sibyl of
Tibur grows still clearer if we compare these two texts
in their formal aspect. In both we have, to all appear-
ance, two sets of revelations; the one dealing with historical
events which, more or less, can be clearly understood, and
then there follows a list of kings which seems to be



57

suspended in the air. The relation in which these two
revelations stand to one another is just as obscure as the
language itself. Is the second revelation intended to
supplement the former, or is it to cover to some extent the
same period as contained in the former? Is it a mere
repetition under a different form, or is it to be an entirely
independent revelation? It seems as if it were running
parallel to the former, and yet quite independent of it; in
fact, we have two sets of independent revelations. But
whilst in the former the starting-point is quite clear, in the
second there is nothing to indicate from which period that
list of kings starts, and again, on the other hand, both lead
up to the same consummation and happy time following
after tribulation. This is very marked in the Asatir. In the
Sibyl, the connection is also very loose between the two
parts, and although the list of kings is less shadowy, still
the same question remains as to the relation between the
two parts, all the more so as this whole section is otherwise
missing in the Oriental and Slavonic text. This is not a
proof for it being less old, for it is an integral part of
other oracles. But it evidently has been omitted in those
versions where they found its interpretation and applic-
ation very difficult. The coincidence, however, between the
Asatir and the Sibyl of Tibur remains a matter of no
little significance.

In view of the difficulty which is thus created by the
relation between the Prophecy and the Oracle, the question
may be asked whether the latter indeed formed a part of the
original composition, or whether it has been appended at a
later time. It is true that it is apparently missing at the
end of the Arabic paraphrase of the Asatir; but a careful
examination of the last portion reveals the fact that the
Arabic paraphrast knew it very well, but not understanding
the text, satisfied himself with quoting the first and last
sentences. It will be seen that on many occasions the
paraphrast was not equal to his task, inasmuch as he left



58

also many difficult and obscure words of the Asatir un-
translated. None would offer more difficulties to the
paraphrast than an oracle replete with archaic or corrupt
words. Yet the oldest Samaritan writers, such as Abul
Hassan in his Tabah (eleventh century) and Tabyat
el Doweik (middle of fourteenth century) show full
acquaintance with the oracle. The very nature of its
form and contents would be different if the oracle
really were of a later origin. The similarity with Daniel
and the Sibylline Oracles, and above all that with the Sibyl
of Tibur, prove the reverse. Both prophecy and oracle
conform, moreover, to ancient traditions. Both differ
considerably from the rest of the book. The one, (the
prophecy), consists of short sentences, sometimes only of
three words, or of two hemistichs, although they are
written consecutively in the MS., as though they were
prose. They are entirely in the form of the ancient
pagan oracles, which consisted often of one verse, or
at the utmost, of a distich. The same occurs also in
some of the old Jewish prophecies, put in the mouth of the
high priest, or, as will be seen later, in the mouth of sages
of the first century, when foretelling the future. The form of
the oracle follows the same tradition which governs the
Sibylline Oracles. It is a poem consisting of a number of
stanzas, each of two lines and each beginning with the
words "A prince will arise."

In this respect there is therefore a remarkable difference
between the Oracle and the Asatir itself. The former is a
poem whilst the rest of the book is in prose. The beginn-
ings of Samaritan poetry are still obscure. Not a single
investigation as to the origin of the Samaritan liturgical
poetry and it is only liturgical, except Markafr has as
yet been undertaken. Neither F. H. Gesenius,* one of the
first to study the Samaritan liturgical poems, nor any of his

* in his Carmina Samaritana, Leipzig 1824.



59

successors, * nay, not even Cowley, the editor of the Sama-
ritan liturgy, have as much as uttered a single word on the
system of Samaritan poetry and on the poetry of the Jews
or the Syrians. The outward form may thus also be a crit-
erion for an old date. The poem consists, as mentioned,
of 25 stanzas, each beginning with the words "A ruler
(or prince) will arise," giving it a solemn cadence. Each
stanza consists of two lines, and each line of two hemistichs.
There is occasionally an inner rhyme, but it is not con-
sistent and may be due to accident rather than to design.
The poem was no doubt intended to be chanted, as I pre-
sume, at the end of the prophecy. Each hemistich seems
to consist of four beats. This seems to be the system
followed by Ephrem (or Bardesanes), and that system ap-
proaches more nearly the Samaritan. It need not be
further developed here. It is sufficient to have drawn
attention to it, but the Samaritans evidently follow the
much older examples found in the two Songs of Moses,
in Exod. Ch. XIV, and Deuteronomy Ch. XXXII, which are
divided into two hemistichs. The guiding principle is
the word-accent, according to Samaritan pronunciation.
A verse consists of one line. The text is not divided into
stanzas as in the Oracle, where the contents leads logically
to such a division into couplets. There is besides another
"prophecy" in the Bible: that of Bileam, (Numbers Chap-
ters XXIII and XXIV) And this is written in verse form
by the Samaritans in their ancient scrolls, and has evidently
exercised a deep influence both on the prophecy and the
oracle, no less in the form than in the contents. Thus there
are sufficient examples in the Pentateuch to explain the
metrical form of this oracle.

The real object of compiling this and similar oracles
containing lists of kings is not explained by the simple
enumeration of successive rulers. What was the ultimate

* Such as R. Kirchheim, Carme Shomron. Frankfurt a/M. 1851.



6o

aim of those who drew up such lists ? They were intended,
no doubt, to serve a definite purpose, and speaking
generally, they aimed at creating a feeling of hope in times
of stress and trouble. They were to give the scheme of the
Divine plan according to which the world is guided, and
the nations led in a preordained way to a final end,
when they will be free from further tribulation. This
Messianic outlook, depicted by each sect in its own way,
was afterwards mixed up with eschatalogical ideas. The
end of the world was not to come without such troubles,
caused, to a large extent, by a powerful enemy, but it was
also afterwards connected with the Final Judgment and
the Resurrection of the Dead. The figure of the Anti-
christ was later on introduced into these last events, but
neither in the Asatir nor in the Tiburtine, do we find
anything of those eschatalogical views about the Dooms-
day and Resurrection. Similarly in the older Sibylline
Oracles, the Messianic period is described as a time
reached after a period of woe and tribulation and ending
without any reference to Resurrection or Day of Judgment.
No definite period is contemplated, apparently, in these
Hellenistic oracles. We find one, however, indicated at the
end of the Samaritan oracle, which is of extreme signific-
ance. It says (ibid v. 26) "twenty-six this way and twenty-
six that way." Here a definite period is anticipated for
the advent of those happy days, and of the man who will
bring about those happy times. "Twenty-six this way"
probably means that so many generations have passed since
the Creation to Moses. He is the one for whose sake the
world has been created, and with his appearance the first
period in the history of the world has been completed. An-
other "Twenty-six," a similar number of generations, here
represented by kings, must follow, in order to complete
again the second cycle, for at the end of it, Moses is again
to appear. Just as he completed the Divine plan at the
time of his birth, so will he again complete it at the time



6i

of his reappearance, and thus finally achieve the redemp-
tion of the world from trials and troubles. This is so
thoroughly a Samaritan conception, that it puts the final
seal on the Asatir. Nothing is as yet mentioned in it of
the Day of Judgment or of Resurrection. Here, at any
rate, we have a clear plan which guides the author in
evolving this Oracle. In later oracles, when a definite
term had been mentioned, which passed away without
realisation, that' point of view was more and more lost
sight of, and kings were added, thereby serving immediate
dynastical interests. Consequently the Asatir must belong
to a much higher antiquity than any other oracles known.

THE ASATIR AND JOSEPHUS.*

The consensus of opinion of almost everyone who
has studied the writings of Josephus and more partic-
ularly his "Antiquities," is that in addition to the apol-
ogetic character which he, of necessity, gave to a book
adapted to a heathen or Greek public, he is accused
of having introduced many legends and fantastic inter-
pretations mostly of his own fabrication or borrowed from
Hellenistic writers, all believed to have been of Egyptian
origin. It will now cause no little surprise if we assert
that many of these legends, far from being his own in-
vention, were in fact drawn from a source closely ap-
proximating the Asatir. It must be borne in mind that
there is a profound difference between the work of Josephus
and the Asatir. The latter consists mostly of legendary
glosses and tales added to the text of the Bible. The
Bible is principally supposed to be known to the reader
and therefore everything contained therein is entirely

* The literature on Josephus is so vast that it hardly even can be
indicated here ; it must suffice to refer to -Schiirer, Leipzig 1901, vol I
pp. 100 1 06; and Holscher in Pauly-Wissowa, Encycl. Klass. Alt.
Vol. IX; s. v. Josephus, Col. 1997 2000.



62

omitted in the Asatir, as already remarked before, neither
is there in it any apologetic tendency, nor the desire of
paraphrasing the text in such a manner as to make the
story of the Bible more plausible or more acceptable to
the Gentile reader. The Asatir has only one aim: to fill
up the lacunae in the historical narrative, to supplement
with a few more or less explanatory details the lives of
the Patriarchs, and to emphasise the truth of the Samari-
tan claims to be the possessors of the genuine text of the
Bible and the strict observers of the Law. With this excep-
tion the rest comes within the sphere of Agadic Midrash.
Not so Josephus. He, like many of his predecessors,
recounts anew the whole history of the Jewish people from
the Creation down to his own time. His book is written
for a wider circle : it has an apologetic tendency, since it
was intended to present the Biblical narrative to the Gentile
reader in the most alluring form, and it glosses over every
difficulty so as to make it as readable as could be done by the
skill of the writer, who was conscious at the same time that
he was performing a sacred and patriotic task. In the com-
prehensive and consecutive writing which covers the whole
period of the Bible and more, Josephus, while following
the account given in the Sacred Books, weaves into it a
mass of legendary matter. This was done with a definite
purpose, and as will be seen, following more or less an
older example. The Gentile reader had no necessity to
recur to Josephus' works for a knowledge of the Bible
as such, since he had at his disposal the Greek translation
of the LXX, centuries older than Josephus, and in his
time already invested with a special character of authority.
Josephus, on the contrary, had another intention; he
wanted to make a new presentation in a popular and
acceptable form, and in the spirit of his time. At the same
time he made use of legendary matter which had already
won popularity among his countrymen. Anticipating here
already the results of my investigation, I should like to



formulate them at once into the statement that Josephus
wrote a.Greek Targum to the Pentateuch parallel to the Ara-
maic Targum then in vogue among the Jews. From this
point of view a new light is thrown on the character of his
work, and much that has hitherto appeared obscure and
perplexing will be more easily explained, and Josephus'
veracity vindicated. It will also explain his relation to
the LXX of which he curiously enough makes so little use
in the First Books of his "Antiquities." One example
will suffice : the Chronology of the Patriarchs, in which he
differs from the LXX as well as from the O. T. Hebrew
text.* It will also be shown that he also ignores
genuine Egyptian Hellenistic literature. Hitherto, the
sources of the legends have been sought, and to a large
extent in vain, in the extant fragments of that Hellenistic
literature. Take for example the parallel story in the
narrative of Josephus and that of Artapanos, in the
story of Moses, and one can see how great the discrep-
ancies are between the one and the other. They prove un-
questionably that Josephus had not borrowed directly
from this writer, and even if he did make use of a Greek
translation of the Bible, it was not the LXX, which is
the one now in our hands. I am speaking, of course,
only of the Pentateuch and of the Book of Joshua. The
alleged liberties which he took were quite in conformity with
the character of his book. In his writings Josephus followed
merely the examples set by others who did not scruple to
take much greater liberties with the Biblical narrative
than he did when they worked with the same apologetic
tendency. For example, Pseudo-Eupolemos, Artapanos, and
other writers did not hesitate to mix Biblical stories even
with Greek myths. Josephus, on the contrary, kept strictly
to the Biblical narrative without any such admixture of

* I find now that also Holscher in Pauly-Wissowa Encycl. d. klass.
Alt. s. v. Josephus vol. IX, col. I953ff. comes to the same result that
Josephus made no use of the LXX.



6 4

Greek mythology and without any real attempt at such
synchretism. He followed the example set by the synagogue
itself. It is well known that long before his time the Midrash-
ic homiletic exegesis was introduced into the public read-
ings and even into the service of the synagogue. Therefore
there was no reason for Josephus to refrain from introducing
similar legendary matter into his own exposition of the
Biblical narrative, which thus made it ever so much more
attractive and to a large extent also much more instructive.
It also served his apologetic purpose, for the legend always
tries to exalt the personage round whom it is woven, and
often transforms simple mortals into great heroes.

Whence, then, did Josephus obtain his legendary mat-
ter? The difficulty of tracing it back to more ancient
sources is indeed very great, inasmuch as no other parallels
can be found in the hitherto known literature, but if we
turn now to the Asatir, we shall find a surprising num-
ber of close parallels between- Josephus and the traditions
embodied in the former.

It must, however, at once be emphazised that Jose-
phus has not borrowed directly either from a Samaritan
source or from Pseudo-Eupolemos the incidents connected
with Abraham in Egypt in spite of many points of agreement.
Josephus never disguises his profound hatred of and con-
tempt for the Samaritans; it is spread over all his writ-
ings, and occasionally he shows his strong bias when he
touches upon Samaritan history, for example, in the dis-
pute in Egypt before King Ptolemy, not to speak of other
more important occasions (cf Gaster, Schweich Lectures,
Sam. p. n8f.). It is, therefore, out of the question that
Josephus, writing his Antiquities of the Jews, should have
gone to the hated Samaritans for legendary matter. The
nearest source would be the Palestinian Midrash,especially
the one that flourished in the north of Palestine, in Samaria
as well as in Galilea. It is there, no doubt, that much of
this legendary matter had been simultaneously evolved,



65

perhaps under the influence of mutual rivalry between the
various sects of the community, each one selecting the
same weapons for its polemic and borrowing from the
armoury of a Midrashic exegesis common to both. This
may also point to the original home of the Palest-
inian Targum, for all go back to the same common anterior
source. The value of the Josephus legends, therefore, lies
in the fact that we have in a Jewish writing definite proof
of the existence of such northern Palestinian Midrash, of
which, otherwise, only a few traces have been preserved
in Hellenistic writings.

The parallels between Josephus and the Asatir are very
numerous. They will be referred to regularly in the foot-
notes accompanying the translation, but a number of
them may be grouped here, since they go a long way to
show how close is the parallelism between the two. In
some cases, as will be seen, there is even literal agreement,
but still more in the general character and in peculiari-
ties which may in themselves be of little consequence, but
which yet offer cumulative evidence for the close relation
between the Josephus traditions and those embodied in
the Asatir and other Samaritan writings.

We find Josephus describing the Patriarchs down to the
period of Noah inclusive as ruling the world and deliver-
ing the government to their sons (Ant. I. 3. 4. 83 and
ib. 87, cf Asatir I, I and passim).

"Astronomical and geometrical discoveries" (Ant. I.
4. 9. 106). This is a paraphrase of Asatir IV 15, where
Adam, Enoch and others are possessors of the Book of
Signs, evidently astronomical sciences.

"He sent colonies abroad" (Ant. I. 4. I. no. 112. As.
IV. 26; As. IV. 32ff.) We may mention here again the whole
description of Nimrod which tallies exactly with the Asa-
tir in many details. He is described as the builder of
Babel, the man who incites the people to rebel and who
raises the Tower. The Geomeria differs to some extent,

Asatir. 5



66

but there are certain points of similarity.* Notable
are the boundaries of Egypt, which he traces quite spec-
ially, and the inclusion of the Philistines, to whom
prominence is given, thus agreeing in the main with the
narrative in the Asatir (Ant. I. 6. 2. 136; As. V, 11).
Again, in both narratives the story of the destruction of
the seven nations is mentioned in connection with the
kingdom of Egypt, and the war to which allusion has al-
ready been made before. There the confusion has been
explained into which Josephus has fallen.

Josephus (Ant. I, 6. 4. 143. 147) places the sons of
Joktan near the Indian Ocean, substituting geographical
names better known to him for the Biblical ones. The Asatir
(V. 1 3) also translates curiously the name of the place
mentioned in Gen. X. 30, evidently with the desire of
avoiding identification of the mountain of the East mpn "\n
with Mount Garizim, which the Samaritans call by that
name, and substitutes Timnata for it, the place in the
South of Palestine, known from Gen. XXXVIII, 12.

Josephus, curiously enough, ignores entirely the legend
of the birth of Abraham, and his trial by fire, so fully
developed in the Asatir, but both have one feature in
common of great importance. Terafr is not described as
an idolater, a theme fully developed in all the Abraham
legends both in the Jewish Agada and the pseudepi-
graphic literature. It is also found so in the Koran. Now
this omission is very significant. It is not a mere over-
sight, but has its origin in the same set of traditions which
the Samaritans possess. The Jewish legend which describes
Terarji as a maker or worshipper of idols rests ultimately
on the words of Joshua, where he says (Joshua XXIV, 2}



* V. for the whole literature : The Chronicles of Jerahmeel, Intro-
duction to Ch. 42 ; Ad. Bauer and Jos. Strygowski, Eine alexandrini-
sche Weltchronik. Denkschr. d. Kaiserl. Akademie der Wissen-
schaften Philos.-Histor. Klasse vol. LI, Wien 1905, p. 92 ff., Appen-
dix I.



6 7

"Even Terafr, the father of Abraham and the father of
Nahor served other gods." One might argue that Jos-
ephus, for apologetic reasons, did not wish to refer to
Terah as a worshipper of idols, but in the Samaritan Book
of Joshua this very chapter is entirely missing, and Meshal-
ma, in his commentary, protests energetically against the
Jewish tradition which makes Terah an idol worshipper.
The parallelism shown by me between Josephus' descrip-
tion of Joshua and that of the Samaritans, finds here again
an important corroboration, and on the other hand, indic-
ates the high antiquity of the Samaritan Book of Joshua
discovered and published by me. The writer of the Asatir
did not find in his source any allusion to Terab. as an idol-
worshipper. Consequently Josephus also omits any re-
ference to the cause of Haran's death.

The 120 years (Ant. 1. 6. 5. 152) mentioned in Gen. VI, 3
before the Flood are thus explained by Josephus that God
fixed that number because it was the length of Moses' life.
The connection of 120 years with Moses rests on the well-
known Samaritan interpretation of the numerical value of
the word oatpa (ibid.) which is identical with that of the name
of Moses, namely 345. This is absolutely Samaritan.

"Noah departed from the land where he lived," (Ant. I.
3. i. 74). More precisely given in the Asatir (IV. I. 3).

"He turned dry land into sea," (Ant. I. 3. 2. 75). "The
earth became humid and broke open," (As. IV. 9).

Josephus, in deliberate opposition to the Samaritans, and
agreeing with the Palestinian Targum, calls the second
month in which the Flood started Marheshvan (Ant. I,
3.3. 80), but according to the Samaritans it was the
second month after Nisan.

"The animals were sent into the ark," (Ant. I. 3. 2. 77).
Meshalma's Commentary: God sent the animals into the
ark. It is already thus in the Sibyl I, 208. This is according
to Samaritan interpretation.

Special stress is laid on the fact that Noah was the tenth

5*



68

from Adam. (Ant. I, 3. 2. 79). So also in the Sama-
ritan Chain of High Priests.

"Whence it is that they have not written down his
(Enoch's) death?" (Ant. I, 3. 4. 8$). As the words stand,
Josephus may. have believed that Enoch died. In the
Asatir, the death of Enoch is fully described (As. IV. 32 ff.).

"The ark rested on a certain mountain in Armenia,"
(Ant. I. 3. 5. 90). Josephus does not mention Ararat,
though it is distinctly mentioned intheBible(Gen.VIII,4).
Asatir (IV, i) also gives a name different from that
of the Bible, which is not found in the Samaritan Targum.
It is a name which does not agree with that in. any of
the other Apocryphal books. Here again, Josephus pre-
fers a vague expression to the more definite form of the
Asatir, but both agree in so far that neither mentions
the Biblical name.

The order of the sons of Noah is Shem, Japhet and Ham
(Ant. I. 4. i. 109). So also the Asatir (IV, 14).

The story of Nimrod, which has already been fully dealt
with above, is in complete agreement with the Asatir in
the main features, especially in those details where Jo-
sephus amplifies the Biblical narrative.

"He (Noah) prayed for the prosperity of his two sons,"
(Ant. I. 6. 3. 142), cf. Asatir (IV, 33 34), where Noah
appoints Shem King giving him the preference in the
kingdom.

Abraham was tenth from Noah (Ant. I. 6. 5. 148). The
importance attached by Josephus that Abraham was the
tenth, agrees with the Samaritan practice down to this
very day, so also in their genealogical Chain, where
special attention is drawn to the seventh and tenth among
the Patriarchs.

Terah hating Chaldaea (Ant. I. 6. 5. 152). The Bible
gives no reason for Terah leaving Chaldaea. Josephus says
"he hates Chaldaea on account of his mourning for Ha-
ran." The Asatir gives the reason for this hatred: he had



6 9

been imprisoned by Kedar Laomer (Asatir VII, 12) and
freed by Abraham.

"(Abraham was) the first to publish this notion that
there is one God," (Ant. I. 7. i. 155). This is not given in
the same words in the Bible, although it is implied so;
it is, however, specifically mentioned in the Asatir that he
proclaimed the faith first before Nimrod (As. V, 27) and
later on before Pharaoh (As. VI, 23).

"The Chaldaean and other people of Mesopotamia
raised a tumult against him," (Ant. I. 7. I. 157). Nothing
of this is found in the Bible. It is merely a paraphrase of
the definite statement in the Asatir, where it says that
Nimrod was angered with him and threw him into the
fire (As. V, 27).

"Skilful in celestial sciences" (Ant. I. 7. 2. 158) which
Josephus mentions in the name of Berosus is another
proof that he did not use Hellenistic writings, and as for
Berosus, the authenticity of his authorship is open to
great doubt. Abraham's knowledge of astronomy, etc.
has already been discussed.

"The fame of his wife's beauty was greatly talked of"
(Ant. I. 8. i. 163). "The women saw Sarah and told their
husbands of her beauty, who told the king," (As. VI, 13)

The various incidents in Asatir Ch. VIII concerning Phar-
aoh and Sarah, the specific illness with which Pharaoh is
smitten, also Abraham discussing with the priest, see p. 33
It is at least surprising that Josephus should also have
been led into confusing the two incidents of Abraham's
experience in Egypt and that among the Philistines, in
the way he describes it here. Although he mentions
afterwards also the incident of Abraham with Abimelech,
still he agrees in the former case with Pseudo-Eupolemos and
the Asatir. What better proof is there that Josephus
did not take his inspiration from the text of the Bible y
but that he introduced into his narrative in the most un-
critical manner such a legendary combination of two



70

independent incidents ? The Asatir as well as Pseudo-Eupol-
emos offers direct parallels. Josephus may have taken it
from the same source as the latter who was a Palestinian
writer.

"(Abraham) fell upon the Assyrians near Dan," (Ant. I.
10. i. 176). Josephus describes this as a spring of the
Jordan, but here his geography seems to be wrong. He
wishes to combine the name mentioned in the Bible with
the Agadic interpretation. In the Asatir "Dan" is not
mentioned; but a full description is given of the place
reached by Abraham, who comes to the mountains near
Kenaret (VII, 13), the lake Genesaret, which is one of the
sources of the Jordan.

Josephus here gives two dates not found in the Bible.
"On the fifth night he fell upon the Assyrians," and then
(ibid 178) "On the second day he drove them into
Hoba." Josephus has evidently confused the meaning of
the dates in the text. The "fifth" is either a corruption for
the "first" night, i. e., the night of the Sunday, or he has
taken the same date as that found in the Asatir, "the fifth"
meaning"Thursday," when Abraham returned victorious to
Salem (As. VII, 17). "On the second day" is evidently
nothing else but the "second" of the Asatir, meaning the
Monday (VII, 15). It must be remembered that these are
dates of the week and not dates of the month. This is
an absolutely decisive proof of the close parallelism be-
tween the two, for these numbers could not have been
invented independently of one another. On the other
hand, Josephus here definitely differs from the Samaritans,
by making Salem Jerusalem instead of Sichem (Ant.
I. 10. 2. 1 80).

"Whilst they were feasting," (Ant. I. 10. 2. 181). This
agrees absolutely with the Asatir (VII, 19), while none of
these events are found in the Bible.

"They (the children of Ishmael) inhabited all the
country from Euphrates to the Red Sea, and called it



71

Nabatene," (Ant. 1.12.4.221). This geographical inter-
pretation by Josephus of Gen. XXV, 18 agrees in almost
every detail with Asatir (VIII, 23) and shows the prominence
given to the Nebaim, after whom, according to Josephus,
the whole country was called Nabaoth. This is quite diffe-
rent from the Samaritan Targum which follows the Bib-
lical text.

In the Asatir, the story now passes on rapidly from
Abraham to Moses. The stories of Isaac, Jacob and the
children of Israel offered very little for legendary develop-
ment. Josephus also keeps more closely to the text of the
Bible, without much legendary addition. With the Sama-
ritans Moses is the hero and centre of the Biblical narra-
tive. For his sake the world was created and many legends
and wonders were connected with him even from before the
day of his birth.

"The crown (of Egypt) now being come into another
family," (Ant. II. 9. 1 . 202). Here Josephus explains Exod.
I. 8 that the kingdom passed to another family. Asatir
(VIII, 14) not only gives the same interpretation of the
text but, as usual, is more definite and precise in the details.
The LXX translates the verse "And there arose another
king," instead of "a new king," in the Hebrew text.
The same tradition is also mentioned much later on in the
Tr. Sotah fol. XIa, Erubim fol. 533.

Departing from the brief account in the Bible of the
birth of Moses, Josephus has written a romance full of
wonderful details. The parallelism between his version
and the later Hebrew legends, such as are found in the so-
called Chronicles of Moses, the older version of which has
been published by me in the Chronicles of Jerafrmeel,
has been noted by various scholars, but Freudenthal in
his "Hellenistische Studien" (p. i69ff.) has endeavoured
to establish a close connection between the narrative of
Josephus and the fabulous romance of Artapanos, as
preserved by Eusebius. We are thus again brought face



72

to face with the different ancient Jewish-Hellenistic wri-
tings, and it is therefore necessary to establish the relat-
ion in which they stand to one another.

Artapanos, according to Freudenthal, is older than
Eupolemos, and belongs therefore at the latest to the middle
or end of the third century B.C. Freudenthal has pointed out
certain similarities in the story as told by Josephus and
the romance of Artapanos. On minute examination, how-
ever, it will be found that these similarities can be reduced
to very few and even Freudenthal (p. 170) was compelled
to admit that between Josephus and Artapanos there
must have been some modified version by a Jewish writer. It
is much more plausible, however, to assume that Arta-
panos like other writers of his kind, used more ancient
Jewish material for the making up of his own fabulous
story. Thus the similarity of some details between Josephus
and Artapanos should be traced to a more ancient source or
to one accessible to both, of which each made use in his own
way. Artapanos makes Moses, in fact, one of the gods of
Egypt, Hermes-Thoth, and even the founder of the worship
of Isis. Josephus shrinks with pious horror from such an
idea ; to him Moses is the wonderful leader of the people,
chosen by God for that purpose.

The parallelism between Josephus and ancient Hebrew
writings concerning the birth of Moses is very much
closer, and yet some of the very specific details which
characterise the narrative of Josephus are missing in the
Hebrew versions. If we now turn to the Asatir and to
the Samaritan traditions, and there are a number of writ-
ings in the Samaritan literature hitherto unknown, full
of legendary matter concerning the birth of Moses and
his further exploits, the parallelism is very striking.
Going on now step by step, we find the following passage
in Josephus (Ant. II. 9. 2. 205):

"One of those sacred scribes who are very sagacious

in foretelling future events truly, told the king, that



73

about this time there would be born a child to the
Israelites who, if he were reared, would bring the
Egyptian dominion low, and would raise the Israelites;
that he would excel all men in virtue, and obtain a
glory that would be remembered through all ages."
We must remember that Josephus always prefers
vagueness, whilst the Samaritans are much more definite
in detail. Josephus speaks of a scribe, whilst in the Asatir
(ch. VIII, 24ff.) not only do we learn who the scribe was,
but also what was the sight which induced him to make
that prophecy and to foretell to the king what would
happen. There he sees Amram and the honour paid to
him, and he foretells the future in almost the same words as
those used by Josephus (Ant. II. 9. 2. 207). In Josephus
the king commands that the parents should be destroyed
with their children, but in the Asatir (VIII, 42), the wo-
men throw themselves (into the water) with their children.
There have also been preserved in the Samaritan litera-
ture other traditions concerning the birth of Moses, which
go back to very high antiquity. They have been embodied
in various writings, referred to more fully later on,
such as the poem called the Molad Moshe ascribed to
Abdalla b. Shalma, who lived about the fourteenth cen-
tury. The author explains that he has derived his material
from the tradition of the high priests. Another poem by
him, containing similar traditions, forms part of the service
for the Sabbath during the Tabernacle festival (Cowley, Sa-
maritan Liturgy, p. 746).

The first part of the poem agrees in the main with the
Asatir, but adds a few details; amongst them that Amram
approaches his wife only after an angel has appeared to
him in a vision of the night. He is told that the child to
be born is one which will obtain glory and which will be
remembered throughout the ages.

The same is found in other Samaritan poems of the
fourteenth century, and still more in the Arabic treatise of



74

IshmaelRumihi(i537)> which is also called MoladMoshe.
In all the details they agree with the Asatir : that the scribe
Plti, through seeing Amram, recognizes that a child will
be born from the loins of that man, who will bring destruct-
ion ot the kingdom of Egypt and who will obtain glory
and be "remembered throughout the ages." These very
words used by Josephus are thus found not only in the
Asatir but in the whole cycle of Samaritan writings refer-
ring to Moses, and have almost become a stereotyped
phrase. Already Markafr (of the second or third century
C. E.)uses the same phrase, "May his name be remembered
for glory l leolam . ' " This word must be translated ' 'through-
out the world" and not "for ever," and so it is re-
peated in the various Samaritan writings to which refer-
ence will be made later on in the chapter on the Asatir
and the Samaritan literature.

Ant. II. 9. 5. 226 "(Moses) would not admit of her breast
but turned away from it." The same tradition is also
found in the Pitron and Molad and other books, and also
indicated in the Asatir (IX. 13) by the words "He would
only drink of the undefiled milk."

Ant. II. 9. 6. 229. Moses as the seventh generation from
Abraham is a distinct feature of Samaritan chronology.

Examining now the rest of the story of Moses with the
Asatir and the Samaritan tradition, we find no trace in
the latter of the other incidents narrated by Josephus, such
as the trampling upon the king's crown and his expedition
against the Ethiopians and his subsequent marriage. In
the Jewish literature these incidents are fully developed,
for they are also an outgrowth of the same exegetical
activity, which caused many legends to be invented in
order to explain various difficult passages in the text of
the Bible. They are, no doubt, later developments, and
even Josephus has not recorded them in full ; for he leaves
out one of the chief reasons for the legend that Moses,
while a child, took off the crown of Pharaoh and trampled



75

upon it, and what befell him afterwards. The origin of
this legend is to be sought in an attempt to explain how it
came about that Moses was heavy of tongue. The Jewish
legend goes on to say that when the scribe or sorcerer saw
the incident, he advised Pharaoh to have the child killed,
but an angel assumed the form of another courtier and
suggested that the child should be put to the test of placing
before it two plates, one containing burning charcoal
and the other sparkling gems. The angel then made the
child stretch its hand out towards the coal und put it
into its mouth and thus burn its lips.

The story of the Ethiopian war is told to explain the
passage in Numbers XII, i when Aaron and Miriam com-
plain of Moses having married the Kushite wife. It would
be difficult to say how old these legends were. They are
independent of Artapanos and may be posterior to the time
of the composition of the Asatir. It is also possible, that
no Samaritan would introduce into his legendary lore
a story which so greatly affected the honour and glory of
Moses, for whose sake the world had been created: he
was the most perfect of men and a priest among the angels.
He could not be described as having any blemish, either
physical or moral, and thus nothing that could have
detracted from his glory would have found acceptance
among the Samaritans. It is clear that Josephus could not
even have seen Artapanos' writings, who like the Sibyl,
made use of a Palestinian Midrash in a synchretistic
manner and wove out of it a romance, which differs in
almost every detail from those recorded by the Asatir,
Josephus, and the entire Samaritan and Jewish literature.
Josephus paraphrases "heavy of speech" by "man of no
ability," probably for the same reason as the Samaritans
(Ant. II. 12. 2. 271).

The comparison between these various texts brings out
still more clearly the fact that Josephus, on the whole,
adheres more closely to the Hebrew text, and is in part a



7 6

translation and in part contains legendary additions
But he shows at the same time a further stage in the devel-
opment of that tendency which has its origin in the purely
homiletic and Midrashic exegesis of the synagogue. The
further the legends depart from the Hebrew text and
assume an independent character, the later is the date
of the compilation.

Ant. III. 10. 5. 248, 249. Here Josephus seems to differ-
entiate between the Feast of the Passover, which is cele-
brated on the 1 4th ofNisan, and the Feast of Unleavened
Bread, which, he says, "succeeds it" quite in accordance
with Samaritan interpretation, which also differentiates be-
tween the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread,
which succeeds the former, but is independent.* .

The story of Bileam is told by Josephus at very great
length ; he not only repeats the narrative of the Bible but
enlarges upon it considerably, introducing into it many
details of a legendary character, at the same time attemp-
ting to smoothe away difficulties found in the text of the
Bible. Not a few of these attempts are also found in the Asatir,
where again the story of the Bible has been developed in
a very extraordinary manner, owing to influences to which
attention will be directed later on, but of these only a
few of the most important points may be considered here.

Ant. IV. 6. 2. 102; cf. Asatir X. 42, where the Midianites
call upon Bileam to save them from Israel.

Ant. IV. 6.2. 105 "willing and desirous to comply with
their request," cf. Asatir X. 2, where the text is somewhat
obscure.

The whole story of the stratagem of Bileam to encompass
the destruction of Israel through the daughters of Moab,

* This explains a command of Hillel (Haggada, special service
for Passover night) which hitherto has remained a mystery: to the
effect that the Passover lamb must be eaten together with the un-
leavened bread and bitter herbs. It was meant to be a direct protest
against the Samaritan teaching and practice.



77

which is given so very fully in Josephus, is in its main
incidents identical 'with the story in the Asatir, whereas
in the Samaritan Arabic Book of Joshua the whole story of
Bileam and all the incidents with the daughters of Moab
is told much more fully. It agrees with the version of Jos-
ephus. This is of no mean importance, since Josephus also
agrees with many other details contained in that version
of the Book of Joshua, not only according to the text pub-
lished by Joynbull, Ch. Ill and IV, but still more in
the other recension found in my MSS. The Arabic vers-
ion which dates at the latest from the eleventh or twelfth
century was made from a Hebrew original, and that Heb-
rew text draws its material almost verbatim from a ver-
sion of the Asatir, which at that time was a little more ex-
panded than our present text. But most of the passages
agree literally with our text, and contain a few more de-
tails which are now missing in the Asatir, but which are
found both in Josephus and in the Samaritan Arabic Book
of Joshua. The Palestinian Targum to Numb. XXIV, 14
also contains a very brief parallel to the advice given by
Bileam to Balak concerning the Midianite women.

It is noticeable that Josephus has a peculiar description
of the death of Moses which reads almost like an epic
poem, and which is considered to be due to his own literary
skill in embellishing the simple narrative of the Bible.
In the Asatir the death of Moses is just briefly touched
upon (Ch. XI, 1 8), but in the Samaritan literature a des-
cription has been preserved which approximates very
closely the version of Josephus. I have printed it on p. 303
from my Cod. No. 1168. The date of the composition of
this chronicle is uncertain, but it is, like all the Samaritan
chronicles, a mixture of older and more recent material.
It contains also the Book of Joshua, to which this chapter
forms an introduction, and it is found not only in the
Arabic version of the Book of Joshua, but can.be traced
much farther back (see p. 1 78 1 79) . This story, then, occurs



78

also in my Cod. 876, a composition probably of the thirteenth
century, a in slightly more archaic form, inasmuch as
angels are introduced accompanying Moses up the mount
and burying him.

If we compare this epic description of the death
of Moses with those in other pseudepigraphic writings,
we shall find that it differs very considerably from the
latter in description and detail. The Hebrew legends lay
stress on Moses' ascent to heaven, whilst the tale found in
the Assumption of Moses lacks practically all the charact-
eristics of Josephus and of the Samaritan version of the
"Death." It is similar to some extent to the Asatir itself,
inasmuch as it also contains a prophecy of the events to
follow after the death of Moses. On the other hand,
Pseudo-Philo keeps the balance between the two. In some
sentences it agrees with the Samaritan description of the
death of Moses, and it also contains a summary prophecy;
but both belong to a later period. They have already been
used for propagating certain eschatological views, and
ideas of a very late date have been introduced into the
prophecy of Moses.

But the version published here can be traced still further
back, since it occurs in almost every detail in the last book
of Markah, "The Book of Wonders." The author lived
in the second or third century. The tradition has thus
been most faithfully preserved, and Markah on his part
shows his indebtedness to an older source probably to
a more extended form of the Asatir for he shows undoubted
acquaintance with the whole book, and quotes the charact-
eristic sentence with which God adresses Moses, announc-
ing to him that the day of his death has arrived. This
proves the contention that the Samaritan chronicles,
though compiled at a later age, contain much material
that is very old and reliable. They invent nothing.

Further parallels to Samaritan traditions occur in various
parts of Josephus' description of the Biblical period from



79

the Creation to the death of Moses. Besides those already
referred to above, there is, e. g. Moses' allocution at the '
account of the revelation on Mount Sinai (Ant. III. 5. 3.
86 87). This passage finds a complete parallel in Brit.
Mus. Orient. 5481 where all the Patriarchs are mentioned
from Adam onwards, and introduced with the formula,
"He who saved Noah from the Flood, etc. He who

saved " There is a late parallel in the Jewish Liturgy in

the poem on the Day of Atonement: "He who answered,"
(Gaster, Sephardic Prayer Book, Day of Atonement
Vol. III. p. 12). But more specific, as has been pointed out,
is the parallelism between Josephus and the Samaritan
Book of Joshua, published by me.

These numerous coincidences cannot be simply fort-
uitous. Josephus invented them as little as did the author
of the Asatir or the authors of other writings such as the
Palestinian Targum or .Samaritan texts. Nor is it likely
to assume that the one borrowed directly from the other.
As already suggested before, the Asatir is older by at least
two centuries than Josephus, and Josephus would be the
last to borrow anything direct from the. hated Samaritans.
They point to an older source common to both from
which they have drawn their material, which was the result
of the Midrashic Agadic interpretation of the Pentateuch
which flourished throughout Palestine, in all probability in
the North as well as in the South. It was the common prop-
erty of Jews and Samaritans alike. This is why some of
the incidents referred to are found scattered throughout
the various writings of a later age.

The unexpected result of this investigation is to place
Josephus' activity in a new light. The Antiquities, far
from being a somewhat enlarged recount of the Pent-
ateuch, resting, as has hitherto been assumed, exclus-
ively on the Hebrew text, is nothing else but an en-
larged Targum in Greek of the Pentateuch, drawing its
information from Aramaic paraphrases and collections



8o

of Biblical legends. Of these the Asatir is a Samaritan
representative, thus far the oldest hitherto available. It
has still retained the primitive Midrashic character. It
consists of the legendary matter only, and is not yet woven
into a running commentary accompanying the Hebrew
text. The Palestinian Targum has already reached this
secondary stage of development, but in Josephus we
have an independent work in which the author no long-
er follows the original scrupulously word for word and verse
for verse. It is a consecutive narrative of the Biblical
story in which facts and legends have been skilfully
blended.

THE PALESTINIAN TARGUM.

The basic principle laid down at the beginning of
this investigation that the Midrashic interpretation which
clings to the text of the Bible is older than any such
Midrashic commentary which departs from it, is further
corroborated by the comparison between the Asatir and
the Palestinian Targum. Here we have a complete trans-
lation of the text, following it word for word; but at the
same time a large amount of legendary matter and legal
interpretation of the prescriptions found in the text has
been added. It is all kept within a comparatively limited
compass; the language is purely Palestinian, but like other
works of a similar kind it has suffered greatly by changes
and interpolations which have been freely introduced
into any such book which serves a popular purpose. It is of
-an educational and at the same time of a polemical character,
inasmuch as the author eliminates practically every other
interpretation of the text but the purely Jewish. In its
legal interpretations this Targum represents very old
traditions . Zunz * who has studied this Targum, recognizes

* Die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage der Juden. 2nd ed. Frankfurt
.a. M. 1892. p. 76 ff.



8i

that in spite of the many alterations and modifications
to which it has been subjected, the author has retained
some very ancient elements, and that in addition to its
being a free paraphrase, the author has also introduced
a mass of legendary matter not of his own invention, for
which parallels can also be found in later literature. Yet
in spite of it, Zunz assigns the book in its present form to
the middle of the seventh century. This view rests on a
misconception of the character of this anonymous literat-
ure. It is due to late interpolations in that MS. from which
our text has been printed; his argument that the name
of Constantine (i. e. Constantinople) itself not a very mod-
ern name is mentioned, and that other similar changes
of geographical and personal names appear, cannot be
taken very seriously. Geiger, however, who had a keener
insight into the spiritual forces and sectarian movements
at a very early period, emphatically declares in his "Ur-
schrift," for the very high antiquity of this Targum. He
asserts that a large mass of extremely ancient material
has been preserved in this Targum (ibid. p. 165). Fran-
kel (Einfluss, p. 3'ff.), when studying the influence of the
Palestinian exegesis on Hellenistic interpretation of the
Bible, takes it for granted that such Midrashic or rather
Targumistic activity had already existed in Palestine dur-
ing the early Hellenistic period, and was anterior to the
Greek translation of the LXX. He thus clearly assumes
the existence of such a Targum in a written form, as
otherwise it could not exercise any influence upon a
Greek-speaking and -writing author. It is therefore utterly
impossible to accept a late date for the Palestinian
Targum.

There is now another proof for the high antiquity of the
Palestinian Targum, in the fact that already at the
beginning of the second century C. E. it was looked upon
with serious misgivings by the leading Jewish authorities.
So much so, that another Targum was then prepared,

Asatir. Q



82

which received the official sanction of R. Akiba and his
school, and which has hence ever since been regularly
associated with the Hebrew text. The number of Biblical
MS S. which contain the Hebrew with the Targum known as
that of Onkelos is overwhelming, whilst the MSS. hitherto
discovered of the complete and fragmentary Palestinian
Targum scarcely exceed six in number, some consisting
only of a few leaves; in fact the existing text was
printed for the first time in Venice in 1591 from an unique
MS. and the fragmentary recension which appeared before
in the Rabbinic Bible, Venice 1517, also from another
unique MS.

The reason for this thorough revision goes to the very root
of the matter. Akiba was engaged in preparing with the
assistance of his pupil Aquilas a revised Greek translation
of the Pentateuch. It was not directed, as hitherto assumed,
only against the LXX, which by that time had already
been greatly corrupted ; but it was intended also to counter-
act the influence of the Greek Samaritan translation: it was
to discredit, as far as possible, any legal interpretation of the
text other than the one sanctioned by his school. It was to
embody the new principle of exegesis which was evolved in
accordance with the doctrine of the synagogue. Every ad-
mixture of Agadic orMidrashic element, and still more of
such translations in which the LXX seems to have agreed
with the Samaritan, had to be entirely erased. Akiba and
his school were then guided by the same principles in
practically eliminating from the service also the popular
Aramaic paraphrase, which in its Midrashic portions lays
itself open to misinterpretations, and in some instances,
seems to favour older and independent interpretations
now discarded by that school. Here we have, as Geiger
(op. cit p. 163 ff.) has also pointed out the reason for so
thorough a revision of the older Targum, which was then
replaced by quite new texts intended to serve the interests
of the synagogue, no longer open to misinterpretation or



capable of being used by Samaritans and other sectarians
in their polemics against the Jews. The Samaritans, or as
they were then called, the Kutheans, loomed largely at
that time before the eyes of the Jews, who were preparing for
the great fight of liberation, in which the Samaritans took
an attitude by no means friendly to them. Thus we have
on the one side LXX, Greek-Samaritan, and possibly Greek
paraphrastic commentaries reflected in the Hellenistic
literature and in Josephus, and on the other side Aquilas,
Theodotion and others who follow the same principles of
literary exegesis ; then the Midrashic Targum, Hebrew and
possibly Samaritan such as the Asatir on the one hand, and
on the other, the Targum of Onkelos, in which scarcely a
trace of the Midrash has been retained, and the interpret-
ation of the text is as literal as possible and quite in harm-
ony with the legal exegesis of the school of Akiba. There
was no intention of suppressing the legends which had
grown out of the text in the course of centuries ; they had
become the common property of the people, and they
flourished as independent Midrashim, Agadoth and
Maasiyot, to an even larger extent than before; and these
are the sources of the whole literature of Apocrypha and
Pseudepigrapha. These were now no longer considered as
direct commentaries to the text of the Bible. They became
the homilies delivered in the synagogues in connection with
the reading of the Law. The preacher took his text from
a verse of the Bible and then developed the subject freely
so as to satisfy the popular demand. Thus arose the large
collections known as the Rabboth (Collectio Maxima) and
the Pesiktot, i. e. homilies for selected days and occasions.
At that time there was no longer any need for such a
comparatively simple Targum, and that is probably one of
the reasons why it was almost lost. Add to this the peculiar
Palestinian dialect of the Aramaic in which it was written,
and we see why it remained circumscribed in its circulation,
and shared the fate of the Palestinian Talmud, which also

6*



was also almost forgotten and preserved in one single
incomplete MS. The language is practically the same
as the Samaritan. Far, therefore, from being a late
composition, this Palestinian Targum must rank as the
oldest of its kind and be placed either as a contemporary
of Josephus or even of a somewhat earlier date. This
conclusion is borne out by the fact that we find in the Pal-
estinian Targum traces of pre-Massoretic readings agreeing
with the LXX and the Samaritan, such as the addition in
Genesis Ch. IV v. 8, and many other examples. Still more
is this the fact when comparing the Palestinian Targum
with the Asatir. The agreement between these two Midrash-
im of the Pentateuch is very close indeed. The notes to
the translation of the Asatir will give ample evidence of the
thorough parallelism which runs through both ; it extends
to many minute details, and yet, whilst agreeing in the
main, they differ so completely from one another as to
prove their mutual independence. They both go back, no
doubt, to older sources common to both and they are both
expressions of that Midrashic Palestinian exegesis which
must have flourished in the country and developed in the
vernacular Aramaic common to all the inhabitants of
Palestine. Of the numerous parallels between the Asatir
and the Palestinian Targum, a few may be cited here.

Twins born with Cain and Abel. Gen. IV, 2. Asatir

I. 3-
Date and Place of Sacrifice. Gen. IV. 3 and VIII. 20.

Asatir I. 7.
Different Name of Mountain for Ark. Gen. VIII. 4.

Asatir IV. I.
Abraham and Nimrod. XI. 28 5. Asatir V. I 6 ff. Death

of Haran. Gen. XI. 28. Asatir V. 28.

Moses Legend. Asatir VIII. 24ff.; (Wizard foretelling
birth of Moses.) Exod. I. 15. Two magicians foretell
birth.



Daughter of Pharaoh healed. Exod. II. 5. Pitron.
Ch. IX. 9.

Three supreme mornings; four supreme nights Exod.
XIII. 42. Asatir IX. 35 ff.

Miracles of Pinedas Numb. XXV. 8. Asatir X. 33.

Death of Bileam Numb. XXI. 8. Asatir X. 47.

Bileam's evil advice about the daughters of Moab.
Numb. XXIV. 14. Asatir X. i8ff.

Bileam=Laban. Numb. XXII. 5. Asatir XL I.

Interpretation of Bileam prophecies (see later on
p. 8890).

Moses Redivivus (see later on p. 97 98).

Besides these agreements there are some points which
require fuller treatment.

First special attention is paid to the institution of
the Calendar. It is traced back to Genesis, I. 14. It is
here set forth fully and runs as follows :

". . . . and let them be for signs and for festival

times, and for the numbering by them the account of

days, and for the sanctifying of the beginning of months,

and for the beginning of years, the passing away of

months, and the passing away of years, the revolutions

of the sun, the birth of the moon, and the revolvings (of

seasons)."

It is thereby made clear, that the institution of the Calendar
in all its details dates from the fourth day of Creation, a
point of view with which the Samaritans fully agree. But
they add that this knowledge of calculating and fixing the
Calendar was revealed to Adam, and thus the counting
of years found in the Biblical record starts with Adam.
To them, the Creation of the world took place in Nisan,
which was the older view among the Jews, against which
Palestinian Targum, Gen. VI I. n declares that the Creation
of the world began in the month of Tishri. It will be seen
later on when discussing the chronology of the Asatir,
what far-reaching importance has been attached to the



86

Calendar so that it even became a line of cleavage between
Jews and Samaritans (referred to above).

We find further in the Palestinian Targum to Deut. Ch.
XXXIV, v. 2 ff. a vision seen by Moses from the top of Mount
Nebo, in which the future events from the time of Joshua
to the final victory over the armies of Gog and Magog and
over Armilos, in which the Jews are helped by the angel
Michael, are summarily described. It differs from the more
vague eschatological interpretation which turns round the
prophecies of Bileam, in so far as some of the chief judges
and kings are mentioned here by name. This prophecy
represents an historical sketch which can easily be verified
from the subsequent events, up to a certain point. It loses
itself in the indefinite description of the wars of Gog, etc.
Slightly different, but not in any essential is the parallel
recension in the old Tanaitic commentary to Deuteronomy
(second or third century) which goes under the name of
Sifre (Piska 357). On many occasion there is a strong
affinity between the Sifre and the Palestinian Targum.
The Asatir then finishes also with the Prophecy (XI,
20 ff.) which has the same aim, viz- to reveal the future;
here also that future is unmistakably described by a
series of events in a more precise historical sequence
from the death of Moses to a final era of general
happiness. The chief figures of Jewish history are all
mentioned one after the other the names being veiled by
cryptograms and yet sufficiently clear to recognize in them
the names of the judges and kings, the building and des-
truction of the temples, and the exiles and returns according
to Samaritan tradition. Ezra is also mentioned (Asatir XI,
36, 37). After this a vague allusion to the time of trouble
and ultimate success is appended. It is much simpler and
more systematically arranged than in the Palestinian Tar-
gum, and it is a bitter pronouncement of hatred and in-
vective against the Jews. In principle the two prophecies
run parallel, but each sect uses the occasion according to its



87

own religious standpoint. If we then compare these
prophecies with those found in the apocalyptic literature
such as the Assumption of Moses (Ch. II, I ff.), the prophecy
in the Book of Enoch (Ch. LXXXIIIff.) with its alleg-
orical and symbolical figures, the introduction to the
Book of Jubilees (Ch. XXIII, i8ff.) and the prophecy of
Pseudo-Philo (Ch. XIX ff.), we can easily recognise that
these have entirely departed from the ancient form. These
prophecies have been made to subserve a totally different
purpose: they are more or less made to point a lesson
depicting current events to contemporaries, and the ancient
Biblical history becomes a mere shadowy background for
the new picture which is now drawn. Thus the Asatir
stands at the beginning of that series of prophecies
ascribed to Moses.

I now pass on to the consideration of the relation of the
last portion of the Asatir, the Oracle of Ch. XII to the
Palestinian Targum. I have briefly referred to it before,
where I pointed out the parallelism between this oracle and
the cycle of the Tiburtine, Methodius, etc. This oracle
refers to the events which are to happen at the End of Days.
We are dealing here with that period which was after-
wards known as the Messianic age. True, there is no
eschatology, no mention of the Day of Judgment or
Resurrection; only the prophecy that a man chosen by God
will return, who is to inaugurate an era of happiness and
prosperity. It is unquestionably the most primitive form
and represents the Messianic idea in its embryonic state.
How far-reaching that idea has been need not be emphas-
ized here. It is written large in the pages of human civiliz-
ation, and it is not my desire to dwell upon it at any length.
It would lead me too far away from the immediate object
of this research. But it is of no mean importance to be
able to trace it back to its obscure beginnings. It is again
in the light of the Midrashic exegesis of the Bible that
one may be able to detect the Pentateuchal source. The



foundations of this belief are not to be sought in the writ-
ings of the prophets but must have had their origin in some
words or allusions in the Pentateuch ; otherwise it could not
have been taken up by the Samaritans and have taken there
such deep roots as it has done. A careful examination of
all the dates available leads to the surprising result that
the ultimate sources in the Pentateuch are the prophecies
of Bileam, and that a special importance has been att-
ached to Bileam's personality and activity. It has been
mentioned before that both in the Asatir (X. i) and in
the Palestinian Targum (Numb. XXII, 5) he is identified
with Laban. The significance of this identification will
soon become manifest.

From very ancient times the figure and prophecies of
Bileam have exercised a deep influence upon Israel.
References to him occur in many passages of the Bible,
such as Deut. XXIII. 5; Josh. XXIV. 9; Mic.VI. 5 ; Nehem.
XIII. 2; furthermore in the New Testament: 2 Peter II. 15;
Jude XI. Revel. II. 14. Quotations from his prophecies
(Numb. XXIV. 17) are repeated by Jeremiah (XLVIII.
45/6) and others; and finally a passage in Daniel XI. 30,
where Numb. XXI V. 24 is quoted with the same meaning as
given to it by Bileam, shows the continued preservation of
Bileam and his prophecies in the memory of the people.
He becomes the typical antagonist of Israel and he
works constantly for its destruction. Jews and Samaritans
agree to read the future in his prophecies, but they agree
also in the detestation of his person and his works. A kind
of saga has been formed round him and, as will be seen, he
assumes a most unexpected form in their religious trad-
itions. In the Oracle we can now trace some of that
influence and here the Palestinian Targum in its two rec-
ensions (A and B) will prove of special importance.
Numb. XXIV. 17. "I see him but not now, I behold him
but not near" is commented upon it as follows (A) "that
there will reign a mighty king from the house of Jacob,



8 9

and there will be exalted the Messiah and a mighty rod
from Israel, and he will kill the rulers of the Moabites
and bring to nought all the children of Seth yea, as well
as the hosts of Gog that are in array to do battle against
Israel and all their carcases shall fall before him (the
Messiah)."

(B) "I see him but not now, I behold him but he is not
nigh. A king will arise in the future from the house of
Jacob, a deliverer and ruler from the house of Israel, who
will slay the strong ones of the Moabites and will annihi-
late and destroy the peoples of the East."

The same interpretation of the verse is found also in
Onkelos who translates: "... there will arise a king from
Jacob and there will be exalted the Messiah (i. e. the
anointed, the Christos) of .Israel and he will slay the
mighty of Moab and he will rule over all men."

Numb. XXIV. 1 8. (A) "And there will be driven out
the Edomites and there will be driven out the sons of
Gabala from before Israel their foes, and Israel will be
strengthened with their riches and inherit them."

(B) "And the portion of his inheritance will be the
mountain of Gabala of their enemies, and Israel will be
strong with a mighty host."

v. 19. A) "And a prince of the house of Jacob will arise
and destroy and consume the remnant that
have escaped from (Constantina) the guilty city
and will lay waste and ruin the rebellious city,
even Kaisarin, the strong city of the Gentiles."
B) "A king will arise from the house of Jacob who
will destroy the remnant of the wicked city."

This is thus far the oldest application of the words of
Bileam to the idea of a future ruler who will arise from
Jacob and Israel. It may be noted in passing the astrolog-
ical lore has not yet been developed, nay, a different
meaning altogether is given to it in the Asatir X. 45



90

by the "star" being applied to Pinehas. The Messianic
import of the whole prophecy has been developed still
more in some later Samaritan treatises, like that of El
Doweik and others. In the Jewish tradition the Messiah
is actually compared with the star, but the rise of a star
does not signalize his birth. Akiba applied this prophecy
to Bar Kochba, not at his birth, but after his valiant
deeds ; (T. J.Taanith IV, 5). At a later stage in the Midrash,
however, the birth of Abraham is signalised by such a
rising of a star, and similarly at the birth of Jesus. *

The Messianic expectation of the ruler, however, was
deduced from this prophecy of Bileam. Here we have
all the elements necessary for the elucidation of the last
portion of the Asatir. So important did these passages
appear to the author of the Oracle that in one or two
instances he preserved even the Hebrew words of the
original, thus leaving no doubt of the connection between
this Oracle and the words of Bileam in the Bible. In the
Oracle nothing else is evidently expected than first, some
trouble with Gog, some invasion on his part, and then
some serious wars, which are here described (XII, 21) with
the very words of Numb. XXIV, 18, whilst Gog appears
also in the Targum to ibid v. 17.

The mention of Gog now is of special importance.
Whence did the author of the Asatir obtain a knowledge of
the name of Gog, considering that that name never occurs
in the Pentateuch and it is well-known that the range
of the knowledge of the Samaritans never went beyond
that of the Pentateuch ? Still more surprising is it then
to find Gog here in connection with troubles of the end
of time. But a careful examination of the Samaritan rec-
ension of the Pentateuch will solve the mystery. We must
first turn now to another prophecy of Bileam: Numb.
XXIV. 7. Here the Samaritan reads Gog instead of Agag

* v. Wiener, Realworterbuch II. p. 524; Strack and Billerbeck,
Kommentar N. T. Vol. I (Mathaus), p. 76-77.



91

in the M. T. This reading is corroborated by that of the
LXX, which has also replaced Agag by Gog, and by the
way it is inserted under the form of Gog by the LXX, Numb.
XXIV, 23 ; and it may thus help to explain the use
which has been made of it by the prophet Ezekiel.*
Frankel (Einfluss p. i82ff.) has rightly drawn attention to
this interpretation in the LXX, in which he recognises the
effect of Messianic anticipations connected with the pro-
phecy of Bileam. This form of Messianic hope in the LXX,
as well as in the Asatir, represents unquestionably the old-
est phase of that belief, for it clings closely still to the text.
This is the only standard by which Biblical legends can be
measured according to age and origin. Frankel and those
who followed him, being under the impression that the
LXX was of Egyptian origin, believed this Messianic inter-
pretation of the Biblical text to have been adopted and
developed in Palestine at a much later time subsequent to
the LXX. But the whole apocryphal literature is an
eloquent testimony to the existence of such beliefs in a
very early time in Palestine. The Samaritans also
cherished such beliefs in very early times. They expected
the advent of a Messiah or a Taheb, as did the Jews,
and the Samaritan woman meeting Jesus speaks plainly
of this expectation of a Messiah (John IV, 25). And
they also derived this belief from the same passages in the
prophecy of Bileam. Among the latest to testify to this
interpretation, which runs through the whole Samaritan
literature (Merx, Taheb), I quote the letter of the High
Priest to Huntingdon in 1671 ed. Schnurrer, Eichhorn Rep-
ertorium, IX, 1781, p. 27 and de Sacy, Notices et Extraits,
p. ipSff), who refers to the coming Messiah as the one
predicted by this prophecy. But his coming is to be
preceded by troubles and wars, from which Israel will
issue victoriously. These wars and troubles are derived

* It is significant in this connection that Gog is introduced in an
eschatological sense in the rendering of the LXX of Amos VII, 2.



92

from similar prophecies, in the first place, in the above
mentioned reference to Gog, which as Frankel has
pointed out, was brought here into close connection with
the Messianic expectations. Gog appears here both in
the Samaritan recension of Numbers XXIV. 7 and in
the Asatir. This is not the place to discuss the possibility
of the prophet Ezekiel having also read in his Pentateuch
Gog instead of Agag. It belongs to the wider problem
concerning the background of the prophecies of Ezekiel.
Gog together with Magog already appears in the
Sibylline Oracles III. 319 as the adversary to be annihi-
lated before the Messianic age.* The description differs
considerably from that given in Ezekiel XXXVIII and
XXXIX although the origin of this portion of the Sibyl
is to be traced back to Ezekiel. These ideas have been
greatly developed and exaggerated in the pseudepigraphic
literature and worked into the Antichrist legends, to which
reference will presently be made.

In the Asatir, there is still another close parallelism with
the Palestinian Targum in the mention of "Gabala" in
Ch. XII v. 21, where the destruction of Gabala is anti-
cipated. This is exactly the same name which occurs in
the Palestinian Targum as the translation of the Hebrew
"Seir" (Numb. XXIV. 18). The subjugation of Edom and
the occupation or destruction of Mount Gabala will be the
outstanding signs of Israel's doing valiantly, as foretold
by Bileam in that verse. Round this Gabala a whole
literature has grown up,** but few have recognized its
importance for these oracles connected with the Messianic
Age. This interpretation and translation of "Seir" as
"Gabala" is constant in the Samaritan Targum, with the
one exception of this passage, where the Samaritan
Targum substitutes "Esau," as is found also in the LXX.

* V. full parallel literature of Messianic woes, Bate, Sib. Or. ad loc.
** Josephus Antiq. II. 1.2.6. Gabalitis part of Idumea. This form
agrees absolutely with the Samaritan form in Asatir.



93

This proves that the Asatir represents an older text than
the present Samaritan Targum. The destruction of Ga-
bala was one of the premonitory signs of the Advent of the
Messiah. It recurs in the Talmud as one of the oldest
traditions. R. Gamaliel II (first half of second century) is
reported to have said "that before the Advent of the son
of David . . . Galilee will be deserted, Gabala destroyed
and the men of Gaulan will wander from town to town."
This tradition was handed down in numerous variations
with many additions giving a full description of a complete
state of demoralisation, of poverty or infamy, shamelessness
and cruelty.*

From the above investigation, it is now clear that
the stories of the Messianic Age and of the preceding
periods of trouble and woe have their origin exclusively
on the soil of Palestine, and flow directly from the Agadic
interpretation of the prophecies of Bileam. The course of
the Messianic troubles and woes is thus traced here
directly to Gog, whose enmity against Israel is like
that of Balak, the king of the Moabites, who, according
to Numb. XXIV, 17 will be the first to suffer by the on-
slaught of Israel. It was natural at once to connect these

* This prophecy of R. Gameliel II of the destruction of Gabala,
Gaulan, etc., is reported by R. Jehudah with further additional
details in T. B. Sanhedrin gja., where other signs premonitory to the
advent of the son of David are given, full of awe-inspiring details.
Slightly different is the recension in Derech Eres Zutta ch. 10, by
R. Simeon and again differing slightly in Midrash to Esther ch. 2. v. 13.
Much fuller is the version put into the mouth of Eliezerof Mosininthe
Mishna Sotah IX. 15. Wagenseil, Sotah, Altdorf 1674, p. 973, trans-
lates this passage differently and he refers to Pugio Fidei of Ray-
mundus Martinus II. 37, c. 16, who has a different reading. The
Jewish literature on these woes of the Messiah is best given by Ham-
burger, Realenzyklopaedie f. Bibel und Talmud, II, Leipzig 1883,
p. 735 ff. W. Bacher, Agadah der Tannaiten, Leipzig 1884, Vol. I,
p. 97; Schiirer, Gesch. d. Jud. Volkes, etc., II, Leipzig 1886, p. 44off.;
Huhn, Die Messianischen Weissagungen des Israelitisch-Judischen
Volks, Freiburg 1899; Weber, Jiidische Theologie, Leipzig 1897,
p. 374ff. and finally Charles, Eschatology, London 1899, who has
dealt exhaustively with the pseudepigraphic and Christian literature.



94

Messianic wars with Bileam, the false prophet and arch-
enemy of Israel. He is supposed to lead the hostile army
and he is the enemy of the Messiah. The Greek trans-
lation of the name of Bileam is 'Epe[/.7]X<xo<; in accordance
with the ancient Jewish interpretation already found in the
Palestinian Targum. Numb. XXII. 5, where Bileam's name
is explained as "Bal' + 'am;" i. e. "the one who is destined
to destroy the nation," (so also in Talmud Sanhedrin 105 b).
This gives us a final solution of a problem which has
hitherto baffled the scholars in their endeavour to explain
the name "Armilos." It has nothing to do with "Romulus,"
but is simply the above-mentioned Greek translation of
"Bileam" who, as I have endeavoured to show, is the sinister
prototype of the Arch-enemy of Israel, the antagonist of
the Messiah. "Armilos" occurs in the Targum to Isaiah
XI. 4, ascribed to Jonathan, first century, in connection
with the Messianic interpretation of that chapter, and in
the Palestinian Targum Deut. XXXIV, 3, as the enemy
who at the end of days will incite the nations against
Israel and against the Messiah, who will be defeated by
the latter. * The fact that this name occurs already in the
Targum of Jonathan without any further explanation just-
ifies the assumption that the name as well as the character
of Armilos was already then widely known, and the people
at once understood the whole implication which that name
carried. The idea that it is .an interpolation is not likely
to prove correct, since it occurs in the old Codex Reuch-
linianus under the form Armalogon as in the Palestinian
Targum in the Editio Princeps (Venice 1517). I must, how-
ever, state that in some of the MSS. hailing from Yemen
this word is missing. It is very likely that it has dropped



* After writing this I find that Prof. Graetz had suggested the
identification of Bileam with Eremilaos (Levy s. v. Armilos) but has
drawn no further conclusion and made no attempt to explain this identi-
fication, nor has anyone followed up this clue. My conjecture, how-
ever, of this identification is thereby corroborated.



95

out in a country where the reference to Armilos had lost
its meaning, though not so in the West, where the word was
still pregnant with deep significance. It recurs in all the
legends connected with the Messiah, such as the Nistaroth of
R. Simeon ben Yochai, Tefillath R. Simeon b. Yochai, Pirke
Elijahu, or Pirke Mashiah, and in the Sefer Zerubabel,
the latter in all probability the oldest and one which stands
in some relation with Ezra IV. "Armilos" is also found in
the Midrash Vayosha which, by the way, is a Midrash
on the lesson of the seventh day of Passover, the Song
of Moses (Ex. XIV), whilst the chapter of Isaiah in
which the name of Armilos occurs, is the lesson from
the prophets for the same day. Hence probably the
Armilos legend in this Midrash; there is no better proof
for the high antiquity of Armilos in the Targum, as
otherwise no such name would have occurred on that
occasion. *

The recognition of the identity of Armilos and Bileam was
only possible after the foregoing investigation concerning
the character with which Bileam had been invested in the
course of time, when from a mere soothsayer hired for the
purpose of cursing Israel, he had developed into the type
of arch-heretic and arch-enemy. It is not a mere coincidence
that both Bileam and Armilos are regularly called "the
wicked ones." There occurs now in the Haggada (the
Passover service) a peculiar sentence which seems straight-
forward, but which in the light of this comparison assumes
a deeper meaning. Laban is mentioned there as the arch-
enemy who wants to destroy the whole nation. No reason
is to be found in the text of the Bible; but this reference
may find a satisfactory solution if under the enigmatic name
of Laban the people were reminded of Bileam, with whom
he is identified by the legend, and so stands throughout
the ages as the arch-enemy of the Jews, and of their

* Fuller literature : Ginzburg, Jewish Encyclopaedia Vol. II,.
p. 1 1 8, s. v. Armilos.



9 6

Messianic hopes; the latter which are intimately bound up
. with the Passover festival.

Thus the Armilos-Bileam Legend prepares the ground
for the monstrous figure of the Antichrist; for just as he
is to the Jews the enemy of their Messiah, so does he be-
come in the eyes of the Christians first the source and
instigator of the anti-Christian heresy, and then he is the
Antichrist himself. Moreover, in a Jewish legend, Bileam
is identified with Jesus, the latter being considered as a
false Messiah, just as the Antichrist is the false Christian
Messiah who claims to be the true one. Therefore in the
N. T. times the apostles after the appearance of Christ
stigmatised the claims of the sect of the followers of Bileam
as preposterous and blasphemous. Later Christian writers
easily enlarged upon that theme and thus the grotesque
figure of the Antichrist as he appeared in the legends of
later ages slowly took form. That the origin of the Anti-
christ Legend is an offspring of the Bileam legend is,
as I believe, now fully substantiated. This result runs
counter to the hypothetical solution attempted by Bousset
and others.* One may hazard a conjecture that the
Beliar (Sib. Oracles III, 64: v. Bate. Sib. Or. Lit. ad loc.)
may be no one else than Bileam, whose name has
been travestied to "Beliar" meaning "Evil Tempter"
and "Wicked Sorcerer," although by some commen-
tators he is identified with Simon Magus, Acts VIII. 9;
but the description of that Simon fits entirely that
of Bileam. The name appears also in the Ascensio

* Bousset, The Antichrist, trans. Keane London 1896, p. 12 iff.,
who has collected a rich parallel literature from the Sibylline Oracles
has been able to trace the Antichrist Legend of Methodius as far back
as the writings of Ephrem Syrus of Nisibis (died 373) and. to Jerome
in Palestine (died 420). Bousset seems to have overlooked the Tal-
mudic and Agadic literature although mentioned by others, but not
in this connection. In consequence he has been led astray in his con-
clusions as to the origin of the Antichrist legend. Hiihn has already
disposed of his attempted identification of these troubles with the
ancient Babylonian Tiamat or Dragon legend.



97

Jesaiae I. 8, and in the Testament of the XII Patriarchs
(see Index II in Charles' edition, London, 1908). I have
discovered that this name is used by the Samaritans for
the designation of the Evil One who tempted Eve.

Bousset(loc. cit. p. I23ff.) raises the very interesting point
that "the one premonitory sign which recurs in nearly all the
sources" is the fall of Rome. This contrasts curiously with
the favourable disposition towards Rome displayed by the
Fathers of the Church. Bousset cannot find sufficient
explanation, but our text now gives this explanation.
Whilst Gog is taken to represent the Greek Empire, after
whose destruction the Messiah will come, Edom and the
people of Gabala are mentioned in the Palestinian
Targum as those with whom the war will have to be
fought and with whose fall the victory of Israel will be
complete. The LXX and Samaritan Hebrew, as already
remarked, substitute "Esau" for "Seir." Now Esau and
Edom were the old enemies of Israel. So we have here the
ultimate source of the belief that the fall of Rome, i. e. Edom
and Esau, must precede the fulfilment of the last words
of Bileam's prophecy, Numb. XXIV. 19, which has been
retained in the original Hebrew in the Asatir.

The picture of these eschatological events is rounded off
by the Oracle (XII. 22). To this a close parallel is again
found in the Palestinian Targum XXXIII. 21, which reads
as follows: "... For there was a place (B. a place for
a sepulchre) a place laid out with precious stones and
pearls, where Moses the prophet (and scribe of Israel)
was hidden (B. buried) who as he went in and out at
the head of the people in this world, will go in and
out in the world that cometh; because he wrought
righteousness before the Lord and taught the orders of
the judgments to the house of Israel his people." The two
Targumim are practically identical, with the slight and
yet not insignificant difference that in version A Moses is
described as hidden, whilst in B he is buried. Here we have

Asatii. 7



9 8

a complete parallel to the Samaritan doctrine of Moses
Redivivus, he who will return at the end of days and go
in and out at the head of the people. This doctrine differs
entirely from the Jewish conception of the life and death
of Moses and could only have been retained in the Pales-
tinian Targum as the remnant of a very ancient legend
when the Davidic origin of the Messiah had not yet taken
deep root in the consciousness of the people, or at any rate
had not yet met with universal acceptance. We find that
strange doctrine already modified in the parallel passage
of the Sifre ad loc., since it did not seem to agree any
longer with current ideas.*

No room is left for doubt in the Asatir that Moses is
meant. Stanza 24 of the Oracle, which follows, distinctly
states that he will come and bring in his hand the
Rod of Miracles, i. e., the wonder-working Rod of
Moses. This is the sign of the genuine Messiah as al-
ready mentioned before on p. 55 56, which the Jews will
ask of him who comes to them and demands their rec-
ognition. This close parallelism between the Asatir and
the Palestinian Targum cannot be the result of mere
coincidence, as it affects fundamental principles, and there
is no apparent reason why such identical legendary inter-
pretations should be deduced from the simple text of the
Bible. All this points again to the fact that the Palestinian
Targum and the Asatir have drawn from older sources
common to both, i. e. the Midrashic exegesis of the Bible
in Palestine. Yet, each one has used that midrashic
material in his own way, independent of the other.

Attention may now be drawn to another survival of the
Bileam legend in the Asatir; for at the time when the
Asatir was composed Bileam was already regarded
by the Samaritans as the chief sorcerer and wizard, the
one who possessed magic powers; for we find in the

* Ed. Friedmann, Vienna 1864, par. 355, f. 147 b; see also T. B. Sotah
f. 14 a.



99

prophecy one of the men described as "he who will use
the witchcraft of Bileam," (XL 30). According to my inter-
pretation of the prophecy, this refers to King Solomon,
differing from the anachronistic one given by the Sama-
ritans, who apply it to Jesus (cf. Pitron ad. loc.). The
importance of the application of the wizardry of Bileam
to Solomon lies not only in the fact that we have here a
survival of the continued consciousness of the part played
by Bileam, but still more that it is the first reference
made to Solomon in which he is described as a wizard
using magic powers. It is in this character that he
appears in all the legends of the East. He is master over
the world of demons and performs many wonderful acts,
almost as a magician. To the Samaritans, Solomon is
not endowed with divine wisdom and power, as in the
Jewish tradition, but on the contrary, acts like Bileam,
and even introduces the worship of strange gods, for he is
the builder of a vile temple. Thus the legend of Bileam
continues to work and it furnishes us here with the key
to the origin of the legends of Solomon, the magician of
later literature.

THE ASATIR AND THE CYCLES
OF UNIVERSAL SAGAS.

Having arrived so far, it will not be amiss if another
survey is taken also of the various legends treated hitherto.
Thus far my aim has been to discover, as far as possible,
the probable date and origin of the Asatir, by comparing
it more or less minutely with Hellenistic literature, with
Josephus, the Palestinian Targum, and with the literature of
Oracles of a later date. Important as these investigations
may have been from a literary and historical point of
view, they do not entirely exhaust the interest which
these legends claim. On the contrary, by these invest-
igations, they come into clearer relief. They take their

7*



IOO

place now in the greater world of myth and legend ; not
limited to one nation, but international. Certain prim-
itive types now can be evolved for cycles of legends
which are traceable from age to age. Each of them in its
turn stands at the head of a long series of developments,
and each of them has exercised an extraordinary influence
upon the imagination of mankind in the whole western
civilisation. Their real value, therefore, will lie in the fact
that we have in these Samaritan legends the oldest proto-
types, or, at any rate, the oldest yet recovered, for these
different tales and legends.

(A) There is first the Nimrod Saga and the subsequent
legend of the Universal King. This legend, which, as
mentioned, is the starting-point of a whole series of
similar conceptions of world-empires and world-rule,
and of a king who in time even claims to be wor-
shipped as a god, is found also in the Jewish literature.
The ten kings who mark the ten periods of the world's
existence are enumerated as follows in that old collection of
Jewish legends published in my "Exempla." Here we read
(No. I) that Nimrod was the first king over the whole world
after God, and further on among the next seven we find also
Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, and very significantly Alexander
the Great. The ninth king will be the Messiah, and after
him the rule will return again to God, who will be the tenth.
Of these Nebuchadnezzar appears as the emperor of the
world in the legend of Babylon; and in another set of
legends, instead of Cyrus, we find Chosroe, not only as
the king who aspires to imperial rule, but who evidently
also claims to be worshipped as a god, for when Heraclius
has defeated the latter's grandson, it is said that he
destroys a colossal statue of Chosroe, who is sitting on
a throne surrounded by pictures of the sun, moon and
stars, in a building looking like a temple. Here again
we find first in the Asatir the description of a temple built
in a similar manner, adorned also with the sun and moon,



IOI

and apparently it is a woman that occupies the throne and
is the object of worship. The language is very obscure,
but it refers, no doubt, to a similar building. What is
mentioned here about the temple built by Afridan
(Ch. III. 2off.) is found, curiously enough, in almost
identical terms ascribed to Nimrod, in the old version of
the Abraham legend found in my "Exempla" (No. 1 1 a.)
Nimrod also claims to be worshipped as a god, and sits on a
throne or in a temple similar to that of Chosroe. In the
Jewish legend there appears also another king who wishes
to be worshipped as a god, and tries to imitate the order of
the world over which he rules. It is the Hiram legend
(Exempla No. 4), which runs as follows: "Hiram, king
of Tyre, made seven artificial heavens placed on pillars
of iron, first of glass, sun, moon and stars. Second of
iron, with a lake of water hi it; third of tin with precious
stones rolling over it (thunder). Fourth of lead, fifth
of copper, then silver and gold and on the top a couch of
gold and precious stones and pearls. By moving it he
produces scintillation (lightning). The prophet Ezekiel
carried up to him tells him that although he has been
promised long life he will not live for ever."

In all these versions we have the same idea of a king
ruling the whole world, or who in himself represents the
god who rules it. It is the same idea which we find
already dimly represented in the ten kings of the Sibyl
of Tibur, more pronouncedly afterwards in the West, in
Imperial Rome, in the Emperors of Byzantium, and in
those of the Western Kings, who also dreamt of becoming
Emperors of the world, or who considered themselves
heirs to the Empire of Rome of the West, or Rome of
the East. The globe, the sceptre, arid the star-spangled
mantles represent in a symbolical manner the orb of the
world and the star-spangled sky.

(B) There is a second cycle of legends to which I now
turn, that of the exposed child-hero, or the child of destiny.



IO2

The central idea of this cycle of legends is that a king is
warned against his offspring. His child or grandchild,
and sometimes the child of another woman will in time
rob him of his power. He tries many devices to destroy
that child, which is often secretly born, then exposed to
wild beasts, or left in a cave or forest to die. But somehow
the elements and animals are friendly to the child; it
grows up, is exposed to various dangers, such as being
cast into the river, or by some stratagem is cast into a
burning furnace, when by some change or substitution
the hero is saved, and the old prophecy comes true. Here
we have all the elements found in the Abraham legend:
Nimrod is warned that a child will be born, which in time
will destroy his claim to be worshipped as a god, and
rob him of his power. He tries to prevent the birth, but
does not succeed, the mother is able to conceal her situa-
tion, the child is born and is hidden in a cave. It is miracul-
ously protected, grows up, confronts as a man the king, who
tries to destroy him by casting him into a furnace ; but H aran,
his brother, is burned by the flames, Abraham is saved,
Nimrod' s claim destroyed, and later on Abraham defeats
him in battle. The birth in the cave and the mysterious
death of Haran are best understood if both are taken
as attempts on the part of Nimrod to destroy Abraham,
in which he fails, so that Haran becomes, as it were, the
substitute for Abraham destined to be burned in the furnace.
This story is duplicated, with some slight change of detail,
in the Asatir in the legend of the birth of Moses. In this
wise these legends of Abraham and Moses contain all the
details found in the innumerable variants of this cycle of
legends. The stories of Yima, Cyrus, Oedipus, Siegfried and
Romulus will at once be remembered in this connection ;
also the no less numerous legends throughout the world
literature of the child willed by fate to obtain possession
of a throne or another man's property, and which is con-
nected with the third type of tales of the man sent to be



103

burned in a furnace or to be destroyed in some way or
other by a message, which he is expected to deliver, but
who is saved by the enemy who forestalls him and suffers
the death which is intended for the hero.*

(C) The third cycle to which attention may now be drawn is
that of the return of the lost hero, or rather, of his coming to
life again.** Towards the end of the Asatir we gather that
the expectation of the future happiness, of the inauguration
of an era of peace and joy is made to be dependent on
or coincident with the Advent of the Taheb, described so
that in him one can easily recognize Moses Redivivus.
Moses cannot really die, but he is hidden away until the
time destined for his reappearance. He will then come
back with the insignia of his Messiahship. In the Jewish
tradition this idea of a hero Redivivus is expressed in a
slightly different form in connection with the Pinetias
saga. He is also destined not to die, and he reappears
under the name of Elijah, who also does not die, but is
translated to heaven in a miraculous manner. Yet he will
reappear at the end of days, to fight the false Messiah,
and then help to inaugurate the time of universal peace
and joy, when the Messiah will obtain rule. Whether
Ezekiel contemplated also a David Redivivus must be left
an open question. I have shown elsewhere Ezekiel's con-
nection with the northern tribes of Israel, (Gaster, Schweich
Lectures on the Sammaritans pp. 12. 15) and also with
reference to Gog (above p. 90 92). He, in any case, speaks
emphatically of David, the king (Ezek. XXXIV, 23. 24
and XXXVII 24 5) as living, as it were, and in the last
mentioned verse, as living for ever. He is thus not only

* It is quite sufficient to refer here to the literature of the exposed
child in the table given by Dunlop in his "History of Fiction," 2nd
edition, and to the immense literature of parallels collected by Bolte and
Polivka, "Annotations to Grimm" I. No. 29 p. 278 ff. and finally V.
Tille in "Zeitschrift d. Vereins fur Volkskunde" 1919 Berlin p. 22 ff.
** See also H. Schmidt, "Der Mythos vom wiederkehrenden
Konig im Alten Testament" p. 28.



104

Redivivus, but is a king for ever at the end of days. With
this utterance of the prophet runs parallel the idea of
the second Advent of Christ. This idea of the hero dis-
appearing for a while, and then reappearing with might
and glory, and ushering in the long-expected time of
happiness is found afterwards also among many nations.
It may have been first applied to Alexander, but curi-
ously enough it was then transferred to Nero, so already
in the Sibylline Oracles (cf. Bate. Sibyl. Oracles p. 39ff.) ;
not to speak of many prophets and Law-givers, who for
a time disappeared, and then came back with a new revel-
ation, such as Zoroaster, Zalmoxes and others. It is sufficient
here to refer to the story of Arthur in Avalon and of the
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in the Kyffhaeuser. *

(D) The last, and not the least important cycle, which is
intimately connected with the preceding one is the Antichrist
legend, that curious figure of a monstrous being endowed
with witchcraft, and capable of leading the world astray,
which will arise at the end of time and endeavour to
obstruct by every means the Advent of the true Messiah and
the salvation of the world, as well as the proclamation of
the True Faith. How profound the impression has been
which this arch-enemy of God and man has produced upon
the mind of the world can scarcely be exaggerated. (See
Bousset, The Antichrist Legend, London 1896.) To have
traced it to its possible ultimate source, and to have
realised that it was the outcome of a growing develop-
ment of a legend the centre of which was the wizard and
old arch-enemy, Bileam, is to have added another contrib-
ution towards the history of this remarkable conception.

Four cycles of legends have thus been evolved out of the
narratives in the Asatir: the universal king, the exposed
child, the return of the hero, and finally the Antichrist.
Incidentally reference may be made to the possible start-

* See Kampers, "Kaiseridee," and the same "Werdegange;" Eis-
ler, "Orpheus," p. 354.



ing point found here of the belief that King Solomon
possessed magic powers.

One more word may finally be said about Josephus.
He must now be lifted out of the narrower sphere of a
mere interpreter of the Biblical narrative, and placed at
the head of a whole cycle of literary developments of no
mean importance. With him begins the literature of the
Historiated Bible, which in the course of time was to
appeal to the popular taste more strongly, if possible, than
the simpler narrative of Holy Writ. His example was
imitated, his work enlarged upon or abbreviated, and
much of the legendary matter was taken over into other
writings and widely circulated. In the Jewish literature
we have a parallel to Josephus, in the often-mentioned
Sefer Hayashar, and in the more loosely connected legends
in the Chronicle of Jerafrmeel. In the Greek I refer to the
Palaea, from which translations have been made in very early
times into Slavonic and later on into Rumanian, and have
found their way into the versified Biblical stories in popular
Greek by Chumnos. In the Latin I mention Petrus Com-
mestor's Biblia Historiale and it is impossible even rem-
otely to delineate the influence which these works have
exercised upon the mind of the Middle Ages in literature
and art, especially in the Biblical Mystery Plays of
France, Germany, and England. It is an uninterrupted
chain which stretches through the centuries, and it is of
no little interest to follow it up link by link from its latest
development to its remotest source. This gives to the
Asatir its specific additional value.

THE PSEUDEPIGRAPHIC LITERATURE.

It will now be more easy to define the relation between
the Asatir and the pseudepigraphic literature. From the
above investigations, no doubt can be entertained as to
the high antiquity of the Asatir. It precedes by a very



io6

long time, not easily determined, any of the other
pseudepigraphic writings hitherto known. Scholars differ
among themselves as to the date to be assigned to each
of these. No wonder, as no real starting point for this
kind of literature has as yet been defined. Allusions of a
very vague nature, dark prophecies, not one of which has
been as yet absolutely verified, have guided these scholars
in suggesting the age of the composition, and I venture to
add, an ill-applied interpretation of alleged sectarian
disputes, the reflex of which was believed to have been
found in these writings, as well as the confused historical
background, have contributed to prevent scholars from
arriving at definite conclusions. The real starting-point,
however, should be as I have endeavoured to show the
relation in which each of these pseudepigraphic writings
stands to the text of the Bible. So long as they present the
character of a pure commentary, though embellished by
many legends and tales, they must be considered as old. But
as soon as their character changes and they are used as a
mere vehicle for the propagation of new ideas, not seldom
subversive to Judaism, they proclaim themselves to be the
product of a later age. The conditions under which they
were originally written, had by then been entirely changed.
This can best be proved by a careful analysis of the
peculiar character of those pseudepigraphic writings,
which have not been preserved in their original Hebrew or
Aramaic language. Every one of those now found only
in Greek or in other versions depending upon the Greek
have travelled far away from the original form, whilst
those preserved in a Semitic tongue (Hebrew, Aramaic,
Samaritan and even Syriac) have retained to a large extent
their ancient character. The degree of change, however, in
the former varies also considerably.

These have been worked over, changed, mutilated and

above all have now become purely and simply part of a

, definite propagandist literature. They serve as a cloak for



107

polemical invective, sheltering themselves behind old and
venerated names. None of these books, could therefore
be directly compared with the former class except in so
far as they have some Agadic material in common; they
start only from one portion or another of the Bible nar-
rative, and use old legends and Midrashim. They no doubt
had recourse to the same sources of popular and Agadic
exegesis which lie at the root of the Asatir and of the other
writings hitherto mentioned, such as the Hellenistic literat-
ure, the Palestinian Targum and Josephus.

The comparison with the other pseudepigraphic writings
will not detain me, therefore, very long. The differences
between the Asatir and these writings are far more pro-
nounced than the agreements.

In order to elucidate the true relationship of the Sam-
aritan book to the extant pseudepigraphic writings, I have
chosen the Book of Enoch as the first in point. It is be-
lieved to be the oldest of its kind, yet no pseudepigraphic
book shows more clearly the profound difference between
the Asatir and the other works of a similar character than
this book. I have chosen it deliberately for comparison in
order to determine more sharply the specific character of
the Asatir in contradistinction to the rest. If, as is assumed,
the date of the various fragments out of which the Book
of Enoch has been compiled, ranges from 160 B. C. E.
to 64 C. E., then they must be the result of a lengthy develop-
ment which had taken place a very long time before the
date assumed by scholars. But this assumption will
have to undergo a very serious revision, the discussion of
which lies outside the sphere of this investigation. The
apocalyptic visions in the Book of Enoch, as well as the
allegories and symbolical pictures, are far removed from
those found in the Book of Daniel. The description of Hell
and its punishments, the Fall of Angels, the demonology
and astrology are so fully developed that it would be
impossible to ascribe to them any great antiquity. Even



io8

the interpretation of the prophecies contained therein, in
the light of certain events, is a matter of hypothetical
speculation, and does not prove contemporary origin.
These prophecies are subject, as a rule, to constant changes
and modifications, and are often so worded that they
can easily be applied to changing conditions. There is,
moreover, one item in the Book of Enoch on which special
stress is laid. I refer to the calculation of the Calendar.
This seems to have been a burning question which agitated
all the sects in Palestine to a very high degree. It is the
pivot round which the Book of Jubilees turns, as will be
seen p. no 112.

If one turns now to the Samaritan Asatir, one cannot
imagine a greater contrast. It is sober and simple; there
is no trace of the Fall of Angels, no demonology, no apoc-
alyptic vision of Hell, and no exaggerated conception of
Enoch. There is no translation to Heaven, no symbolical
or allegorical vision and parable. Yet there is some com-
mon ground on which they both meet ; viz, the origin of the
Calendar. The Samaritans also accept it as a divine
revelation, and the astronomical calculation dates from
the beginning of time, with the difference, however, that
this revelation has been made to Adam, who is represented
as being the first high priest and king (see above, p. 36).
He observes the march of the planets; he possesses the
Books of Astronomy, which he communicates to Enoch
and Noah; he foresees the Flood, whilst Noah, who is
studying these books, teaches his contemporaries and
warns them of the consequences of their evil ways. The
prophecy is here fittingly relegated to the end of the Asatir
and put into the mouth of Moses, to whom alone these
"Secrets" are revealed. Enoch to the Samaritans is a
human being like all the rest and he dies, but at an
early age. What a difference between the exuberant fan-
tasy of the Book of Enoch and the sober legends told
in the Midrash of the Asatir! If, as scholars (Beer and



Charles*), suggest, the origin of the Book of Enoch or
some portions of it, is to be sought in Northern Palestine,
the very place where the origin of the Asatir is also to
be sought, then the difference between these two is still
more striking, and one is driven forcibly to the conclusion
that the one belongs to a much higher antiquity, when such
mystical speculations did not exercise any sway on the
minds of the people as was the case in a much later period,
when such fantastic speculations were the order of the
day, and assumed such an extraordinary shape as in the
Book of Enoch. Here we have the two extremes of Midrash
and myth, even if it should be the case that they belong to
two different sects. The one represents the ascetic Essenes,
with their contemplative life and theosophic speculations
on the banks of the Jordan, and the other, the people in
general who frequented the houses of learning and wor-
ship, and enjoyed the legendary interpretations and the em-
bellishments of the sacred text. A portion of the Book of
Enoch has, in fact, been discovered by me to be nothing
less than the "Logos Ebraikos" in the magical papyrus of
Paris (Gaster, "Studies and Texts" p. 3 56ff.). It shows that
a certain sect made use of the Book of Enoch for magic
purposes, owing, no doubt, to the numerous names of
angels and demons that occur therein. I have taken this
book as an example in order to show the profound dif-
ference between the Asatir and the pseudepigraphic literat-
ure, and to measure the distance of time which must separ-
ate the one from the other. If the Book of Enoch should
really belong to the year 160 B. C. E., it would be very
difficult to determine the century to which the Samaritan
book would belong.

The relation between the Asatir and other pseudepigra-
phic books is, however, much closer iritendency and form,
than that between the Asatir and the Book of Enoch,

* The Book of Enoch. Trsld. from the Editor's Ethiopia Text.
Oxford 1912.



1 10

which represent the two extremes. Next in order of ant-
iquity is believed to be the Book of Jubilees, which con-
tains not a few elements found in the Asatir. The legend-
ary matter, however, has grown to such an extent that it
is no longer only a small addition or interpretation of the
narrative, or simple glosses on the text of the Bible. It is,
on the contrary, quite an independent work, in which the
Biblical record has been greatly overlaid by legends and
tales. But what characterises the Book of Jubilees espec-
ially is, that it has become a book with a purpose. It is
intended to inculcate a new lesson, not even hinted at in the
Bible, and to propagate new theories. A new Calendar is
being evolved and recommended as a divine revelation
made by the angel to Moses. The history is arranged ac-
cording to Jubilees, and care has been taken by the author
to give the exact dates, especially the years in each Jubilee
when the events recorded in the Bible have happened. In
addition, we find also genealogical information, such as
the fictitious names of the wives of the Patriarchs. The
book, moreover, contains a number of very rigorous legal
injunctions for the strict observance of the Sabbath and
the festivals ; for all are preordained and observed al-
ready by the first Patriarchs. We find here a long story
of the fight of Jacob and his sons against Sichem (ibid.
Ch. XXX) and then against Esau and his children (ibid.
Ch. XXXVIII). This may be a proof of its late origin,
for under the form of an ancient story a real chapter of
contemporary history may have been told. It may be a
reflection of the wars between Jews and Samaritans and
also with the Edomites. If we then find, as is the case, a
Hebrew parallel of this ancient story with the name of
Herodion in it, it is obvious that we are dealing here with
a legend which has its origin in the history of the death of
Herod the Edomite. In the Book of Jubilees there is also
a brief chapter on the birth of Moses (Ch. XLVII). It is
idle to speculate as to the origin of the book, as various



Ill

scholars have done, ascribing it in turns to the Hasidim,
Essenes, Pharisees, Saducees of various shades and deg-
rees, and even to the Samaritans themselves; not to
speak of the other theory, advanced by Singer,* who
ascribed to it a Christian- Pauline origin. And yet, in
spite of such conflicting views, and on the slenderest
of grounds, the Book of Jubilees is still believed to be-
long to the middle of the second century, B. C. E. The
very character of the book, the expansion of the legends,
the insistence on a Calendar according to the solar
year, the Messiah from Levi, the era of the Jubilees; all
these, whilst showing in many minor points similarities
to Samaritan traditions, can only belong to a period of
great political unrest and religious upheaval. The system of
counting by Jubilees insisted upon by the author points
moreover in that direction. It must have been written
after the Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, when the
Jewish Calendar could no longer be fixed by an existing
authority on the first sight of the New Moon, and the San-
hedrin had ceased to function. The era of the Creation, on
the other hand, had not yet been adopted, and the Seluecidan
was probably not allowed. The difficulty thus grew how
to establish the Calendar without having recourse to the
official proclamation of the New Moon and the interpolation
of the months, according to the old method. But by the
new solar Calendar of the Jubilees the feasts and fasts would
become definitely fixed The author would thereby also
meet the claim of the Samaritans, whose Calendar rests on
astronomical calculation and the readjustment of the solar
and lunar year. The scant references to the Temple form
part of the archaic colouring. It was at the end of the
first century that the fixing of the Calendar became a
burning question. Nobody would have troubled about it
before, so long as the Sanhedrin existed, and the same, as

* Das Buch der Jubilaen o. die Leptogenesis, Stuhlweisen-
burg 1798.



112

will be seen presently, is the case with a Hebrew book of
the same period, the Chapters of Rabbi Eliezer. Thus the
distance between the Book of Jubilees and the Asatir is
very considerable ; nor do we find so many points of contact
between these two books as one would otherwise expect,
if the Book of Jubilees were as old as is alleged. We find
in consequence also that the Book of Jubilees has very
little in common with the older Hellenistic literature, i. e.
Josephus and also with the Palestinian Targum. There
are, however, some details in which Asatir and Jubilees
agree ; these are referred to in the notes accompanying the
translation.

Concerning the Biblical Antiquities of Pseudo-Philo,
limiting myself to the Pentateuchal period, we find
they agree, in some details, with the Asatir. This book
belongs, in a way, to the class of the Historiated Bible
mentioned before. It resembles the Asatir in so far as the
author refrains from repeating the Biblical story. He
gives instead many legends of a very curious character,
numerous names of the children of the first Patriarchs, and
geographical names of the divisions of the land, not easy
to find elsewhere. I must refer to the elaborate discussion
of this book in the introduction of my edition of the Chron-
icle of Jerahmeel p. 40, where I suggestad Samaritan
affinities, and since then to the English translation by
M. R. James, London, 1917. The book, preserved in
archaic Latin, is a literal translation made in the third or
fourth century from the Greek, which in its turn rests
upon an older Hebrew or Aramaic text, probably dating
from shortly after the destruction of Jerusalem. There is
moreover, one parallel the importance of which cannot be
exaggerated. It throws light on the history of the Farewell
Oration and Death of Moses, (ibid. ch. XIX) as it appears
in many apocalyptic writings. I am publishing here a
Samaritan version of this episode, and it will be seen how
close the parallelism is between Pseudo-Philo and the latter.



The parallelism is so close that it cannot rest on mere
coincidence and strengthens again my surmise that the
author of Pseudo-Philo stood in some close connection with
the Samaritan tradition. True, in Pseudo-Philo the story
is much more fully developed than in the Samaritan, and
yet it finishes there also with a prophecy which resembles
that contained in the Asatir.

The points of contact are besides this not very numerous.
The legends are entirely different from those found else-
where, such as the story of Abraham in the furnace (ibid.
Ch. VI, isff.). All the parallels are given in the notes.
A few characteristic ones, however, may be mentioned
here, such as the restraint of men and women in Egypt
(IX. 2) the peculiarly long genealogies of Caleb and
Joshua (Philo, XV. 3), which reminds one of the long
genealogies of Pharaoh (Asatir, VIII. 15), and Bileam
(Asatir X, i) in the Asatir Bileam's advice concerning
the Moabite women (Bibl. Antiq. XVIII, 13), and that
remarkable story of the peculiar twelve precious stones
(ibid. XXV. I2ff.), which remind one of the twenty-four
stones in Asatir II. 7. A reference may be made here to
Rev. XXI. 19. 20. Altogether it is a book which stands
alone and represents an independent development from
the same simple sources and running on parallel lines.
It requires still further study.

The "Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs" is already
an entirely different work, and more akin to the Book
of Jubilees. It has very little in common with the older
traditions in the Asatir.

If we now pass on to the Adam Books, there is curiously
enough the Syriac "Cave of Treasures," which shows much
more agreement in detail with the Asatir than any of the
preceding writings. In its present form this book has been
compiled somewhere about 450 C. E. It is entirely changed
and has become a thoroughly Christian legend. But the
story of the Patriarchs down to Moses has suffered com-

Asatir. 8



H4

paratively less from the hand of the Christian manipulator
than the succeeding parts. It rests ultimately on a text
resembling the Asatir. The similarity of language may
have facilitated this appropriation of the older material
for the new compilation. The Samaritan language differs
very little from the Aramaic, and so also from the Syriac.
And perhaps another consideration may have weighed
with the author of the Cave of Treasures, inasmuch as it
was not a book written by Jews, but by a dissenting sect
of which Jesus had spoken in friendly terms. Goetze, who
has made an independent study of the book, has come to
the same conclusion, viz : that the first portion of the "Cave
of Treasures" is nothing more than an ancient Midrash
embodied in that book by the author of the "Cave."* He was
unaware of the existence of the Asatir, by which his
conclusions have now been corroborated. He then followed
up his study by an investigation into the influence which the
"Cave of Treasures" has exercised on subsequent writings.
Of these I quote now at once the Revelations of Methodius
of Patara or Patmos (treated more fully previously). There
are, however, in the latter, many details not found
in the Cave, but in the Asatir, and although this writing
also belongs to a later period, probably to the time of
Heraclius (Sackur, Sibyll. Texte, p. 122), still, it shows
much greater affinity with the Asatir, especially in the
first part, than with the "Cave." It was compiled originally
in Persia or Babylonia. It was a purely Oriental compilat-
ion, and the author, therefore, could have used a version
of the Asatir, or a similar work of which he has made
ample use. The Asatir seems to be thus far the only source
known to us for many of the details found in the last two
books, since they are absent from the other apocryphal and
pseudepigraphic writings, which are all ultimately of

* A. Goetze, Die Schatzhohle. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger
Akad. d. Wiss., Philos.-hist. Bd. IV, 1922. Idem "Die Nachwirkung
der Schatzhohle" in Zeitschrift f . Semitistik u. verwandte Geb., Bd. II.
Heft I, Leipzig 1923.



us

Jewish origin. References are made in the notes through-
out to every one of these writings, thus showing the con-
nection which may have existed between them and their
mutual interdependence.

If we now turn to the other Adam books, there is first
the so-called Apocalypse of Moses, published by Tischen-
dorf, * like all the others from late Greek MSS. Here the
story is strictly limited to the creation of Adam, his life,
penitence and death. It has undergone a similar thoroughly
Christian revision, although it ultimately goes back to a
Jewish original. I have already drawn attention to the
fact that this story must have belonged at one time to a
larger book (see above p. 6) which contained the whole
Biblical history from the Creation to the death of Moses,
and must have contained an apocalypse of the latter.
Hence the names; for otherwise the title "Apocalypse of
Moses" given to a story limited to the life of Adam and
Eve would be inexplicable. At one time or another the
first portion became detached, and the old title was re-
tained. In a few points, the "Apocalypse" and the Asatir
agree, but these points of resemblance are very slender and
few. The same may be said of the rest of the Adam-Books,
which have departed more and more from the ancient orig-
inal, and have become thoroughly Christianised legends .*
In each of these one finds reminiscences of old traditions.

* Apocalypses Apocryphae Leipzig 1866, pp. i 23, and completely
by Ceriani in "Monumenta sacra et profana" torn I, fasc. I (Mediolan.
1861) pp. 5564.

** Such as the Ethiopic Book of Adam (ed. by Malan, London 1 882).
The Latin Vita Adae et Evae (ed. W. Meyer, Abhandl. d. Miinchener
Akad., Philos.-Philol. Kl. Bd. XIV, 1878. German Translation
E. Kautzsch, Pseudoepigraphen des Alten Testaments, Tubingen
1906, II, p. 506 ff. English in R. H. Charles, Apocrypha and Pseude-
pigrapha of the Old Testament, Oxford 1913, vol. II, p. I23ff.). The
Syriac and Arabic (ed. by Renan in Journal Asiatique, cinquieme serie,
torn II, 1853, pp. 427 ff.). Armenian (German transl. : E. Preuschen,
Die apokryphen gnostischen Adamschriften a. d. Armen. iibers. u.
unters., Giessen 1900. English transl. by Conybeare in Jew. Quarterly
Review VII, 1895, p. 2i6ff. Old Slavonian (ed. Jagic, Denkschrift

8*



I have left now for special consideration the greatly
mutilated Assumption of Moses (ed. by R. H. Charles,
London 1897). A careful examination reveals here again
only stray resemblances to the Asatir. The apocalypse
has become also a definite pronouncement from a special
point of view, a kind of party pamphlet, but I submit that
the conclusions which have been drawn as to the time of
the composition and the circumstances alluded to are not a
little rash. On the one hand, our knowledge of the situ-
ation which prevailed in Palestine before the Maccabean
period is almost nil. The relation between Jews and
Samaritans and the continually growing feud between
these two sections has not yet been sufficiently realised,
and still less the influence which it exercised on the
contemporary literature. Moreover, the fluidity of pro-
phecies and symbols, and their easy application from one
set of events to another apparently similar, is constantly
occuring. One has to follow up only the transformation
(referred to above p. 43 45) of the Sibylline Oracles in the
course of ages from the third and eighth book to the Sibyl
of Tibur and then to the mediaeval oracles, in order to
realise the ease and frequency of those changes and how
difficult it is to determine the persons and situations found
in one book or the other. They may be much older, and often
are indeed much older, since they have been taken over
bodily and transferred to a much later compilation, in the
hope and expectation that readers would apply them to
the new conditions that had since arisen.

Turning now to the Hebrew literature, with the excep-
tion of the Palestinian Targum, with which I have dealt
previously, only a few writings can be mentioned, which
contain legends running parallel to those in the Asatir.

d. Wiener Akademied.Wiss., phil.-hist. Kl., XLII, 1893). Rumanian
(Caster, Literatura Populara, Romana, Bucaresti, 1884. For the whole
literature see Schiirer, Gesch. d. jiid. Volkes, III, 397 (4th ed.) and
R. H. Charles op. cit. II, 133.



The first book to be mentioned in the Hebrew literature,
which stands in some close relation to theAsatir, is "Pirke
de Rabbi Eliezer ' ' or " Chapters of Rabbi Eliezer . ' ' This book
resembles much more the Book of Jubilees, inasmuch as it
is a kind of elaborate commentary on Genesis and some
parts of Exodus. It is more disjointed in its composition,
and contains a number of legends similar to those found
in the Asatir. The character of the book, however, is more
that of a homiletic commentary on certain sections of the
Bible, and it thus belongs to the much wider class of Mid-
rashim which have grown up round the text of the Bible.
It is replete with direct quotations of verses from the Bible,
which are used as props to the legends. Here also we find
that special attention has been paid to the problem of the
Calendar. In the details, however, there is some parallelism
between that book and the Asatir. At the same time the
difference between the two works is sufficiently great to
show their absolute independence of one another.

In the further course of this Agadic activity we also find in
the Hebrew literature that, like in the above-mentioned,
certain episodes of the Biblical narrative have been devel-
oped more fully, and have started on an independent life,
separated from the main body to which they may have
originally belonged. We have thus a certain number of
independent Midrashim, some preserved in a fragmentary
form, others more fully expanded, such as the Book of
Enoch, the Life of Abraham, the Chronicle of Moses, the
Life and Death of Aaron, and others of a similar character.
These have been strung together by Jerahmeel in his
Chronicle (see above p. 7). This book constitutes a chain
of legends from Creation dow.n to the period of the Macca-
bees and later. Here we find the best and oldest recensions,
and these offer parallels to the Asatir, although they
have now become fully elaborated stories and romances.
One has only to compare the story of Moses in Josephus,
which approximates more closely to the Asatir, with the



elaborate Chronicle of Moses, to realise at once the distance
which separates the one from the other ; and yet, even these
Hebrew Midrashim belong to a very high antiquity. It is
very difficult to define exactly the time of their composition,
but they must belong to the first century C. E., seeing that
the old legends thus far preserved only in the Hellenistic
literature inclusive of Josephus, are the nearest parallels
to the older Hebrew and Samaritan texts, which are the
basis for the more elaborate Hebrew versions of a later
age. The Greek texts of the Pseudepigrapha, as already
pointed out before, are as a rule translations and modific-
ations of previous or contemporary Jewish writings. These
had not perished, and they reappear in the above-men-
tioned Hebrew texts thus far preserved. Finally, another
book, similar to the Chronicle of Jerahmeel, is the Book
of Yashar. * Written in the same pure Hebrew language
. as the other Midrashim, this book is a continuous legendary
companion to the text of the Bible. Whilst the Midrashim
have still their individual character as independent writ-
ings, or are simply strung together in chronological order
by Jerahmeel, their individual character has been entirely
obliterated in the Book of Yashar, and they have all been
unified and rewritten into a continuous legendary story from
Creation to the time of the Judges. The author of this book
had at his disposal not only the Midrashim hitherto quoted,
but also a large number of .other legends not found elsewhere
in the Jewish literature. The legends woven into this book
are in all probability of very old origin, and in many details
they approach much more closely those found in the Asatir
than any of the others hitherto mentioned, as will be seen from
the notes. Moreover, neither in the Chronicle of Jerahmeel
nor in the Book of Yashar is there any specific tendency or
propaganda. Both agree in the desire of enriching by
legend the story of the Bible, without introducing any-

* Ed. Pr. Venice 1613, transl. into English by Donaldson,
New York 1840. French transl. in Migne, Diction, des Apocryph.



119

thing of a legal character. The stories are not to be used
either for propagating a new Calendar, or for insisting on
the strict observance of this or that ceremony of Law, or
reward for the pious or punishment of the sinners, nor is
any man or family singled out for special praise. The
Messianic question is not even touched upon. The story
moves within a strictly limited circle of Biblical legends.
Therein both Yashar and Jerahmeel have followed the
same lines as the author of the Asatir, but each one in an
independent manner. The ultimate source from which
they drew some of their material must be the same as that
used by the previous writers. In the notes which ac-
company the translation of the Asatir, special attention has
been paid to the parallels which can be gathered from
all these writings, and care has been taken to give the
references as fully as possible. The conclusion which must
be drawn from this comparison is obvious ; that the Sama-
ritan Asatir is -entirely independent of any of these writ-
ings, be they Hellenistic, be they Greek, or be they Jewish ;
and although there are many points of contact between
them, their differences are far more profound than their
agreements. The Asatir. serves no tendency, propagates
no special doctrine, and serves no direct purpose.

There is a collateral result arising out of this investig-
ation which is as unexpected as I believe it to be important.
The pseudepigraphic writings can now be definitely div-
ided into three groups: first is that one which clings to
the text of the Bible, and is preserved mostly in Hebrew
and Aramaic writings, such as the Asatir, the Palestinian
Targum, Josephus, whom I count also as aTargum, although
written in Greek; furthermore Jerahmeel, Yashar and all
the other Jewish Midrashim, no less than the various
Samaritan writings on the birth of Moses (Molad), the poems
of Jacob- ha-Rabban "and his contemporaries, the com-
mentary of Meshalma, the Malif, and not a few of the
poems of the Samaritan liturgy, containing legendary



I2O

and eschatological matter. The second group, which is
sharply distinguished from this first one, is the literature
chiefly preserved in Greek and Latin translations, and those
derived from them, like Ethiopic, Arabic and Slavonic.
To this group belong such writings as the Adam-Books in
their multifarious variety, the Book of Enoch, Jubilees, the
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and all the Moses
Apocrypha. To an intermediate third group, which may
serve as a link between the other two groups, I would assign
those writings which do not claim Biblical personages for
their authors, such as the Sibylline Oracles, the Tiburtine,
the Cave of Treasures, the Revelations of Methodius, and,
above all, the Antiquities of Pseudo-Philo. This classification
may tend to modify to some extent the conclusions
at which scholars have arrived from the study of the second
group only, in their endeavour to reconstruct the spiritual
life and the strivings of the so-called sects during the period
ascribed to them. Far from representing the real state of
things prevalent at those assumed periods, they have
departed very considerably from those times, and are the
echoes of voices raised under totally different circumstances.
They do not represent the views of a class or a consensus
of opinions prevalent among the masses. They are, on the
contrary, the personal views of the anonymous authors
who used the great names of the past to further their own
purposes. No reliable conclusion can therefore be drawn
from these pseudepigraphic writings belonging to the
second group, whereas the first group gives us a perfect
idea of the true religious tendencies moving the mind of
the people during those centuries.

CHARACTERISTIC POINTS OF DIFFERENCE.

I have hitherto endeavoured to establish the relation
between the Asatir and the other apocryphal literature,
and to find the parallels between the former and the latter,



121

and also occasionally the differences between the Asatir and
each of them separately. It now remains to group together
those distinctive features in which the Asatir stands quite
alone, and which prove, therefore, its entire independence
from the others. There is no mystical cosmology, such
as is found in Enoch, Ascension of Isaiah, or again no
visions as seen by Ezra IV, Baruch and others. There is no
apocalyptic Ascent to Heaven or Descent to Hell as in the
Jewish Assumption of Moses, and no Visions of Heaven and
Hell like those of Peter, Paul etc. There is no trace of ascet-
icism like that of the Essenes, who lived an exceptionally
pure and secluded life. There is no demonology, and
consequently no soteriology. There is no trace here of
any legends connected with the Sethians. Much has been
made of this alleged sect, in the various studies concerning
the Adam-Books, where some of the legends of the "sons
of God" mixing with the depraved daughters of Cain,
have been taken as the basis for part of the Adam-Books,
and the origin of these legends has been connected in some
way with these followers of Seth. In the Asatir, Seth
plays no distinct role, neither do we find any distinct
reference to the mixing of the children of Seth with the
children of Cain, nor, which is more important, any allusion
whatsoever to the legend of the Fallen Angels. * These
are the result of a literal interpretation of the words of the
Bible (Gen. VI. 2). BeneElohim, as "the sons of God," are
taken as a metaphorical application to angels. This is found
fully set out in Enoch, and in the literature into which it has
passed, as well as in the Jewish legend of Shemhazai and
Azael, the latter being afterwards identified with the Azazel
of the Bible.

We have then in the Asatir a curious history of the
bulding of the Tower and the subsequent wars of the
nations and a genealogy of the first Pharaoh. Of the

* See L. Jung. Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian, and Moham-
medan Literature, Philadelphia 1926.



122

former only faint traces have been found in the Sibylline
and in Methodius, but nowhere a parallel to Pharaoh's
genealogy.

Of the history of the birth of Abraham, of the segreg-
ation of the women, of his battle with the kings, of the illness
and cure of Pharaoh, which is peculiar to the Asatir,
only fragmentary parallels can here and there be found else-
where. There is still that distinctive feature of dates for
minute events, so that even the day of the week on which
certain events have happened is given. These are not found
anywhere else. In the Book of Jubilees, and in the "Cave of
Treasures," the year is given, and sometimes the month, but
nowhere the day. Whether these dates were once in the
lost chronology of Demetrius, of which only a fragment ^
has been preserved, must remain a matter of speculation.

The history of the birth of Moses, and the incidents
connected therewith, differ considerably from all the other
versions of the birth of Moses. Only Josephus shows in
part closer agreement with the Asatir; none other.

Turning now to the Bileam episode, it differs entirely
from all other legends and traditions, and even in some
details from the Biblical narrative. The names of the
idols which Bileam is said to have worshipped, the mystic-
al names and groups of letters, which find their parallel
only in ancient Samaritan writings like the phylacteries,
mark a profound difference between the Asatir and all
the other writings. Whether they have been drawn from
the magical writings of Bileam, mentioned in the Talmud,
must remain an open question. In any case, there are no
parallels. In the story of the death of Bileam, of which
only a faint trace can be found in the Palestinian Targum,
the Asatir stands quite alone.

There remains now one point in which the difference is
fundamental and yet not obvious, since it has been almost

* Freudenthal, Hellenistische Studien page 35 82. M. Caster,
Studies and Texts, p. 650.



123

obliterated; it is in connection with the Sethian legend
mentioned before. In almost every one of the Adam-
Books, the dwelling place of the children of Seth is des-
cribed to have been "on the top of the mountain." It is a
Holy Mountain near the Gate of Heaven, or near Paradise,
and the Patriarchs are incessantly warning their children
not to descend to the valley below. Where was that moun-
tain ? In Jewish and in Christian Adam-Books, it is either
left vague, or in some way identified with Mount Moriah, i. e.
Mount Zion. But this is evidently not the original form, since
in all the Adam-Books it is said that when Adam dies
he wishes to be carried to that Holy Mountain. But if
he lived there, how could he be carried thither? The
transference of Moriah to Golgotha or later on Hebron,
which is not the Holy Mountain, is the result of manifold
manipulations and adjustments. But if we compare these
legends with Samaritan tradition, the whole problem is
easily solved. The Holy Mountain of the legend is none
other than the .Holy Mountain of Gerizim. It is there
that Adam dwells when he is sent out from Paradise,
there he offers sacrifices, and there he erects an altar,
as do Noah, Abraham and Jacob after one another.
The latter says distinctly "This is the Gate of Heaven:"
(Gen. XXVIII. 17), it is where the Ark finally rests.
There Adam dies, and then according to his wishes, is
carried not to the Holy Mountain but from the Holy
Mountain, to a distant place differently named, and
finally identified with the cave of Machphelah. There
cannot be any doubt, that in the primitive form of the
legend, the Holy Mountain was none other than Mount
Gerizim. It became, however, subsequently clear to the
Jewish and Christian writers that they could not very well
maintain the claim of sanctity for Mount Gerizim. They
were conscious that they would be playing into the hands of
the Samaritans, and thus the name of the place was
omitted. But the tradition of a Holy Mountain had seized



124

the minds of the people so strongly, and had become such
an indissoluble part of the legend, that it could not be
entirely obliterated, notably since the play upon the name
of Jarad, one of the Patriarchs, which was interpreted to
mean "to descend," had been so closely woven into the
legend of the "descent" from the mountain of the pure
Sethians that the "mountain" had to be retained, but the
geographical location was then entirely omitted.

The Holy Mountain was also believed to be the centre
of the earth, the "Omphalos:" not only by many other
nations, but also by the Jews, to whom Mount Moriah
was the centre or navel of the earth. Precisely the same
belief was held by the Samaritans, with regard to Mount
Gerizim.

I am quite aware that the Babylonian legend of the
Holy Mountain on the top of which the god lives, and of
the fact that the Zigurat* is claimed to be an imitation of
that Mountain. But it remains open to doubt whether
those ancient Babylonian beliefs of a Holy Mountain were
still strong enough at the time when these legends were
compiled to influence the authors of the apocryphal
literature to see in Mount Gerizim a similar Holy
Mountain.

Finally, attentio nmust be drawn to the peculiar use
of numerous cryptograms throughout the chapters of the
Asatir. Personal as well as geographical names appear in
cryptic forms, for the extraordinary use of which there
seems to be no apparent reason. One might understand
it in conection with the prophecy of Chapter XI of the
Asatir. The author refrains from putting into the mouth
of Moses well known names, thus giving a mystical char-
acter to this vaticination. By there is no obvious reason
why geographical names should be treated in a similar
manner. This problem still awaits solution.

* As to Zigurat see Kampers "Werdegang;" for Jewish parallels;
see Wensinck.



125

MANDAEAN AFFINITES.

Through the publications of Petermann and Lidz-
barski we are now practically in possession of the whole
extant Mandaean literature. Until recently only the
Genza was accessible, and then in an unreliable form.
It is the chief work of the Mandaeans, the "Treasury" in
which many of the ancient legends and traditions have been
preserved. First published in an incomplete form by Nor-
berg, * Petermann produced a critical one ** and a new exact
translation by Lidzbarski has since appeared.*** On the
basis of the Genza W. Brandt f tried first to give a des-
cription of the Mandaean doctrines and practices, and
later on he published a translation of about one fourth
of the whole book,-j-f- having chosen those portions which
appeared to him to be the most characteristic ; and a succinct
summary then appeared by Brandt in Hasting's En-
cyclopaedia.fff No one could fail to recognize the close
similarity between the Mandaean and Manichaean
doctrines, and this has become still more manifest
through the publication of the "Book of John the Bap-
tist" and to a large degree by the "Qolasta" the funeral
dirges and hymns constituting the most important part
of their liturgy. Reitzenstein endeavoured to piece
together from the portions of the Genza published by
Brandt, a kind of Apocalypse of Adam, or rather a
brief abstract of the history of the world from Creation

* M.Norberg, Cod. Nasaraus liber Adami appellatus. Lund 1815
to 1816.

** Thesaurus s. liber magnus vulgo liber Adami appellatus opus
Mandeorum, Leipzig, 1867.
*** Ginza, Gottingen und Leipzig 1915.

j- Die Mandaische Religion, Leipzig, 1889.
j-j- Mandaische Schriften, Gottingen, 1893.
ftf E. R. E. Vol. VIII s. v. Mandaens pp. 380-393.

Lidzbarski, M., Das Johannesbuch der Mandaer, Giessenigis.

Mandaische Liturgien, Abhandlungen d. konigl. Ges. d. Wiss.

Gotttingen, Phil.-hist. Kl., Neue Folge, Bd. XVII, I, Berlin, 1920.

Das Mandaische Buch des Herren der Grosse, Heidelberg 191 9.



126

to Doom, as taught by the Mandaeans. He felt himself
justified in so handling the material, as the Genza itself,
from which these fragments are taken, is a compilation
made probably as late as the fourteenth century, but
the compilers have used in a most uncritical manner frag-
ments of the old literature which had survived up to
their time. It is of a most heterogeneous character and
a most exasperating type of syncretism: an almost
hopeless medley of old and new and of the most con-
tradictory elements drawn from different sources; for the
Mandaeans followed no visible system in their compilation,
but tried to keep together everything that ha,d remained of
their old literature. Out of this they made their sacred
book. Now at the hand of this complete material and
with the invaluable assistance of the Mandaean Grammar
of Th. Noldeke, * which had been to the scholars the key by
which to open the door to the understanding of this pecuilar
literature, it has become possible to determine with greater
accuracy the date and origin of the Mandaeans.

The result to which scholars have unanimously arrived
now is that the origin of the Mandaean doctrine is to be
soug htm the northern part of Palestine, and still more exactly
by the 'banks of the Jordan. The language is distinctly
Aramaic. It has been compared with the Aramaic of
the Babylonian Talmud, but a closer observation will con-
vince those who have the opportunity of examining the
dialects of Palestine, that the language resembles much
more closely the Aramaic of Galilee, slightly changed
owing to the Mandaeans leaving Palestine at an early
time and settling in Babylon, where their language
was subjected to local influences. As to the date, it is
now being assumed that some of the Mandaean doctrines
took their rise at the time of the appearance of John
the Baptist; and Lidzbarski as well as Reitzenstein
assert that the Mandaean teaching is the direct offspring

* Mandaische Grammatik, Halle 1875.



127

of the teaching of John the Baptist, further developed
by his followers. This does not exclude profound Gnostic
and Manichaean influences and it is to these influences
that the strong anti- Christian bias is ascribed which
pervades" the teaching of the Genza. It is surprising,
however, that neither Lidzbarski nor Reitzenstein, should
have thought of the Samaritans, the most powerful sect
which at that time dominated the spiritual life of the
inhabitants of Galilee. Our knowledge of the sectarian
movements in Palestine at the beginning of the first
century is very scant, but that there must have been such
dissenting sects in great number can . be gathered from
the somewhat confused references scattered throughout
the pages of Josephus' works in his "Antiquities" as well
as in his "Wars." The rise of the Essenes alone would suffice
to prove the existence of a strong religious sectarian
movement in its widest sense, not to speak of the Ophites,
Theraputes, Haemerobaptists, and the followers of many
prophets who arose at that period. It would have been
much more natural to seek parallels between the Man-
daeans and the Samaritans before going farther afield
to the Manichaean fragments from Turfan or from other
Manichaean teachings, which, as Scheftolowitz has shown,
are of a much later date and have been borrowed from the
Mandaean and not the reverse. On the contrary, the most
characteristic principles of Manichaeism find their source
in Mandaean, Babylonian and early Jewish teachings.
It is not here the place to discuss the theology of the
Mandaeans, since it lies outside thesp here of our investig-
ations. I must limit myself only to such points as are cov-
ered by th contents of the Asatir. In the first place atten-
tion must be drawn to the phonetic and orthographic
peculiarities of the Mandaeans. Characteristic of the
language of the Galileans from very ancient times is
the lack of distinction between the gutterals. Heth and
Koph, Ain and Aleph are often used one for the other,



128

both in Samaritan and in Mandaean, a feature peculiar
only to these two among all the Aramaic dialects. The
lexicon also approximates very closely to the Sama-
ritan and as for the orthography, both use with pre-
dilection the Scriptio Plena, i. e. making full use of the
letters of the alphabet for designating the vowels. This
is so well known for the Samaritan itself that it only re-
quires mentioning; they have even gone so far as to introduce
these vowel letters into the Hebrew Pentateuch. More im-
portant, however, are the parallels between the Mandaean
and the Samaritan teachings. There is, in the first place, the
common enmity against Jerusalem, which has been built
by Ruha and the Planets against the order of Enos" (Mes-
sias) and from which proceed afterwards all the perversions
and lies. The Jews come and settle there and later on kill
the 365 pupils (of the prophet); Enos* destroys the town or
Temple which he describes as the "house without virtue"
and finally he kills Christ. (Reitzenstein p. 33 34, who
also gives the literature.) This agrees entirely with the
Asatir; the building of the temple of idol-worship, and the
name of the House of Shame given to it (ibid. Ill, 13) : the
burning of the Temple at the end of the Prophecy and the
final victory of Kushta. In the latter part of the Mandaean
text I see a reflection of the Antichrist legend in its more
primitive form, but which has not been recognised either
by Lidzbarski or by Reitzenstein.

One of the most important elements in the Mandaean
doctrine is that of the Manda de-Haya, which as Lidzbarski
(Johannesbuch ppXVII and XVIII) has shown, must have
had its origin in Palestine, and has become a stereotyped
term in that Palestinian form. It belongs to the oldest elem-
ents and has given the name to the sect. The meaning
of it is the Gnosis or Knowledge of the Life. With the
Mandaeans it has become the name for the Supreme Being.

No real explanation has been given for this term; it is
simply taken for granted as meaning the Knowledge of the



129

Life. I translate it the "Gnosis" or Knowledge of the Life,
taking the lastwordto be a substitute for the Name of God; in
fact I have not found in the Mandaean any word for God. *
On three momentous occasions in the Asatir, we find then
the peculiar expression Kol Hayyeh or Hayyah, a "Voice of
the Living," i. e. the Voice of God, (X. 28, X. 51, XL 17).
Here the word Hayyah means the 'living' or the 'life,'
precisely as in the Mandaean, and is used exclusively for the
designation of the deity. This seems to be the expression used
by Jesus (JohnXI V. 6) : "I am the way, and thetruth, and the
life." No commentator, as far as I am aware, has realised
the real meaning of this expression and has simply taken it
literally as standing for Life Eternal, which is not warrant-
ed by the context. Inthe Bible, the combination 'living God'
is often found, but nowhere has the word 'living' been
substituted for God. At a later time there appears the
Bath Kol, as the mysterious voice, by which divine com-
mands are communicated to mortals, but nowhere do we find
anything to be compared with this use of the word Hayyah
or Hayyim. The identity of the word and its significance
in both Samaritan and Mandaean cannot be a simple coin-
cidence, since it affects the fundamental doctrine of the Man-
daeans, and is equivalent there to Divinity or Deity. As
already remarked above, this technical term must have been
adopted by the Mandaeans while still in Palestine and
retained by them henceforth in the original form.

Two more words now may be mentioned which play an
important role in the Mandaean system Kushta and She-
kina. Though they occur only seldom in the Asatir, they
are very often referred to in the Samaritan literature and
everywhere a particular meaning has been attached to them
which seems to stand in some relation to the meaning
given to these words by the Mandaeans. 'Kushta,' orig-
inally meaning Truth, is, in the Asatir (XL 28) the thing

* "Elaah" occurs sporadically, but is not used specifically as the
Name of God.

Asatir. g



130

to be desired as the highest ideal before the restoration
and the coming of the happy days, i. e. "the True Faith
(cf. John XIV, 6) and 'Shekina' has throughout in Sam-
aritan the simple meaning of 'temple' or 'dwelling;' 1
unlike the later Hebrew where 'Shekina' has become
synonymous with the Name of God.* The Mandaean
here as throughout represents in its terminology a further
change from that of the Samaritans. Kushta means now
with the Mandaeans: 'Belief/ 'Faith;' and 'Shekina' is
the dwelling place of the Celestial Beings.

The peculiar tendency, so characteristic of hostile sects,
of depreciating the names and objects considered holy
by the others, appears also in a marked degree in the
Mandaean terminology. Thus, Ruha becomes practic-
cally an evil spirit. ** To the Mandaeans Ruha has become
the embodiment of evil. She is assisted by her seven sons,
the planets, who are also represented as evil spirits or
demons. In three places in the Book of John, we even find
Ruha d'Kudsha, which literally translated should mean
'holy spirit,' but in reality, it means 'unholy demon,' sa
that the word Kadosh has assumed a meaning contrary
to that which it has in the Hebrew.

The importance of this fact is be to seen if we turn to the
chapter in the Asatir on Bileam. Here (X. 6) Bileam is re-
presented as worshipping five or seven elements, or rather,
the demons of the elements. In Samaritan, however,
there is no demonology with the exception of Belial
mentioned above. They follow the example of the Bible,,
in which the objects of the worship of the heathen

* The same development has taken place in post-Biblical Hebrew-
also with the word "Makom." Originally it meant merely "place"
and became afterwards a metaphorical synonym of God. Both dev-
elopments run on parallel lines. The Samaritan, however, has re-
tained the old meaning.

** It is noteworthy that the word Ruah in the meaning of 'spirit*
occurs only three times in the Pentateuch, and then the word is
connected exclusively with Elohim and not once with the Tetra-
grammaton.



nations are also designated as 'strange Elohim.' The Sam-
aritans use here also the name of 'El' for "strange god:"
In the Samaritan Pentateuch, a slight change has been
introduced in all the passages in Numb. XXIV, wherever
the Hebrew text has "and God spake to Bileam;" the
Samaritans could not accept the fact that God should
speak to a heathen worshipper of idols, so they inserted
the word 'angel' before 'God' in each one of these passages
(Numb. XXII. 20; XXIII. 4. 5. 16). These 'angels' be-
came afterwards gods of elements, worshipped by Bileam.
This worship of the elements was anterior to the astrological
worship of stars and planets which was of Babylonian
origin. In the Asatir we are therefore meeting with a much
older stage. Bousset has dealt fully with the worship of
the elements in his work on the fundamental principles of
Gnosticism. (Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, p. 233 ff.) He
finds the oldest reference to this worship in Herodotus
in connection with the worship of the Persians.* It had
been transferred to them from the Babylonian worship
of the planets, whence it has entered into the Mandaean
doctrine, which has been the source of the Manichaean
(Scheftelowitz) and it is therefore the oldest of these
various systems. The elements mentioned in the Asatir
are precisely those which we find in the more ancient
documents as the objects of worship. Especially note-
worthy is the worship of the winds, and in all probability
that of fire, for I translate the word 'Ur' as 'fire' and
not as 'light,' inasmuch as the luminaries which are the
source of light are mentioned separately. Among these
gods of the elements there appears now curiously enough
also an 'El Hakadosh' which if literally translated would
mean 'a holy god,' or 'holy El.' This would be contrary to
the whole idea that Bileam worshipped false gods. Now,
as already remarked above, we find exactly the same

* Bousset follows it down to some of the Gnostic and Manichaean
sects referred to by Epiphanius, Hippolytus and Augustinus.

9*



132

word in the Mandaean system, with the only difference
that 'Rutia' stands for 'El,' but in both cases, among the
Mandaeans and in the Asatir, the word 'Kadosh' means
'unholy' and not 'holy.' It is difficult to reconcile this mean-
ing given to the word 'Kadosh' in this connection, with
the usual meaning of 'holy' given to it by the Samaritans.
The Samaritans always use 'Kadosh' (anp) in the meaning of
'holy!' Be it as it may, this parallelism is certainly remark-
able. I have consulted them on that point, but they have
not been able to give me a satisfactory explanation, except
to say that it was the name of one of the idols worshipped
by Bileam. We must assume, therefore, that we have here
in the Asatir remnants of a very old tradition, which may
have its roots in some such Persian system as that mentioned
by Herodotus. Bileam is the wizard who comes from the
East, and it would not be very difficult for the writer of the
Asatir to credit him with the worship which he knew to be
practised in that distant country, identified by him with
Babylon or Persia.

A peculiar passage may now be mentioned which carries
us back again to the Bileam legends so often referred
to before. A passage in the Genza (Brandt, p. 45.) reads
as follows:

"There appears the Messiah (Christ) the prophet of the
Jews. He calls the Seven Planets and makes them serve
him. Each one fights for him. And these Seven lead
astray all the children of Adam. The first of these demons
is called Sames, the second Ruha d'Kudsha, and the third
Nbu." Then follows a description of the benefits bestowed by
each of these demons upon those who worship them. The
demon of Ruha d'Kudsha brings folly, adultery, frivolity,
lewdness, passions, songs and witchcraft into the world.
The demons of Nbu-Mshiha (with whom Christ is specially
identified) attack the people and spread perfidy amongthem.

The Mandaeans here consider Christ, the prophet of the
Jews, as a false prophet, and we have here again the



133

same beginnings of an anti-Messiah Legend. Everything:
that is of Jewish origin or is sacred among Jews and
Christians is turned by them into an element of evil.
Here Christ takes the shape of Bileam, as a wizard and
false prophet, the embodiment of evil advice and the man
who teaches immorality and gives a bad example. So is
Bileam depicted in Rev. II. 14, and in other passages of
the N. T., to which reference has already been made..
Everywhere Bileam is the arch-type of wickedness, leading,
people astray to fornication and the worship of idols, and:
in the Samaritan tradition he also worships stars and-
planets and invokes their assistance, like Jesus in ther
Mandaean text. This identification and substitution of
the one for the other must therefore have taken shape
in Galilee at the time when the Mandaean sect embodied it
in their teaching. The Mandaeans thus represent a further
stage in the development from more primitive types found
among both Samaritans and Jews in the first century. In-
the Asatir as well as in the Mandaean we find now the
Rufra d'Kudsha and El Hakadosh as evil powers, demons:
or false gods worshipped by Bileam as well as by Christ-
Only an intimate relation between the various sects in*
Galilee and especially between them and the Samaritans-
can explain this remarkable parallelism. The Samaritans:
were the oldest sect. The difference however between the
Mandaean and the Samaritan is sufficiently great to allow
us to assume that the Samaritan did not borrow from:
the Mandaean ; the reverse is much more likely to have been*
the case. Mandaeans and Samaritans held in common the*
hatred of the Jews and Jerusalem ; they both had peculiar
views about the Torah ; the Samaritans alleging the text
held by the Jews to have been falsified (so Asatir, XI. 36);
and to the Mandaeans it was a book altogether filled with,
false doctrines given by Adonai to mislead the world..
This attitude was adopted afterwards by various anti-
Jewish Gnostic sects.



134

There are besides many more parallels between the
Samaritan traditions and ceremonies and those of the
Mandaeans, but they lie outside the sphere of this invest-
igation. They all, however, point to one result, that the
Mandaean doctrines, legends and traditions have origin-
ated in -Palestine under very strong Samaritan influences.
The geographical proximity, the possession of a language
common to both and also their opposition to Judaism and
later on to Christianity, drew them closely together. As the
younger sect, the Mandaeans leaned upon the Samaritans
as the older and borrowed from them much of the material
which formed the basis of their own distinctive creed.*

ASATIR AND THE SAMARITAN LITERATURE.

The destruction of the Samaritan literature makes it
very difficult to trace the influence of the Asatir on the
Samaritan literature farther back than the tenth or eleventh
century. This is the date to which the oldest Samaritan
writings thus far known belong. One has also to remember
that when the Samaritans copy an older text, or embody
it wholesale into their own writings, notably if it is anony-
mous, they never quote the source from which they have
taken it. It is only in comparatively recent times, from the
sixteenth century on that here and there the name of an
older author is mentioned, especially by Kabasi. Still, the
subject matter of the Asatir, which was the only source of
information, can be traced amongst almost every one of the
prominent writers and poets whose works have been
preserved from the tenth to the nineteenth century.

Very little has been saved from the period before that
date. The writings of Markah, who is anterior to that

* The arguments by which Dr. Pallis, in his "Mandaean Studies"
Oxford 1926, p. nsff., denies the Jewish influence upon the Man-
daean doctrine and literature, and ascribes the references to the
O. T. to Christian influences, rest upon absolute misconception of
the history of religious movements in Palestine, and complete ignor-
ance of the various sectarian developments which have taken place
there. As shown above, the contrary is the fact.



135

period, have unfortunately not come down in a complete
form. There must have been a first book of his poems,
now lost, which contained a description of the Birth of
Moses. The parallelism between Markab. and the Hellenistic
poet Ezekiel on the one hand, and the appearance of a series
of compositions from the thirteenth or fourteenth century
downwards, all having as their subject the Birth of Moses,
strengthen that contention. It is furthermore corrob-
orated by the analogous fact of the story of the Death of
Moses, the text of which is published here, which rests ultim-
ately on the last poem of Markahi: the latter is the inter-
mediate link between the Asatir, and the later literature, re-
presented by the above mentioned text. Markah, referring
to Moses on two occasions, uses some peculiar phrases
such as "His name will be remembered for blessing for-
ever" (Asatir IX, i), and the words (Asatir Ch. XL 18)
with which God approves of the work of Moses. They
are* so characteristic that they could not have been coined
independently. Markah must have borrowed them from
the Asatir.

The next oldest reference thus far available seems to be
the Tolida (ninth or tenth century) where, speaking of
Akkoh, the author remarks: "This is the town built by
Kenan, the ancient." * In the Asatir (Ch. 1 1) we find thus far
the oldest source for connecting the building of towns with
the first patriarchs.

The next to be mentioned now is Ab Hasda, the author
of the Tabari, (Gaster Encycl. Islam s. v. 'Samaritans') the
oldest and most important work of the Samaritan literature.
The author lived not later than the beginning of the eleventh
century (ca. 1030 if not earlier). The book is a collection of
laws and discussions of legal questions. There is scarcely any
legendary matter in it. Still, a few details agree with the
Asatir very closely, such as Moses copying the law in the

* Chronique Samaritaine ed. by M. Ad. Neubauer, Paris 1873,
p. 24.



136

course of the last month of his life (Asatir Ch. XI. 3 1 5).
On the very last day he is called by God to go up Mount
Nebo. The people are informed of his death by the host of
angels which surrounds the Mount and who have come to pay
honour to him. There are moreover two passages in the
Tabafr in which the author seems to be entirely dependent
on the Asatir. The first is when, interpreting the blessing
of Moses of the tribe of Zebulun (Deut. XXXIII. i8ff.),
he distinctly states that these blessings refer to the Taheb
and to the Return of the Time of Favour (Asatir XII. 20).
Still more close is the similarity with XI I. 19. which refers
to the burning of the temple by fire, brimstone and salt.
The very wording is identical (cf. notes ad loc.).

Far more extensive use of the Asatir has been made by
the author of the Samaritan- Arabic book of Joshua. Here
we find the story of Bileam, his visit to the king of Moab
the advice he gave, the manner of his death, all of which are
taken almost verbatim from the Asatir.* We find further-
more two variants of the "Death of Moses" which agree
in the main with the description given in the Asatir, yet with
some additional touches taken from Markah or another
similar source.

The next work to be mentioned is Ghazal (Tabyah) Al
Doweik, probably of the thirteenth century. Two treatises
are ascribed to him, one a brief commentary on the Bles-
sings of Bileam, and the other on the Second Kingdom. In
the former he interprets the "Blessing," in the main agreeing

* This is of no mean significance since it bears on the problem
of the genuineness of the Samaritan-Hebrew Book of Joshua; for it
proves that a book of such high antiquity as is assumed for the Asatir
had been the direct source of an Arabic version or paraphrase, and
that the author of the Arabic Book of Joshua has taken his materials
from an anterior Hebrew- Aramaic text, even then when he does not
mention the source, as is here the case. The discovery of the Asatir
removes every doubt and this will furthermore be proved in time, by
means of other ancient documents which have since come to light.
They will be treated much more fully in the new edition of the Samari-
tan Book of Joshua, now being prepared by me.



137

with the Asatir, though less fully, and without referring
to the gods worshipped by Bileam. On the other hand, he
also gives an eschatological interpretation to Bileam's
prophecy, but only tentatively, and prefers the interpre-
tation found in the Asatir. Bileam is for him the son of
Laban, according, as he says, to tradition (which, no doubt,
refers to the Asatir). For Al Doweik is the first to ment-
ion the Asatir by name and goes on to say that it is the work
composed by "our Master, the Messenger," i. e. Moses.

In the second treatise he adduces from the Scriptures ten
arguments to prove that a time will arrive when the king-
dom will return to Israel. It is thus a treatise on the
Advent of the Taheb. In the I Vth Proof he gives us again
the same interpretation concerning the star as in the prev-
ious treatise, and a little more fully, but agreeing with the
Asatir. At the same time he gives in Proof VI a similar
interpretation to that given by Ab Hasda, which agrees
with Asatir XII. 19. 21.

The Birth of Moses is the subject of many writings,
dating from the end of the thirteenth century or beginning
of the fourteenth century. There is first the poem ascribed to
Jacob ha-Rabban, probably the high priest in Damascus,
who died in 1347, and all the important incidents therein
are those found only in the Asatir. There exist besides
three more poems of a similar kind. I have not been able
to discover the name of the author, but he is a contemporary
of Jacob ha-Rabban, whom he mentions with great respect,
and also Pinehas, the son of Joseph, the high priest (1308
1362). The author must have lived before 1347, the year
when Jacob ha-Rabban died.

The first of these three poems is a peculiar astronomical
piece in which the author endeavours to trace the origin
of the Samaritan Calendar to Adam, and its further trans-
ference to Moses and Pinehas, son of Eleazer, son of
Aaron. The poem is also of a mystical character, inasmuch
as the Mystery of the Calendar is founded on the Divine



138

Name engraved upon the rod of Adam. This rod after-
wards comes into the possession of Moses. These details are
partly borrowed from the Asatir, especially the references
to the rod of Adam and Moses, and to the book of know-
ledge and astronomy possessed by Adam. Of special
importance, however, are the mystical names of God found
in this poem, made by permutations and substitutions of
the letters in the true cabbalistic manner. They resem-
ble strongly the mystical names of the gods of Bileam
(Ch. X. 7). It is the same system and the same principle
in both writings : the Asatir, however, is older and agrees
with the Shem Hamitfaresh. *

Still more complete is the agreement in the second poem
with the narrative of the Asatir. It contains the full legen-
dary history of the Birth of Moses. Many of the incidents
in the poem can be traced directly to the Asatir. No other
source so old as the Asatir is thus far known to exist among
the Samaritans for these Moses legends. The poem is more
elaborate than the short narrative in the Asatir, and a few
more incidents have been added, but there cannot be any
doubt of the dependence of the poem on the more prim-
itive Asatir.

The third poem, which is much longer than the previous
ones, contains all the details found in the Asatir, including
the name of the wizard Plti, and other details found only
in that book.

Besides these there is still a fragment of a poem in this
collection, no doubt by the same author, which contains an
allusion to the last scene of Moses' life and to the future
of Moses' children, who, according to Samaritan tradition
(Pitron XI. 2) were there and then separated from the rest
of the children of Israel and preserved to the end of days
in a state of absolute purity. In the Asatir this legend, well
known in the Jewish literature, is also briefly alluded to

* See Gaster. Samaritan Phylacteries and Amulets, Studies and
Texts p. 465 ff.



139

(Ch. XL 2). The author of this Fragment must therefore
have had access to the Asatir and used it as one of the
sources for his composition.

A similar long poem, very fully elaborated, and remind-
ing one strongly of the style of Markafr, is ascribed to
a certain Abdalla ben Shalma. There is no further in-
formation about him except that he may have lived about
1400 C. E. He states distinctly that he has taken his
material from the writings of his ancestors, who had
obtained it from the tradition of their forefathers. He
refers thereby, no doubt, to the Asatir, being the trans-
lation handed down in the name of Moses ; for we find him
absolutely dependent on the Asatir. He is moreover
the author of a poem for the days of Succoth (Cowley
p. 746 ff) in which occur a few more incidents taken from
the Asatir. They are all referred to in the notes to the text.

Before proceeding further, Abisha son of Pinehas,
the foremost poet of the Samaritans, must be mentioned,
especially his famous Vision (Cowley p. 51 iff.), in which
he described the future, the Advent of the Taheb, etc.,
fully agreeing with the Asatir. He also knows of the altar
being built on Mount Garizim (ibid p. 512.)

Abraham Kabasi (fifteenth to sixteenth century) the
author of the "Secrets of the Heart," has also some
allusions to legends found in the Asatir.

In the year 1 53 7 his pupil and friend, Ishmael Rumihi,
at the request of another high priest of the same name,
Pinehas, composed in Arabic a versified life of Moses,
known as "Molad Moshe;" -every incident narrated
therein is found in the previous poems and above all
in the Asatir. This is the only composition in Arabic,
whilst all the others hitherto mentioned are in Samaritan.
In some of them reference is also made to the Bileam
episode, showing their utter dependence on the old book.

At the end of the seventeenth century, or the beginning
of the eighteenth, a certain Meshalma the Danafite



140

composed an elaborate commentary on Genesis. This was
afterwards completed by Ibrahim ben Jacob. Meshalma
is the second to quote the book under the name of the
author of the Asatir, "Baal ha-Asatir," El Doweik being
the first to refer to it thus. He gives literal references
which are of the utmost importance, for he must have
had access to a slightly different recension or to a some-
what more accurate ancient copy. I have, therefore,
given all his references in full in the notes, whenever
they present variant readings.

Abraham ben Jacob (eighteenth century, Cowley 623 ff.)
includes in a poem some incidents from the Asatir
and from other traditions, e. g. Adam keeping away
from his wife for 100 years (As. I. 26); Amram keeping
away from Jochebed until ordered by the angel; Moses
hidden in a fiery furnace and saved ; daughter of Pharaoh
healed from skin-disease (cf. Pitron to XI. 9 and XII. 5.)

Finally, the book is again quoted very fully in the
Malif, a kind of catechism for the instruction of the
Samaritan children in Biblical history and precepts. In
reality it is, however, chiefly a collection of Biblical legends
and directions for prayer, and a large number of the leg-
ends have been taken verbatim from the Asatir. The book
is incomplete, and is written in Arabic by an unknown
author. A copy of it was made by Pinehas, the son of
Amram, who died 1897. His son translated it for me into
Samaritan from the Arabic, and it consists of 230 questions
and answers. The parallels are quoted in the notes by the
number of the question. The author was fully conversant
with the Samaritan traditions, and he incorporated them
into his book. An edition of the Samaritan version is being
prepared by me. It is unique in character and value.

None of these writers ever called into question the
authority, authorship, or antiquity of the Asatir. It is
an essential part of the Samaritan Biblical legendary
literature, and its most important source.



CHRONOLOGY AND DATES.

Among the many peculiarities which this little book
offers there are the dates on which events have happened,
which are here minutely recorded. There must have been
a special reason for working out these dates and for introd-
ucing them into the book. At one time chronology was
the first occupation among the prominent scholars of the
various nations. It was a reaction against the arrogant
claim of the Greeks of being the masters of civilisation.
They would derive everything from their own alleged
intellectual superiority, and depreciate as much as possible
the civilisations of the East. To this, the latter replied by
producing chronological lists of kings and emperors who
had ruled the world thousands and tens of thousands of
years before the Greeks had ever existed. Their own
civilisation was so immensely superior and so much more
ancient, that it was claimed that whatever the Greeks
possessed was simply derived from these ancient sources.
I have mentioned before the claim that Adam had been
the divinely inspired author of astronomy, and, in fact,
of all the sciences. Berosus for the Babylonians, Sanchun-
iaton for the Phoenicians, Manetho for the Egyptians;
all put forth such long lists. The Jews, for their part, pro-
duced the Bible, and told the history of the world from
its very creation. Out of the pages of the Bible a special
chronology has been evolved, and every minute allusion
that could be found in the text has been used for that
purpose. As far back as the third century B. C., if not
earlier, Demetrius (Freudenthal, Hell. Stud. 35ff.) with
great ingenuity prepared such a chronology, (Gaster,
Studies and Texts p. 650). Unfortunately, only a small
fragment has been preserved. Another fragment is a
further attempt at a chronology which is to cover the whole
period of the Biblical history. It was in that atmosphere
that search was made also for special chronological data.



J 4 2

There was. an additional reason for such a search. The
daily Calendar of ancient nations was not merely a record
of days and months, but also a record of important events.
Based upon one calculation or another the Calendar
contained the dates of festivals and of other ceremonial
observances. In addition to those mentioned in the Bible,
other commemorative days were entered. The people
observed these days either by fasting and mourning,
when they referred to tragic events, or by rejoicing and
revelling, when they brought back the memory of
happy occurences in the life of the nation. Astrology
brought in its train also the belief in lucky and unlucky
days, on which work should or should not be under-
taken, best fitted for joy and mourning. These were deftly
blended with .historical occurrences, so that a day on
which some calamity had overtaken the nation, or a great
man had died, became afterwards an ill-omened day,
on which the people refrained from any joyful activity.
On the other hand, the lucky days would be made to coin-
cide either with the birth of one of the great men, or
some signal victory or other happy event. From this
point of view, the importance of inserting and retaining
the memory of single minute dates can easily be under-
stood. This probably is the reason for the dates given in
the Book of Jubilees in which, however, with rare excep-
tions, only the months and years are mentioned. On two
or three occasions only do we find the day mentioned,
but this must be understood to mean the day of the
month, not the day of the week. In the Asatir we find,
on the contrary, the larger figures entirely omitted, with
two or three exceptions, which will be mentioned pres-
ently, and sometimes also the day of the month. Herein
lies the difference between this book and the Book of
Jubilees. In the Jewish literature we find a host of sim-
ilar Calendars, in which the days of the month are specially
singled out. There is in the first place the Scroll of Fasting



143

(Ed. Pr. in Seder Olam Rabba, Mantua 1513) with the
list of days for the twelve months of the year on which
fasting was not allowed. They commemorate days of
happy events of the Maccabean period. We see from
this fact that popular ceremonies and festivals, which
may even have had a totally different origin, obtained an
historical justification and backing. There exists also
another list of days which is usually joined on to that Scroll
of Fasting. Various events which happened on the twelve
months of the year are noted down. They are taken mostly
from the Biblical period. Not a few of these, as shown in
the notes, coincide with the Samaritan dates. Other simi-
lar lists are found in other Jewish writings, the dates of
which are uncertain, as well as in "Albiruni" translated
by Sachau.

Not a few of the dates given in the Asatir, however, are
difficult to verify, nor is it clear upon what they are founded.
The starting-point of the chronology is here the era of
the Creation of the world. There is no trace of counting
by. Jubilees, although this counting was not unknown
among the Samaritans. It appears already in the oldest
portion of the Tolida which is not later than the eleventh
century. The era .of Creation is taken for granted in the
Asatir. No question is raised as to whence it came. It is
the one found in the Bible, and therefore of divine origin.
No other era is even contemplated. At one time the Samari-
tans started a new era, that of the Entry of the children of
Israel into Palestine under Joshua, but they kept to the
era of Creation. The author of the Asatir, indeed, seems
to be unaware of the era of the Entry. He does not betray
any knowledge of a different era from that used by him.
The scanty remnants of Samaritan literature cannot help
us to determine the time when the era of the Entry was
introduced. I have been able to discover a third era from
the time of Jezdegerd, and to this they added later on the
Mohammedan era. But in some Biblical fragments of



144

the eleventh or twelfth century I have found that the era
of Creation and not the Mohammedan has still been used
in their colophon.

To the author of the Asatir the world is to last 6,000
years, after which, without saying it clearly, will be the
Day of Judgment This event, however, is not connected
directly with the Advent of the Taheb, who is only once
mentioned (Asatir XII. 24). He is to bring back the Days
of Divine Favour, lost from the time when God "hid" his
face, and turned away in anger, owing to the schism of
Eli. Then the holy vessels of the Temple on Mount Garizim
were hidden in a cave and the period of the "cursed" Fanuta
began, which has brought so much misery to the people.

The years of the patriarchs agree, to a large extent,
with the readings in the Samaritans recension of the
Pentateuch. There is a slight difference, in the case of
Seth, (II. 26) due probably to the copyist's mistake.
Other slight differences will be seen from the com-
parative table reproduced later on from Geiger.

It is one of the peculiarities of the Asatir not to use the
words "he lived so-and-so many years." Instead of this
he says "he learned (or taught) c^s," meaning thereby
he learned from Adam or he "ruled." So specially in
Ch. II, where the whole list of the first patriarchs is
given.

The date of Moses' death agrees entirely with the
Samaritan computation found in all their writings, and on
two occasions the number of years mentioned as past agrees
with the general assumption that the life of the world can
only last 6,000 years. Thus at the calculation of the Flood,
where the 6,000 years are distinctly mentioned (IV. 2off.),
and so finally for in Prophecy of Moses (XI. 20). It is
to be fulfilled at the end of 3,204 years, which added to
the 2, 796 years, assumed as the date of Moses' death, com-
plete 6,000 years. This must be taken as another proof
of the independent Samaritan origin of the Asatir. The



145

Jews have also endeavoured on their part, to establish the
chronology. The Seder Olam Rabba, or the Order of the
World, is thus far the oldest book of that kind found in the
Hebrew literature. Josephus also uses practically only the
era of Creation for the Biblical period. It may be that the
Samaritan chronology was directly or indirectly the
stimulus to the compilation of a Hebrew chronology. The
Samaritan always has a polemical character, and the Jews,
no doubt, reacted to it, or the case may have been vice-
versa, the Jews taking the initiative and the Samaritans
following suit; cf. the old Chain of the High Priests
(ed. by Gaster, J.R. A. S., April 1909, rptd. in "Studies
and Texts" p. 283 ff.), and the genealogical lists, each
one trying to prove thereby the accuracy of his own trad-
ition. Among the Jews other works have followed in the
course of time, like the Yuljasin by Abraham Zakuto (Ed.
Pr. Constantinople 1566, ed. Filipowski, London 1857)
the Chain of Tradition (Shalshelet Hakabalah, Ed. Pr.
Venice 1587) by Gedalyah Aben Yafria; and finally all
these various calculations have been co-ordinated by
Yechiel Heilprin in his Seder Hadorot, to which constant
reference has been made in the notes.

It may not be out of place if a brief reference is made to
the scant allusions of an eschatological character, which
are after all bound up with the limit of time. At the end
of a certain period something is expected to happen. I
have on sundry occasions drawn attention to the simplic-
ity and vagueness of the eschatological outlook in the
Asatir. It has not yet moved far away from the Bible.
The only points occurring here seem to be the expectation
of a Day of Punishment and Reward, and the very curious
statement in connection with the burial of Enoch. He
is buried near the Holy Mountain and it is stated that
those who are buried within a radius of 2,000 cubits will
so be exempt from the "burning" (As. II. 41). Nothing
further is added to explain what is understood by this

Asatir. 10



146

"burning." It may mean the burning of the wicked in a
kind of Hell, immediately after death, or it may mean
their burning after the Day of Judgment. But nothing
definite is mentioned of either the character of the Day
of Punishment and Reward or the time when it is to
happen, nor is anything said of resurrection and immort-
ality. The only allusion to the Day of Judgment is found
in the passage of the Three Nights (IX. 37). From other
writings of the Samaritans, I gather that these eschat-
ological notions are derived from Deut. Ch. XXXII and
XXXIII (The Samaritans like the LXX read apj DV* "day
of punishment," instead of M.T. "mine is punishment" in
Deut. XXX II. 3 5); to the Samaritans Deut. Ch. XXXII
has become the ultimate source of their eschatology. It
is the result of an early form of exegesis which keeps
strictly to the letter of the Law.

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE CHRONOLOGY
OF THE FIRST TEN GENERATIONS.

(From A. Geiger, Jiidische Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaft und Leben,

Vol. I, 1862, p. 176.)

MT. LXX Joseph. Sam.

Adam before begetting Seth 130 230 230 130

Adam after begetting Seth 800 700 - 800



Sum


930


930


930


930


Seth before begetting Enoch


105


205


205


105


Seth after begetting Enoch


807


707





807


Sum


912


-912


912


912


Enoch before begetting Kenan


90


190


190


90


Enoch after begetting Kenan


8i5


715





815


Sum


905


905


905


905


Kenan before begetting Mahalalel


70


170


170


70


Kenan after begetting Mahalalel


840


740





840


Sum


910


910


910


916



i 4 7

MT. LXX Joseph. Sam.

Mahalalel before begetting Jered 65 165 165 65

Mahalalel after begetting Jered 830 730 830

Sum ~~ 895 895 895 895

Jered before begetting Chanoch 162 162 162 62

Jered after begetting Chanoch 800 800 785



Sum 962 962 962 847

Chanoch before begetting Metu-
shelach 65 165 165 65

Chanoch after begetting Metu-

shelach 300 200 300



Sum 365 365 365 365

Metushelach before begetting

Lemech 187 167 187 67

Metushelach after begetting

Lemech 782 802 653



Sum 969 969 969 720

Lemech before begetting Noah 182 188 182 53
Lemech after begetting Noah 595 565 600



Sum 777 753 777 653

Noah before begetting children 500 500 500 500
Noah at the time of the Flood 600 600 600 600

Asatir agrees in the main with the Samaritan recension.



GEOGRAPHICAL AND OTHER NAMES.
ARABIC GLOSSES.

The geographical and personal names found in the
book, no less than the Arabic equivalents, presented a
problem which was not easy to solve. Taking first the

10*



148

geographical names, we find a number of towns built by
men of the first generations. Some of them are names of
towns found in the Pentateuch, such as Riphat, Rechoboth,
Bosra, and others well known to belong to the Palestinian
area. Others, on the contrary, are absolutely unknown, for
instance, Badan, where Adam lived (1. 23) and died. (III. 2).
For a long time I was inclined to identify it with the Biblical
"Padan," in spite of the fact that every thing pointed to Pal-
estine, and still more to the neighbourhood of Mount Gari-
zim. By mere chance I found the name in one of the Sama-
ritan chronicles in a totally different connection. It was there
described as a place near Sichem, but which had disap-
peared long ago Strange also are the names of the countries
divided by Noah among his children after the Flood (IV)
Still more surprising, unless due to corruption of the text,
is the description of the boundaries of Palestine as seen by
Moses, (Asatir XI . 4 ff) though it rests ultimately on the text
of the Bible (Numbers XXXIV). Again in the case of
places like Adar Shgg (IV. l) the dwelling-place of Noah,
every attempt to identify it has utterly failed, and why
Hebron should be called twice Eyul Mth (III. 3 and IV. 38)
is a question no answer to which can be found. The same is
the case with Adrms, the place where Adam wor shipped
first (III. 14), Sursn (III. 19), and many others. I have
searched in vain through all available sources; the Bible
and Josephus, Eusebius and Jerome (Onomasticon), mediae-
val travellers and modern geographers of Palestine down
to Smith's Historical Geography of Palestine. There is no
doubt that some of the names are cryptograms, the result of
permutation and combination of letters, as is the case with
the personal names, to which reference will be made pres-
ently. On the other hand these old names have also under-
gone the same process of being, as it were, modernised, such
as happened notably in the ancient Geomeria, or the divis-
ion of the land by Noah. The Book of Jubilees also con-
tains such extraordinary names, like Elda, (III. 32) the



149

place of the creation and death of Adam, and also the
names of the countries given by Noah to his children. I
have shown in my introduction to the Chronicle of Jerafr-
meel that from very early times more modern names were
substituted regularly for the older ones found in the
Bible. The Palestinian Targum, no less than Josephus,
and a host of other subsequent writers, does not hesitate to
give the current name of the town or of the nation, better
known to their readers than the obsolete and long forgotten.
But this substitution has been effected gradually. It took
time before the old name was entirely eliminated. It was
done first by the way of interpretative glosses inserted in
the text. Side by side with the old stood the new name,
first as a marginal or interlinear gloss. It was then inserted
into the text by the later copyist, and finally retained in
lieu of the old, which was then discarded. It is precisely
the same process through which the geographical names
found in the Asatir have passed. But here they are still in
the second stage in which the old name has been retai-
ned, and the Arabic equivalent, or reputed equivalent, is
added. But this process has been continued in the Arabic
paraphrase, where, for instance, when Sifra (a curious
form retained integrally as a proper name without re
cognition of the He locativum) is explained as beingidenti-
cal with Sichem, the Arabic paraphrast of the twelfth
or thirteenth century straight away substitutes Nablus
for Sichem, and so in other places. Meshalma, in his
quotations from the Asatir, often altogether omits the
Arabic equivalent, for it evidently was not in his copy,
or he gives sometimes other equivalents.

I draw special attention to this fact, for the appearence
of these geographical names might create the belief that
the book is of a more recent origin. How little justified
such a conclusion would be is shown not only by the fact
that there is no consistency in the equalisation, but by the
more important parallelism with the Samaritan Targum.



ISO

This Targum is not later than the second century C. E.,
and it even may be older. In that Targum, a number of
words were discovered which had a strange appearance
and which no one was able to reduce to any known root.
The result was that for a long time they were believed to
be survivals of the language of the mythical "Kutheans"
brought as colonists into the land by the Assyrian Kings.
It was the merit of S. Kohn,* however, to prove beyond
cavil or doubt that many of these strange words were
nothing other than Arabic glosses to obsolete Samaritan
words that had been introduced into the text for explanatory
purposes; but they had become so corrupted by constant
use that they could no longer be recognized easily. It is
precisely the same with the Asatir. Obsolete words, the
meaning of which the people had forgotten, were explained
originally by Arabic glosses. At one time or another
glosses have been introduced, but happily they have been
limited to geographical names, and have not affected the
personal names, which remain unchanged, except on one
or two occasions, like Bab El Abwab (Asatir IV. 27.29).
which, in itself, is not a real geographical name. Cod.
A., which has been taken as the basis of the present
edition, offers another and if possible more decisive
proof for the late insertion of glosses, since Arabic
glosses are actually written between the lines above some
obsolete words. A careful examination of the text reveals
the fact that except for these geographical names, there are
only two or three words which seem of doubtful Arabic
origin. Such, for instance, is the word "ngmut," (III. 9),
translated by me "astrology." But this also seems to be a
gloss probably inserted simply to explain the meaning of
the "Book of Signs," i. e. that it was the book dealing
with the signs of Heaven, with the revolutions of the sun,
moon and stars. The word "ngm" is considered by the

* Zur Sprache, Literatur und Dogmatik der Samaritaner, Leipzig
1876; Abhandlungen fur d. Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. V, no. 4.



Arabic lexicographers to be a foreign word, and it may
well be of Samaritan or of other North-Semitic origin.
The other word, found in Arabic, but also unquestionably
of foreign origin, is "fngl", (III. 26), which I have trans-
lated as "cup" or "dome." Both are technical terms, and
have unquestionably been introduced as explanatory
glosses.

A comparison with the Samaritan Targum here again
will prove fruitful from more than one point of view. In
the Samaritan Targum we find not only explanatory
glosses, but real substitutions of new names for those found
in the Hebrew original of the text. The translators were
not satisfied with merely adding the modern equivalent,
whilst leaving the other in its original form, as the author
of the Asatir does, but he or those who copied or revised
the Samaritan Targum from time to time went one step
further. The old Biblical names were entirely elimina-
ted, and their place was taken by modern names, and this,
in spite of the fact hitherto not sufficiently recognized,
that the Samaritan Targum has also been subject to
constant revision and assimilation to the original Hebrew
text, just as happened with the LXX and the Jewish
Targum. In this respect Gen. Ch. X is highly instructive.
As a rule the personal names of the nations are retained
in the Targumim in their Hebrew form. But in w. 1 1 and
1 2 there occur the names of the towns built by Ashur. For
each of these Biblical names the Samaritan Targum has
totally different names. Even the name of Babel (XI. 9)
has not escaped the hand of the Targumist. In the Sa-
maritan Targum pW, read as p 1 ?^, as it is a cryptographic
permutation, has been substituted for toa. In Gen. X. 30
the translator misunderstood the Hebrew name Mesha
KtfBO reading it as if it were twos, he translated it teooa
which makes no sense. In the Asatir, on the contrary
(ch.V. 13), it has been translated in an entirely independent
manner reminding one of the Palestinian Targum. The



152

Samaritan Arabic translator has done precisely the same
as the Samaritan Targum. Some of the personal names
have not been changed, whilst many of the geographical
names have been replaced by more modern equivalents
(so Gen. X. I, X. 1 1 ff.). In the Asatir we have both names.
The Hebrew has been preserved whilst the Arabic has been
added. It is noteworthy, however, that these new Arabic
equivalents in the Asatir differ both from the Samar-
itan and Arabic Targumim being independent of both.
Furthermore in Gen. IV. 16, the name of the place to
which Kain had gone is in the Hebrew ]~iy fionp p. For
this the Samaritan Targum has py njma "to. In the Asatir
(II. 9) the name of the place is "Hanohiah," which, by
popular etymology and through Samaritan pronuncia-
tion, has been changed in one place into"Antokia"(II. i)
thus differing again from the Targum. It is not un-
important to mention in this connection that the proper
names in Gen. XXV. 2ff. (the sons of Abraham and Keturah)
remain unchanged in the Targum, whilst the Arabic
translates most of these as well as of those in w. 13 15
into better known names of Arabic tribes and clans.

In Gen. XXV. 18 the geographical names which occur also
in the Asatir have remained unchanged with the exception
of miB>K for which the Arabic has ^its (= Mosul). Most of
the rulers (a^ito) in Gen. XXXVI. 4off. have also been
changed in the Arabic, whilst the Targum has preserved
them unaltered. There is still one passage in the Penta-
teuch to which reference has already been made, viz:
Numb. Ch. XXXIV, the names of the boundaries of Pal-
estine. These have remained unchanged in both the Tar-
gum and in the Arabic. But most of these names are great-
ly changed in the Asatir (Ch. XI. 4ff.), and thus again,
the Asatir is independent of either, and no doubt repres-
ents the earliest stage in that slow transformation and
introduction of Arabic geographical names. A glance at
any Samaritan MS. with Aramaic Samaritan texts will



J53

show that this practice has been continued throughout
the ages. There are numerous marginal and even inter-
linear explanatory glosses in the oldest collection of
hymns, the "Kenosh," among my Samaritan MSS. In the
same way also glosses are found in MSS. of the poems of
Markah. Nay, even in the margin of the marriage con-
tract of the high priest Ishak (in "Studies and Texts"
p. I39ff.) the Arabic name of the bride is added. The
Samaritans, like the Jews, in Hellenistic and later times
have often two names, a Hebrew and an Arabic name.
The former is, as it were, the holy name and the other the
profane or secular name. The Hebrew name of the young
woman is duly entered in the text and the Arabic "Kunya"
figures as a marginal gloss. These glosses cannot, there-
fore, be invoked as a proof for the late age of the Asatir,
but they are on the contrary one of the best proofs for its
high antiquity; for had the book been of late origin, it
would be absurd to imagine that the author would have
gone out of his way to use apparently old and by then
no doubt already forgotten names, and to insert them
into his writing. He could at once have used names
better known to his contemporaries, as Josephus,Targum,
etc. have done. There would then have been no necessity
to add the presumed Arabic equivalent, or to substitute
altogether a new name for the old one. Arabic explanatory
glosses have only been introduced chiefly into old writings
for the purpose of elucidating the meaning of an obsolete
word, or for the identification of an ancient long-for-
gotten place-name. Thus these Arabic glosses, like those
in the Samaritan Targum, testify to the high antiquity
of the Asatir, and the veneration in which it was held
throughout the ages. They can only assist in determining
the date of the archetype from which the two existing
codices are the only extant copies. Nor will this be an
easy task, for only a few of the geographical names here
mentioned can be identified.



154

We turn now to the personal names, and here we are
also confronted by the fact that names of persons are
mentioned in the Asatir of whom nothing is known else-
where. They were certainly not invented by the author,
but whence did he get them? Occasionally one might
suggest that symbolical names have been invented, as has
been the case elsewhere, e. g. Avan (sin) Azurah (for-
bidden, restrained), in the Book of Jubilees, IV. I, as the
names of the sisters of Cain and Abel, these names being
nothing else than the Hebrew words occurring together in
Isaiah 1. 13, a fact hitherto unrecognized. Another example
is the peculiar genealogy of Haman found in Targum 1 1 to
Esther (II. 6) in which P. Cassel* recognizes the names of
Procurators and Emperors that had been hostile to thejews,
and who were therefore held up to execration as the progen-
itors of Haman. But no such explanation can be found for
the names and genealogies found in the Asatir except e. g.
the names of Gifna (leprosy) or Maktesh (disgrace) (I II. 13)
made by a slight change of letters from the word Makdash
(sanctuary) given to Sion and the Temple by the Samar-
itans. There is no suggestion of anything wrong in the
names of the two sisters of Cain and Abel, Al'alah andMa-
keda(1. 3), or in the very curious pedigree of Pharaoh from
the Kittim (VIII. 15). Neither the lists ofManetho andSyn-
cellus nor modern Egyptology have helped in solving this
problem. The same is the case with the genealogy of Bileam
(X. i) where he is traced back to Laban. In the Jewish
literature Bileam is identified with Laban (see above). The
only paralls for these kind of fictitious genealogies I have
hitherto found in the pseudepigraphic literature are the
two genealogies of Joshua and Caleb in the Pseudo-
Philo Antiquities, XV, 3 ff. Great importance was attached
to the line of descent, especially at that period. The
very lists in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah and

* II. Targum z. Buche Esther, Leipzig u. Berlin 1885, p. 40 ff.
and p. VI.



155

Chronicles, as well as the Chain of the high priests
among the Samaritans, no less than the genealogy of
Jesus, in the Gospel Matthew I, show what great
value was placed on records of pure and direct descent
from great ancestors. One cannot here forget to mention
the genealogical list of the Exilarchs in Babylon in Seder
Olam Zutta and that produced by the Karaites, in favour
of Anam, the founder of their sect, published in the Notitia
Karaeorum.* So strong must that feeling have been that
in consequence thereof such fictitious genealogies were
invented in order to trace the evil fruit from an evil root.
The habit of tracing the pedigree, especially of rulers, as far
back as possible, and recording them on their monuments
and tombstones, can be seen constantly in the numerous
North-Semitic inscriptions (as well as in Arabic and prob-
ably also in Babylonian and Assyrian ones). It is curious
that this habit should have been preserved among the
Samaritans and have become here a regular practice. The
author of the Asatir has also taken some liberties with the
names of the Kings of Edom and their places of origin
(VIII. lof.) differing from the statements in the Bible (Gen.
XXXVI) and also from the Samaritan Targum. Again at
least two wizards are mentioned here, one, Plti(VIII. 24),
in the time of Moses. (The names are all reproduced here
and in the book exactly as they are written, without
any vocalisation, unless they are well-known Biblical
names.) This name occurs in the Pentateuch, Numb.
XIII. 9, as Palti, son of Raphu of the tribe of Benjamin.
The name again occurs in I. Samuel XXV. 44, as the
man to whom Saul gave to wife Milkah, David's wife.
It is not the habit of the Samaritans, however, to give
Biblical names to wizards. The name "Palta" or "Palti"
occurs as the name of a person in an Aramaic papyrus
of the second century B. C. E. found in Egypt (Cowley,

* Ed. J. C. Wolfius, Hamburg 1721, 'OTIS in Wien 1830,
fol4bff.



156

Proc. Soc. Bibl. Archaeology, November 1915). Then
there is a name written both Mertis (X. i) and Turts (VI. i8)
One of these forms is evidently corrupt. We have then the
story of Afridan (II. 35, III. 13 ff.) the son of Tubal Kain>
with its distinct virulent attack on Sion and the Sanctuary
of which no other parallels are known.

All these peculiarities point to a purely Samaritan
origin, which is furthermore corroborated by the fact that
we find in the Asatir a number of cryptograms also of
personal names which may be the required clue for
the identification of the various names occurring in the
genealogies mentioned above. Most prominently is this
the case in the Prophecy (Ch. XI. 20 ff.) where all the
proper names are concealed in cryptograms. This proves
again the entire independence of the Asatir from any
other pseudepigraphic or Midrashic writing which has
thus far come down to us.

THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGE.

The only question that could arise under this heading-
is as to whether the book was originally written in Samar-
itan Hebrew or in the vernacular Samaritan. A Greek
original is utterly excluded. On many occasions, especially
in connection with my studies on the Testaments of the
Patriarchs (loc.cit.Q. 69ff.) and Tobit (loc.cit. p. i), now
reprinted in "Studies and Texts," I have endeavoured to.
show the utter impossibility of a Greek original for Jewish
Apocrypha. No trace of Greek idiom has yet been found
in these texts, whether preserved in Hebrew or in Aramaic.
On the contrary, the Greek texts abound in Hebraisms;,
even the Assumption of Moses can best be understood
when retranslated into a Semitic tongue. There is besides
the inherent improbability that a Jew or a Samaritan
would recognise as genuine or of any value a book ascribed
to Moses and yet written in Greek. However ignorant and
credulous and these books were not written only for the



157

Ignorant and credulous the reader would still know at
least that the language used by Moses could only be Hebrew,
or at the worst, Aramaic.

The author of the Asatir knew the Pentateuch very well,
so much so that he was able to read into the text some
allegorical explanations, and to add to the narrative
legendary amplifications. In the story of Kain the passages
from Genesis and in that of Bileam the passages from
Numbers are given verbatim in Hebrew (see notes ad loc.).
If the book had been written in Hebrew, there would have
been no reason why the translation should have retained
a few Hebrew quotations, whilst translating all the rest.
These quotations are not even indispensible for the elucid-
ation of the legend. It is quite different if we assume an
Aramaic original and not a translation. Then the author
would give the Biblical passages as quotations to distinguish
them from the rest, which was written in the vernacular.

No old Hebrew Samaritan writing is known to exist
except the Book of Joshua and a few fragments belonging
to the Joshua literature. On the contrary, all the oldest
writings Targum, Markarji, Nana, Amram Dahra and
the oldest prayers are in the Samaritan language. If this
Asatir was to serve a popular purpose either in con-
junction with the Targum or independently of it, then it
must have been written in that Aramaic vernacular in which
it has been preserved to this very day. The Prophecy (Ch. XI)
and the Oracle (Ch. XII) with their peculiar syntactic
construction, could not have been translated from the
Hebrew, besides the obvious obstacles of rendering
literally and yet faithfully so obscure a text as this is.

Moreover, neither in Greek nor in Hebrew is there a book
completely corresponding to the Asatir of whichthe one might
be deemed the original and the other the translation. It is
evident that we have in the Asatir a compilation sui generis
unlike any other Biblical Apocryphon. It does not follow any
known writings, nor is there any one known similar to it.



I S 8



DATE OF THE ASATIR AND FINAL
CONCLUSION.

After this survey, sometimes more elaborate, at other
times more restricted, but yet covering a wide field, it is not
very difficult to fix the date of the composition of the Asatir.
It is obvious that it must be anterior to the date of Arta-
panos and Eupolemos, and to the third book of the Sibyl-
line Oracles. It is very much older than Josephus and the
Palestinian Targum, and the differences between the Asatir
and all the other pseudepigraphic writings are so pro-
foundly marked that a long space of time must have
elapsed before the simple tales or brief allusions could have
been so fully developed as found in the latter writings.
I have already pointed out that the Prophecy, properly
interpreted, does not carry us down further than the
time of Ezra, and the erection of idols or statues on Mount
Garizim. Too little is known of the post-Biblical history and
of the time when . such an event could have taken place,
to allow us to draw any definite conclusion from this faint
allusion. The Samaritans themselves have lost every
knowledge of the meaning of this allusion, and the various
interpretations published show how hopelessly they are
at a loss. Their interpretations are contradictory and
anachronistic, mere guess-work of no value. It is signific-
ant that the Taheb is only vaguely referred to and that
the whole eschatology is of a most primitive character; it is
almost a starting point of the application of Bileam's
prophecy to future events. There is no reference to the
Resurrection of the Dead in the Prophecy itself, or even to
the Day of Judgment, although the world is reckoned to
come to an end after 6,000 years. The only outlook on the
future is to a time of peace and happiness; of great joy,
of intense study of the Law, and of, the recognition of the
Samaritan claim. All this is of very archaic character,



159

and could not have been compiled at a date when all
these ideas had become, in a more fully developed form,
the common property of the inhabitants of Palestine.
If, as has been assumed, e. g. the Book of Jubilees and
the Book of Enoch, etc. are as old as the middle of
the second century B. C., astrology and demonology of
a very elaborate character must have been rampant at
that time. Yet there is no trace of it in the Asatir,
whilst the picture of the happy times following upon
the Advent of the Messiah, on the one hand, agrees
with the last chapter of Daniel save in the reference to
the awakening of those "who slumber in the dust," and
still more closely with the Sibylline Oracles.

Attention must be drawn in this connection to the rem-
arkable fact that not the slightest allusion is made to the
Maccabean period. The Samaritans, as well as the Jews,
were deeply affected by the action of the Hellenizing king
Antiochus, and Josephus (Ant. XII. 5. 5. 257 ff.) did
not hesitate to accuse the Samaritans of bowing their
knees to the heathen worship; and yet, not a trace
of the terrible persecution to which the Samaritans
were exposed is mentioned either in the prophecy or
in the oracle. And still more significant is the complete
silence about the Destruction of the second Temple. The
existence of that second Temple had been the cause of the
most virulent contention between the Samaritans and the
Jews. The former would have gloated over its destruction,
and would not have failed to point to its fate with the
utmost satisfaction. On that occasion the Jews again
accuse the Samaritans of having acted treacherously to-
wards them. Not only, it was said, did they side with the
enemy, but they took an active part in bringing about the
destruction of Jerusalem and the burning of the Temple.
Such an event, which deeply stirred the feelings and
imagination of the people, could obviously not have
been passed over in complete silence; yet there is no



i6o

reference in the prophecy and the oracle to anything
beyond the Destruction of the first Temple and the
time of Ezra. All these are so many proofs that the
composition of the Asatir was anterior to the Macca-
bean period.

There is, furthermore, no reference to Pinedas establish-
ing the Calendar, and as for the kings enumerated in the
oracle (Ch. XII), the reference is so shadowy and so
artificial that no historical conclusion of any value could
be drawn from that list. There is no period in history to
which it could apply, or there are too many to which, by
some ingenuity, the list could not be made to fit ; that it
is very old, however, has been shown before.

There is one more argument from the language. All the
existing Aramaic works belong to the first, second or third
centuries of the common Era. Not a single book has been
written in pure Aramaic since. The literary revival among
the Samaritans from the fourteenth century downward shas
only helped to re-establish the use of that peculiar Hebrew
which is of a strictly Samaritan colour.

These and many more arguments which arise from the
minute comparison of the Asatir with all th<j6 ther docum-
ents mentioned hitherto, all point in the same direction,
and justify us in assuming that this book could not have
been compiled later than between 250 200 B. C. E.

Having thus determined the approximate date of the
Asatir, some important conclusions may be drawn from
this result. They are of a threefold character: philological,
Biblical and exegetical. The book is unquestionably the
oldest monument of the Samaritan literature hitherto re-
covered. It contains already all the peculiarities of this
specific Aramaic dialect, and it proves thereby that it must
have been the language in general use among the Samar-
itans at that early date, also for their literary productions.
It was not only the spoken, but also the written language:
nor was its use limited only to the Samaritans. Aramaic



was the lingua Franca of the Persian Empire. It must
have been in use long before the beginning of that king-
dom. Jews as well as Samaritans and other nations in the
Persian Empire spoke and wrote Aramaic. It was also
the official language. The decrees of the kings in Ezra
and Nehemiah differ little from the Aramaic portions in
Daniel, and from that of the contemporary papyri of
Assuan. It was the language best understood by the
people. This corroborates the interpretation which has
been put upon the action of Ezra, who caused the Law
to be read to the people both in Hebrew and in the
vernacular. We see now in the Asatir the result of a
parallel movement among the Samaritans, the outcome
of which was the Midrashic expansion and the inter-
pretation found in theTargum, and in the legendary addit-
ions to the Biblical narrative. Hitherto the Samarit-
an Targum was considered to be the oldest work written
in Samaritan, followed by Markah, whilst some of the
liturgical prayers and hymns were supposed to be older.
Now the Asatir easily claims the prerogative of being the
oldest specimen of Samaritan in its phonetics, accidence
and syntax, not to speak of the vocabulary with its
truly archaic character.

Of special importance is the Biblical aspect We have in the
Asatir the oldest references to the Bible; for it a book which
rests in all its details upon most minute points in the Bible.
It serves exclusively the purpose of supplementing the Pent-
ateuch from beginning to end. No historical incident of any
importance is omitted, no apparent gap which this book
does not intend to fill, and what is still more interesting, it
shows the existence of the Samaritan recension of the Bible
already in the hands of the Samaritans as far back as at
least the middle of the third century. All the points of dif-
ference between the Samaritan and the Jewish recension are
already in that text; nay, the polemical part of the Asatir
is nothing but an elaboration of these points of difference

Asatir. H



162

which rest upon the Samaritan recension. The polemical
character of the Asatir has already been referred to before,
and it draws its inspiration from the divergence between
the two recensions. All the important dogmatic principles
in which the Samaritan recension differs from the Jewish
are emphasized here, and justified by Agadic inter-
pretation. The holiness of Mount Garizim, the Chosen
Mountain, and the hatred against the Temple in Jerusalem,
as well as the execration of Eli, Solomon and Ezra, all are
prominent features of this text, the author of which dis-
plays, by the way, a good knowledge of Jewish history
from Joshua to Ezra. The importance of this fact cannot
be overestimated, since it leads to a further result viz., the
high antiquity of the Midrash, that exegesis of peculiar
character, connected with the Bible. The value of it lies
not only in the fact that by means of the Asatir one has
been able to trace the beginning of this activity as far
back as at least three centuries B. C. E., but also in the
no less important fact that it contributes to establish the
existence of a fixed Biblical text of at least some centuries
before that period. As I have shown in my Schweich
Lectures on the Samaritans (p. 1 22), a long time must elapse
between the fixing of a text and the endowing of it with a
sacred character, and the Agadic interpretation which rests
often upon the minutiae of such a text. It must have been
considered as holy for a long time, and every word and letter
so fixed that legends could be evolved out of these words
and letters once definitely fixed. There would have been
otherwise neither a basis nor any reason at all for develop-
ing a text still fluid. The exegetical Midrashic activity lies
also at the root of the Hellenistic literature. The writers
in Greek were not the first to evolve these legends, nor
are they works, at least in their majority, of an Egyptian or
Alexandrian origin, as has hitherto been assumed. On the
contrary, as is shown by the Asatir, they rest ultimately
on Agadic compilations of Palestinian origin, written



163

in the vernacular Aramaic. These were the primary
sources which the Hellenistic writers occasionally embell-
ished by the addition of extraneous matter, but in sub-
stance they followed faithfully the old Aramaic original.
From all these points of view this Asatir is unquestionably
an invaluable addition to the scanty literature of the Samar-
itans, and a valuable aid towards the elucidation of many
problems which have hitherto baffled the investigator.

THE MANUSCRIPTS
AND THE EDITION OF THE ASATIR.

Of the Samaritan text only two copies are in existence,
one written on parchment (B), which I discovered among
them on my visit on the I2th of May, 1907, with which the
Samaritans refused to part; and another (A) on paper
which turned up a little later, and which they also declined
to sell. In consequence of that refusal I induced them to
provide me with copies. I asked the priests AbHasda
son of Jacob, and Abisha son of Pinefras, to make two
independent copies of the older MS., whilst Abraham
son of Pinehas provided me with the copy of the more
recent MS. In time, I was able to obtain possession of the
original paper MS. (A). Of the copies from the older
MS., the one made by Ab Hasda, son of the late high
priest Jacob, is very well executed. It is a fine piece of
Samaritan penmanship most calligraphically done, in un-
cial characters on forty pages with the original pagination,
25 lines to the page. All the quotations from the Penta-
teuch are written in red ink. The figures in Ch. XII are
also marked by red ink. The whole text is written without
any break. Punctuation, in the use of which the
Samaritans differ entirely from other well-known systems,
is freely introduced. Here and there signs above the letters
are used to differentiate between words written in the
same letters, but having a different meaning. The colon (:),

11*



164

does not .mark the end of a sentence and often denotes
that the preceding letters are numerals. A peculiar sign
which sometimes resembles a semi-colon (<) marks an
abbreviation, but unfortunately is it more often omitted
than retained, causing thereby great difficulty and con-
fusion.

Not satisfied with this one copy of the old MS. I asked
Abisha to make me another copy, in order that these two
should check each other, so that the chances of mistakes
should thereby be greatly reduced or eliminated. This
copy consists of thirty-seven pages, with twenty-five lines
to the page, written less beautifully than the previous one,
in cursive writing called by the Samaritans "half letters."
The original punctuation also has been preserved faith-
fully by Abisha. By collating the two copies I have been
able to obtain a reasonably accurate copy of the ol doriginal.

The more recent is the Codex on paper mentioned
before. Originally I had to content myself with a transcript
made by Abraham, son of Pinefras the Kahen. A few
years afterwards the original came into my possession.
I call it Cod. A. It is not dated. It is a rare occurrence
that the copyists of Samaritan MSS. should not append
their names and the dates when they had completed their
work. But judging from the internal evidence and by
comparison with other MSS., though Samaritan palaeo-
graphy does not exist one is safe in assign it to the
sixteenth or the beginning of the seventeenth century.
A later owner has written a few lines with his name across
the back of the last page, but someone has rubbed out the
date. The MS. consists of 24 leaves of thick yellow
Oriental paper measuring i6.yx 14-1 cm.

There are 27 lines to a page, except in Ch. XII. which is
written in short distichs, the page being divided into two
columns. It is written throughout by one hand in black
ink, without any break in the text. The punctuation is
used regularly, the colon after the letters denoting



numerals and at the end of the sentence are sometimes
three dots (/.). Occasionally the sign of abbreviation
is introduced, but it is more often omitted, and
caused thereby no little difficulty in the understanding of
the text. This is a peculiarity in which A and B agree,
showing thereby that they are derived from the same com-
mon prototype; but the writer of Cod. A has sometimes given
the words in full, although he had to compress the text
within a comparatively narrower space. For that reason
he also wrote in small cursive type, and cramped the writ-
ing. Still in spite of it the writing is clear, and what is
more the text is in many passages more accurate than in B.
Besides a few omissions in the one or the other due to care-
lessness of copyists, to homoioteleutera and other scribe's
errors the two MSS. differ also slightly in the orthography.
Cod. B shows a more thoroughgoing obliteration of the
gutturals, or rather, graphic unification, than Cod. A.
The different gutturals are treated a little more carefully
in A. On the whole both represent the Samaritan phon-
etics with even greater consistency than is found now in
the Targum. Both codices represent, however, one and the
same text, and both go back to the same original. Both
have in common all the difficult and corrupt passages. The
Arabic glosses and geographical identifications and all the
proper names of men and gods are the same in both, just
as they are also found to a large extent in the Arabic
paraphrase and in Meshalma. The scribe seems to have
revised his MS., and on not a few occasions he has in-
serted missing words, and also occasionallya whole sentence.
A subsequent owner of Cod. A, to whom the language
appeared difficult, or who wished to help a reader no
longer quite familiar with the Samaritan, started inserting
Arabic glosses. Over every scarce word he wrote between
the lines the Arabic translation, and he numbered the
seven gods worshipped by Bileam (Ch. X. v. 7). Probab-
ly finding the work too difficult, or for some other



166

unknown reason, he discontinued these Arabic glosses
after a few pages. They henceforth appear only sporadi-
cally. These Arabic glosses differ, as far as I have been
able to ascertain, from the corresponding words used in
the Arabic paraphrase.

The state of the text found in these two MSS. is, however,
far from satisfactory. In the course of time, it must have
suffered from careless copyists,and a few passages which may
have been originally in the Asatir have been omitted,
and others so greatly abbreviated that they became mere
allusions, such as the story of Afridan (Ch. III.) the Wars
of the Nations and Nimrod (Ch. V) ; the reference to the
children of Moses (XI. 2) and many other passages that are
found more fully in the other Samaritan literature which has
drawn its material from the Asatir. A slightly different
text was probably in the hands of Meshalma, and here
and there one can observe in the Arabic paraphrase slight
variants which may be due to the Samaritan text used by the
paraphrast, unless indeed they belong to the additions which
he so freely made. It shows however that at his time in
the twelfth century the text had already suffered corruption
and mutilation.

As basis for the present edition I have taken Cod. A as
containing, on the whole, a text which has been better pre-
served. This text has been carefully collated with Cod. B
in the two copies, and wherever there seems to be a definite
lacuna, a word omitted or a form entirely mutilated by the
scribe A, I have corrected and completed the text by the
readings of B. Orthographic variants have been ignored.
Important variants found in Meshalma have however
been set out in full in the notes to the translation. I have
transliterated the Samaritan into modern Hebrew square
script, but I have retained the punctuation and the few
graphic signs found in Cod. A. With the help of the two
MSS., abbreviations have as far as possible been completed,
so as to reduce the difficulties of the text. The text has



167

then been divided by me into chapters and verses. The
MSS. offered no guide, the text being written continuously
but for the purpose of annotation and reference I consid-
ered it indispensible to divide it into smaller sections. The
chapters have been made to correspond, more or less, with
definite episodes in the Biblical narrative. The verses
contain detailed incidents. Chronological and genealogic-
al data, however small, have been counted as single verses,
to facilitate reference.

A Samaritan-Hebrew commentary (Pitron) to which
reference will be made later, has been printed under
the text, and as far as possible I have tried to make these
run concurrently. This, however, was not always possible
owing to the prolixity of the latter. Both text and com-
mentary have been literally translated. The trans-
lation which accompanies the Samaritan text has proved
the most arduous part of my work. Difficulties abounded
on every side. As mentioned before, the text itself, owing to
its great age, has suffered in many places. Small portions
have undoubtedly dropped out, thus rendering the meaning
of the passages very obscure, or reducing them to mere
allusions. There was scarcely anything which could help to
nterpret them satisfactorily. In addition there was the archaic
language, so old indeed that the Samaritans themselves have
given up the attempt to explain it. Already the Arabic
paraphrast of the twelfth century, and the latest commen-
tators in the Pitron, have either passed them over altogether,
or simply left them untranslated ; and whenever they did
attempt a translation it was quite fantastic, and did not
do justice to the text. Again many words were written in an
abbreviated form, and as often as possible, the sign which
marked the abbreviation had been omitted, so that it took
me a very long time until I discovered the fact that the words
which had baffled me were simply abbreviations or crypto-
grams. Added to this was the peculiar orthography, which
follows strictly Samaritan phonetics. All these combined to



i68

increase the difficulty of giving as faithful a rendering as
was necessary for any study of the text, its sources,
parallels, origin and date. The translation is as literal
as possible, retaining occasionally the ambiguity of the orig-
inal. And yet with all these endeavours, I must humbly
confess that all the obscure passages have not been cleared
up, and that the manifold problems connected with this
ancient book have not been entirely solved. The last word
has not yet been spoken and it is for other scholars to
continue and complete my labours in this direction.
But this work would have been incomplete without
also adding references to parallels from the Samaritan
as well as from the other pseudepigraphic literature. I
have therefore added ample annotations in which I have
adduced as many parallels as seemed important, to throw
light on the relation in which the Asatir stands to that
literature. In these notes I have moreover taken care to give
in the first place as many parallels as possible from the
Samaritan Literature. They are often given in full, since
the whole material is otherwise practically inaccessible
and the information assists greatly in the interpretation of
the text. The references to the other literature could have
easily been multiplied; but that would have merely meant
a repetition of what others have done so well in their
editions, references to which must therefore suffice.

THE ARABIC PARAPHRASE.

The Samaritans possess two Arabic translations of the
Asatir, one more ancient and one of more recent date.
I am dealing now with the first. I have two copies of it,
one written by the late high priest Jacob, and another
more recent copy. In the British Museum there is an
older copy. These copies represent, as far as I have been
able to ascertain, one and the same translation of the same
original. In the Introduction the anonymous author, after



169

praising God, says that he is translating the work of the
Master Moses; but without giving any title of the book he
at once starts to translate the text. This translation is
anything but literal. There is scarcely a single passage in it
which has not been greatly enlarged. In the last chapter
the translator is not satisfied with a verbal rendering
of the Prophecy of Moses, but adds also an historical
explanation, which is of no value, since it is full of an-
achronisms and misunderstandings.

This Arabic text is characteristic of the manner in
which such translations have been made from Samaritan
originals. They took every possible liberty with the text,
introduced new matter, and omitted old. These Arabic
translations are not the work of skilled scholars, and give
a wrong impression of the old original. It is evident that
this translator, like others who have translated from
Samaritan into Arabic, had no other purpose than to
relate the old story in a popular manner. It was not
intended to be a literal translation. We find in addition
that he either did not understand the Samaritan text, or
willfully passed over every difficult passage in his trans-
lations. He simply left it untranslated and reproduced it
in the Samaritan script. He also left all the proper
names in the original Samaritan, but often added the
Arabic equivalent as now found in the Samaritan text;
and so also with the mystical names of the gods worshipped
by Bileam, where he ventured on an astrological ex-
planation, a later attempt to explain those seven idols.

The translation is evidently made for Samaritan readers
only, otherwise the very numerous Samaritan words and
even phrases would not have been allowed to stand. The
author follows, in a way, a general practice. When Samar-
itans write in Arabic, they always quote the Biblical refer-
ences in the original and write these passages in the
Samaritan script. But then they are quotations from the
Bible, whilst in the Asatir they are integral portions of the



170

original text which the author fails to translate. They were a
stumbling block to anyone unacquainted with Samaritan,
and they have proved such to the late Dr. Leitner, who
published a German translation of the British Museum
MS. in Heidenheim's VierteljahsresschriftVol.lv, Zurich
1871 p. iSyff. The result has been most unfortunate, for
the book seems to be quite unintelligible. Every proper
name is missing, the most important passages are omitted,
not a single sentence is completed, and the meaning is ren-
dered absurd or entirely inaccurate.

The reference to Maimonides gives us a clue to the
probable date of this paraphrase and also to the home of
the author. The virulent tone adopted against Maimon-
ides shows the bitter hatred against a man with whom
the Samaritans must have come into some personal conflict.
This could only have taken place in Egypt and probably
at a time when Maimonides took up a very strong attitude
against the Karaites. Nothing is known of his attitude
towards the Samaritans who were then numerous
in Egypt. The bitter tone used by the author might be
an indication of Maimonides' relation to the Samaritans
(v. Pahad Ishak s. v. Kuthim). To the Samaritans in
Nablus Maimonides' opinion or action was a matter of
little or no concern. Not so to the Samaritans in Egypt,
which thus must have been the home of the author; and
the date of this work then could not be later than the end
of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century. This
date agrees entirely with that given tome personally by the
Samaritans who assert that the author lived not much
later than the twelfth century.

It is then not a little surprising to find that by that time
the knowledge of the old Samaritan should have dwindled
to such an extent that a man who undertook to paraphrase
a book ascribed to Moses could no longer master it
sufficiently. Overladen as this paraphrase is with addit-
ional matter, it is not easy to separate that which he took



from the Asatir and those portions which he took from
elsewhere in order to embellish his paraphrase. But it is
evident that his text must have been similar, if not identical,
with the text which is now in our hands. At this time already
the text had become obscure and many of the corruptions
were already found in it ; they must therefore be of a much
more ancient date. Difficult as the book itself proved to
be, the difficulty was immensely increased to the translator
when he reached the Oracle. Here he was entirely baffled,
and did not even attempt any translation. He simply
condensed it into a few sentences.

In the material used by the author to embellish he
narrative there is also the episode of Shobakti and his
mother, the sorceress, taken from the Book of Joshua. It is
of special interest to show the inter-relation between these
two Arabic works, which both rest on more ancient
Hebrew-Samaritan originals. On the one hand, the author
of the Book of Joshua takes the story of Bileam among
other incidents from the Asatir and the Arabic translator
takes episodes from the Samaritan Arabic Book of
Joshua. It helps to determine the date of the latter which,
belongs probably to the eleventh century, if it be not older.

THE PITRON: OR ARABIC-SAMARITAN
COMMENTARY TO THE ASATIR.

Of special interest, no doubt, from many points of view
is now the second commentary originally composed in
Arabic, the date of which is uncertain; of this commentary,
a Hebrew-Samaritan translation has been prepared for
me. It appears now in this book. No name of an author
is mentioned, and none has been given to me in spite of
repeated enquiry. The Samaritans only assert that some
scholars, together with Abraham, son of Amram, the high
priest, since deceased, had composed it. It is an attempt to
provide at any rate a commentary independent of the older



172

one. In it they make no use whatsoever of the older Arabic
paraphrase. They knew the latter well, for I obtained
a copy of it from them. It is just because of their endeavour
to do their very best that this commentary is characteristic
and interesting. It shows their scholarship and literary
capability at a very low ebb, for it reveals how little the
Samaritans themselves understand the Asatir. Obscure
and difficult passages remain just as obscure and difficult
as they were. No attempt at elucidation is made. The
legendary matter is, however, more expanded and in the
history of Moses they use those other Samaritan compil-
ations dealing with the Birth of Moses mentioned before,
in order to complete the narrative in the Asatir. The inter-
pretation of the final Prophecy of Moses differes from that
in the previously mentioned Arabic paraphrase. It is
full of anachronisms and contradictions; moreover, it is
anti-Christian. It is curious to find among the Samaritans
some of the legends concerning the birth of Jesus, against
which the Fathers of the Church protested so vehemently,
branding them as hostile fabrications. They occur also
by the way in the old Samaritan chronicle. Similar legends
have found their way also into the older Jewish literature. *

This commentary might be called an Arabic Targum of
the Asatir, were it not that this application of the word
"Targum" to an Arabic explanation of an Aramaic text
would appear incongruous. As stated, it was orig-
inally written in Arabic, and has then been translated at
my request into Samaritan-Hebrew. Owing to this fact
the original quotations from the Asatir in the Arabic
Pitron have been retained in the Hebrew, and appear to
be a tautology. This can be understood easily when one
remembers that in the Arabic the translation precedes the
Samaritan text, and is therefore repeated now, when the
Arabic text has been translated into Samaritan.

* See S. Krauss, Das Leben Jesu, Berlin 1902.



173

In my MS. the Arabic and Samaritan are written in two
parallel columns on 171 pages. The MS. is very carefully
written in the uncial character, like that of the Bible co-
dices, with the usual Samaritan punctuation and occasional
diacritical signs. The copy was made by Ab Hasda, son
of the then living Jacob, son of Aaron, the high priest,
on the eighth of the fifth month in the year 1328 Hedg.
There are 25 lines to the page from I 159 and thence
to the end 33 lines to the page. The author has divided
the Pitron into 144 paragraphs upto verse 6 of ChapterXII.
They are of unequal length. They evidently appeared to
him logical divisions of the contents and each of these
small divisions begins with a slight indenture of the open-
ing line.

The quotations from the Asatir are written in red ink,
as is often the practice of the Samaritans of writing quotat-
ions in different ink. I have now published this Hebrew-
Samaritan Pitron with the Asatir at the foot of
the text. Towards the end when the author tries to ex-
plain the fifth name on the list of the Oracle, he repeats
much of the matter referring to the Birth of Moses, found
already in Ch. VII. 27 ff. The text has been divided by me
in accordance with the original division, but I have given
in the Hebrew text also the pages of the original. In the
translation, however, I have divided the commentary into
chapters and verses corresponding to those of the Asatir
whilst preserving at the same time the division into sect-
ions and the pagination of the original for easier compar-
ison. To the translation (see above) I have also given the
literary parallels, whenever the Pitron contains additional
matter not found in the Asatir. It is noteworthy that the
Pitron offers only a commentary to Ch. XII from w.i 6,
a very lamentable exhibition of ignorance. Here also,
except for an attempt to explain the first six names of the
kings of the Oracle, which proved very unfortunate, the
rest has been left without any commentary.



174



SPECIMEN OF THE ASATIR TRANSLITERATED

ACCORDING TO THE PRONUNCIATION

OF THE SAMARITANS.

The Samaritan Aramaic is also written without any
vowel signs, in fact with fewer signs than used sporadically
in the Hebrew Samaritan text. The pronunciation is then
simply a matter of oral tradition. No one, as far as I am
aware has as yet tried to obtain details of that pronunciation.
Thanks to H. Peterman* we have a fair example of the
Hebrew phonetic transcript in Latin characters of the
whole of Genesis published in his book. He was helped by
the high priest Amram. We are therefore in a better pos-
ition to judge the system of their pronunciation and how
it compares with the phonetics and the grammar of the
Hebrew of the Jews. No doubt it represents an ancient
tradition. A phonetic transliteration of the Ten Com-
mandments and of the Samaritan marriage-contract
has been published by me in the Noldeke- Festschrift,
and in the Monatsschrift f. Wissenschaft des Juden-
tums, both reprinted now in my "Studies and Texts,"
p.6i4ff. and may be considered as a further contribution
towards the elucidation of their Hebrew pronunciation.
Nothing, however, has been done in order to obtain from
the Samaritans any information of the manner in which
they read their Targum and the Samaritan hymns of their
liturgy. These texts have occasionally some diacritical
signs, but they are so sparingly used that they are of no
help whatsoever. I have therefore endeavoured to obtain
a transliteration of the Targum to Gen. Ch. I and of a
portion of the Asatir. The former was dictated to me by
the priest Isaac, son of Amram, and the latter by Abisha,
son of Pinehas (son of Amram). I could take it down only
with great difficulty owing to the rapidity with which they

* Versuch einer hebr. Formenlehre nach der Aussprache der
heutigen Samaritaner, Leipzig 1868.



175

read the text and the reluctance they felt to see it set
down in strange characters. I am giving it here as a
further addition to this publication of the Asatir.

I have kept strictly to the manner in which the text was
read, also when words were combined, and which were not
mere enclytics. I have marked also occasionally the accent,
and I should like to mention that the accent lies almost
invariably on the penultimate syllable. As far as the
pronunciation is concerned, it may be added that besides
the indiscriminate obliteration of the gutturals, i is almost
regularly pronounced as a and i very often interchanges
with 2, the final i becomes inaudible on most occasions,
and the final ] is pronounced often as o. I have refrained
from introducing any diacritical or other signs for the
missing gutturals. My desire was to have a faithful picture
of their pronunciation of the Samaritan Aramaic.

I may add here a few words about the pronunciation
of the Aramaic by the Jews, as the form in which the Tar-
gum appears now in our printed Bibles is thoroughly mis-
leading. In the Yemenite MSS. alone the older tradition
has been preserved with the so-called supralinear vocalis-
ation best fitted for that pronunciation. It is now being
recognised that when the Oriental MSS. reached Europe
the current vocalisation or the Tiberian, had been sub-
stituted for the other more ancient vocalisation, and the
old pronunciation had been still more obliterated by the
attempt to subject the vocalisation to rules of the Massorah
which affected only the Hebrew. But not only was the
vocalisation thus changed, but also the accentuation. The
accent of the Hebrew text had been bodily transferred to
the corresponding word in the Targum and placed there
according to the rules of Hebrew pronunciation; thus
modifying the character of the vowels and also introd-
ucing the Daggesh for which originally there was no use.
Nothing can therefore be learned from the present form
of the Targum, unless we go back to the Yemenite tradition



176

and use it with very great caution. The Samaritan specimen
may therefore be of additional service.

Whilst reading the text, Abisha at the same time added
some explanations, which are here reproduced as foot-
notes, and in some passages he gave interpretations of
words of the prophecy which agree with those found in
the Pitron; I am giving them here also in the foot-
notes. The text chosen is Asatir XI. 13 to the end of the
chapter.

(13) Unaat nebya raba baado uvzoa* (14) aadi ami tuba
dara** umaasec etlitu alal*** le (15) ou emsheri embeyer
arautaf alyom hashelishi umasel le abyom arebi (16) ummi-
yal le elgo mashcana beh (17) unafa ulayeyaff mem anan
kabuda (18) ^esha fuala kashira tuna yoma e'baa a
meyacum dareya maetgala moshe nebeyah raba mima
darashta mare (19) ukenama utemunat shema yabet (20)
uamar maate atit al a keman alafen a u b rish udalat shenin b
ke toledu banem ubani banem resh fanuta tera [mekodaya]
mikeyata (21) a amfff kaba lebaa ushemo azrez a bafani
urish annaute bede (22) umakdasha yesof abyoma (23) zaru
adesh ebraute yalef faleke rami elcoala sedar fanu (24)

* shashon.
** mimhaaraz.
*** mabo.
t torah.
++ idnoa(?)

Verse 18. a a. if they do the thing properly, then it will be well
with them at the end. This is the translation suggested by Abisha,
which is absolutely wrong. The first part contains the approving
word of God to Moses and the following three words mean: This is
the last day, i. e. of Moses.

Verse 20 a a. 3,000 years, "keman" is the Samaritan name for
the third letter of the alphabet and agrees much more closely with the
name of the Greek y (gamma), i. e. "gaman." b b. 204 years.

ttt gaba.

Verse 21 a a. There will come a man from the tribe of Levi and
his name will be Azrz = Eli: b b and the first of punishment (zeal)
will be through him.

Verse 22. and the sanctuary will come to an end in his time.



177

rashu maklat binyamem bemon yibini (25) rashot edbet
yauda balof (balom a ) exerate yebatelum (26) shema shema
ol yeuda (27) megdol gifna yibne (28) beme a al yai bai
eshta (29) yetalasun bar moled edishu (30) yae asami
balam (31) ebyamo tashmesh elui nikraya tikoman (32)
eksibed* yomem makdash zaruta yetfaka ebyed goe az-
fanem (33) udebet sheme udebet faneya evdor bara** el
uashamo dar tetiyon beskamo reba (34) al yae [mekbi]
emkebi*** lannoote yetabet ara borayaelyenceyasenun (3 5)
shadak yae balama bor il iuar uayem aftab (36) ubataken
illof katab yetabet (37) millen hateten umilkof atek
yafeen (38) ualinek shema aleak lara yaratuff abatak
utinadinne (39) luza tibni (40) ^obel baado fenu a tinyane
teum (41) teu bame neifff titami balabon yomeya (42)
a adesh kabata yader a saorren usalamen feru.

Verse 25. a 4&37 years from the creation of the world: this will
happen up to the day of Solomon. This is the same interpretation as
found in the Pitron, see there. The letters of the words "Balom" are
read backwards from left to right, as if they were numerical figures and
the decimals reduced to units. This is quite a modern way of calcul-
ation and follows the ordinary use of figures ; otherwise the word
"balom" even read backwards would be forty+six-f thirty -{-seventy.
The same is the case with the word "beemek" (verse 28) where the
letters are read backwards as numerals and units, otherwise it would
be following the same order: 100+40+70+2.

Verse 28. a i472 a the time of Jesus from the Entry of the children
of Israel into the land of Canaan.

Verse 30 Abisha read: "mimzar benazanoth."

* Abisha does not know the meaning of this word, although it is
a well known Aramaic word, sometimes written irDX i. e. in one
instance, shortly.

** 2127. The same as on previous occasions, but here the letters
are counted from right to left in the regular order of Hebrew reading.
This gives 2+1+200+70 if taken in their real numerical value; they
are, however, to be taken as units and simple numerical figures.
Needless to say that all those calculations do not fit.

*** mafek= *]SnB change,
t Pronounces it "go."

Verse 38. a God will help him*,
tt =yarashu.

Verse 40. a a. The jubilee will be observed with joy.

ttt =tahor.

Verse 42. a a. The hill will be glorious.

Asatir. 12



7 8



STORY OF THE DEATH OF MOSES.

In addition to the above two texts of the Asatir and
Pitron I am publishing here also a Samaritan description
of the last scenes at the Death of Moses. The number of
such Apocalypses of Moses and of stories depicting in a
graphic manner the last hours of Moses' life upon earth
is so great that it is sufficient to refer only to this fact
(v. Schiirer and especially Charles Apocalypse Intr.
and, the Hebrew tales of the Ascent of Moses to
Heaven. J. R. A. S. 1893 (p- 47 4 2 4) now reprinted in
my "Studies and Texts" p. 124). Of special interest,
however, is it to follow the traces of this legend also
in the Samaritan literature. The text which appears here
for the first time bears out the contention that such an
elaborate story of the Death of Moses must have been
known also among the Samaritans from a very early date.
This story forms the first chapter of a Samaritan Chronicle
in my possession (Cod. 1 168). The date of its compilation
is uncertain. It is probably due to a modern compiler.
He has used, however, very old material for his work. This
chapter is written in the pure Samaritan Aramaic and
differs somewhat linguistically from the rest of the book.
At a close examination I discovered it to be a variant of the
last poem of Markab, omitted by Heidenheim but edited
by M. Hildesheimer. *

Those who have no access to the Samaritan original of
Markab will now be in a position to compare these two
versions. It will be found that a considerable portion of the
first section of that poem has been embodied in this legend,
and on the other hand, there are some additional elements
wanting in Markah, especially the details about the copy-
ing of the law, the placing of it in the Ark, etc. Thus we
are carried back at once to the second or third century and
to genuine Samaritan literature. But we can carry our

* Des Samaritaners Marfcalj Buch der Wunder, Berlin 1898.



179

story still higher up. Not a few incidents, nay, the very
dramatic setting, the gathering, the speeches, and the final
scene of the covering cloud are all found in Josephus
(Antiq. IV. 8, 45, 309 ff.). Here again the similarity
between Jewish and Samaritan tradition is very striking.

There is here then another witness to the extreme anti-
quity of this story of the Death of Moses, which moreover
supplies some details missing in Josephus and found in the
Samaritan text and vice versa, thus completing one another.

The poem of Markah itself does not seem to be the
starting point or the ultimate source of this legend as
found in the Chronicle, for it has already been shown that
the agreement with Josephus is so close that we must look
for a more ancient chronicle as the real source both for
Josephus and for the Samaritan. In fact we find a similar
description with all the essential details already in Ch. VI
of the Arabic chronicle known as the Book of Joshua (ed.
Joynboll) which, although a little shorter than the version
in the chronicle, agrees, however, with it in every important
detail and shows that it must go back to that very old
chronicle of the Samaritans which started with the history
of the Death of Moses, and then incorporating the Book
of Joshua, was continued generation after generation, each
subsequent writer adding the events of his time. The
author, therefore, of the present chronicle has merely
followed the older example, though influenced no doubt
to a great extent by the form which the legend had taken in
the poem of Markafr. The tradition is, however, a con-
tinuous one, and therein lies the importance of 'this text
for the history of the Asatir. Going outside the immediate
Samaritan literature, we turn now to Pseudo-Philo's
Biblical Antiquities.

There (Ch. XIX) an elaborate description is given of the
Farewell and Death of Moses. Sentences occur therein
which agree almost literally with our text and with the
Asatir,and what is more,reference is made to the rod of Moses

12*



i8o

and to other details which connect that version closely
with the Samaritan and with Josephus. It contains also a
much fuller intercession of Moses with God and an eschat-
ology which completes the picture and explain ssome
obscure allusions in the Asatir.

There can be no doubt as to the extreme age of this
story, and it proves moreover that a very ancient text can be
found embedded in a comparatively recent compilation.
The date of a Samaritan MS. is no argument for the
antiquity of its contents or of the elements which have been
used in its compilation. In addition to the Samaritan
original I have given also an English translation and in a
few notes I have drawn attention to the parallels in the
above mentioned works of Josephus and Pseudo-Philo, as
well as to parallels in other apocryphal writings.

I have left for the last the comparison of this Samaritan
Assumption with the well known pseudepigraphic Assump-
tio Mosis (ed. by R. H. Charles) which has been preserved in
a fragmentary condition and in a late Latin translation.
This goes back to a Greek original which in its turn rests
upon a Semitic text (Hebrew or Aramaic). It is curious
that not one of the numerous scholars who have studied
the Assumptio Mosis has recognised the close relation of
that book to the narrative in Josephus and the portion
referring to the Death of Moses in Pseudo- Philo, not to speak
of course, of the Samaritan literature which was not in-
accessible, considering that the Arabic Book of Joshua
had been published as far back as 1847 by Joynboll and
the poem of Markah by Hildesheimer in 1898. The parallel
between the Samaritan text and the Assumption is ab-
solutely striking even in minute details. I am referring, of
course, to the framework of the last scenes in the life of
Moses, his discourse with Joshua, and his lamentation
and farewell speeches, and not to the vaticination. Un-
fortunately, the Latin text breaks off in the middle of the
last scene, so that it becomes very difficult to reconstruct it.



From ancient quotations a dispute between the Archangel
Michael and Satan for the body of Moses is said to have
been found in that final portion. This, of course, could
not form part of the Samaritan legend, and it is missing as
well in the other texts hitherto known. But with the ex-
ception of this incident the Samaritan seems to have retained
a full description down to the final disappearance in this
version of the Death of Moses. The last incident of the
sepulchre is found also in the Palestinian Targum (see
above). The central portion, Ch. II. 3 to Ch. X in the
Assumptio, shows us the manner in which the ancient
legends had been utilised for entirely different purposes.
But the statement that Moses foretold the future events up
to the time of Solomon, or to that of the Messiah, seems
to have been the original form and agrees mainly with the
Asatir in the general outline. All the rest in the Assumptio
is the result of deliberate manipulation. The setting belongs
to the wider circle of those legends which deal exclusively
with the Death of Moses of which the Jewish parallels
have been studied by M. Rosenfeld. * But curiously enough
the Jewish texts differ in every detail from the Death of
Moses as found in Josephus and in the Samaritan
versions, whilst the agreement between these latter is very
close indeed. Moses is the intercedor, the people weep at
his departure, he takes leave of them one by one, he is
met by angels and he disappears in a luminous cloud. Such
must have been also the ending of the Assumptio, and these
together with Pseudo-Philo and the Samaritan Arabic
Joshua form thus one group of identical traditions which
must be at least older than the time of Josephus. Here
we have a definite terminus ad quern below which we cannot
place the date of this Assumption. No doubt Josephus and
this story of the Death of Moses have borrowed their
material from the same more ancient source, which also
served as ultimate source for the Samaritan group.

* Der Midrasch uber den Tod Moses, Berlin 1899.



182

This Samaritan Death of Moses in its turn shows in many
details also close acquaintance with the Asatir. The latter
is so concise in form that the legends are mentioned very
briefly. It must remain however an open question whether
the author of the Asatir was satisfied with merely referring
to the legends as being well known, or whether, as I am
inclined to believe, he presents the oldest stage in the
development of these legends. Be it as it may, the Samar-
itan story of the Death of Moses is a welcome addition to
the scant literature of Samaritan Apocrypha. It may
prove, I venture to think, together with the Asatir a
further contribution to the study of the pseudepigraphic
literature.



TRANSLATIONS



1 84



II.
TRANSLATION OF THE ASATIR.

[In the name of God we begin:]
This is the Asatir of our Master Moses upon
whom be the peace of God.

Chapter i. [Kain and Hebel.]

1. Praised be God who made the world and
established Adam the ancestor and his sons Kain
and Hebel like unto him.

2. And he gave to Kain the West: and he gave
to Hebel the North and the South.

3. And he gave Al'alah the twin sister of Kain to
Hebel to wife; and he gave Makeda the twin
sister of Hebel to Kain to wife.



Ch. I.

(1) Adam Ruler and King:
Samaritan Chain of High Priests.
Samaritan anonymous poem. Ab-
dallabenShalma: Cowleyp. 522ff
passim Samaritan Literature.
Josephus, Antiqq. I. 3. 4 (83);
I. 3.4 (86.87). Adam King and
Priest : Schatzhohle , (Bezold)
p. 4. Adam as King: Kebra,
Chs. 3. 5. etc.

(2) Samaritan Arabic: Suria
and the coast lands. Meshalma,
folio I22a: Gave to Kain the
West, and to Hebel the East.
Gen. Rabba XXII. 7. (Apto-
witzer p. 15.): The earth divided
between Kain and Hebel by
agreement: One the earth and
the other the movable things.
Yashar I, 14: Adam gave them
possession in the land.

(3) Great divergence in these



names in later literature. A few
are given here. Samaritan differs
from all. Meshalma (quoting
Asatir): Hebel married ATala
sister of Kain, who married twin
sister of Hebel, Makeda. f. I22b.
Samaritan Arabic: Balala.
Josephus I. 2. i (52), speaks
only of two sisters, and so Pal.
Targ. to Genesis IV. 2 and
Gen. Rabba Ch. XXII. 7.
(Aptowitzer, p. 20 ff.) and Pirke
de Rabbi Eliezer, Ch. XXI.
Twin sisters were born: Kebra,
Ch. 4 (Bezold). Makeda, the
name of the twin sister, is the
name of the Queen of Sheba in
Kebra, Chs. 26 ff. and 85 ff. It
occurs as a local name in Joshua
three times 10. 10; 12.16; 15.41.
Jubilees Ch. IV. i. 8: A wan and
afterwards Azura, not twin sisters
of Kain and Hebel. For the origin of



i8 5

III.
PITRON OR COMMENTARY TO THE ASATIR.

I.
[Kain and Hebel.]

In the name of the Lord the All-merciful. Saith our
Master Moses, [may the peace of the Lord be upon him.] (i)
I begin with the praises and exaltations unto the mighty
God, who created Adam above all creatures. And he made
and appointed him father to all flesh praised be God
who made the world and established Adam (man) as
the root. And when the Lord may He be exalted
desired that generations should spring from Adam, he
created for him Eve as wife, and gave him from her
two twins, each of them a male and female. The eldest
was Kain and with him a female whose name was Ma-
keda, and he married the sister of one to the other. And
he divided the earth between them. And he gave to Kain
the West and he gave to Hebel the North and the South.
And this fact is proved by his saying peace of God be
upon him "and his sons Kain and Hebel were like
him"; (2) and he gave unto Kain the west, and he gave
to Hebel the north and the south. (3) And he gave El'alah,
the sister of Kain to Hebel to wife, and he gave Make-
da, the sister of Hebel to Kain to wife. And the divi-
sion of the earth between him and his sons was in the
month of Abib.

And Kain began to build a place called Nikl and this
is proved from his saying upon him be the peace (4) ' ' and
Kain began building a place called Nikl," (5) "and he
divided the earth in the month of Abib."

And it was at the end of days that Kain brought an
offering and Hebel also brought a sacrifice. And he built
an altar at the foot of Mount Garizim the Holy, between
Luzah and Mount Garizim. This was the first altar which



1 86



4. And Kain dwelt in the midst of a city which
was called Nikl.

5. And he divided the earth between him and
his sons in the month of Abib.

6. And it came to pass after a number of days
that Kain brought an offering and Hebel a sacri-
fice.

7. And the first altar was in the precincts of the
holy place between Luzah and Mount Garizim:
and the one was opposite the other.



these names see Introduction
Malalas ed. B. G. Niebuhr Bon-
nae 1831 p. 13: Adam two daugh-
ters: Azura and Asua. Kain mar-
ried Azura and Seth Asua.
Eutychius 1. 14: Kain and Azizun
(corrupted fr. Azura). Jerah-
meel XXIV. I : Kain and Kal-
mana. Schatzhohle, p. 8: Kain
andLebhuda,Hebeland Kelimath,
twins. Kain takes violently his
own sister to wife. Methodius:
Kain, Kalmana; Abel, Labora.
Malan Book of Adam, p. 93: Lulu-
wa and Aklemia. H. Ronsch, Das
Buch d. Jubilaen, Leipzig 1874,
gives the whole list, p. 373.
Gedalyahin Shalshelet: Kain and
Kalmana. (Amsterdam 1697, folio
74 b.) Abar Banel to Genesis
IV. i: Names of twins Kain and
Kalmana, Abel and Balbira.
of Seder Hadorot, p. 1 8. Pseudo-
Philo II. i: Kain 15 years old
married Themech. Kain 30
years old when Hebel and his twin
sister born. Armen. Adam Schr.,
p. 33. For further literature see
Sackur, p. 60, note 4. Urim ve
Tumim: Kain born on 3rd and
Hebel on 4th of the month.
(4) Meshalma f. 123 a.



Samaritan Arabic: "he built a city
called Nikl."

(6) Samaritan Arabic: "At the
end of days." "At the border of
the holy mountain." First three
words in text identical with Sa-
maritan Targ. Gen. IV. 5.

(7) For the Samaritans, Mt.
Garizim is the holy mountain; for
the Jews Mt. Moria. Meshal-
ma f. 1 23 a: Hebel built the altar
in that place. Samaritan Arabic :
"he was the first to build the
altar." Altar on Mt. Garizim
Abisha ben Pinhas (Cowley p. 5 1 2) .
Adam offering sacrifice first
Jubilees Ch. III. 27. Josephus
Antiq. 1. 13. 2 226 identifies place
of sacrifice of Isaac, Moria with
Zion, anti-Samaritan. The first
altar made by Adam. In the same
spot, Noah, Kain and Hebel sacri-
ficed on the Holy Mountain. Pal.
Targum toGenesis VI 1 1 . 20. Pirke
de R. Eliezer Ch. 31, T. B. Rosh
Hashana, f. 26a, Aboth de Rabbi
Nathan Ch. I : Adam, Kain, Hebel,
Noah, Abraham, built same altar.
Maimonides Mishneh Torah,
Hlk. Beth Habhira Ch. II i. 2:
Adam made on the spot from the
same earth where Isaac was to be



187

was built, and this is proved by his saying on him be the
peace (6) "and it came to pass at the end of days that
Kain brought from the fruit of the earth an offering to
God, and Hebel brought a sacrifice." (Gen IV. 3.) And
the first of the altars was at the foot of the sanctuary bet-
ween Luzah and Mount Garizim. And the two brothers
were facing one another at the time when they made the
offering and the sacrifice, according to his saying, (7) "and
this one was facing that one." And when Kain and Hebel
sacrificed, it was the course of twenty days from the month
of Abib, according to his saying, (8) "and when Kain
and Hebel sacrificed, it was on the twentieth day of
Nisan." And when Kain saw that his offering was not
accepted, for he knew the sign of acceptance from the
offerings of his father Adam, for Adam was the first
to bring offerings and his sons learned from him,
according to his saying on him be the peace (9) "and
when Kain did not see his offering accepted as he had
been taught and he had seen the offering of his father;"
now when he offered and saw not the sign of acceptance,
he knew in his soul that he was of no account, and the
world grew dark before him and his spirit grew angry;
according to his saying upon him be the peace "he
knew that it was unfit and when he offered, and his
spirit his face became troubled." And another explan-
ation is that when he offered the world was darkened
and his spirit, i. e., when the world got dark, through this
his spirit became anguished ; but God alone knows. And
on the day (10) "on which Hebel offered, there were two
turnings [of God] ; (i i) the Lord turned to Hebel and to
his offering, while to Kain and to his offering he did not
turn." By the first turning [away], Kain saw that his
offering was not accepted, and his wrath kindled and
grew strong, and he could not hide it. And he returned to
his country and stayed there four years, and he did not see
his father Adam nor his brother Hebel, according to the



1 88



8. And it came to pass when Kain and Hebel
brought the sacrifice it was on the twentieth of
Nisan on the first day (Sunday).

,9. When ICain saw that his offering was not
accepted as he had been taught by seeing the
offerings of his father he knew that it was unfit
and when he offered [his face] and his spirit be-
came troubled.



sacrificed. There Kain, Hebel,
Noah, Abraham, David, Solo-
mon built the altar i. e. the thresh-
ing-floor of Aravneh. Also
Midrash Tadshe. Ch. 20: Altars
of Noah, Abraham, David, Solo-
mon all on Mt. Moria. Para-
dise on top of Holy Mountain
from which Adam and Eve des-
cend. Schatzhohle, p. 8. Adam
and Eve, Ethiop. Ed. Malan,
Bk. I. Ch. LXXXVIII, p. 98:
"on the mountain."

(8) Samaritan Parallels. Mar-
kah fol. 57a (Heidenheim, Biblio-
theka Samaritana. Bd. Ill Heft 5/6
p. 20) gives following events which
happened in Nisan: Creation,
Flood, Tower of Babel, Message
to Abraham about Isaac, Des-
truction of Sodom, Blessing of
Jacob, beginning and end of Ten
Plagues. Also f. 58a (Heidenheim
ibid. p. 2 1 ): It is also the date of the
Advent of the Taheb v. F. 62a
(Heidenheim ibid. p. 22). Sam.
Ar. Josh. p. 36: Following events
happened at the same period 14 th
Nisan: Creation, Noah going out
of the Ark, Sodom destroyed.
Samaritan tradition anon, poem :
in the month of Nisan Creation of
World, Going out of Egypt, Fut-
ure Redemption. Meshalma f.
1 23 a: 2Oth Nisan. Meshalma



f. I23b: Fire from God consumed
Hebel's sacrifice. Malif. Q. 55.
In Pal. Targ. to Gen. 4. 3: The
date is given as the I4th Nissan
Creation of Adam, Pesali, and
Advent of the Taheb all in
Nisan. Tabya b. Ishak ca.
1750 ? Cod. 845. ff. 28b and 3oa.
The date of sacrifice dif-
ferently interpreted in Rabbinic lit-
erature. Gen. Rabba XXII, 4.
Chs. of Rabbi Eliezer XXI : I4th
Nisan date of Passover. A com-
plete list of events which hap-
pened on Passover, Jewish Hymn
in the Haggada or Passover Night
Service. UrimveTumim. On the
5th day of the month Kain brought
sacrifice. See Aptowitzer p. 37
for other Rabbinic traditions.

(9) "Offering by his father."
Malif Q. 54. Chs. of Rabbi Eliezer
ch. XI : Adam offers praises to God
immediately after Creation. B
reads nfibx. This agrees more with
the Biblical Text. I have trans-
lated it accordingly, not "world"
but "countenance." Philo Ques-
tiones I. 63: His countenance fell
"tristitia enim invasit eum et con-
cidit vultus eius". So Samaritan
Arabic: "His soul was filled with
terror and fear." Meshalma f.
I23a: Kain and Hebel brought sac-
rifice when Adam wassoyearsold.



189

saying of the prophet on him be the peace (12) "and
Kain when he saw the first turning and he did not see
acceptance, (13) then Kain grew angry and he returned
to his country, (14) and stayed there four years, and saw
neither Adam nor Rebel."

(i 5) Now Eve loved Kain, while Adam loved Hebel. (16)
And when Eve saw that the son Kain did not come to
her, she longed for him, and she took permission from
Adam and went to see him alone. When Hebel saw her
rising up and going alone, and that the place whither she
was going was distant, then he got up quickly and went
with her. (17) And she found Kain gone from the place
where he was dwelling at the beginning, to a place which
was afterwards called 'Arafat. When Kain saw his brother
Hebel, he thought in his heart to kill him. But the Lord,
blessed be He, before whom nothing can be hidden, and
who exalted be He knows the evil inclinations of the
hearts of his creatures, (18) said unto him, "Surely, if thou
wilt kill Hebel, there will be requital (i. e., return) for it."
The meaning of "surely" is that there will be requital for
the blood, and an avenging of it from him; see what is
written in the book of Genesis, Chapter IV, verse 6, "And
God said unto Kain; why art thou wroth and why did thy
face fall; if thou art good, thou shalt be accepted, and if
thou art not good, then at the gate the sin is crouching;
and thou shalt rule over it." The explanation of this is as
follows : Behold this thing is in thy hand as thou wishest,
good or evil. And nothing [is mentioned in the Bible of
what happened], except that Kain said to his brother
Hebel: "Rise, O my brother, let us go into the field."
And both went together. And it was as they were in the
field that Kain rose up against his brother Hebel and
slew him. (19) And when he had slain him and shed his
blood, his spirit was distressed and the earth cried out
and would not receive the blood of Hebel to drink it
until commanded by God; and the earth trembled, and



190



ID. And on the day when Hebel sacrificed

11. Twice (three times) God turned favourably
to Hebel and to his offering, but he did not turn
favourably to Kain and to his offering.

12. When he perceived from the first the turning,
that to him He did not turn,

13. Then Kain was wroth and he returned to
his land

14. And he tarried four years without seeing
Adam or Hebel.

15. And Eve loved Kain but Adam loved Hebel.

1 6. And when she saw that Kain did not come,
Eve took council with Adam and went to him
and Hebel went with her.

17. And she found him removed to another place
which was called afterwards Arfat.

1 8. And this is the word spoken to Kain: "to thee
is the return" and what follows (up to): "let us go
into the field" and there he shed the blood of Hebel.



(n) In the wording Asatir
M. T. and Samaritan Targum
agree. Onkelos Hljn (Gen. IV. 5)
Pal. Targ. differs (ibid.).

(12) ntfift the word does not
exist in Samarian, evidently a
graphic mistake for nfll^.

(15) Meshalma 1220: His
mother loved Hebel and his
father Kain. Kebra Chap. 3:
Hebel beautiful, beloved by Adam.
Adam andEve: Ethiop. Malan I.
ch. LXXVIII, p. 97: Eve hated
Kain.

(16) Iff read lin another reading
is IJJttf SamaritanArabic: instead
of "took leave of," reads "saw
his mother go." Eve going to



the west to visit the children: Vita
Adae ch. 18.

(17) MKBiy cf nvn iv, i.

probably a name disguised by a
permutation of letters: to the
Pitron and the Arabic the identity
is also unknown: they preserve
the same form of the name.
Meshalma f. I25b: "The name
of the place is Id'unt and she
brought him back, then he killed
Hebel. And that day was the i6th
Shebat." Malif.Q. 56: "Paran."
(18) "And what follows,"
means rest of the quotation in
the text Bible (Genesis IV, 7).
Wrongly paraphrased in Samar-
itan Arabic. Urim ve Tumim:



191

the light of the sun and of the moon was darkened, at
the time when Kain slew Hebel.

Now Adam dwelt in Badan. (20) And when Adam saw
what had happened in the world, the darkening of sun and
moon and the trembling of the earth, then he was greatly
frightened on that day. And that day was for him like
unto the day when he and his wife ate of the fruit of the
tree which is in the midst of the garden. (21) And Adam
went up from Badan to Sifra, and that is Sichem, to see
the Book of the Wars of the Lord, [the Stars,] (22) and he
saw the rising of the days so that he should understand
what had happened in the world. (23) And he saw that
of his two sons, only one was still on the earth : one was
slain and the other had fallen through his own sin which
had seized him. Then Adam understood that this was the
cause, and he returned to Badan. (24) And from the day
of the creation of Adam, until the day Kain killed Hebel,
there were thirty years ; and the slaying of Hebel happened
on the sixteenth day of the month of Tebet. (25) God
created Adam on the sixth day, and at the sixth hour,
and Adam and his wife dwelt in the garden eight days
and he did not know his wife Eve to lie with her in the
garden. And their knowledge was changed through the
speech of the serpent, and they were driven out of the
garden in the same hour at which Adam had been created ;
he went out from the garden in that self-same hour. And
after Kain had slain Hebel and Kain had been driven
away, Adam learned of his sin, and no seed remained
to him for his inheritance to be his successor to inherit the
command of God.

(26) Then Adam sought repentance and separated him-
self from his wife for one hundred years, and did not
know her during this time, until God received his repent-
ance. (27) And after that, Adam knew his wife, and she
conceived and bare Seth, the master of the settlement [of
the world]. And he saw the Image [lighting up] his face and



192



1 9. And when he shed the Jblood of Hebel his
spirit grew troubled and the earth was in ferment
and the seas were moved and the sun was dimmed
and the moon darkened.

20. And Adam was frightened with a great fear
on that day as on the day on which they plucked
the fruit.

2 1 . And Adam lived in the country of Hohmata
which is called Sifra in the Book of the Wars of
the Lord.

22. And he saw the planets (horoscope) of the
days: and seven were fighting one another.



Hebel killed on the 7th day of
the month. Kain killed Hebel
in order to marry Hebel's sister.
T. B. Sanhedrin f. loia.

(19) Samaritan Arabic "and all
thelivingthings groaned." Mesh-
alma f. I2sb: identical except that
he omits the "sea." Malif. Q. 57:
" It is said that the world was shaken
and the creatures were frightened
and the mountains and plains all
trembled and the light of the sun
and moon was darkened and
Adam was sorely frightened as on
the day when he ate of the tree of
knowledge." This description of
the upheaval of nature is not ment-
ioned anywhere in connection
with themurder of Hebel. Itoccurs,
however, fully developed in that of
the wars of the end of time; see
Charles, Eschatology passim and
Weber, Eschat.

(20) Meshalmaadds : "And when
they were driven out ofthegarden"
folio 125 a. Apocalypse of Moses
(Adam and Eve). The whole story
is told differently Ch. 2, so also
Vita Adae Ch. 22. 4.



(21) Sifra, so pronounced by
the Samaritans, and identified
with Sichem, is the name in Gen.
X. 20, which is placed near mpn in;
the Samaritans take it to
mean "ancient mount," i. e. Mt.
Garizim. Samaritan Arabic omits
"Hohmata" and "Book of Wars
of the Lord," and identifies
Sifra with Nablus. Meshalma
f. 1 2Qa. explains Sifra as "Shechem
which had then not yet been built."
B. of Jubilees Ch. III. 32: Adam
born and died in Elda.

(22) Samaritan Arabic: "And he
saw in the Book of the Wars the
horoscope of the day." And adds
"one was no longer upon the
earth." -Meshalma does not ment-
ion anything of Adam looking
at the stars. Adam removes after
death of Hebel. Fully set out in a
Samaritan poem that Adam was
taught science by God. Zohar I.
n8a, II. 5$a. The Samaritan
traditions about Adam's know-
ledge of the Calendar see Introd.To
the references already given there
add Calculation of Days given



193

from this Adam knew that this was the mystery of the chain :
and in proof of this, see what the Lord may He be
exalted said in the book of Genesis chapter 5, verse 3:
"And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat
a son in his own likeness, after his image ; and called his
name Seth." Note the significance that it is not said at
the time of the birth of Kain and of Rebel, "in his likeness"
and this image is the luminous image of Moses peace
of God be upon him which was transmitted from man
to man.

II.
[Ten Generations.]

(1) And in the days of the life of Seth, Kain went to the
east to the town which his son Enoch had built ; and this
is Antokia which in the Syrian language is also called
Antokia ; and Kain ruled the mountain and the plain and
the sea 100 years.

(2) And Seth begat Enosh and he built a town and called
its name Pilona in the name of his son Enosh. (3) And
Enosh begat Kenan and Seth built a city and he called
its name Damascus. (4) And Kenan begat Mahalalel and
he built a city and he called its name 'Atrot Shfim.' (5)
And Mahalalel begat Jared and he built a city and called
its name Ja'azer. (6) And Jared begat Enoch and built
a city and called its name Shalem the Great.

(7) And when Enoch grew up and when the days of his life
had reached thirteen years, he began to learn in. the Book
of Signs which had been given to Adam; and this
book was copied on the four and twenty precious stones.
Of these twelve are for the time of Favour and twelve
for the choice of the families of the children of Jacob, and
to the generations of the servants of the Most High God.
And the Lord knows whether the twelve stones in the
breast plate of Aaron the Priest were those for the choice
of the families of the sons of Jacob and for the servants

Asatir. 13



194



23. And he saw that one of them was no more.
And he removed and dwelt in Badan.

24. And he (Adam) counted thirty years when
Kain had killed Rebel on the i6th of Tebet.



25. Adam was created on Friday. And Adam
and Eve tarried in the garden eight days and he
did not know Eve. And their minds were turned
by the word of the serpent.

26. And after the death of Hebel Adam separated
himself one hundred years.

by God to Adam and handed on
to Enoch, Noah, etc. Pirke de
R. Eliezer, Ch. 8. Zohar: Sifra
de Adam Kadmaah, book given
to him. 1. 181 etc. (cf. Zunz Ge-
sammelte Schriften. Breslau 1885
vol. I, p. 13). Wisdom of Solo-
mon Ch. 10. iff., "wisdom" i. e. :
profound knowledge is given
to. Adam and handed on in the
same way to Moses, except that
Lot is substituted for Isaac. Se-
pher Raziel Introd. Ed. Amster-
dam 1700 mentions also mystical
books given to Adam by God.
Adam taught astronomical cal-
culation by God. Yalkut I. 41.
Vita Adae 22. 4, Apocalypse of
Moses 2. 2: Adam and Eve saw
in a dream that Kain would kill
Abel.



(23) Meshalma f. I2ga: (Adam)
removed to Badan and there
worshipped God facing Mt.
Garizim. So Malif. Q. 58.

(24) Hebel 22 years old when
killed. Adam 30 years; Vita Adae
23. 2. Adam 30 years old at birth
of Kain and sister, and 31 at birth
of Abel and sister. Kain killing
Abel, looth year of Adam. 100



years; so Methodius. Ch. I.
Samaritan Arabic.: loth Shebat.
(Probably misread.) Meshalma
f. I26a.; 1 6th Shebat. Ps. Philo
Ch. 2. 3 : Kain fifteen years old.

(25) Tishri first month of crea-
tion according to one tradition,
according to another Nisan. cf. T.
B. Rosh Hashana ff . 1 1 a, 2ja. Ac-
cording to one opinionEve createda
week after Adam. Ibid. Adam
created in Tishri, was judged,
repented, and received back all
inTishri; Zohar III. icoB. Urim
ve Tumim: On the first day of the
month Adam created. Seder
Hadarot, p. 17: First day of New
Year Adam created. Gen. Rabba
XVIII. 9: Adam six hours in
Paradise. Pesikta R. Kahana.
I Sob: Driven out of Paradise on
the 1 2th hour of the 6th day 1st
week. Jubilee Ch. III. 15: Seven
years in Paradise. Schatzhohle
p. 7 : 9 hours.

(26) The Samaritan suggests
that Adam lived as a Nasirite;
Kabasi Sir al Kelb. p. 91. Adam
separated from his wife 100 years
after having left Paradise; Poem
Abraham b. Jacob (Cowley
p. 625). Meshalma f. 13 ib : Adam



195

of the Most High God ; for upon them were copied the
generations of the servants of the Most High God. And
the twelve stones of which he said that they are for the
time of Favour, these are hidden away as a secret for the
last generation. " . .

(8) And the children of Kain were born in their dwell-
ing places. And they corrupted the world from one end
to the other, until Kain begat Enoch and Enoch Trad
and 'Irad Mefruyael and Mehuyael Metushael and Me-
tushael begat Lamech. (9) And in the fourteenth year of
the days of his life he went away from Hanofriah, the
town of Enoch. And he built 'Anah and Barah and Nisah
and 'Adah, small towns. (10) And he killed Kain; and he
built an idol and the explanation of it is: an object of
worship whose name was Padraid Tns in the land of
Shinear, and the Lord knows.

(i i) In that time Adam went up from Badan to Rehobot
a town of worshippers of idols. And it is said that it is
the large city found in the country of Al'ns of which
it is said in the book of Genesis, chapter 10 v. n. "Ashur
went out and he built Niniveh and the town Rehobot
and Chalah and Resin." And the cause for mentioning
idols is that Enoch (Lamech), the son of Kain, made
there two idols of gold. And it is said that he called their
names, one Lefes and, the other Lehaburati.

Said our Master Moses peace of God be upon him
in the book Asatir, (12) "and Adam read Niss before
his sons;" that is he read in the Book of Signs before
his sons from the seed of Kain and he remonstrated with
them for these evil deeds ; and they would not accept the
remonstrance.

Know that the reason for Adam's going up from Al
Baadan was that at the time when he heard of the deeds
of his sons which were from Kain he went to them in
order to remonstrate with them. And it came to pass
when he met them that he read a part from the Book of

13*



196



27. And after that he knew his wife and she
begat Seth.

Chapter II. [The First Ten Generations.]

1. In the days of Seth Kain went to the East
where Enoch had built a town whose name was
Antokia. And Kain ruled one hundred years over
the seas and over the dry land.

2. And Seth begat Enosh; and he built a town
whose name was Pilonah in the name of Enosh.

3. And Enosh begat Kenan and Seth built a town
and called it Damascus in the name of Kenan.

4. And Kenan begat Mahalalel and he built a
town whose name was 'Atrot Shfim.



spent 100 years in repentance.
T. B. Abodah Zarah fol. 8a,T. B.
Erubim i8b: Adam fasted 130
years. Zohar I, 55a, II. 23ia.
Chapters of R. Eliezer, Ch. XX:
Seven weeks of days (or years).
B. of Jubilees IV. 7: Mournedfour
weeks of years. This brings us
exactly to 130 A. M. and agrees
with Asatir, since Adam was
thirty years old when Hebel was
killed (v. 24). Schatzhohle p. 8:
mourned 100 years. Penitence of
Adam forms the chief element of
the Adam Books e. g. Apocalypse
of Moses, Penitence of Adam,
Ethiopic Book of Adam etc. see
Introd. Arm. Adamsschr. p. 36:
Adam separated from Eve 3
years. Another version 120 years.
(Ibid. p. 42.)

(27) Urim ve Tumim: Seth born
on I ith day of the month. Algazi
f. 2a: Name of Seth's wife was
Azura. Evidently the Azura: v. 3.



Ch. II.

(1) Antokia probably corrup-
tion from older form Hanohia,
the town built by Enoch, and
changed by popular etymology,
especially as H is not pronounced
by the Samaritans, as correctly
later on v. 9, appears the correct
name Hanohia. Meshalma f.
1 2ga. has instead "HdSh." "Some
say Enoch built it. But it was
Kain who built the town" Belief
that Biblical personages built
towns : T. B. Sotah. f. 34b. Ahi-
dan built Anat, Gheshai built
Alesh Salmai built Talbush.
T. B. Yebamoth 62a.

(2) Algazi: Toledot Adam,
Venice 1600. The name of wife of
Enosh was No'am.

(3) Meshalma f. 134 a: Seth
built Pilonah . and Damascus.
Algazi: Name of Kenan's wife:
Mehalalot.

(4) Tolida Neubauer, p. 24:



197

Signs. And the meaning of it was that when he had opened
the Book of Signs he informed them and said unto them
that unless you return from your evil ways you will all
die. And they did not hearken unto him and they were
not afraid of his words, so he went away from them and
returned to his place in Badan. (13) And it came to pass
when Enoch, the son of Jered, heard of the deeds of the
sons of Kain he was very wroth against them, and he
separated himself, and Enoch walked with God; and
at that time the days of his life were . [three hundred
and] sixty-five years. And he walked in the fear of
God, (14) and Enoch rebuilt the altar of his fore-
father Adam (15) and he begat Metushael and Metu-
shael begat Lamech, and Lamech begat Noah; P. 21,
and the birth of Noah was in the month of Nisan. (16)
And it came to pass on the fourth day from his birth
a sign appeared in the heavens and when the creatures
of the world saw it, there fell upon them the fear of God
and they came to Adam to Badan in order to ask him
about this sign which had been seen in the midst of the
heavens. (17) "And Adam rose in the height of his wisdom
and he foretold the Flood saying that so long as Enoch
was alive -. it would not happen." P. 22. After this
Adam on whom be peace saw by the holy spirit the
destruction of the whole world, and he was telling of the
Advent of Moses upon whom be peace. And when Noah
was born, Adam was comforted through him and he knew
that he would be the master of the settlement and that
no one would be saved from the Flood save Noah and
his three sons. And Adam told his sons about this, and this
is shown from his saying in the Asatir, "for he saw signs
and he told his children." P. 23 And perhaps there is
found in it a mystical allusion to Abraham; for the
numerical value of the word "Nkms" is that of "Be-
abraham : " 250. And Adam alluded in this to the fact that the
peace and salvation is in Abraham. (19) And when Noah



198



5. And Mahalalel begat Jered and he built a town
whose name was Ja'azer.

6. And Jered begat Enoch and he built a town
[whose name was] Shalem the Great.

7. And when Enoch was thirteen years, he learned
the Book of Signs which was given to Adam. And
these are the twenty-four precious stones, twelve
for the time of Divine Favour and twelve for the
chosen heads of the sons of Jacob and to the des-
cendants of the servants of the high God.



Kenan builds Akhah. Meshalma
1 34 a: 'Atroth Shfim. Algazi
ibid: Name of Mahalelel's wife
Dinah.

(5) Meshalma f. I34b adds:
"These are the places rebuilt by
tribe of Gad." Algazi ibid. :
Yered's wife Berakha daughter of
Daniel.

(6) Meshalma f. I34b. adds:
"which is Sichem." Samaritan
Arabic.: "This is Nablus."
Algazi ibid. Enoch's wife Edna,
daughter of Azariah.

(7) Meshalma f. I34b reads.
"Deyatebo," i. e. which was com-
posed by our Master Adam. Asatir
reads Deyahabo, which means
"Which was given to." Asatir is
the more correct. Meshalma
ibid, (quoting Asatir): "and he
learned to know the twenty-four.
These are the twelve stones on the
breast-plate, the like of which
will come back at the time of the
return of the Divine Favour.
Meshalma omits: "Descendants of
the servants of the high God."
Samaritan Arabic has here some
interpolation: Instead of "Book of
Signs," "Book of Wonders."
Eupolemos. Eusebius Prep. Ev.



Book 9, Ch. 17, F. 481 cff. Enoch
first to discover knowledge of
astrology i. e. Calendar. Eupo-
lemos probably Samaritan, and
century B. C. See Introduction.
Adam taught by God the cal-
culation of the Calendar; Chs. of
Rabbi Eliezer, Ch. 8. Geiger
Mohammed p. 106. Jubilees IV.
17: The first to write and learn
wisdom. Contrary to Apocalypse
of Enoch. He is not translated to
Heaven, and he dies like everyone
else. 48 precious stoneswherewith
the priest was adorned. Evidently
twice the 24 mentioned here;
Revelations XXI, 19,20. II Baruch
(Syriac Apoc.) Hitherto no one
has explained these stones and
their number. Ps. Philo Ch.
XXV, ii same as Jerahmeel.
Jerahmeel (Caster) ch. LVII
vision of Kenaz : 24 stones, twelve
for breastplate now and twelve
hidden away for later. Evidently
refers to renewal of tabernacle
priesthood and recovery and re-
placing of the breastplate. This
version unquestionably is directed
against the Samaritan tradition
and gives it a very hostile inter-
pretation.



199

upon whom be peace grew up, his father brought him
to Adam that he might teach him his Writing. And when
Adam saw him, he said "This one will comfort us from
our deeds and from the sorrow of our hand upon the
earth, which the Lord hath cursed." Gen. V. 29). For he
was good from his birth; and this was shown in that
the light was revealed (P. 24) oh the day of his birth, a
great light in the midst of the heavens. And this is
shown from his saying upon whom be peace " And
he was good from his birth" or that there was light in
his face. (20) And Lamech built a town and called its
name Rift and that is the hill which is overshadowed [by
clouds] and is on the north side of Mount Garizim. Let us
now return to the record of Lamech, who was one of the
children of Kain, (21) and let us say that three sons were
born unto him and one daughter. And the reason for
the mention of the daughter in the Asatir is that from
her time the evil deed became manifest. P. 25. And now
let us mention the first son in the Asatir, viz : Tubal Kain ;
and the reason for his being called by this name is be-
cause he was born unto Lamech at the time of the killing
of Kain.

(22) The second Jubal built Mesdah the Great One.
(23) The third Jabal built Kenaz. (24) And Tubal
Kain built Skips, whose name is Albasra. And he made
in it a workshop for the production of copper and of
iron and he it was who created this kind of work. And
the sister of Tubal Kain was Na'amah since she was
from the same mother, for Lamech married two wives.
And this Na'amah was she who established the rock
in the town of Jerusalem by means of witchcraft, and
God knows. (25) And these are they who were instructed
in the books of truth. Adam taught Lamech one hundred
and eighty years, (26) his son Seth one hundred and five
(? 605) years, (27) Enosh eight hundred and five years.
(28) Kenan learned nine hundred and ten years, (29)



2OO



8. Meanwhile children were born to Kain in
various places and he roamed about the world in
tribulation, until Kain begat Enoch and Enoch
begat 'Irad and 'Irad (begat) Mehuyael and
Mehuyael (begat) Metushael and Metushael (begat)
Lamech.

9. In the fourteenth year Lamech went from
Hanohiah and built 'Anah and Nisah and 'Adah.

10. And he (Lamech) killed Kain, and he built
a place of worship whose name was Padrai Tns.

11. And when Adam went up to Rechoboth 'Ir
he (Lamech) made (two ?) golden images (called)
"lefis'i ulehaburati" (to my pain and to my wound).



(8) Algazi ibid.: Metushael's
wife Edna daughter of Resuyah.
Urim ve Tumim Lamech born
on the gth day of the month.
Seder Hadorot p. 18: Eccles.
Rabba: Kain had 100 children.

(9) /"Hi? is the name of the wife
of Lamech, Gen. IV, 19. mj? and
niy are names mentioned in con-
nection with Esau (Gen. 36, 2).
Samaritan Arabic.: Has for Brh
(Pitron) "Hazisa"; for "Nisah"
"Islands ;" and for "Adah" "A reg-
ion close to the Euphrates."
Algazi ibid.: Brunnish daugh-
ter of Barakhael, Lamech's wife.

(10) Sam. Arabic reads : "Madrai
Tafs" simply due to Arabic
transcript. Samaritan Arabic
adds; "This is the country called
Irak." Lamech kills Kain.
Yashar Ch. 2. 26. Schatzhohle
p, 1 1 : Full details. Ethiop. Adam
Book Bk. II Ch. XIII (Malan
p. 122) Methodius Ch. II
Greek Palaea. Jerome, Syrus, Ta-



ban; see Griinbaum, Neue Beitr.,
p. 72. Kain lived 800 years; (ibid,
p. 43) Chumnos p. 1 2 f . Eutychius
I: Kain 730 years old. Arm.
Adamsschr. p. 35, see Ch. I:
Lamech wounding Kain. Jerah-
meel Ch. XIV, 3 : Death of Kain by
sons of Lamech. Gedalyah Shal-
shelet f. 74b. Seder Hadorot,
p. 20: Lamech killed Kain.
Aptowitzer p. 59 ff.: Jewish
parallels. Other tradition, Gene-
sis Rabba XXII, 12 and
Exodus Rabba Ch. XXXI 17.
Nahmanides to Gen. IV. 15: Kain
died in the Flood.

(u) :jn i. e. Rehobot Ir (cf.
Pitron) Gen. XXVI, 22, the place
named so by Isaac. Sam. Ar.
has entirely misunderstood this
passage. "Made images" Ps.
Philo, Ch. 2. v. 9: Tubal, in time
of Lamech, did so. Palestinian
Targum to Gen. IV. 26: In the
time of Enosh images were first
made. In the time of Enosh
the first images made; Gedalya



2OL

Mahalalel eight hundred and ninty five years, (30) Jered
eight hundred and twenty seven years, (31) Enoch three
hundred and sixty five years, and all the days of Enoch
were three hundred and sixty five years. [The Lamech
whom we mentioned is of the sons of Kain and the
proof is that Afridan learned from Adam: similarly,
Lamech, who is the forefather of Afridan, learned from
Adam. This is the truth]. P. 27. And he (Enoch) died
and this is what is recorded about him in the Asatir on
the day of his death: (33) "On the day when Enoch
died, came all the children of Adam to Sifra to hear
Adam lament over him." And his death happened on
the fourth day (Wednesday) in Badan. And they car-
ried him to Sifra to hear Adam lament over him: (34)
and there were Adam and Seth and Enosh and Kenan
and Mahalalel and Jered and Metushael (Metushalem)
his sons who were dwelling in Badan. (35) And the weeping
over him was very great until the report of it reached
Ahiidan, the son of Tubal Kain P. 28 who was dwelling
in Hebron ; and he was the first in power and was the
leader of all the children of Kain (36) who had there
learned the Book of Signs from Adam.

(37) And when all had gathered together they asked
of Adam that he should (tell them) where to carry him
into the secret (cave of burial) : and Adam carried him
in it. (38) And Enoch was buried therein opposite Mount
Garizim in a cave which is called Mahaneh (39) and the
mount is called the Mount of Ebal, for they buried Enoch
therein. And the explanation of the name of Mount 'Ebal
is the Mount of Mourning. C?3N).

And in the Mount 'Ebal, were made many graves, (40)
as Enoch had said, "This is the burial place," for it is
near Mount Garizim which is the Gate of Heaven. (41)
And any faithful one who is buried at a distance of 2,000
cubits round about will not be touched by the fire . . .
For it is the refuge for those who flee in consequence



2O2



12. After that Adam started reading Nisis [the
Book of Signs] before his sons.

13. And when Enoch heard it, he prayed unto God
and he was sixty five years old. And Enoch walked
with God.

14. And he (Enoch) rebuilt the altar of his fore-
father Adam.

15. And he begat Metushelah and Metushelah
Lamech and Lamech Noah in (the month of) Nisan.

1 6. And on. the fourth day of his birth was seen
a sign in the middle of the heavens and all the
inhabitants of the world were frightened and they
came to Adam.

17. And Adam arose in the height of his wisdom
and he foretold the Flood, and he also proclaimed
the statement that so long as Enoch was alive it
would not happen.



Shalshelet fol 7ob. The two words
from Gen. IV, 23 usually trans-
lated "to my pain and to my
wound," are taken by the Asatir
as being names of idols, differing
from Samaritan Targum.

(12) Samaritan Arabic quite
different.

(13) Sam. Ar.: "he sought his
son, and he was 75 years old."

(14) Sam. Ar. adds: "on the
1 4th of Nisan." Meshalma f.
I35a: "He built the altar and he
brought sacrifices." He adds,
"and he was called Enoch the
prayerful." Meshalma refers to
the Jewish legend that Enoch is
still alive, and there follows a long
polemic and very interesting
detail.

(15) Meshalma f. I37b: Noah



born in Nisan. Malif. Q. 61:
Noah born on 4th of Nisan.
Algazi ibid. : Amor'a, daughter of
Barkhiel, Noah's wife. Seder Ha-
dorot, p. 22: Noah born in the
year 1056 Era Mundi.

(16) Malif. Q. 62. A big sun ap-
peared in the Heavens. Gathers
the people; Apoc. Moses. Ch. 5.
i ff. Vita Adae Ch. 30. Mes-
halma f. I37b: Sign appeared
in the land of Shinear; so also
Sam. Arabic.

(17) Meshalma 137 b (Sam.
Arabic.) : Adam foretells Flood.
Malif. Q. 62: Adam foretold the
Flood. Joseph. Antiq. I.2.3,(7o).
Clements Recogns. I. 47.
Kenan perfect in all sciences fore-
tells Flood; Josipponll. n. Seder
Hadorot, p. 19. Yashar II. 12.



203

of their guilt, and is the Rock of Salvation. And the
meaning thereof is that everyone who believes in Mount
Garizim and is buried near it within 2000 cubits will not
be touched by the fire of burning. And both the meri-
torious ones, our father Adam and Enoch upon them
be peace have testified to its truth. (42) And Metushael
(Metushalem) learned seven hundred and twenty years (43)
and Lamech learned six hundred and fifty three years, and
Noah learned and read in the book of Adam which he
was taught six hundred years.

III. [Ahidan.]

(i) And then the days of Adam grew near to die and
he was subjected to the word "and thou shalt surely die."
And these were the days of the life of Adam: nine hundred
and thirty years, (2) and all his sons came to his place in
Badan. (3) And he commanded them that they should
carry him to [lyul Mth] which is the valley of Hebron.
(4) For he had seen in his wisdom that it had been
created that in it should be gathered the generations of the
meritorious ones. It was created at the time of the creation
of the Tree of Knowledge P. 31 (6) and it was built in
three sections : the first, for those who came out of the
Garden; the second, for those- who came out of the Ark;
the third, for those who came out of the circumcision. (7)
And its name was called Machpelah, (8) and Noah be-
came king in the place of Adam after the death of Adam.
(9) For seven years Noah learned in the Books of Creation
i. e., the Book of Signs, and the Book of Astrology and
the Book of Wars. These are the Books of Adam.

This is the book of the generation of Adam. (10) Who
is like unto Thee among the mighty, O Lord ? (i i) Who
is like unto Thee, the God of beginning and the Judge on
the day of vengeance ! The Lord is one ! This expression
*' the book of the generation of Adam," P. 32 refers to
the Tolida which has been mentioned before.



2O4



1 8. And Adam was comforted by beholding the
prince (head) and seeing his sons.

19. And when Noah was weaned Lamech brought
him to Adam toBispara (Sifra) and Adam said, "This
will comfort us for he was good (perfect) from his birth. ' '

20. And Lamech built a town in his name and
its name was Rifat which is Gibeon which is situ-
ated on the south of the sanctuary of the Mount
Garizim.

21. And Lamech begat six sons. Tubal Kain was
then born [through whom] he (Lamech) killed Kain.

22. Jubal built Meseda which is called Rabta^

23. Jabal built Kenaz which is Nisbor.

24. Tubal Kain built Skips whose name is Albasra..
He forged all manner of brass work.

25. Adam taught these. He taught Lamech one
hundred and eighty years in the Book of Truth
(i. e. the Law).



(18) Sam. Arab, adds: "Until
the life of the righteous one had
come to an end." "there will be
no Flood in his days" refers to
Enoch. Dp3 probably refers to
Noah; the Pitron identifies him
with Abraham.

(19) Meshalma I38a: Name of
place not mentioned. Seder Ha-
dorot p. 1 8 : The place of murder of
Hebel two days' distance from
Hebron, and there also the place
of burial of Adam.

(20) flS" 1 "! name of a nation
and region sprung from Gomer
(Gen. X, 3). Meshalma I38b:
Riphat. ". . . and that is Gib't,
and others say this is Gibat Alma,
the Everlasting Hill."



(21) v. II. 10. Book of the Bee:
ch. XIX. p. 30.

(22) Sam. Ar.: "Meseda" =
"Terikia," probably "Afrikia."
wri:n probably the capital of the^
Ammonites, like Syriac "rabta."

(23) tip name of one of the
descendants of Esau. Gen_
XXXVI, ii. Meshalma f.isia:
"Tubal Kain built Knt (or Knd)-
and its name was Knz; he also built
Albsrh. Samaritan Arabic: has-
"Bagdad" for "Nisobar."

(24) rm^K probably Basra.
Samaritan Arabic omits: "Skips. ' r

(25) In the Asatir we find tfiX
(he taught or he learned) instead
of "he died." May be that is taken
from cpte (Gen. XXXVI.



205

(12) And after Adam was buried, Noah and all the sons
of Adam returned to their places. And the people grew
numerous and they grew very powerful. (13) And Arjddan,
the son of Bared, the son of TubalKain, went and built Sion,
whose name is called Gifna, which means house of Mktsh.
And the explanation of the word Mktsh in the Hebrew
language is 'plague.' And he erected therein a very high
stone (pillar) and he called it a place of worship like unto
the place called Adrms, which was the first place of wor-
ship of Adam. For Adam had brought out with him a stone
from the garden, and he made it a place to worship God,
may He be exalted. P. 33. And he placed the stone which
he had brought out with him from the garden in the house
of worship which he had made. And he called the name
of that place Adrms. This is shown by the saying in the
Asatir of Moses: (14) "Like the city whose name has
been called Adrms, which is in the place where Adam had
bowed down in worship for the first time when he was
driven out of the Garden." And the explanation of Adrms
is "place of weeping;" and God knows it. For Adam wept
there for his going out and being separated from the
garden, or its explanation may be "the place of learning
or, of desire and study" where he learned in the Books
of Creation. P. 34. And it is said in the Asatir con-
cerning the stone which Abidan had erected and the
worship thereof, (15) "That is the rock in which they
trusted," (Deut. XXXII. 37) because they were led astray
thereby. (16) And the evil grew for six hundred years, for
since Afridan made the stone and the place of worship, the
nations began to follow and to believe in it, and the trans-
gressions grew and they continued the work of sin for
six hundred years. And after this he said, "and they
turned to that which did not exist" and its explanation is the
worship of strange gods in which there is no substance;
and when their sins grew, God caused the Fanuta (i. e.,
turned away his favour) to the last of that generation.



206



26. His son [Seth] learned (ruled) one hundred
and five years.

27. Enosh learned (ruled) eight hundred and five
years.

28. Kenan learned (ruled) nine hundred and ten
years.

29. Mahalalel learned (ruled) eight hundred and
ninety five years.

30. Jered learned (ruled) eight hundred and forty
seven years.

.31. Enoch learned (ruled) three hundred and sixty
five years.

32. On- the day when Enoch died came all the
children of Adam to Sifra to hear Adam lament
over him.

33. On the fourth Enoch died and he was carried
to Sifra.



which could then be translated
"He ruled," but as the years given
cover the whole period from birth
to death this translation offers the
same difficulty as the former.
ntSffpn HIB^D "agrees with the
Mandaean terminology Sifra de-
kusta" cf. Introduction.

(25 to 3 1.) JosephusAntiq. 1.3.4
(83 88): A similar summing-up
of the genealogies, with the dates
corresponding to the birth and
death, sometimes confused; but
following in the main Gen. Ch. V.
Seth's age ought to read 905.
See Comparative Chronological
Table Intr. p. 146147. Samaritan
recension where dates agree gene-
rally with Asatir except Seth and
Jared. Samaritan Arabic :Lamech
1 80.



(26) Samaritan Arabic: Seth
165.

(27) Samaritan Arabic: Enosh
808.

(32) Meshalma f. I35aff. : has
here a curious Enoch legend
hitherto unknown and makes
deliberate protest against Jewish
tradition of Enoch being trans-
lated to Heaven alive, as found in
the Apocalyptic Literature. (An-
other account found ibid, fol 1 37a).
Death of Enoch also assumed by
Josephus I. 3. 4. 85, whilst LXX
translates Gen. V. 24 "God trans-
lated him." Arabic Samaritan
Book of Joshua contains full
description of death and burial
place of Enoch. Cod. Caster. Sa-
maritan Arabic substitutes : N ablus
for Sifra.



207

P. 35. (17) For at first God may He be exalted forebore'
lest they repented, but they did not repent but they multi-
plied the sins and the earth became full with violence. (18)
At that time was born to Ahidan a son, and he called
his name Asur. (19) And he built also the town, Srus,
a town which is called Sion Talah; and that is Sion the
Hanging. And he placed therein the stone which he had
made and he delighted in dwelling therein. (20) And he
sent and brought Gifna, the daughter of Na'amah from
Babylon, who was accustomed to worship the idolatry of
Lamech and she was a witch skilled in the art of witchcraft.
P. 36. And she invented the art of music. And because of
this, Ahidan sent for her and brought her to his house.
And he gave her unto his son as a wife, so that she should
assist him in the performance of witchcraft. And after the
arrival of Gifna, he made a great nigug and its explanation
is, an idol (21) and it was on four statues; one of gold,
and one of silver, and one of brass, and one of olive wood.
(22) And he made a sun and a moon in the midst of the four
to give light. And he placed in the midst of the sun a
luminous cup of gold, (23) and he placed in the midst of
the moon P. 37 a precious stone Shoham. (24) And he said
unto Gifna, "This beacon is the first which has been made
in the world." (25) And Gifna appointed a host of four
hundred servants and twenty eunuchs who ministered to
her. It is said in connection with it intheAsatir, "Mighty,
holy are the words which were on the staff of Adam,"
which is the staff of God. The explanation of this thing
and God knows is that the deeds which have been revealed
of these sinners, are fittingly rebuked by [the writing
on] the staff of Adam. (26) And after this, Gifna made
a nigug which is called Fingal through which the wind
passed from all sides, whereby when the wind passed
through it, it emitted a sound (27) and it continued for one
hundred and ten years. And a son was born to Asur from
Gifna and he called his name [Itno] (28) and to Itno



208



34. And they wept over him, Adam and Seth
and Enosh and Kenan and Mahalalel and
Jared and his son Metushelah who was living in
Badan.

35. And they tarried with the weeping until the
news reached Ahidan the son of Tubal Kain who

*

was living in Hebron, and he was the head of the
army of Kainites.

36. And he had learned there in the Book of
Signs before Adam.

37. And when they came, they asked Adam that
he should read to them the Law (nims) and he read
it (or, Adam should proclaim the faith and he
proclaimed it).

38. And Enoch was buried in the neighbourhood
of Mount Garizim in the place which is called Jskr.

39. It is called Mount Ebal where they hid
Enoch. And there are built in it many tombs.

40. As Enoch (Adam) had said, "This is the place
of worship for the God of the world and above it
is the Gate of Heaven."



(34) }K"IK1 a place once close to
Sichem which has since disap-
peared. Adam's death and burial
mourned and lamented by his
sons. Yashar Ch. 3. 15; for accor-
ding to Jewish tradition Enoch
did not die.

(37) DD^J probably the proce-
dure of order of burial as this
was the first burial which had
taken place since the death of
Hebel, the method of his burial
being unknown; it is an obscure
word left untranslated also in the



Pitron; it is not likely to be the
Greek vofios as no Greek words
occur in the book.

(38) 15D 11 [Onamasticon] pro-
bably identical with the village
Askar near Sichem, still in
existence in the Xlth Century.
It was the birth place of Ussuef
el Askari, the author of the Book
of Laws (1040).

(40) Holy Mountain Gate of
Garden of Eden; Meshalma I45b.
See Introduction.



2O9

a son was born and he called his name Serikah. (29) And
Gifna used to call the sun and the moon which Ahidan
had made, and they would go with her whithersoever she
desired. (30) And when the whole world saw these deeds
they rejoiced and they were anxious to bow down to them.
And all bowed down and worshipped them. P. 39. And
the earth was filled with violence and wickedness.

Chapter IV. [Noah.]

(i) And it came to pass that the lord Noah admonished
and taught in the world, but no one listened to him. And
he saw that all the creatures had gone astray and that dwel-
ling in the midst of the wicked would not cause him to
prosper, so he went out from Rift and he went to the moun-
tain whose name is ['Adr hgg] whereon he made the
Ark for Seth had told him of the advent of the flood.
(2) And Noah started looking into the secrets of the
Book of Signs and he saw the obliteration (i. e. the hiding
away) of the children of Adam and he found therein the
direction concerning the Ark. (3) And at the time when
he left Rift, God revealed a great sign in the place P. 40.
where he was residing. (4) And Noah was greatly fright-
ened and Noah continued in prayers and praises one
hundred years after his begetting Shem, Ham and Japhet;
but daughters were not born unto him by the love [of
God] for him. For the Lord knew of the advent of the
flood. (5) Shem took the daughter of Seth to himself
to wife] and (6) Ham took [Shkh, the daughter of Jared]

(7) and Japhet took [Mkisthe, the daughter of Lamech].
And at the time when the sins of the creatures had
been completed and reached the time of destruction

(8) the Lord told Noah to make the ark and P. 41. he
made it and completed its making on the tenth day
of the second month. (9) And after four days more died
the last of the pious ones who was Metushelah. For the
flood did not occur except after the death of all the pious

Asatir. .



2IO



41. For the fire does not touch those who are
buried in a distance round about Mount Garizim
of two thousand [cubits]. This is called the Shelter
for the Fugitive, the Rock of Salvation.

42. And Metushelah learned (ruled) seven hun-
dred and twenty years.

43. And Lamech learned (ruled) six hundred and
fifty-three years.

44. And Noah learned (ruled) six hundred years,
and he read in the Book [of Signs] which Adam
taught him.

Chapter III. [Ahidan.]

1 . And as the death of Adam drew near, then
he bethought himself of the words "and thou
shalt surely die." And these are the days of Adam:
nine hundred and thirty years.

2. And all his children came to him to Badan.

3. And he commanded them to carry him to
'Eyul Mth which is the valley of Hebron (which
means) place of joining,

(41) Meshalma f. 1 45 a: Who-
ever buried within3,ooo cubits from
Mt. Garizim the burning fire on
the day of requital will not touch.
Such is the reward of the repen-
tant and pious. So in Sam. Arab.
B. of Joshua Cod. Caster 9. Sam.
Hillukh. Book of Oral Law.
T. B. Zebahim f. 1133.: Whole of
Palestine untouched by Flood.

(44) Meshalma I38b: "And
Noah learned from Adam before
his death the true calculation; i. e.
Calendar cf. III. 9. See Introd.
Zohar I. 58b.



Ch. III.

( i 7 ) From the conflicting trad-
itions concerning the burial of
Adam, found already in the various
Adam Books and in the legends
of the Cross (Story of Golgotha)
a few of the less well known are
added here. Meshalma fol I39b :
". . to the place called the oak of
Hebron, for that is the place for
the gathering of the generations
of the meritorious ones, which is
called Kiryatarba," i. e. the town,
of the four, for therein were buried
Adam, Noah, Metushelah and



211

ones. And Metushelah no longer lived; and from the holy
Law it is shown that Lamech and Metushelah died in the
same year and God knows whether Lamech died first.
And after the death of Metushelah, whose death was on
the fourteenth day of the second month, the earth was
humid (10) and three days after were broken up all the
fountains of the mighty deep and the windows of the
heavens were opened. And the rain was upon the earth
in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month.
On the third day (Tuesday) and that is proved from the
saying of the messenger in the Asatir [on the fourth the
earth was humid and was broken open; and on the thir-
teenth were opened the windows of heaven]. And the
end of the coming down of the rain was on the day of the
Sabbath on the sixth hour of the night ; and that is proved
by his saying [and the time of completion was the sixth
hour of the night of the seventh day, the Sabbath, then
the decree was completely finished.] The coming down
of the rain came to an end on the sixth P. 43 . and the rest
of the thing is clear. And I have seen some who wish to
explain it differently like this. [In the seven hundred and
nintieth year, it came to an end in the sixth hour of the
night of Sabbath.] And this comes out from his saying
seven hundred and ninety, and God knows whether this
explanation is according to the truth, though it differs
from our interpretation.]

And now let us return where we left the remembrance
of it, and let us say with the author of the Asatir on whom
be peace that Noah's going out from the Ark was on
the Sabbath.

On the second and third day he P. 44 (i i) built an altar
and he sacrificed upon it an offering to God according to
his saying, and it was on the seventh [and on the first that
Noah went out from the Ark and on the second he built
an altar and he brought a sacrifice.] And after the com-
pletion of the flood, and of the death of all living on the

14*



212



4. Which he had seen in his vision as having
been made for the gathering of the righteous gener-
ations created on the day in which the tree of
knowledge was planted.

5. And this was that there be fulfilled "for surely
thou wilt die."

6. And there are three divisions in it, one for
those who went out of the Garden, one for those
who went out of the Ark and one for those who
came of the circumcised of the flesh.

7. And this was called "Machpelah" (mani-
fold).

8. And Noah settled in the place of Adam after
the death of Adam.



Lamech. Malif. Q. 114: The
following buried there : Adam,
Enosh, Lamech, Noah, Abraham,
Isaac and Jacob, Sarah, Rebecca
and Leah. Schatzhohle p. 9.
Very close similarity. Calling
the children together, praying,
and ordering burial in the cave,
(centre of the earth). Malan,
Adam and Eve, Ch. IX. p. 116:
Adam died 1 5th day of Barmudeh,
the gth hour of Friday, the day
when he was created and the hour
when he came out of the Garden.
According to Ephrem Syrus and
Christian tradition in general,
Adam was buried at Golgotha;
See the Legends of the Cross,
Gaster, Literatura Populara. So
also Eutyctinus. Ethiop. Adam,
Bk. II Ch. X (Malan p. 116):
Adam died in the Cave of
Treasures. Book of the Bee,
(Budge) p. 34 5: Shem took the
bones of Adam to the place of



buriel. Eutychius I. p. 36.
Adam's body carried from
Holy Mountain; Armen. Adam.
Schr., p. 45 : Adam and Eve
buried in cave of Bethlehem.
According to Arabic trad-
ition, Adam buried in Jeru-
salem; v. Griinbaum, Neue Beitr.
p. 78 79. Jewish tradition, only
four couples buried there. Adam
and Eve and three Patriarchs
with their wives. T. J. Taanith
IV. 2. T. B. Erubin 53a. Pirke
d. Rabbi Eliezer Ch. XX. Gen.
Rabba Ch. 28,3. YasharCh. 3. 14:
Buried in the cave of which God
had told him. V. above Ch. I. 22.
Zohar IV, 164. Jalkut to Gen.
XXIV. 2. Seder Hadorot p. 20:
under the year 930. Adam was
buried .with royal honours by
his son Seth, his grandchildren,
in the cave of which God had
spoken.

(5) Gen. II 17.



213

face of the earth, there did not remain but Noah and those
who were with him in the Ark. And Noah was frightened
and he thought and said in his heart lest the flood should
return a second time upon the earth; (12) and God knew
what he thought and he said to his (Noah's) heart, I
will not smite any more the whole of the living and he
made with him the covenant of the bow (rainbow). He
made him P. 45. a faithful promise to the end of the gene-
rations and the making of this covenant with him was in
the seventh month, and Noah dwelt in Afrilah which
is on the eastern part of the town of Babel. And he taught
his sons' and the first thing he taught them was the con-
fession of the unity of God and that God is one alone
and there is no second to him. This is proved from the
author of the Asatir [and he taught his sons the prin-
ciples of the confession of faith] (13) and after sixty two
years since the flood he divided the earth among his sons.
(14) [To Shem three portions and to Japhet four. And to
Ham four. P. 46. And Elarn and Ld and Aram and Ashur
four portions, and Arpachshad one portion.] These five
sons are the children of Shem. (i 5) [And he gave the Book
of Signs to Arpachshad. And he gave the Book of Ngmut
(astrology) to Elam. And he gave the Book of Wars to
Ashur.] (16) And Shem and Arpachshad and Elam and
Ashur were great and holy and the leaders over all his
sons (17) [And he made unto Japhet four portions and they
are Gomer and Magog, Madai and Javan Tubal and
Moshek. And Tiras one portion] (18) And he made for
Ham four portions and for Kush one portion and Misraim
one portion and Fut one portion P. 47, altogether twen-
ty two portions. And he separated (or, singled out)
the sons of Shem by his gift to them of the Books of
Creation for he was the first-born, and he left for himself
two portions. At the time of his death we shall refer to
them again and their division. (19) And when Noah had
completed his work and the division [he found from the



214



9- In seven years he learned the three Books of
Creation: the Book of Signs, the Book of Astrol-
ogy (astronomy, ngmot), the Book of the Wars
which is the Book of the Generations of Adam.

10. "Who is like unto thee among the mighty
ones, O God."

11. Who is like unto thee the God of the first
ones and He who declares the righteousness of the
latter ones. The Lord is one! He helped Noah.

12. And all the sons of Adam grew numerous
[in the world] and powerful.

13. And Ahidan, the son of Barad, the son of
Tubal Kain, started and built Sion which is called
Gifna (i. e. house of leprosy) which is Beth
Machtesh (i. e. house of shame).

14. And he placed there a stone suspended (in the
air) for worship like that in the town which is
called Adrms which is on the place where Adam
had bowed down [in worship] for the first time
when he was driven out of the Garden.



(9) Gen V, I. Meshalma I4ob:
Noah started the collection of
the three books of Creation, Book
of Signs etc., 7 years after Adam's
death.

(10) Exodus XVI II. Pious
exclamation inserted by the
author when mentioning the
wonders of God.

(13) Gifna. Curiously enough,
there existed a strong hold in
Samaria not far from Sichem,
calledjufna'= Gophaof Josephus ;
George Adam Smith, Historical
Geography of the Holy Land, aoth
Edition, London, p. 351.



(14) Cod. A reads p, but B,
Pitron and Samaritan Ar. all
read pN evidently scribe's error in
A. It must mean stone. The image
of a god suspended in the air drops
down at the death of Tammuz.
Maimonides' "Guide of the Per-
plexed," III, 29 Hanging stone:
Chwolson, "Die Sabier u. d. Sabis-
mus, St. Petersburg 1856, II.
p. 205: Norden, Die Geburt des
Kindes p. 50. KampersWerdegang,
p. 52. Cf. the late legend of Mo-
hammed's coffinfloatingin the air,
in the Byzantine Chronicle of
Chalkocondylas. ed. Niebuhr.



215

calculation of the Calendar that there were still 4,300
years less seven years after the flood, (20) for from the
beginning of the days of Creation to the end there will be
6,000 years.] And the explanation of this is : from Adam
unto the Taheb will be 6,000 years and the seventh thous-
and will be the Jubilee P. 48. (21) And from the day God
created Adam until the flood happened were I, 307 years!
(22) And from the day of the division by Noah unto his
sons unto the building of Babel and their scattering by
the Lord upon the face of the whole earth were 493 years ;
and that is proved from his saying in the Asatir (23) [from
the day of Noah's division unto his sons until the day
of their visitation, from generation unto generation
493 years] and Noah on whom be peace divided his
kingdom among his sons [320 years] after the flood.

(24) P. 49. And on the day when Noah divided the
earth among the eldest of his sons [he was] 930 years. (25)
And he divided the earth unto his three sons on the tenth
day of the month of Elul, (26) and he sent messengers
among his children that each one should go unto his
place (27) and they dispersed from him.

[And Elam and Ashur went to the north of Ur Kasdim :
the town is now called by us by the name of the Gate of
Gates], (29) And Gog and Magog were on the other border
of the Gate of Gates. (30) [Ld and Aram went and settled
in the province (or town) Kuth]. P. 50. And this is a great
town called The Black Pool which is called the Gezirah
in Afrikia. (31) And Arpachshad dwelt in Ur Kasdim
Brktrs, which is called by the name of Romeia.

And Kush begat Nimrod and when he grew up, he
became king over the children of Ham, and he was a
mighty man in the land. (32) He gathered them together
to build Babel the Great, and they built it for him out of
fear of him.

And Nimrod was the first giant who appeared upon
the earth after the flood.



2l6



15. And that is "the rock in whom they confide,"
the rock upon which they relied.

1 6. And the evil increased six hundred years,
and they turned away and yet the Lord did not
cause Fanuta to happen.

17. But at the end of the generation when turning
away and oppression increased, the world was full
of men.

1 8. And Ahidan begat a son and called him
Asur.



(15) Deuteronomy XXXII 37.

(i8ff.) This story of Ahidan,
of the temple which he builds
destined for idol worship, the
reference to the image in it and
to the stone suspended in the air,
together with the other details
borrowed from extraneous sources,
is intended to vilify the temple of
Jerusalem, and to declare the
worship therein as idol worship.
I have dealt with it and its
probable sources and parallels in
the Introduction, where I have also
pointed out that the story of the
stone suspended in the air and
worshipped by the people must
be one of the legends connected
with the Eben Shetiyah, the stone
of foundation inside the Holy of
Holies in the temple of Jeru-
salem. I found only one parallel in
the Samaritan literature. It is that
given in Meshalma f. I38b; as
it is an important variant I am
publishing it there in full. "And
in those days there appeared a
man whose name was Ahidan son
of Barad son of Tubal Kain, and
he built Sion, whose name is Beth
Gifna (house of shame) and this
is Beth Mactash (house of leprosy)



and he erected there a statue and
suspended there a stone in the air
without pillars, and men came
and wondered at it, and this is
called ( ?) 'The stone in which
they trusted.' (Deut. XXXII.
37.) This Ahidan begat a son and
called him Asur, and he built a
place called Sion Tlh, and the
Gentiles (Christians) and Moham-
medans call it Shion, and that
is El Kmamh. And they call it
also Hkiamh. And the Jews
believe in it. And in what they
believed to be the true copy, it
says, 'Let their true Torah come
out of Sion, and let the Torah of
Moses be annulled.' (This sen-
tence is borrowed from the Arabic
paraphrast who writes: 'Son of
Maimon.' See Introduction p.
170.) May God punish them
according to the arrogance of their
deeds, and for this word, and for
what they speak concerning the
Toroth, written by the hand of
Ithamar, for they have hidden
it in that place, and kept it
secret. When Asur had completed
it, he sent men to Babel, and he
brought Gifna, daughter of Na-
'amah, sister of Tubal Kain (and



217

(33) And when the days of the life of Noah were 945
years, Nimrod appeared, and he heard of him and of his
evil doings. (34) [And his son Shem was the one whom
he had placed on the throne of the kingdom because he
was the first born]. And the explanation of it is, his son.
Shem kept his covenant, and when he grew up his father
Noah appointed him to the kingdom.

(35) And in those days, Shem sent for his five sons [Elam
and Ashur and Arpachshad and Ld and Aram] and he
brought them to him, and they came to him and they
built P. 52 Nineveh, Rehbot Ir (or, the town Refrbot),
Klh, Resen, which is a great town between Nineveh
and Klh, and it is said about it in the holy Torah [it is
a big town.]

(36) And when the days of our master Noah grew near
to die, he sent and called his three sons unto him, unto
Shalem the Great, and they built an altar. [And they
brought upon it thank offerings] and praises and exalt-
ations unto the living God Who never dies. (37) And when
Noah had first divided the earth into 22 portions, he left for
himself two portions; and at the time of his death he
gave Shem one more portion and Japhet another portion,
and he divided whatever he still possessed of his kingdom
of the world between them. And he set Shem above
Japhet for he was the first born and was his successor,
and was the owner of the three-fold holiness ; but to the
children of Ham he did not give anything on that occasion,
for he had done the thing which is mentioned in the
Torah; when Noah had cursed him he had said (Gen. IX.
25), "Cursed be Canaan, a slave of slaves shall he be unto
his brothers." And Ham is the father of Canaan, and for
this reason he did not obtain any further inheritance from
his father on that occasion.

And know that from this it is proved that the infidel P. 54.
shall not inherit the faithful, and the faithful shall not
inherit the infidel. (38) And Noah died, on whom be



218



19. And he built Srs a place called Sion
Telah (the hanging rock Sion) and he gave it
to him.

20. And he sent and brought Gifna the daughter
of Na'amah and brought her from Babel, who was
one of the wicked worship of Lamech. And he gave
her as a wife to Asur and he made a high tower



21. And it rested upon four statues, one of gold,
one of silver, one of copper, and one of olive wood.



he married her to his son). And
he made four statues, one of gold,
second of silver, third of copper,
and the fourth of wood. And he
made the images of sun and moon
and he put inside the moon the
stone of Shoham (onyx) and he
gave them to Gifna, the daughter
of Na'amah. And she made
therein a kind of lighthouse,
which she placed upon the four
corners, on the four statues, also
the images of the sun and moon.
And she appointed 400 ministers,
and Gifna used to call the sun
and moon. And they walked with
her. And many people came and
worshipped what she had made.
And wickedness grew in the
world." Thus far Meshalma, who
apparently had also somewhat
misunderstood the text. He did
not realise that the building was
to be a kind of temple in which
Gifna was sitting and worshipped
as a goddess, such as was the case
with Nimrod, Chosroe. (See In-
troduction.)

(19) Sursn, so in Codex B.
"Surs" in A and Pitron cf . Zarethan
JoshuallL 16.1 Kg VII. 46. San-



chuniaton (Eusebius, Prep. Ev.
I.) tells of Astarte who picks
up a stone fallen from heaven and
places it on the holy island of Tyre.
In Book of Heavenly Halls
(Pirke Hechalot ed Wertheimer
Jerusalem 1910). VI. 4: R.
Ishmael sees the crown of David,
adorned with sun, moon and
stars. Tubal Kain. Rashi to Gen.
IV. 20 quotes an Agadic
Midrash to the effect that Jabal
built temples for idol- worship and
his brother Tubal invented musi-
cal instruments to play therein.
(20) "Nigug" is translated by
me "tower" or "lighthouse."
The Samaritans translate it
(Pitron) "menorah" which is
equivalent with Arabic "minaret"
(lighthouse: tower). See legend
of Chosroe's throne, Kamper's
Werdegang, p. 38 43. Caster,
Exempla IVa. 2a: This kind of
temple has been dealt with fully
in the Introduction, where
the literature is given. Nim-
rod's throne Ginzberg Leg. of
the Jews, vol I, p. 178. Maybe
we have also here an echo of the
Semiramis legend.



219

peace when he was 950 years old. And his sons carried
him and they buried him in the Cave of Machpelah in which
Adam had been buried, as he had commanded them.
And each one went to his place.

Chapter V. [Nimrod.]

(i) And it came to pass after the 493 years, which had
been prophesied by the master Noah, that there was the
gathering in the town of Babel in their moving from the
East and this is the place called Matlon in the East to
Babel. And they found a wide valley P. 55. in the land of
Shinear, and they settled there (2) and it is a valley like
the valley of Sichem, and this is Elon Moreh, and next
to it is a mountain like Mount Garizim. (3) And one said
to his neighbour, "Let us go up this mountain and let us
build unto us a high building, a town and a tower, lest
we be scattered over the face of the whole earth." (4)
And they went up the mountain and built upon it first a
beacon where light was seen from the four corners of the
earth, (5) and they called its name Sham. And this is
the word they said, "Let us make ourselves a Sham."
(6) And they finished the building P. 56. but their desire
"was not fulfilled by God. For He destroyed the building
and the children of man were scattered over the face of
the whole earth, (7) and not one of them knew the
language of his neighbour. (8) And this was the origin
of the wars. As it is said in the Book of Asatir (9) And
this is the origin of the wars, which were [six] for the
dying and the seventh for the living. His saying: "wars
for the dead" means, the war of the dying (or, those
destined for death. 'The* dead' means these are the sinners,
"who are empty of virtue. It is said about them, "the
living, are like unto the dead." And his saying the other
word, 'the seventh for life' P. 57. means that through the
"wars which will happen at that time, the holy family (chain)
"will be oppressed and they will suffer great violence at



22O



22. And he made a likeness of the sun and the
moon of crystal and he put into the sun a golden
luminous cup.

23. And he put inside the moon a precious stone
(shoham).

24. And he said unto Gifna "Behold, let thy wor-
ship begin here/' (or, "let thou be worshipped first
here.")

25. And Gifna appointed quickly four hundred
servants and twenty ministers. Mighty is the holi-
ness of the proclamation of faith on the rod of
Adam which is called [the rod] of God.



(22) The author must have bor-
rowed this imagery from an ancient
pictorial representation of the
Heaven with the sun, moon, and
stars, probably in some heathen
temple or anyhow connected with
idol worship. I have not been
able to trace it. The notion .of the
sun with a cup travelling through
heaven is found in Greek mytho-
logy; See Gruppe: Griech. Myth.
p. 380 for literature. It has of
course nothing to do with the
Christian Iconography, which
besides offers no real parallel.

(24) In Pitron this verse has
been differently translated.

(25) This is a pious exclamation
in which the author indulges when
referring to idol worship us it to
avert an evil omen. It interrupts
in a most disconcerting manner
the course of the narrative, and
has caused me great confusion
until I realised its character.
The following legend is found
in the Malif, Q. 49: "The rod
of Adam has many secrets.
Among them that the* 'Messenger"



performed through it the miracles-
And it is said that there was.
written upon it the true calculation
(Calendar), the Book of Wars,
the Book of Signs, and the
Book of Astronomy. And Noah,
took out these three books
from the rod seven years after the
death of Adam. And these Books,
and the rod remained with Noah
till his death. And then he gave
it to the sons of his son Shem to-
Arpachshad, to Iram, Ashur. And
this rod remained in the possession
of Arpachshad and it was handed
down (transferred) through the
holy chain until it came into the:
possession of Jethro where it was-
kept up to the time when the
Messenger came, u. w. b. p., and
took it from him, and all this
(was done) for great purposes-
These three books were preserv-
ed by Laban until the time when
the "Messenger" came, when the
Law was brought down. They
disappeared slowly with the
exception of just a little of
the astronomy and the true



221

the hands of the Nimrods. So, for example, Teraht, when
they took him and put him in prison, his son Abraham,
whom they threw into the fire, and whose wife, Sarah,
they took from him twice. They also waged war against
him (Abraham), the wars mentioned in the book of the
iioly Tor ah.

Know that every one of the Meritorious Ones had to
suffer great troubles in his lifetime. These were trials from
God to purify them from the sins of the world. P. 58.
Then he accepted their repentance and made them great
in the world to come. Perhaps the letter r is the initial
of the word ]i"Of, remembrance, that there shall be know-
ledge and reputation of them. And our master Markalj may
God's favour be upon him speaking of the Meritorious
Ones, said, "The dead are like unto the living." And this ishis
saying, "Remember unto us the covenant of the dead like
that of the living." And God knows.

And another explanation of the letter t (this is seven)
is that Sabbath is the seventh (day), and that the ob-
servance of it will purify man of his sin; and perhaps
the explanation be that he is recounting the wars which
happened in the days of the Meritorious Ones and the
troubles which happened, came upon them to purify P. 59.
them, just as the Sabbath purifies those who keep it.
And God knows. And this explanation will agree with
the opinion of the masters of knowledge. It says in the
Book Asatir, [the beginning of the wars of the dying with
the living,] were the beginning of the wars, because the
Lehadim, Enamin, Naftofrim, Patrosim and Kaslohim
gathered together with the others. (10) And they chose
for themselves a leader whose name was Gitt the first born
of the Lehadim, which were called by his name, Gibtai.
(n) And they went from Philistia and made war first
with the Canaanites and Perizites, and took the kingdom
from the hand of Nimrod, and ruled P. 60. from the land
of Egypt unto the river of Kush. (12) And Nimrod went



222



26. And he made an open nigug in such wise
as is called fhgl (i. e. dome or cupola) which when
the wind passed through it from the four corners
emitted a sound.

27. And it lasted one hundred and ten years. And
Asur begat a son from Gifna and his name was
Itanu.

28. And Itanu begat a son and called him
Shrikh.

29. And when Gifna called the sun and the moon
which Ahidan had made, they walked with her.

30. And when she did this, the people wished
to worship them and the world became evil and all
flesh corrupted its way upon it.

Chapter IV. [Noah.]

i. And Noah left Rift and he dwelt in the moun-
tain called 'Adr Shgg. This is the place of the Ark.

God engraved in the rod of Adam.
"Mighty is" etc. A pious ex-
clamation on the part of the
author when mentioning idolatry.

(26) Arabic glosses it all over:
"He put a dome on the top of
the tower" cf. the singing obelisk
of Memnon. Moved by the wind ;
See Kampers Werdegang, p. 41
see further X. 27.

(27) Have we here perhaps
the origin of Joniton, the reputed
fourth son of Noah in Schatz-
hohle and Nephodins ? (see Sackur
Sibyll. Texte p. 1416).

Ch. IV.



calculation of theCalendar which is
inour hands. And as for the rod, it
was placed in the tent and will
be there until the Taheb will
come. And one of the signs will
be that he will bring it."
cf. Chapter IX. 22. Rod of
Adam and Moses. Origin of these
legends must be traced back to
Exod. IV. 20 where Moses takes
the "rod of God" in his hand. The
subject has heen so often treated
that I refer here only to Jerah-
meel. Introd.p.XCI, and literature
from there. Gressmann in Zeit-
schrift fur Kunde des Morgen-
lands 1913, p. 1 8 ff. points
out that in Babylon rods were
engraved with the image of the
god. Pesikta f. I4oa: Name of



(i) JlB'n cf. above II, 20, but
more likely it is identical with 1,17:
Cf. B. of Enoch LXV. 2:



223

and pitched his camp against Gitt, and he asked the
children of Joktan to help him against the children of
Misraim and his seed. (13) And the children of Joktan
turned away and did not listen unto him, and went away
until they reached a place for camping, of which it is said,
"from Mesha until thou comest unto Sifra of the moun-
tain of the East,) that is Timnata, whose name was
called Yemen, Sifra, the mountain of the East until
Timnala." (14) And Gitt died in the land of Misraim, and
when Nimrod heard of the death of Gitt he rose up to
fight the inhabitants of the town of Ashur, and that is
the place called Almosa ; and he ruled over it, (i 5) and
when he became king over it, P. 61. he rose up and made
war with Nahor.

(16) And Nimrod did unto Arpachshad just as Pharaoh
did unto the Hebrews. For at that time, they had seen
in the Book of Signs which had been handed down to
them, that there would arise a man who would smite
everyone who worshipped idols, and he would destroy
them, (i 7) And he gathered together all the wise men from the
children of Ham and the children of Japhet. And he asked
of them, that they should tell him of the day of the birth
of that man; (18) and they told him that within forty
days his mother would become pregnant with him. (19) Then
the Nimrod commanded that every man of all the sons of
Arpachshad, P. 62. should keep himself separated from
his wife for the number of forty days. (20) And they im-
prisoned all the men in one place and the women in another
place separately. (21) And it came to pass after thirty
of the above mentioned days that the Lord revealed a
sign in the land of Shinear, and it was a pillar of fire
which came down from heaven to earth. (22) And
all the inhabitants thereof were frightened with a great
fear, and they made prayers in the house of their wor-
ship unto the idols, and they went out unto a field outside
the town and they remained there three days, and the



224



2. And God announced to him the news of the
flood and Noah started to examine the Book of
Signs, and Noah saw therein the obliteration of
(the children of) Adam, and the protection of
those who were to go into the Ark.

3. And it came to pass at the time when he left
[Rift] that there was a sign in the land.

4. And Noah feared a great fear and he con-
tinued unceasingly with prayers and hymns one
hundred years after he had begotten Shem, Ham
and Japhet.

5. And Shem took Shrit the daughter of Seth
to wife.



Noah went to the end of the earth
(to seek Enoch). Placeof the Ark
means probably place where Ark
rested afterwards. There are
different traditions about that
place. Meshalma I4ia: "Rift
which was built by Lamech."
Pal. Targ. to Gen. VIII. 4: calls it
Kadron. Onkelos ibid, has Kardu.
Josephus Antiq. I. 3. I 74.
Josephus Antiq. I. 3. 5. 90: does
not mention name of mountain
on which Ark rested. Jubilees
V. 28: Ark rested on Mt. Lubar.
Chronicon Paschale ed. Niebuhr
Bonnae 1832; vol I, p. 45: Noah
lived on Mount Lubar. Schatz-
hohle p. 17: Built from the wood
of the Holy Mountain. Theo-
philus III. 19: Arabia, probably
Ararat.

(3) Josephus Antiq. I. 3. 5. 89:
"When God gave the signal (or
sign)."

(4) Sibyl. Or. Bk. I. 47 ff. : Fear
and admonitions. Theophilus
III. 19: Noah praying andforetell-



ing the Flood. T. B. Sanhedrinf.
io8b. Gen. Rabba 3, 33. Eccles.
R. to 9. 14. Prayed 100 years.
LekahTob, ed.Buber I. p. 36: Noah
worked at the Ark 120 years.
So also Tabari, Griinbaum, Neue
Beitr. p. 79. Noah admonishing
and teaching. Often in Koran,
e- g. 7- 5763; 10. 7275, etc.
cf. Geiger Mohammed, p. no.
Schatzhohle 17 and 18: Three
sons born in 100 years. So also
T. B. Sanhedrin io8b. Meshal-
ma I4ob: Five hundred years
teaching and preaching to the
people. Mistake of scribe. Read
100.

(5) Josephus Antiq. I. 3. I. 77:
No name. He also mentions
here the wives of the sons of
Noah. Yashar V. 35: The
wives of the sons of Noah
took three sisters, daughters of
Eliakim, son of Metushelah. Al-
gazi ibid.: Shem's wife, Mahlah
daughter of Baun. Gen. Rabba
XXX., 31.



225

name (of God) may He be exalted gave them work
and they forgot the imprisoned ones P, 63. (23) And
in that time the master Terafr went by a vision of the
Lord and slept with his wife, and she conceived (24).
And when Terah had slept with his wife, he returned
to the prison and the sign was lifted.

And when the wizards saw that the sign had been lifted,
they said : "The child hath reached the womb of its mother ;"
and they told Nimrod so. (25) And he said, "Bring out
all the prisoners unto their places." And they did so, and
every man went to his place as he had commanded.

(26) After this was born our master Abraham on whom
be peace by the might of the All-powerful. And it
came to pass when he grew up, P. 64. that Nimrod
took him and placed him under his command, and he was
among those who. stood before him, to wait on him. (27)
And after that, he took him and cast him into the fire,
but the fire could not burn our master Abraham, for God
protected him, for the sake of the master of the flesh who
was to come out of his loins, and also for his great right-
eousness. Behold what God said unto him, "I am the Lord,
who brought you out from Ur (furnace) Kasdim."

(28) When he saw that the fire had no power over him,
Haran said, "He is a great wizard and his witchcraft pre-
vents the fire from burning him." Then the fire came out
and consumed Haran. P. 65. See what is said about him
in the Holy Law, "And Haran died before the face of
his father Terah in the land of his birth, in Ur Kasdim !
(Gen. ii. 28.) And when Nimrod and his company saw
that the fire had come forth and had consumed Haran,
the fear of God came upon them, and they were frightened
lest it should come out upon them and consume them also.
And the Nimrod commanded that the master Abraham
should come out Praised be He, Who performeth signs and
wonders, the One Who keepeth the Covenant and the
mercy to those who love Him!

Asatir. 15



226



6. And Ham took Skh the daughter of Jared
to wife.

7. And Japhet took Mkisth the daughter of
Lamech [to wife].

8. And when God said unto him (Noah) that he
was to make the Ark, he made it and he finished
it on the tenth (twelfth ?) of the second month.

9. And on the fourth (Wednesday) the earth
became humid and broke open.

10. And on the third (Tuesday) were opened the
windows of Heaven. And on the seventh (Sabbath)
was the end of the decree in the sixth hour of the
night of the seventh. And on the first [of the
month] Noah went out of the Ark.



(810) Gen. VII, n has the
date of the month (I7th of the
second month). Here the days
of the week are given. But may
also mean istdayoftheoftheweek
(Sunday). On the Sabbath, the
Flood began and terminated.
Samaritans have given the word nfil
a numerical value i. e.the 7th as the
meaning of the words "this day"
is otherwise obscure ; This phrase
occurs twice in Gen. 7. 1 1 and 13.
Malif. Q. 70: The animals came
of their own free will into the Ark.
cf. Sibylline I 207 ff. Meshalma
I53a: Started from end of the
month of lyar (Siban). Meshal-
ma f . 1 543 quotes Markah to the
effect that the Flood did not cover
Mt. Garizim. Arab. Book of Jos-
hua p. 1 1 : According to Samaritan
tradition, on the I4th Nisan or
rather, on the Festival of Passover,
God created the world Noah went
out, Sodom and Gomorrah were
burned,Exodus Israelites occupied



Mt. Garizim. God hid the Temple
(2nd day) the curse will be re-
moved, Sanctuary will be re-
erected, the Taheb will appear,
and the truth will be established.
Josephusl.3. 3.8oand8i: Flood
begins on 27th of 2nd month called
by the Hebrews Marhesvan
against Samaritans, contrary to
one Jewish tradition; T. B. Rosh
Hashana i ib. LXX. to Gen. VII.
ii : says I7th. Jubilees V. 22:
Noah started building the Arkon
the New Moon, of the first month
1307 A. M. entered New Moon
of the second month 1308 A. M.
ibid. 23. Flood begins 1 7th. Ibid.
V. 29: On the New Moon of the
fourth month Flood stopped.
Schatzhohle p. 21: Flood began
Friday the I7th of lyar.
B. of the Bee Ch. 20.
p. 32: Flood on Friday, and the
Ark remained upon the waters
until the 2Oth Tishri. Albiruni
(Sachau), p. 25: Flood began



227



Chapter VI. [Abraham in Egypt.]

(i) And it came to pass seven years after this occur-
rence that the Nimrod died and with him was completed
the number of the kings P. 66., who reigned from
the children of Ham. (2) Through a Nimrod it began
and through a Nimrod it came to an end, and from the
first Nimrod to the second Nimrod were 1,020 years. (3)
The first Nimrod was from Kush and the second Nimrod
was from the Kaftorites.

(4) And it came to pass after the death of Nimrod that
Terah went out to go into the land of Canaan, which was
outside the kingdom of Nimrod, for he was afraid lest
other Nimrodim would appear and do unto him as had
done the above mentioned Nimrod. (5) And his son Nahor
dwelt with Kedar Laomer and Tidhal, King of Goyim.
P. 67. (6) And it came to pass when they heard of the
going out of Terah, they sent men against him to prevent
him from going away, and Kedar Laomer went to plunder
and kept Terah prisoner in Haran. (7) And Abraham
went out to meet Kedar Laomer in Ur Kasdim and to
prostrate himself before him [with the request] that they
should release his father, Terah, from the prison. (8) There
God called him and commanded him to go out from
Haran. And he came unto the land of Canaan, and Lot
the son of his brother with him, and they dwelt in Elon
Moreh. And now behold, O my brother, how great was
the obedience of our master Abraham to his God, for he
went from his land P. 68., and from his birthplace, and he
forsook his father in the house of prison, for he was afraid
to rebel against the command of God.

(Happy are those who are beloved of God, and woe
unto them who hate God!) And from this thing it is
known that Terah died and Abraham, his son, was not
with him, and it is said that his son Nahor buried him.
And this is proved by his saying may He be exalted

15*



228



11. And on the second he built an altar and he
brought a sacrifice.

12. And God made with him the covenant of
the rainbow on the seventh. And Noah dwelt in
'Ith at the rising of the sun (East) in Babel and
he started teaching his children the principles of
(the confession of) faith and the testimony.

13. And after sixty two years he divided the
earth among his sons Shem, Ham and Japhet.

14. And to Shem he gave three portions and
Japhet four and Ham four; [Shem divided his
portion, giving to] OElam, Ld,Aram andAshur four
portions and Arpachshad one portion.

15. And he gave the Book of Signs to Arpachshad,
and the Book of Astronomy to Elam and the Book
of the Wars to Ashur.



on Friday night in year 2,226;
23 days and 4 hours from
death of Adam, according to
Anianus. UrimveTumim: Noah
started building the Ark on the
zoth of the month. Seder Hado-
rot p. 23. Flood in year 1656;
p. 24. Noah entered the Ark on the
fourth, Wednesday. The "first"
in verse 10 may also mean New
Moon, although the numbers al-
ways refer to days of the week;
cf. Gen. VIII. 13.

(n) Meshalma i$5a: "Altar on
Mt. Garizim," Jubilees VI. i.
4. 1 1 : A covenant on the same day.

(12) Meshalma f. 1 4ob : Teaching
the people to walk in the way of
God (see below v. 38). Ethop.
Adam Books Bk III Ch. 13
Malan Teaching his children
p. i6off. Kebra Ch. 7: Teaching



his children to beware of goingwith
the children of Kain. Armen.
Adamschr. p. 40: Noah descended
from mountain and lived in
Akor.

(13) Sibyll. Or. III. lioff
earth divided among three sons.
Schatzhohle p. 30. Langlois
Vol. I. ch. V (p. I9ff): Division
of the land by Noah. Syncellus
Sob: Division of the land by
Noah among his three sons in
2504. Malalas (ed Niebuhr)
p. 13: Noah calls his three
sons and divides the land among
them. Chs. of Rabbi Eliezer Ch.
23 : Noah divided the earth among
his three sons.

(14 ff.) Evidently two kinds of
divisions are confused, one in the
lifetime of Peleg, whose name has
been etomologically confused with



229

"And Terah died in Haran " And do not consider his
saying. "And Terah died in Haran," before the saying,
"Get thee from thy land, from thy birthplace," because
the history begins with the second section concerning
Abraham, in order that it should be set down without
interruption. And there are a large number of similar
statements (i. e., not in chronological order) in the Torah.
P. 69. And therein is no contradiction according the men
of knowledge and understanding.

And Abraham dwelt in Elon Moreh, being shown
thither by God may He be exalted! for He said unto
him; "Go unto the land which I will show thee." And the
'Showing* meant that he should reach Elon Moreh, for
he knew that this was the place to be sought for.
And he rebuilt the altar of his forefathers Adam and
Noah. (9) And after that he went up Mount Garizim to
the East of Bethel. And he bowed down and prostrated
himself there before God. And he worshipped and went
down.

And it came to pass after these things that there was
a famine in the land of Canaan, (10) and Abraham and
Lot, the son of his brother, journeyed with him from Elon
Moreh, and they went P. 70. down to Egypt, (n) And
when they reached the boundary of Egypt, there was
a great shaking in all the houses of worship which were
in Egypt. And all the dwellers of the houses of worship
were frightened.

(12) And Abraham encamped in a place called Hrif.
And it was in those many days that the women of
Egypt went out into the field to the place Hrif. (13) And
they found Sarai the wife of Abraham, and they saw
that she was of a beautiful face and of a beautiful counte-
nance. And it came to pass that when they returned from
the field in the evening, they praised her before their
husbands, until the word reached the minister of Pharaoh,
who praised her unto him. And it came to pass when he



230



16. And he made them the foremost of all his sons.

17. And Japhet divided the four portions, among
Gomer, Magog, Maddai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech
and Tiras each one portion.

1 8. And Ham divided his land into four portions,
Kush one portion and Misraim one portion, Put
one portion and Canaan one portion.

19. And when Noah had finished the division
of the land by the astronomical calculation of the
day, he found that there were still four thousand
three hundred years less seven years to come after
the flood, of the six thousand from the beginning
of the creation and three hundred and seven since
the flood.

20. For from the beginning of the days of
Creation there shall be 6,000 years,

21. From the day of creation until the day
of the visitation of the generations (through the
flood) were one thousand three hundred and seven
years.

years; T. B. Hagigah H3av. Ch.
Cf. note XL 20, and Introd.

(21) Flood was in the year 1, 307.
A. M. probably the date of the
Flood according to Samaritan
calculation. Hebrew Bible 1 : 656
years. LXX. 2: 262 (2: 242?)
years. Josephus Antiq. I. 3. 3
82: gives 2,662 from Adam.
Another reading of Josephus
1,656 seems to be the more primi-
tive one. Julius Africanus Chrono-
logy 2,263. (Sackur Sibyll. Texte
p. 63.) Methodius places it at the
end of the second millenium.y years
after the date of Schatzhohle.



"division." The countries oc-
cupied by Noah's three sons and
their descendants, see Jerahmeel
Ch. XXVIII and introduction ad
loc. for full literature, to which I
may add the exhaustive annotation
pp. 234 249 in Vol. 1 1 to Chroni-
con Paschale Vol. 143 63 ed Nie-
buhr, Bauer and Strygowski, Ale-
xandr. Weltchr. (see Introd.
Algazi ibid.: Name of wife of
Arpachshad, Resuyah, daughter
of Sason.

(19) So Malif. Q. 63: Flood in
year i, 307 from Creation.

(20) Duration of the world 6,000



231

(Pharaoh) heard the report about her, P. 71. that he
brought her into his house and he took her. And Abraham
went with her but he could not do anything. And Pharaoh
gave him many gifts and was kind to him for the sake of
Sarai and Abraham went out from Pharaoh with a
broken heart and a weeping eye. And he prayed unto God
to save his wife Sarah from the hand of Pharaoh ; and
God hearkened to his prayer, (14) and God plagued
Pharaoh and his house with great plagues. (15) And the
plague was on the privy parts and Pharaoh was like a
stone. (16) And he called all the wizards of Egypt and its
wise men and he gathered them together and (18) there
was among them a wizard and his name was Turfs, who
had studied in the Book of Signs. He had learned that
book in from Enoch, the son of Kain, (19) and he streng-
thened himself in Hanoliia and said, "There is in this place
a woman, who is a faithful one, believing in God, and
all these visitations one for her sake."

(20) And when our master Abraham on whom be
peace heard what had happened to Pharaoh and to his
house, he rose up and lifted up his face unto heaven
and praised God, and he thanked Him and he sanctified
Him for all the good He had done him, in that He had
preserved unto him Sarai his wife from defilement.

Then it became true and known unto them that
this had come through the evil deeds which had been
done by Pharaoh. P. 75 (mistake in original pagination).
And no man could look on Sarah and no one could see her
face. On her face the light was shining strongly. This is
proved by his saying, (21) "And they were freed (i. e. from
the plague) and they saw that the whole palace was lit
up from the appearance of the face of Sarah, and there
was great fear." (22) And thereby it became known that
Sarah was the wife of Abraham. And Pharaoh begged
relief of him, and gave back his wife Sarah, and he went
away in rejoicing and in peace, with the innocence of his



232

22. And from the day when Noah made the
division among his children, until the day of the
visitation of the generations were four hundred and
ninety three years.

23. And he divided his kingdom to his three
sons in the year three hundred and twenty.

24. And Noah was on the day when he divided
[the land] among his sons nine hundred and thirty
years old.

25. And he divided the land among his three sons
on the tenth day of the month of Elul.

26. And then he sent proclamations to his sons
that each one should go to his country.

27. And they took leave of him and Elam and
Ashur went to the north of Ur Kasdim, which is
called by them the place of Bab el Abwab (Gate of
Gates),

28. And which is on the border of Elam and Ashur.

29. And Gomer and Magog were from Bab el
Abwab and onwards.

30. And Ld and Aram settled in Great Kutah
whose name is Charassan the Black which is called
Algezirah in Afrikia (Phrygia).



Seder Olam Ch. I: Date of the
Flood 1656.

(23) Meshalma lyia: I2th of



Ellul.' Malif. Q. 80: 'In the year
329" after the Flood.

(26) Josephus Antiq. I. 4. I.
1 10. Noah sends the children to
the various countries.

(27) Jubilees VIII. 12 ff.
(29) Gog, Magog Herodot III.

Pliny VI. 11.30. Strabo XII. I. 7.



Polybius V. 44. Hecateus Frag.
71. Ptolemaeus VI. 2. Caspian
Gates already mentioned by
Josephus, see Marquart Eransahr
Berlin 1901, p. 101 ff.

(30) "Algesira" i. e. "island"
in Arabic, is the name of the
country between the Tigris and
the Euphrates. Meshalma f.
i7ib: has the following: Ar-
pachshad settled in Laban (white)



233

wife. And he stood before God and prayed for Pharaoh
and for his house. (23) This is the first prayer which our
master Abraham prayed. And this is the whole of what
he said in his prayer, "O Lord, the God of Heaven and
the God of the earth, All Merciful, be merciful." (24) And
God healed Pharaoh and his house, and then Pharaoh
believed in the truth of the -faith of Abraham, since his
prayer was received and his God was the God of Gods
and the Lord of Lords, and He performed wonders
for Abraham's sake. And he knew that his prayer
before the idols had not cured him from the plague which
he had, but that only the prayer of Abraham to his
God had cured him. At that time he commanded the
destruction of the houses wherein the idols were, P. 76.
and the breaking of the idols and the destruction of all
the pillars, and he commanded that those who worshipped
them should be killed, as there was no use for them, and
whoever prostrated himself before them, became worth-
less in this world and a sinner at the end of
days. And all this is made evident from his word in the
Asatir. "And all the houses of worship were destroyed
and all those things (i. e., the idols) before which people
prostrated themselves fell down and could not be raised
up."

(25) And the wizard Turfcs went up from there, when
he saw what Pharaoh had done to the houses of worship
and to the idols and to the pillars; for he could not stay
in Egypt any longer. And he went up thence and he went
to Hebron.

(26) And afterwards Pharaoh commanded men from
among his people and he said unto them that they should
go with Abraham and lead him to the place which he
would choose. They were not to forsake him and anyone
who would do anything to him or to his wife should surely
die. And they did as Pharaoh commanded them and they
came with him and with Lot, his brother's son, with their



234



31. And Arpachshad settled in Ur Kasdim in
Brktrs (Bactria ?) whose name isRomi. AndNimrod
began to rule over all the children of Ham.

32. And he built great Babel and they gathered
themselves all together and they went to build it,
and Nimrod started to walk as a giant in the land.

33. And Noah was nine hundred and forty five
years old when the report of it reached Noah.

34. But Shem his son was the one whom he had
placed on the throne of the kingdom because he
was the firstborn.



Kasdim, in the place called
Great Romiah, and Elam and
Ashur dwealt on the border of
Laban (Tiras) in a place which is
called "the door of the gates,"
Kasdim. Five years before the
death of Noah appeared Nimrod
a giant in the land, and he
became king over the children of
Ham, and children of Great
Babel. And they gathered them-
selves together to build it. Malif.
Q. 82: Shem settled in the towns
of Afrikia, to which belonged the
land of the Kasdin. Sibylline
Oracles III. 140: Shem in Phrygia.
See Introd.

(31) DIBpH probably Bactria:
this in Samaritan Chronicon
Parshagl.c. Malif.Q. 83. Urim

ye Tumim: Nimrod born on the
6th of the month. Grunbaum,
Neue Beitr., p. 91 ff. Oriental
legends of Nimrod.

(32) Josephus Antiq. I. 4. 2.
114, Nimrod built Babel. Mes-
halmaf. 171 b. Nimrod King (cf.
note to IV. 31. Pirke de Rabbi
Eliezer Ch. 29. NimrodKingbuilds
Babel. Seder Hadorot p. 26:



Nimrod King builds Babel.
"123 Giant, so in the Arabic para-
phrase and in constant use among
Samaritans. S ee SamaritanJ oshua.
Jerahmeel27. 4: Nimrodaproud
giant. Nimrod a giant; Adam
and Eve Ethiop. ed. Malan Bk.
III. Ch. XXIII. p. 173. Metho-
dius Ch. Ill "Nembrod gigans."
Philo (see Introduction), Eusebius,
Prep. Ev. Bk IX, ch. 182 Nimrod
(Bel.) (420 b) giant. Tuch, Kom-
mentar uber die Genesis, Halle
1871, p. 181: Nimrod King of
Egypt. Old tradition. The Sam-
aritans call every giant Nimrod.

(33) Complete pB M.

(3436) Noah appoints son to
be ruler:. Josephus I. 3. 4. 87.
Josephus I. 6. 3. 142: "He prayed
for prosperity to his other sons."
Malif, Quest: 85 made covenant
of peace. Meshalmai7ib: Calling
Noah's sons together to Shalem
the Great which is Sichem. Offer-
ings. Commanded them to ob-
serve the laws pleasing to God,
and made them take an oath.
Placed Shem higher than Japhet,
and Japhet higher than Ham.



235

flocks and with everything which they possessed, (27)
until they reached Elon Moreh, the place of the first altar.
P. 77. And Abraham built up the above mentioned altar,
and he brought up sacrifices unto God, who had saved him
from the hand of the Egyptians. And Abraham and Lot
dwelt in the land of Canaan one year.

Chapter VII. [Abraham and Battle of Kings.]

(2) In the month of Nisan Abraham came from Haran,
and in the month of lyar he went down to Egypt, (3) and
in the month of Nisan Lot separated himself from him
and dwelt in Sodom one year.

(i) It came to pass in those days that Amrafel ruled
in the land of Shinear. (4) In that same year in which Lot
dwelt in Sodom, the above mentioned Turts went from
Hebron to the land of Shinear to Amrafel and to Kedar
Laomer, and he foretold to them that they would kill many
people. P. 78. And he told them what would happen to
them in the later days. (5) And Kedar Laomer knew
Abraham on whom be peace and he did not turn to
listen to the saying of the wizards, (6) but he began to
kill everyone who stood before him, and he slew the inha-
bitants and captured the town called Kadosh ; (7) and they
were the last of the kings over that country from the
children of Ham.

And it came to pass that Amrafel, King of Shinear,
Arioch, King of Elasar, Kedar Laomer, King of Elam,
and Tidal, King of Goym, had imposed tribute upon Bera,
King of Sodom and with Birsah, King of Gomorrah,
Shinab, King of Admah, und Shemeber, King of Zeboim
and the King of Bela, (the same is Zoar). P. 79. And these
four kings used to send tribute and gifts to Amrafel
and unto the kings who were with him, for twelve years,
and in the thirteenth year, they left off and did not send
anything, and in the fourteenth year came Kedar Laomer
and those who were with him, to wage war against them.



236



35- And Shem sent also to Elam, Ashur, Lud,
Aram, and Arpachshad and they came and built
Niniveh and Calah, Rehoboth Ir, and Resen which
is the big town.

36. And the day drew near for Noah to die, so
he sent and called Shem, Ham and Japhet, and they
came to him to Shalem the Great and built an altar
and they brought upon it thankofferings.

37. And he completed his division and gave ta
Shem six and to Japhet six, and he made Shem
greater than Japhet.

38. And Noah commanded them the keeping of
peace and died. And his children carried him to
Eyul Mth which is Hebron and they buried him
in Eyul Mth and each one returned to his place.

Chapter V [Nimrod.]

i. And they gathered themselves in Babel
when they journied from the East and they found



JubileesVII. 20. Urim veTumim
Noah blessing his children on
the 1 4th day of the month.
Jubilees X. 14: Shem beloved by
Noah. Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer
Ch. 42: blesses his sons, exp.ecially
Shem all the pure descend from
him.

(35) Cf. Gen. X, 12 for all
these names.



May also be trans-
lated "and he took leave." cf.
however Introduction to Sibyl-
line parallel; in the Pitron the
passage is left unexplained Mesh-
alma I72a: Eyul Mth. which the
cave of Machpelah. Malif.
Q. 85: Only Hebron and Cave



of Machpelah mentioned.
Schatzhohle p. 9: Burial of Noah
exactly like burial of Adam ibid,
pp. 26 27. Noah's death and
Shem's mission. B. of Beech-
20 p. 33: Noah died on Wednes.
day, Nisan 2nd, second hour of
the day. Shem embalmed him, his
sons buried him, and mourned
over him 40 days. Armen. Adam-
schr. p. 40: Noah buried in a place
called Nahidzewan.

Ch. V.

cf . Genesis XI, 2. 4. differs from;
Samaritan Targum ad. loc. (i) The
story of Nimrod as giant, the
birth of Abraham, the wars of the
nations have been fully discussed!



237

And there was war between them (8) and they took Lot
captive and all his possessions, he who was the son of the
brother of Abraham. And Lot sent and told his uncle
Abraham what had happened to him. (9) And 'Aniram
and Eshkol and Mamre P. 80. were the confederates of
Abraham, (10) and he told them what had happened to
Lot, his brother's son, and he asked them to go with him
to Sodom and they complied with his request and they,
the above mentioned, went to war with him; (n) and
when Kedar Laomer reached the kings of the Amorites,
he waged war with them and defeated them ,and he carried
them off captive, and with them he also took Nahor, the
brother of Abraham. (12) Then he, (Nahor) sent mes-
sengers to tell his brother Abraham what had happened
to him. (14) It was then the eve of the incoming Sabbath.
So he, (Abraham) and the men who were with him, slept
the Sabbath night in Dumh which is Tbris, (15) and at
the going out of the Sabbath after the setting of the sun
P. 81. on the night of the first day (Sunday), Abraham
went out to the palmgrove ; and on the second (Monda) he
reached them before the setting of the sun. And he found
them encamped in the valley of Hobah (16) and this
happened on the twenty second day of the month of Elul,
and on the first of the month (new moon) in the valley
of Hobah which is on the left side of Damascus ; and the
proof of it is the statement that the time when Abraham
reached them was after the setting of the sun and "he
smote them in the night," and he returned all the spoil
and he returned also Lot his brother, and his goods, which
is found in Gen. 14, 15, where it says, "he divided against
them by night, he and his servants, and he smote them,
P. 82. and he pursued them until after Hobah, which
is the left side of Damascus." (17) And on the fifth of the
lunar month he went up to Shalem the Great, and there
came out to honour him, for they were frightened of him,
the King of Sodom and King Nahor, and they came be-



2 3 8



a plain in the land of Shinear and they dwelt
there.

2. And it was like [the plain of Sichem and a
mountain like] Mount Garizim.

3. And they said one to the other who beheld
the land: "Let us go up here and let us build a high
building so that we may not be scattered abroad
upon the face of the earth."

4. And they built a tower on top of the hill, and
they placed upon it a lamp and the light of it
could be seen from the four sides.

5. And they called it Sham and that is the word
which is said "and let us make a Sham."

6. And He put an end to their building and the
building was shattered and the children of man
were scattered abroad upon the face of the earth.

7 . And none did know the language of his neighbour.

8. And then was the beginning of wars which
were fought [seven] for death and one for life.



I am giving here therefore a few
additional notes with reference
to some passages not touched
upon in the Introd. and the par-
allels from the Samaritan lite-
rature. I must mention at the
same time that Meshalma agrees
entirely with the Asatir. Malif.
Q. 86. Koran Sure 26. 129. Refer-
ence to Nimrod. Sure n. 62.

(4) Nimrod equal to Amrafel
(Introduction) T. B. Erubim f.
SSaYashar XI. 6ff.

(5) Identifies the word Dttf
(Gen. XI. 4) which he reads
Eta, with the lighthouse, as other-
wise to make oneself a name would
not prevent people from being



scattered. The P. T. interprets it
as Idol which was to fight for
them against God. Tower DB>
translated as "lighthouse" already
in Samaritan Targum to Gen.XI 4.
Arabic "minaret" has the
same original meaning "lit-up
Tower."

(6) Meshalma ijgb: "And God
sent against them storms of wind
and water." Sibylline Oracles
III. 98 103. Quoted by Josephus
Antiq. I. 4. 3 (118). VIII. 8 f f .
Jubilees : Play on the name Peleg.
X. 26. Overthrown by mighty
wind.

(8 9) DD^Ii beginning or starting
point, cf . DIID^J the starting point



239

fore him to Shalem the Great. And King Nahor had made
a league with them, (18) and when they saw the might of
Abraham on whom be peace then they bent the knee
and prostrated themselves before him, and they praised
the high God. And someone among them, told what God
had done to Pharaoh for the sake of Sarah and that they
had seen him (Abraham) pray to the one and only God,
and that he had pursued the mightiest of kings with three
hundred men. P. 83. And then they recognised the truth
that there was no man who could have power over him and
that his God was greater than all the others. So they
went forth to meet and greet him, (19) and the first who
started was Melchizedek, the king of Shalem; and he
brought out unto him bread and wine and he blessed him
for all which he had done to them and for all his mercies
and lovingkindness, for he had returned unto him all the
captivity and vanquished his enemies and he gave him a tithe
of everything. And Abraham refused to take anything from
him (20) and said unto him, "Give me the souls and take
the goods to thyself." P. 84. (21) And Abraham said unto
the king of Sodom, "I consider all the goods of Sodom
like ban, and for that reason I cannot take anything
from a thread to a shoelatchet. Save only those who have
gone with me, Aneram, Eshkol and Mamre, let them take
their portion."

(22) And it came to pass in the month of Nisan that
the angel of the Lord appeared unto Abraham and told
him four things, and that was in the dream of the night.
The first thing which he told him was, "I am thy shield
and thy reward is exceeding great." (23) The second
message was when he took him outside and said to him,
P. 85. "Behold! Look now toward heaven, and tell the
stars, if thou be able to tell them." And he said unto him,
"So shall thy seed be." The third was that He counted
it to him for righteousness, and He told him that he was one
of those who will in future inhabit the Garden Eden. And



240



9. And these are the first to start wars which led
to their death, viz: Lehadim, Eynamim, Laha-
bim, Nafthim, Patrosim, Kaftorim, Kaslhim.

10. And they placed above them to be the head
over them the first born of Lehadim whose name
was Gitt and they were called by his name Gibtai.

11. And the men of the Philistines came out and
made the first war upon the Canaanites and the
Ztotai. And they took away the kingdom from
Nimrod. And the Philistines ruled from Egypt to
the river of Kush.



of the holy days in the hymn
for the Day of Atonement, Cow-
ley p. 634. (probably fourteenth
Century.) which means: wars
which led to the complete des-
truction of seven and survi-
val of one. See Introduction
These obscure verses may mean
that the "seven" were the seven
nations descending from Canaan,
who were to be destroyed by
Joshua, and the "one for the
living" being the Israelites. Some-
thing to this effect may be gathered
from Meshalma, fol. I74b, who
dilates on this genealogical portion
in the Bible. Altogether the whole
passage seems to be very corrupt,
and to contain vague reminiscences
of wars, traces of which are found in
Methodius. Sibylline Oracles, III,
152 ff., etc., see Introd. and
Gruppe. Die Griechischen Cnlte
and Mythen etc. Leipzig 1887,
I. 679/80. Josephus Antiq. I. 62.
136. 137 gives eight children of
whom seven have disappeared
and one is retained. The whole
passage seems to have preserved
a similar tradition. Jubilees XI.



2: "The sons of Noah began
to war on each other." Fully
elaborated. Beginning of wars;
Ethiop. Adam Malan p. 173.
Yashar XI, 9: War of children
of Ham. Koran Sure 41. 15:
46. 23 ff. Total destruction of these
generations. See Geiger, Moham-
med p. 116. About the war of
nations see also Methodius Ch.
III. IV. in Sackur (Sibyll. Texte)
p. 20 ff.



(10) iKBSX i. e. Egyptians. Jo-
sephus I. 6. 2.130 gives a pecu-
liar description of the countries
occupied by Ham. Schatzhohle
p. 30: mentions the first king of
Egypt calls him Puntos and con-
nects him with Nimrod as Asatir.
Yuhasin Ch. V: The Pharaoh in
the time of Abraham was called
Tutis.

(11) See V. 14. Josephus I.
6. 2. 131 tells about the reign
of Chus. Clements Recognitions
I. 31: Ham attacking Shem and
driving him to the east. Kebra
Ch.g and 12. Methodius Ch. Ill
and IV, p. 65 ff.



241

the fourth was, (Gen. 15. 7) "And he said unto him, I am
the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees,
to give thee this land to inherit it." And all this great
honour was given to our master Abraham because of the
strength and greatness of his faith and because of the
excellence of his merit and because of his obedience to
the command of the Lord, exalted be He !

The first elements of faith are fear, merit and repentance ;
and it says in the book Asatir, (24) "The first principles of
faith are fear P. 86. merit and repentance." (25) And all this
happened to our father Abraham in one year in twenty-
two days. (26) And when the Lord spake unto him these
words, he was ninety and nine years old, before the cir-
cumcision. And in that year He commanded him to cir-
cumcise himself and made with him a covenant of circum-
cision and said unto him, (Gen. 17. 14.) "And the uncir-
cumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his
foreskin on the eighth day, that soul shall be cut off." (27)
And the making of the covenant took place on the Sab-
bath ; and on the fifth day of that week came to him the
three men. P. 87. One of them gave him the message about
Isaac and said unto him, (Gen. 18. 10.) "And he said,
I will certainly return unto thee when the season cometh
round; and lo, Sarah, thy wife, shall have a son. And
thou shalt call his name Isaac." And the two men who
were with him, were for the destruction of Sodom and
Gomorrah, and after the one who had delivered the
message to our master Abraham about Isaac had gone
away, the two men who remained went to the cities of
Sodom and Gomorrah, and slept in the house of Lot.
(28) And on that day Sodom and Gomorrah were
burned and the Lord brought down from Heaven
upon them brimstone and fire. And the Lord overthrew
these cities and all the plain and the inhabitants of the
cities, and Lot was saved P. 88. and his wife and two
daughters.

Asatir. 16



242



12. And Nimrod came and he encamped against
them (i. e. Gitt), and he asked of them (i. e.
Joktanites) to help against Egypt.

13. And the children of Joktan started and turned
away and went out and they dwelt from Mesha unto
Sifra unto Tmnta, a country called the towns of
Yemen.

14. And Gitt the head of Egypt died and Nim-
rod returned to Ashur and ruled there.

15. And when he became king there he made war
with Nahor.

1 6. And he did unto Arpachshad just as Pharaoh
did afterwards to the Hebrews, for he saw in the
Book of Signs that there would come from Arpach-
shad a mighty man who would smite all the worship-
pers and destroy all the idols.



(12) This passage is evidently
corrupt.

(13) Meshalma f. ijya: Chil-
dren of Joktan. They were living
in a country called Msh, from the
name Msa, son of Aram until
it reaches Sichem, the blessed
mountain, and this Har Kedem,
which is an appellation for Mt.
Garizim, in accordance with the
statement in Gen. X. 30. For
Sifra is Sichem. Josephus Antiq.
I. 6. 3. 147: "from Cophen,
an Indian river." ni&Fl Gen.
XXXVIII, 12. The author of the
Asatir identified the place with
Yemen: Meshalma says: "This
seems to be the Temanya built
by Noah and his three sons or
his four sons and their wives,
being called the Town of Eight
in memory of the 4 pairs which



came out of the Ark." This expla-
nation is evidently the result of
popular etymology.

(15) Meshalma f. i82b: men-
tions only the wars of Nimrod with
Nahor after thebirth ofTerah,for
the birth of Arpachshad, he since
knew that a man would arise from
among them who would destroy the
idols. Palestinian Targum to Ge-
nesis X. 1 1 : Nimrodf ightingAshur.

(16) Legends concerning Abra-
ham see Jerahmeel ch. XXXIII
XXXV and Introd., p. LXXVIII,
Gaster, Exempla Ha, p. 185 where
the whole literature is given.
Malif. Q. 88: Wizards foretelling
thebirth ofAbraham.Chs.of Rabbi
Eliazer. ch. XXVI: Magicians
seek to kill Abraham at birth.
Schatzhohlep.3: Nimrodtaughtby
Jonithon knowledge of the oracle.



245

(29) And it came to pass after the lapse of one year that
our master Isaac was born on the Sabbath. And in all
probability he was born in the seventh month on the
Sabbath. This is proved from the statement in the Asatir,
"Listen to the commandments concerning the day of Sab-
bath, for the announcement of the men they heard on the
fifth day, (on Thursday) on the sixth day (Friday) Sodom was
burned, and on the seventh day (Sabbath) Isaac was born."

Chapter VIII. [Birth of Moses.]
(i) And it came to pass after the death of our master
Abraham on whom be peace that Ishmael reigned as
king for twenty seven years. (2) And all the children of
Ishmael, P. 89. who are of the seed of his first born,
Nebut, ruled one year in IshmaeFs lifetime (3) and for
thirty years after his death; (and they ruled) from the
river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates. And
they built Bakh; (4) and therefore it is said in Genesis
25. 1 8, "As thou goest toward Assyria: he abode in the
presence of all his brethren."

(5) And it came to pass in those days that Elifaz came
and waged war against the children of Ishmael ; and when
Elifaz came and waged war with the children of Ish-
mael, they brought forth the documents (6) and they
saw in them the division into which Noah had divided the
land, and they found that Esau and Ishmael were placed
together, and that the sons of Mafralat joined the children
of Ishmael P. 90 (7) That is the word which is said,
"And he (Ishmael) shall be an associate of Edom" (Gen.
16. 16.) and "Esau is Edom." And the children of
Adah and Aholibamah of Esau, who were from the
Canaanites, (8) went and ruled over them with uplifted
hands, and Bela, the son of Joktan and Jobab of the sons
of Ketura gathered themselves together and went out of
the way of Abraham, they and all the children of Ishmael
and Esau.

16*



244



17. And he gathered all the wise men that were
among Japhet and Ham, and he asked them that
they should inform him when this one would be born.

1 8. [So they told him] within forty days the mother
will be pregnant with him.

19. And Nimrod commanded that the sons of
Arpachshad should not be allowed to approach
their wives for forty days.

20. And he commanded that they should im-
prison the men in one place and the women in
another place.

21. And after thirty days a sign was seen in the
land of Shinear, a pillar of fire.

22. And all the men were frightened with a great
fear and they prayed in the houses of worship and
they dwelt outside in the open field for three days
and three nights.

23. And Terah went and approached his wife.

24. And when he had approached her, the sign
was removed and they said : "The child will be born."



(21) Malif. Q. 89. In Yashar
VIII. 2: the sign seen was a star
swallowing other stars. Bahya
Commentary to Pentateuch Ven-
ice -1566 f. 22a. Abraham born in
Aram, thrown into the furnace by
Nimrod. Another version men-
tioned there in the name of Mai-
monides' Guide of the Perplexed,
according to which Abraham was
driven away by Nimrod.

(23) Mother of Abraham Amtlai
daughter of Krubo; T. B. Baba
Bathra (fol. 91). Algazi ibid.:
Name of Terah's wife Edna
daughter of Abrnhu. In Sama-



ritan Book of Joshua, reference to
Terah (ch. XXII) as idol-worship-
per missing, thus proving very old
Samaritan tradition (cf. my ed-
ition of the Sam. Arabic Book of
Joshua p. 17). Koran 6. 74.
74. 19. 42 57: agrees more with
Samaritan, inasmuch as neither
consider Terah idolator. Contrary,
to Jewish tradition. Jubilees XII.
I 14: Terah idol-worshipper.
Kebra Chs. 12 and 13: Terah.
idolator. Maimonides' "Holy
Names" (ed.Gaster in Debirvol. I.,
Berlin) . Nahor and his father idol-
worshippers.



245

And it came to pass after these words that Abraham
heard that the sons of Ashur and Joktan had grown very
mighty; then he was sorely frightened at the wickedness
of their deeds before the Lord, and he feared lest out of
the wickedness some trouble might arise to him. And this
is proved P. 91. from his saying in the Asatir. (9) "After
these words Abraham heard that the children of Ashur
and Joktan had grown very mighty and he feared a great
fear." And he (the author of the Asatir) refers to this after
his mentioning Elifaz, the son of Esau, and after he had
mentioned Mahalat and the children of Adah and Aholi-
bamah; and .we see that he mentions it after the death
of Abraham, saying, "And these are the children of
Mahalat, Adah and Aholibamah." And know that Abra-
ham is mentioned again when he refers to the kings of
Moab where he first mentioned the two, Bela and Jobab,
"and then Abraham heard it." This proves thereby that
these had been born during the lifetime of Abraham on
whom be peace and as the children of Ashur were the
sons of Shem and those of Joktan. the sons of Eber, they
were thus the descendants of Shem and Eber, but that
they had strayed from the way of life and therefore -he
was seized with fear. And about Jobab, it says in the
book Asatir, that he came of the sons of Keturah, but God
alone knows whether that tradition is correct, for it is
difficult to prove seeing that Jobab was the son of Joktan,
the son of Eber, the son of Shelah. And this is seen from
Genesis 10. 20 ff. and whoever looks there will be able to as-
certain the truth of this statement. Butthe Lord alone knows.
And Husham was (10) from Moab P. 93. and Shamlah from
'Elam and Shaul from the sons of Nahor, Baal (i i) Hanan
from 'Elam, Hadad from the children of Elifaz, who lived
in Beth Pau, and the name of his wife was Mitabel,
daughter of Matred from Jefet Kittin. These are the
genealogies of the kings who reigned in the land of Edom
before a king was appointed over the children of Israel.



246



25. And Nimrod commanded that each man
should return to his place.

26. And after that Abraham was born with
mighty glory.

27. And Nimrod took him and threw him into the
fire because he has said "The world has a God."

28. And when Haran was wroth with Abraham
and said he was a wizard the fire came out and
consumed him "and Haran died in the presence of
his father Terah in Ur Kasdim." After seven
years he (Nimrod) died.

Chapter VI. [Abraham in Egypt.]

i. With him came to an end the Kingdom of
Ham: with a Nimrod it began and with a Nimrod
it came to an end.



(26) Malif.Q.go. Arabic Jewish
parallel in the Geniza fragment.
My Cod. 1328. f. 17 ff., is ascribed
to Kab el Akhbar, probably due
to Samaritan influences.

(27) Malif. Q. 90 idem. Pal-
estinian Targum to Genesis XI,
28: Nimrod threw Abraham into
the fire because Abraham refused
to worship Nimrod's gods. The
fire did not burn. Josephus I. 7.
I. 155: Abraham the first to pro-
claim one God.

(28) Meshalmaf.i83b: describes
Haran as an idol-worshipper
acting against the teaching of his
father. He merely says "God
destroyed him." PalestinianTar-
gum to Gen. XI. 28: Fire from
Heaven destroys Haran, who is
believed to be a wizard, and there-
by protected Abraham from the
fire. Jubilees Ch. XII. 14:



Haran dies trying to save idols
from fire. Gen. Rabba to
Gen. ii. 28. Horowitz Likute
Agadot p. 40. Jerahmeel 35. I.
Different account of Haran's de-
ath. Yashar XI I. 26: Haran dies in
furnace. Clement's Recognitions
1. 30: Nimrod worshipping fire.
Further literature concerning
early legends of Abraham see
G. H. Box Apocalyse of Abraham
(London 1919, p. 88 ff.) Accord-
ing to Ephraim Syrus and other
Syriac writers, Haran dies in the
Temple of Idols burned by
Abraham; See Griinbaum, Neue
Beitr. 94.

Ch. VI.

( i) Story of Abraham and his des-
cent to Egypt, the close parallelism
with Eupolemos and partly with
Josephus has been treated fully



247

(12) When Jacob our master was eighty years old he
went down to Haran, (13) and when our master Joseph
on whom be peace was seventeen years and eight months
he went down to Egypt. P. 94. (14) The Pharaoh who
was in the time of our master Joseph was of the seed of
Ishmael, and the Pharaoh who was in the time of our
master Moses was of the seed of Jefet Kittin. In his
days Moses was born; and it is said about him in the
Asatir. "And the slave Rodanim became Pharaoh." (15)
And these are the generations of Pharaoh, the son of Gutis,
the son of Atiss, the son Rbtt, the son of Gutsis, the son
of Rims, the son of Kittin, the son of Javan, (16) who
had learned in the Book of Signs in the town of Babel
the Great. And he came out of Sion and he wandered to
Nineveh. (17) And when our master Joseph on whom
be peace was thirty years old, he became king over the
land of Egypt. And he was second Pharaoh, P. 95. besides
the first mentioned above, and he had gone to Nineveh
(18) and had stayed there three years and one month; and
after that he went to Damascus and to Kruzh, that is the
town of Kush. And he stayed there sixty three years. (19)
And Joseph died and all his brothers and all the men of
his generation and the kingdom of Ishmael was changed ;
as it is said in the Book Asatir, (20) "And the kingdom of
Ishmael was changed and Amalek became powerful and
he ruled over the land of Egypt." (21) And when the second
Pharaoh who was in Nineveh, heard of the death of the
king of Egypt and that Amalek had gained possession of
it, he came down with evil [intent] and ruled over it one
year. And he stayed P. 96. and held Egypt by force and
there was tribulation in its midst, (22) and the destruction
lasted three years. And the king of Egypt died, (23) and
there came another king in the land of Egypt and his
name was Pharaoh III. And he gathered a large force
of Ktpai and he reigned sixty years. And thus the number
of kings who ruled over Egypt in the time from Joseph



248



2. And from the first Nimrod to the second Nim-
rod there were one thousand and twenty years.

3. The first Nimrod was from Kush and the
second Nimrod was from the Kaftorim.

4. And when Nimrod had died Terah started to go
into the land of Canaan to establish his kingdom.

5. His son Nahor dwelt with Kedar Laomer and
Tidal king of Goyim and they robbed him of his
kingdom.

6. And Kedar Laomer went on plundering and
they sent and imprisoned Terah in Haran.

7. Then Abraham came out to meet Kedar Laomer
in Ur Kasdim.

8. There God called him and he came to the
land of Canaan and they dwelt in the plain of
Glory and he built up the altar of Adam and Noah.

9. And afterwards he went up Mount Garizim to
the east of Bethel.



in the Introd. pp. 32 39; 69 70.
M eshalma f . 1 93 b ff . gives the story
in full in accordance with the Asatir.
Methodius Ch. 3 (Sackur p. 65).

(2) In Eupolemos we find Behis
twice: Belus-Nimrod, and this Bel
who is then identical with in Bel-
shazzar. This explains also the
identification of Amrafel, with
Nimrod in P. T. I (Gen. XIV. i)
last syllable being read Bel (Pel)
hence Nimrod see Introd. p. 29.

(4) Josephus 1.7.2. 159 in the
name of Nicolaus of Damascus,
says, "Abraham ruled at Da-
mascus;" so also from Hekataus
ibid. Abraham born in JWH5 and
driven out from Babylon. Bahya
Commentary, end of section Noah



(ed. Venice 1566, fol. 22. col. 2)
quoted from Maimonides' Moreh
Nebuhim.

(5) Algazi ibid.: Name of
Nahor's wife Isgb, daughter of
Ishob.

(7) Josephus Antiq. I. 9. I. 174:
"Offspring of the Giants." Eupo-
lemos : Giants scattered throughout
the land.

(8) See above Ch. I. 7: compare
lit. Schatzhohle p. 34: "When he
returned from the battle of Kings,
then God called him, and he went
up to the Mount of Jabos." This
evidently confused from the pas-
sage here since Kedar Laomer
appears here and later on in both
encounters with Abraham.



249

to Moses, [until the one] who was drowned in the Sea of
Reeds was four. For from the time when our master
Joseph died unto the day when Moses the messenger was
born sixty three years had elapsed. This is the absolute
truth and there is no difference of opinion about it. P. 97.
On the day when our Master returned from Midian to
the land of Egypt, he was eighty years old, so the sum total
of these years is one hundred and forty three. The Pharaoh
in whose time our Master Moses was born, is the one who
ruled for sixty years, and of him it is said, "and he died."

And the children of Israel multiplied and became very
powerful. The women used at that time to give birth
to two or three children at once: and God knows. And
Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying. "All the male
children ye shall throw into the river." P. 98. And the men
and women were frightened of him, for the people of
Pharaoh used to throw all the male children that were
born into the river. And the woman whose child was thrown
into the river killed herself after it. And the children of
Israel kept to their faith and not one of their sons was
thrown into the water, for the women of Israel used to
pray to Him who knows the feelings of the heart. When
they knew that the time had come when they should give
birth to children, they used to go out into the field and
give birth there, and then they asked those who stood by as
witnesses, to which sex the child belonged, and when it
happened to be a male, they left it in the field in the charge
of the Creator. And the Lord, P. 99. may He be exalted,
made them suck honey and milk from the flint of the rock
according to His statement in His mighty writ, "And he
suckled him with honey from the rock and fatness from
the flinty rock." (Deut. 32.13.) When it was a girl, the
mother brought it home. And the command, therefore,
to throw the male children into the river became a source
of destruction to his own people, the Egyptians.

For the continuation of this chapter see XII, 5.



250



10. And then he started going down to Egypt.

11. And when he reached the boundaries of
Egypt, shakings seized all the idols and trembling
fell upon all the dwellers in the houses of
worship.

12. For Abraham dwelt in Rifon (field?) close
to Tks (border ?) of Egypt which is called Alrif, and
they came to a palmgrove in the valley.

13. And there they (the Egyptians) saw Sarah
and the women praised her to their husbands and



(n) Meshalma 196 b: says
"When Abraham reached the
border of Egypt a sign was seen in
all the places and those who lived
in that generation were seized
with a great fear, and it is said
that the place is known to this
very day." Same happened when
Abraham came to Nimrod; See
Introd. p. 25. Fall of idols: Me-
shalmaf. I97b. IntheHebrewRom-
ance of Abraham by Eliah de Vi-
das in Shebet Musar (Amsterdam
1732) fol. I93a the idols fall
down when Abraham proclaims
his faith before Nimrod. This is
precisely the same situation as
found in the Asatir. The falling
of idols when Jesus reached
Egypt: Hofman, Leben Jesu nach
den Apocryphen, Leipzig 1851,
p. 148. Hennecke, Handbuch der
N.T. Apokryphen, Tubingen 1914
p. 101 : refers to Ps. Malthaus,
and mentions generally Eusebius,
Athanasius,Sozomenius. Evang.
inf. Arab. Ch. X. Historia de
nativitate Mariae Cap. 22 24.

(12) Kaldebak occurs here and
VII. 14: The Arabic paraphrast
and the Pitron do not explain the
meaning of it. It may be an abre-



viation for Hakal (or grove) de Bi-
kah = a plantation in the valley, and
I translated it accordingly. In the
P.T. Deutr. 1. 7 "Kaldohi" is men-
tioned as a place not far from Leb-
anon. But no explanation is forth-
coming for this term. Meshal-
ma I96b, writes: "And Abraham
dwelt in a place called "the Field
of Tfo fflEtfl" near prB (i. e. the
Nile) which is said to be known to
this very day." He evidently has
taken the word literally ^p3
*?prO especially as n and p are
not differentiated in Samaritan
pronunciation: then the word
would mean "field" nw-pin is
taken in this meaning: "to seize,"
"to capture." I have taken it to
stand for njf p2 for the same reason
since they are not differentiated in
the pronunciation.The Samaritans
would read these two words: b'al
edbaa: see the pronunciation of
nVl "?lp as oliya in the transliterat-
ed specimen to Ch. XI. 1 7. Sepher
HayasharXV. 2: "He dwelt at the
river of Egypt some time." Pal.
Targ. to Gen. XII. n: Abraham
came to the borders of Egypt and
they came to the river.

(13) Meshalma ig6b idem. Jo-



Chapter IX. [Moses.]

Blessed by He, who does what He wills and grants
salvation! (i) And by the power of the Righteous
Judge, there was born the mighty prophet may he be
remembered for good for ever our Master Moses, upon
whom be peace. And his birth was in the month of
Nisan, on the fifteenth day thereof, P. 100. on the Sab-
bath. And his mother hid him for three months, 71
days, for it is said in the Asatir, (2) that on the fifteenth
day of Sivan, he was thrown into the river. And when
they threw the Prince of Creatures, Moses, into the river,
the water stopped still by the power of God my He be
exalted and its flow abated beyond measure, and the
waters began to diminish. (3) And the women of Egypt
came out to see the diminution of the river of Egypt,
for that was at the time when the river used to swell. (4)
And among the women who went down to see the river,
was the P. 101. daughter of Pharaoh. And with every day
that passed the waters grew less, according to the state-
ment in the Asatir, (5) "And every day that passed, the
waters grew less." And the child was in that ark which
was daubed over with slime and pitch, floating by the
border of the river ; and when the waters of the river stopped
from flowing below the normal, (6) then all the wizards
and magicians gathered themselves together and took
counsel together; and they searched and they examined
and they discussed and disputed, and sought with their
sorcery for the reason of the stopping of the waters of the
river. (7) And among them was a magician whose name
was Plti, and he looked into and searched and he con-
sulted the Book of Signs, P. 102. for he was the chief
of them. And he became dumbfounded and lifted up his
head and said, "The child of which we said before, that
his death would be through water, his ark is now in the
Sea of Reeds." He did not say in the sea of the river,



252



the men to Pharaoh and she was taken to the
house of Pharaoh. And to Abraham he did good
for her sake.

14. And when Sarah was staying in the palace of
Pharaoh, many wonders were seen.

15. And the princes began to be plagued pri-
vily and openly and Pharaoh became like a stone
as one who has been smitten by sorcery.

1 6. And they said "Let there not be left out any
magician or sorcerer."

17. And all the magicians and soothsayers
gathered together and they were in great tribulation.

1 8. And there was amongthem a sorcerer calledTurts
who had learned the Book of Signs in Hanohiah.

19. And he was wroth and said "He who worships
the God of the whole world is here, and all this
distress is for his sake."



sephus I. 8. i. 163: fame of his
wife's beauty was talked of."

(14) From here Ps. Eupolemos
agrees in the main. See Introd.
Kebra Ch. 82: An angel pursu-
ing Pharaoh.

(15) Stone: Meshalma adds:
"And the men were like a stone
and the women were like a wall
(f. I96b) and the whole kingdom
suffered likewise and no man
could approach his wife and their
faces were troubled."

(16) Seder Hadorot p. 32:
A wizard called Anoki interpret-
ing a dream to Nimrod regard-
ing Abraham.

(17) Meshalma igyb: "And
Pharaoh called all the sooth-
sayers, and he asked them for



the truth about it, and they could
not answer him. And they said,
"We have no power over this,
nor do we know any way to re-
move it," and then all the sooth-
sayers gathered together." Jose-
phus Antiq. I. 8. I. 164: He en-
quired from the priests." Eupole-
mos Eus. Prep. Evang. IX. 17:
"The priests whom he con-
sulted, etc." see Introduction.

(18) Asatir alone and Meshalma
have the name of the soothsayer.
Meshalma I96b: "Turss" from
the House of Enoch."

(19) Meshalma fol. 1 97 a: "And
they asked him about this hap-
pening and he said, "Woe unto
you for what you have done to
your souls, for this plague has



253

he only said, "the child is there, and the ark is now
among the reeds." And that was through a vision from
God may He be exalted for the sea is greater than the
river, and when Plti said, "he is among the reeds,"
they said, "No doubt the child has died." And for this
reason, they did not search for it. They neither went nor
looked for the ark in which he was. And that was a great
miracle may the Lord be praised, the All-Powerful, the
High One, P. 103. who does what He wills and brings
deliverance! (8) And when the daughter of Pharaoh
saw the ark in the midst of the sea, (9) she sent her
maid who brought her the ark. And then she opened
it and saw in it a beautiful, holy child, and the sore
disease which was on her disappeared and she was filled
with desire for its holy soul; and the child was crying
inside the ark. And the daughter of Pharaoh took pity
on it, (10) and she conceived for it an exceeding great
love. And she said, "This is one of the children of the
Hebrews." And she commanded her servants that no one
was to speak to anyone about the child, P. 104. and all
her maids and servants who stood about and saw the
child with her, swore it unto her.

(i i) And the Mistress Miriam, the sister of our Master
Moses stood afar off to see what would happen to it at the
hand of the stranger. And when she saw that the daughter
of Pharaoh had taken it and loved it and had pity on it, she
went quickly and stood before her and said, "Shall I go and
call for thee a Jewish woman to suckle the child?" (12)
And the daughter of Pharaoh said unto her, "Go!" And
the young woman went and called the mother of the child.
(13) And the daughter of Pharaoh said unto her, "Take
this child and suckle it for me and I will give thee thy
wages." And the woman took the child and suckled it. And
the child grew up and was weaned, and she brought it to
the daughter of Pharaoh, who paid her her wages, P. 105.
as it is seen in the Holy Law in the second book (Exod. II.



254



20. And when Abraham heard mention of the
God of the whole world, then he quickly turned with
prayers as towards .heaven.

21. Then they were freed (from the plague) and
the whole palace was lit up by the sight of the
glory of the face of Sarah and there (fell) upon
them great fear.

22. Then it became known that Sarah was the
wife of Abraham, and Pharaoh's tongue was set
free and he began to speak and Abraham proclaimed
and prayed for the loosening of the bonds.

23. And this is the first proclamation (of faith)
for Abraham said: "O, Lord! God of heaven and
Earth, all merciful, be merciful."

24. And the house(hold) of Pharaoh began to be
healed and all the houses of worship were destroyed
and the objects of worship in them fell down and
could not be raised up.

25. And the magician Turfs went up from there
to Hebron.

26. And Pharaoh appointed men, and he sent
him (Abraham) away and his wife and Lot who
was with him.



been sent by God upon you by
your wrongdoing to that man
who has come to dwell here with
his wife. And he worships the God
of Heaven and Earth who cannot
be seen, and He is a shield unto
him and helps him." And there-
by made known that Sarah was
his wife."

(21) Josephus I. 8. i. 165: "he
then out of fear, asked . . ."



(24) This proclamation of
God as the only ruler of Heav-
en and earth was afterwards
interpreted as meaning that Abra-
ham taught the knowledge of the
ruler and of the rule (science,
astronomy etc.) of heaven and
earth. So Eupolemus Artapanors,
Josephus, etc. See Introd.

(24) see v. ii.

(25) See above VI. 18.



255

v. 9) And after he was brought to the daughter of Pha-
raoh, she called his name Moses, and she said, "He has
been saved and drawn out of the water and the fire."

As we have mentioned before, he was born on the fif-
teenth day of Nisan, on the Sabbath. And on the Sab-
bath, the fifteenth day of Sivan, he was thrown into the
water, and he was taken out of the water also on the same
Sabbath in the fifth hour.

(14) And Moses grew up in the house of the enemy, in
strength honour and might, until he grew to manhood.
P. 1 06. And he was with the governors who were ap-
pointed overseers over the children of Israel, and he went
out in those days and looked on their burden, (i $) And he
saw an Egyptian smiting a Hebrew of his kinsmen. And
he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that
there was. no man, he smote the Egyptian and hid him
in the sand, (16) And behold, on the second day,
two men of the Hebrews strove together, and he
said to him that did wrong, "Wherefore smitest thou thy
fellow ?" And the wicked man said, "Who made thee a
prince and a judge over us ? Thinkest thou to kill me as
thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday ?" And Moses feared
and said, "Surely the thing is known," for the deed
had evidently become known. P. 107. And when Pharaoh
heard of this thing, he sought to slay Moses, (i 7) But
Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh and dwelt in
the land of Midian. And he remained there sixty full
years. And he was a shepherd to Jethro, his father-
in-law. ( 1 8) And then there was great oppression against
the children of Israel and great tribulation during the
absence of the messenger in the land of Midian. And
Guts (19) the king of Egypt died, and he was the one who
was called Pharaoh. And before another king was appointed
in Egypt, the children of Israel despaired of the time
[of deliverance] (?) and they gathered themselves together.
P. 1 08. And the children of Israel sighed by reason of



256

27. And they came to the place of the first altar
and they raised it up again. And he brought
thankofferings and praise offerings.

Chapter VII. [Abraham and Battle of Kings.]

i. And Amrafel was king twelve years, and Abra-
ham and Lot tarried in the land of Canaan one year.

2. In the month of Nisan Abraham came from
Haran and in lyar he went to Egypt.

3. And in Nisan Lot separated himself from him
and dwelt in Sodom one year.

4. In that year in which they came, Turts went
from Hebron to Shinear and he told Amrafel and
Kedar Laomer that there would be much killing,
and he studied the Book of Signs and foretold to
them what to do.

5. And Kedar Laomer knew Abraham and he
would not listen to his sorceries.

6. But he started killing all the people that were
against him and he went and laid waste a town
called Kdsh.

7. And these were the last kings of the land
from the children of Ham.

8. And Lot was captured by them and he sent
for counsel to his uncle Abraham.

9. And 'Aniram, Eshkol and Mamre were those
who had made the covenant with Abraham.

10. And he said "O my brothers, let us go to
meet them in order to save them."

Ch. VII.
(6) Josephus I. 9. I. 174: "Laid waste all Syria."



257

their bondage and they cried and the cry came to God by
reason of the bondage. And God heard their groaning, and
God remembered His covenant with Abraham with Isaac
and with Jacob. And God saw the children of Israel,
and God took knowledge of them. "And God saw"
means, He saw the oppression in which they were, on
account of the Egyptians; and "God took knowledge of
them" means, "I will requite the Egyptians for all that
they have done." For the Lord knew the secret meaning
of the revelation which He had made to our master Abra-
ham, P. 109. for its fulfilment had now drawn nigh. And
that is what is said in Gen. XV. 1 3, "and they will cause them
to serve them and they will afflict them."

And it came to pass after these things that a new king
arose in Egypt and his name was Pharaoh from theKittim,
and he was 'Atirt. And this is the third king who ruled over
Egypt from the Pharaoh who had ruled in the time of Jo-
seph. (21) And it came to pass on the fifteenth day of the
third lunar month, on the fourth day, that there came our
Master Moses .the Messenger upon whom be peace -
P. no. (20) with the sheep of his father-in-law, Jethro
quite unexpectedly to the mountain of God, Horeb. And
on the fifteenth, on the selfsame day the Lord fulfilled
his covenant with the Meritorious Ones, (22) and the
staff of Adam and his clothes, namely the clothes of light,
that were upon Adam when he was in the Garden, were
given to Moses on that day. (23) And the proof of it is the
word which he spake before anything else where he
said, "and this shall be a token unto thee; this has been
given as a sign that I have sent thee." (24) And the Lord
appeared unto Moses on the third day of the month which
was a Wednesday, (25) and on the first day (Sunday),
Moses went down to Egypt. P. in. And the Lord said
unto Aaron, "Go into the wilderness to meet Moses." (26)
And he went and met him at the mountain of God, and
kissed him. And both went up to Egypt and performed

Asatir. 17



258



1 1 . For in the fourteenth year Kedar Laomer
had come and made war with the Amorites.

12. And again Nahor the brother of Abraham
then sent and informed Abraham what he (Kedar
Laomer) had done in his country in Ur of the
Chaldees.

13. And the messengers found Abraham who had
started to pursue the kings who had taken Lot
captive and they encamped in a plain (?) which is
called Tbris of Kinnereth.

14. And it was at the going out of the Sabbath
(i. e. Sunday) that Abraham came to a palmgrove
in the valley.

15. And on the second (Monday) he found them
at the rising of the moon in the valley (Emek).

1 6. And in the month of Elul on the twenty
first of the month in the valley of Hobah a place
which is now called Amr.

17. On the fifth Abraham came to Shalem the
Great and the King of Sodom and the King
Nahor came to Abraham to Shalem the Great.



(13) Tbris. This may mean a
mountain near the lake of Ge-
nezareth; for this location there
is no justification in the Bible.
See Introduction. Gen. XIV, 14.
p The S T mentions here DiOtt
instead. Pal.Targum:"Kaisarin."

(14) See note to VI. 12.

(15) Josephus Antiq. I. 10. i;
178: "The second day he drove
them in a body unto Hoba."
Evidently means the second day
of the week i. e. Monday.

(16) Fight of Abraham with the
kings takes place on the night of



Pesah (cf. Ch. I. 8) as to events
that, happened on the night of
Pesah). Pal. Targ. to Gen. XIV.
15: The fight the same night as
the smiting of the first-born.
Mehilta p. 133. Pirke de Rabbi
Eliezer Ch. 27. Genesis Rabba
et XLIII, 3. ST has VJ1KB which
is a translation of the word mean
ing pain or guilt.

(17) Josephus Antiq. 1. 10. 1. 1 77:
"He fell upon the enemy . . ."
The date given by Josephus is the
date here given for the entry in
Shalem; evidently a confusion by



259

the wonders in the sight of the children of Israel. And
the people believed. (27) On the third day, they went up
and stood before Pharaoh and told him all the words of
God; (28) on the fifth day was the miracle of the blood.
(29) In nine months, all the great and wonderful
miracles were enacted in Egypt. (30) In the sixth hour
of the night of the fifth day the children of Israel went
out of Egypt with uplifted arm. (31) On the night
of the first day they passed the dry land through the midst
P. 1 12. of the sea ; according to the words of the Asatir, the
Feast of the Pesach was the night of the fifth, for God has
said in the Holy Law, "on the morrow after the Passover
the children of Israel went out with an high hand in the
sight of all the Egyptians." And the sacrifice of the Pesach
was from the evening until the break of the first dawn. And
the festival is from the break of the first dawn to the setting
of the sun, although our master Mari:ab, in his exalted
poem, said that the feast in Egypt was on the second day,
(Monday) for he said, "Thus have they made the Passover;
then they journeyed to Rameses, and they travelled P. 113.
three days until they came. to the Sea of Reeds; and in the
night of the second day of the festival, when it was mor-
ning, they came to the sea." But according to the true trad-
ition, their entry into the Sea of Reeds was on the night
of the first day, (Sunday). For we have the remembrance
of it unto this very day, as we call it, "The night of Sun-
day," but according to the statement of our master Mar-
kab, the first day of the festival would be on the Monday
and the last day on the Sunday. But God knows. But I
believe that the statement of our master Markafr is a
true one, and may the Lord forgive every sin and trespass I
(32) And on the third day, they came to Elim and the
bitter waters were made sweet unto them. P. 114. And the
Lord showed them a bitter tree and they put twigs into
the water so that it became sweet, and this is a well
known and wonderful tree which even to this day, if put

17*



260



1 8. And when he saw Abraham he prostrated
himself and bowed down and he praised the Lord
the High God.

19. Then Melchizedek after the feasting called
upon the name of him who had granted victory
and he gave him the tithe of everything, but
he (Abraham) refused to take.

20. And then he said, "Give me the souls, and
the wealth thou mayest take."

21. And Abrahamsaidto the Kingof Sodom, "The
wealth of Sodom is considered by me as banned."
(haram)

22. And in Nisan God revealed himself to
Abraham and he spoke to him on the fourth (Wed-
nesday), and he said unto him "I am a shield
to thee," in the dream of the night.

23. And he took him outside and said "Look
at the heaven and count the stars." Great was this
event: there was none like it.

24. The principles of faith are fear, merit and
repentance.

25. All this happened in one year: but up
to the twenty-second God had not yet spoken
to him.

26. When he was ninety nine years old he accepted
(the covenant of) circumcision.



Josephus. Abraham going to
Mt. Garizim, "Mount of the Most
High one" to meet Melchizedek.
Eupolemos ; Eusebius, Prep.
Evang. Bk. 9. Ch. 17. 48icff.

(19) Meshalmaff.2i4aand2i5b:
Melchizedek offering gifts to



Abraham as the priest of the
High God.

(22) Gen. XV, i. "on thefourth."
Date here may refer to the date
of the month : it is often very diffi-
cult to distinguih between the two
dates before the 7th.



261

into bitter water, turns it sweet, (33) And on the sixth
day (Friday), which is the fifth day after the morning
of the second festival, Amalek came upon them and he
fought them, and they weakened him and they wiped out
his name from under the heavens. And the children of
Israel were victorious over him by the help of God may
He be exalted! (34) And on the third day of the third
month on the fourth day (Wednesday), the Lord called
from Mount Sinai.

(35) There are three memorable mornings of the world
and they have no equals. P. 115. (36) The first is the
morning of the first day of the creation of the world. (37)
The second is the morning of the fourth day (Wednesday)
on which was the standing (Maamad) before Mount Sinai.
And the third is the morning of the day of requital. And
know there is a proof for my explanation of these three
mornings, for on these three mornings there was neither
the sun nor the moon nor the stars, as for of all of them
that of the fourth day is proved by the Holy Law in His
word in Deut. 4. 12. "And the Lord spake unto you out
of the midst of fire : ye heard the voice of words, but ye
saw no form, only a voice." The meaning of which is, "ye
saw none of the heavenly forms." The third morning is
the Day of Judgment; on it there will be neither sun, nor
moon nor stars, for they are required only for the neces-
sities of the world, but on the Day of Judgment there is no
necessity for them. And it is also said about it in the book
Asatir, that latter day will be on the sixth day that is
proved by his statement, "the morning of the Creation on
the first, the morning of Mount Sinai on the fourth (Wednes-
day), the morning of the Day of Judgment on the sixth."

On the first day of the first month of the second year of
their going out of Egypt was the tabernacle established.
In the third month they journeyed forth from Mount Sinai.
P. 117. (39) On the fourth died the master Aaron. (40)
On the seventh month was the war between the children of



262



2 /. On the seventh his people accepted it.

28. On the sixth Sodom was burnt.

29. On the seventh Isaac was born.

Chapter VIII. [Birth of Moses.]

1. And after the death of Abraham, Ishmael
reigned twenty seven years

2. And all the children of Nebaot ruled for one
year in the lifetime of Ishmael,

3. And for thirty years after his death from the
river of Egypt to the river Euphrates; and they
built Mecca.

4. For thus it is said "As thou goest towards
Ashur before all his brethren he lay."

5. Elifas the son of Esau fought with the
children of Ishmael and they produced their



(27) In the Asatir ntfl (Gen.
XVII, 23) is taken as numerical
= 7 th, the word probably written
TH as before in connection with
the flood (IV. 10). Jubilees XIV.
20: On the first.

(28) Genesis Rabba Ch. L. Urim
ve Tumim: Sodom and Gomorrah
destroyed on the 1 7th day of the
month.

(29) Tanhuma Exod. Pekude:
Isaac born 1st Nisan. Seder
Hadorot p. 36: Isaac born on 1 5th
Nisan. Urim ve Tumim: Isaac
blessed Jacob on the aoth day of
month and Esau on 2ist. Kabasi
fol. 103: Isaac 70 years old when
taken to be sacrificed.

Ch. VIII.

(2) Yashar Ch. XXV. i6ff:
A list of the descendents of Ishmael,
with many Arabic names of tribes.



(3) Josephus I. 12. 3. 221:
"These inhabited all the coun-
tries from Euphrates to the Red
Sea, and called it Nabatene."
Gen. 25. 18. Pal.Targ.: "And they
dwelled from Hindikia (Indian
Ocean) to Palusa (Pelusiumt
which is before Egypt as thou goest
to Atur (Assyria). In Kebra Ch.
83: many countries are en-
umerated over which Ishmael
ruled. "Built Mecca." Already
known to Ptolemy as Makoraba.
Pitron has preservad the original
neading rOKS (ibid) Which they
nead Baka and took it to mean
a local name. Hence ?DB into
which it was afterwards changed.

(5) See the story of the death
of Jacob and the attempt of the
children of Esau to prevent the
burial of Jacob in Hebron. Naph-
thali ran back to Egypt and



263

Israel and the King of Arad, and he captured captivity
from them. And they, the children of Israel, returned a
second time and waged war with him, and they banned
him and everything that belonged to him.

Chapter X. [Bileam.]

(i) And in that time there was a wizard whose name
was M'artis, and his dwelling place was in the town 'Arad.
And when he heard of the children of Israel coming
to the town, he fled from there to Midian. And there was
Pe'or who was asked by the children of Moab to call
Bileam, the son of Beor, the son of Gditis, the son of
Path, P. 1 1 8. the son of 'Amingf, the son of Laban, (2)
the owner of the Terafim, who was from the town of S'ar.;
for he had these Terafim from Ksht, the king of Moab,
from Kain the murderer: and God knows '.(3) And Balak the
king of Moab sent messengers to Bileam, to Petor, which is
on the river of the land of the of the children of Ammon, to
summon him with these words, "Come and curse for me
the people of Israel." (4) And this happened in the sixth
month. (5) And Bileam understood and knew the Book
of Signs (6) and he worshipped these seven angels viz: the
god of fire, the god of the firmament, the god of water,
the god of the heavenly luminaries, the god of holiness,
P. 119. the god of the winds and the god of the corners
of the heaven. (7) And he used to call them by the
following names, and such are their names. I, Him, Hml,
2, Hhml Haml, 3, H'amal Hmnal, 4, Hsprh Hsmim,
5, Hlk Lil Hlk Lb, 6, Hlin Hntr, 7, Hlpgr.

(8) These are the seven angels whom Bileam served
and worshipped. And when Bileam consented to go with
the princes of Balak and he rode on his ass, he boasted
and said, "Behold, this ass will go which ever way I wish
it without anyone showing.it the way." P. 120. And when
he said these words, an angel of the Lord (the holy god)
stood in the road with a sword drawn in his hand, and the



264



genealogical claim to the kingdom and the division
(made) <by Noah.

6. And they found that Esau was associated with
Ishmael, and they put the sons of Mahlat on the
same level as the sons of Ishmael.

7. And this is the word which has been spoken,
"And he will be 'fari Edom'" and Esau is Edom.
And the children of Adah and Aholibamah be-
longed to the generation of Canaan.

8. And there came and ruled over them with
might Bela the son of Joktan, Jobab of the sons of
Ketura.

9. And after all these words, when Abraham
heard that there was war between the people of
Ashur and Joktan, he was seized with a great
fear.

10. (And after that ruled) Husham from Moab
and Shamlah of Elam, and Saul from the sons of
Nahor, Baalhanan from Elam.



brought the documents to prove
their own claim, Esau having
given up his birthright to Jacob.
Midrash.

(7) The Samaritans pronounce
Fan Edom, which pronunciation
I have retained, and in conver-
sation they call the Mahomme-
dans by this name, meaning there-
by "Kinsmen of Edom." Malif.
Q. 117 reads: "farah haadamah,"
"the wild man of the earth," or
rather "ruthless warrior" who
lives upon his sword.

(8) Jubilees XXXVIII. 15 ff.:
Gives a list of the kings of Edom
followingthe M.T. (Gen. XXXVI.
31 ff) The Pal. Targ. and Sama-



ritan Targ. agree also, with one
exception. In all of these the names
of the are retained, whilst corres-
ponding names in the Asatir are
all changed and to each of the
kings, another genealogy is given.
This is another proof of the in-
dependence of the Asatir fromSam-
aritan Targ. and high antiquity.

(10) In all the other Jewish
versions it is Bileam who is the
sorcerer and chief adviser of Phar-
aoh for the destruction of the
children of Israel. Chronicle of
Moses (Jellinek II. i n) and
Introd. to Jerahmeel p. 87 ff.
Yashar Ch. 67, differs from Sam-
aritan version.



265

ass strayed from the way and went into a field, and Bileam
smote the ass to turn it back on to the road ; and then the
ass lay down under Bileam and the wrath of Bileam was
kindled, and he smote the ass with his rod. And the Lord
opened the mouth of the ass and the Lord opened the eyes
of Bileam, and he saw the angel of the Lord standing in
the way, and he bowed himself down and he prostrated
himself. And the angel said, "Beware that thou dost not
turn aside from the word which I will speak unto thee."
And Bileam went with the princes of Balak. The angel
who commanded him to build the first seven altars [was
Hanhl.] P. 121. Three times he built the altars, and
afterwards he told us the origin of Bileam, that he was
from Aram Naharaim, which is the town of Nahor, and
is proved by Holy Writ that this was the town of Nahor,
(Gen. XXIV. 10) where it is said, "Aram Naharaim (Meso-
potamia) which is the city of Nahor." And in the Asatir it is
said that his genealogy (chain) was from Aram. (10) When
he stood before the altars, the first angel came and told him
what he was to say, (n) and then came the god of
fire; and then Bileam refused to curse the people and
said, "I will not curse for the Lord has not cursed them.
P. 122. And I will not execrate whom God hath not exe-
crated!" (Numb. XXIII. 8.) And he blessed them. (12) And
afterwards there came to him the god of the firmament,
who changed his vision so that he saw Israel in Paradise.
When he saw these sights, he said, (Numb. XXIII. 10.) "Let
me die the death of the righteous and let my last end be
like it." And when Balak the son of Sippor heard his
words, he said, "What hast thou done with me? I took
thee to curse mine enemies, and behold, thou hast blessed
them altogether. ' ' (Numb. XXIII. n.) And he answered and
said unto him, "Whatsoever the Lord putteth into my
mouth, I must take heed to speak." And Balak said,
"Come with me to another place; perchance it might be
found right in the eyes of the Lord, and curse them for



266



11. Hadad of the sons of Eliezer and his dwelling
place was Betad which is Forikh. And the name
of his wife was Mehetabel daughter of Matred of
Japhet of the Kittim.

12. Jacob was eighty years old when he went to
Haran.



13. Joseph was seventeen years and eight months
old when he went down to Egypt.

14. The Pharaoh of Joseph was of Ishmael and
the Pharaoh of Moses was from Japhet of the
Kittim the servant of the Rodanim.

15. Pharaoh the son of Gotis the son of Atiss son
of Rbtt son of Gosis son of Rims son of Ktim son
of Javan,



(12) Jacob 77 years old when
going to Haran; Demetrius (v.
Freudenthal, Hellenistische Stu-
dien, p. 39). Schatzh6hle39: Ja-
cob 77 when Isaac blessed him.
Seder Olam Ch. II: 63 when
blessed by Isaac and 77 years
when he reached the foun-
tain (in Haran). Seder Hadorot
p. 41: Jacob 84 years of age
when he married. Urim ve
Tumim: Jacob born on the i8th
of the month.

(13) Schatzhohle p. 39: Twenty-
three years after return of Jacob
Joseph was sold to Egypt. Urim
ve Tumim: Joseph born on
22nd day of the month.

(14) Samaritan legends of the
birth of Moses, see Introduction
For other literature see Freu-
denthal, Hellenistische Studien,
p. i69ff. The remarkable paral-
lelism between the Samaritan leg-
ends of the Birth of Moses and
the Christian legends about the



birth and childhood of Jesus must
be reserved for separate treatment.
The relation of the Asatir to Jo-
sephus has been dealt with fully. In-
troduction and Jerahmeel (Gaster)
Ch. XLII. Introd. LXXXVII
and Index S.V. Moses. Josippon
(ed. F. J. Breithaupt, Gotha 1707)
I. 2. p. 13: A long history about
Sefo and the King of the Kittim,
and the wars between them may
have some connection with the
brief allusion here. Urim ve
Tumim: Pharaoh born on the 24th
day of the month. Some confused
notions about the beginnings of
the Pharaohs; Adam and Eve
JMalan. Bk. Ill, Ch. XXIV, p. 174.
(15) Meshalma fol. 231 a says:
"Gutsis. . . son of Japhet, son of
Noah." New Dinasty Josephus
Ant. II. 9. I (202), cf. T. B. Sota
Ha. Long genealogical lists not
uncommon in later Arabic liter-
ature are also found in Palmyrene
Inscriptions (v. Lidzbarski, Hand-



267

me thence." (13) And it came to pass when he stood at
the altars, P. 123. there came unto him the god of water
who said unto him, "Thou art not able to see but hear." The
explanation of it is, "Thou art not able to see but only to
hear what is said unto thee," that "the Lord God is not
a man that he should lie, neither the son of man that he
should repent. He hath said and shall He not do it?"
(Numb. XXIII. 19.) "Know that I am givingtothe Children
of Israel the blessing and the Garden of Eden and I will not
withold my gift from them." (15) Then there came to him
the god of the corners of the heaven and said unto him,
"Surely there is no enchantment with Jacob." (Numb.
XXIII. 23.) "Glory ect." And the explanation of it is this:
This people doth not listen to enchantment, nor doth it rely
upon it, and it is glorified by the angels and the light,
which is resting upon it." (17) And afterwards there came
to him the god of holiness, who said unto him, P. 124.
"The Lord his God is with him, and the shout of a king
is among them." (Numb. XXIII. 21.) And the explanation
of it is, that the Lord helps him, and his great angel Kbla
waits in his midst. And then Bileam stood up for a third
time and blessed Israel, and he did not according to the
wish of Balak, but said unto him, "Come, I will advise
thee what this people will do to thy people in the latter
days." (Numb. XXIV. 14.) And before he said anything to
them, there came to him the god of the luminaries and
said to him, "I see him but not now, I behold him but not
nigh : a star rises from Jacob and the destruction of thy
people shall be through his hand." (16) And then there
came the god of the winds, who said unto him, "And
Israel doeth valiantly." (Numb. XXIV. 18.) P. 125. And the
explanation is that "this will happen at the end of days
when Israel shall grow mightier than all the nations of
the world." And afterwards he said unto him, "Harken
unto this and take heed of it. A star will arise, i. e., a man,
who will smite all the corners of Moab." And that is his



268



1 6. Who learnt the Book of Signs in Great
Babylon, and he came from Gifna and went to
Niniveh.

17. And he heard that Joseph was king of
Egypt.

1 8. And he (Pharaoh?) dwelt there three years
and a month and then he went to Damascus,
and from Damascus to Gezurah and that is
'Akushim and he tarried there sixty three years.

19. And Joseph and all his brothers died.

20. And the kingdom of Ishmael was changed
and that of Amalek began to take its place.



buch der Nordsemitischen Epi-
graphie, Weimar 1898, p. 133. See
also A. Cook, Text Book of North
Semitic Inscriptions, Oxford 1903)
Lidzbarski traces them back to
Arabic influences, but genuine
Jewish genealogies are much
older, found already in Ezra,
Nehemiah, and Chronicles. Later
on in the genealogy of the Ka-
raite leader: (see Dod Morde-
cai ed. J. C. Wolfius. Hamburgi
et Lipsiae 1714 and S. Pinsker.
Likute Kadmoniot. Wien 1860
p. 53) and also in that of the
Exilarch, Bostanai (Seder Olam
Zuttah). Fictitous genealogies,
however, are found already in the
Palestinian Targum, and in Tar-
gum II to Esther. (Introd. p. 154
155). Another series of geneal-
ogies is found in Ps. Philo XV. 3.
of Joshua and Caleb. Mention
may be made also here of the
long lists of Babylonian Kings
found in Babylonian records and
curiously enough, a "Gentium"
appears among the Kings of Agade



(see Johns in P. S. B. A. 1916,
p. 199). Altogether this tracing of
pedigrees in order to prove a pure
or noble lineage seems to be a very
ancient practice which has been
afterwards dropped. On the other
hand, this very practice of making
out a. noble pedigree led to the
parody of making up a pedigree
with fictitious names all hav-
ing a bad character of doubt
ful reputation. In the case o
Haman's pedigree Targum II t
Esther II. I. Casselhas shown tha
the names in this pedigree of Ham-
an are slightly corrupted names
of procurators and governors of
Palestine known as enemies of the
Jews, though anachronistic. This
pedigree characterizes Haman as
descendent of wicked ancestors.
So probably is the case here with
Pharaoh, later on Bileam X, I ) The
wicked men have wicked ac-
cestors.

inffl So in MS.: must be 1JW1
Gesira: probably the Gesira from
above (IV, 30).



269

saying, "And a sceptre shall rise out of Israel and smite
through the corners of Moab." (Numb.XXIV. 1 7.) And here
Bileam refers to the time of God's Favour and the Taheb.
This is not mentioned in the Asatir, for it is mentioned in
the Holy Law.

(18) And when Bileam heard all these words from the
angels, then he thought an evil thought and he said in his
heart, "The God of Israel hates defilement." And he said
to Balak, P. 126. "If thy desire is to destroy the people
of God, you can do it quickly by fornication," and he told
him what he was to do. And Bileam returned empty to his
place. And after Bileam had left, then Balak and his
company did what Bileam had told them, and they
gathered from their daughters 120,000, and clothed them
in beautiful robes and sent them to the borders of the
camp of the Israelites. (19) And they reached that place
in the third hour of the Sabbath Day, for the people of
Moab said, that the fornication with their daughters
would be better if it took place on the Sabbath that their
sin should grow great, for the sin would grow greater
having been committed on the Sabbath P. 127. (20) And
the covenant with Pinehas was made on that day, with him
and his seed after him. Happy are those who love God, but
woe unto them that hate Him ! And it was at the third hour
of the Sabbath, (21) that the elders of the children of Israel
gathered themselves together at the gate of the tent of the
covenant in the south corner; (22) and the flag of the
camp of Reuben was also on the south side. And the holy
priests stood there on the east side and the tribe of Simeon
was with the flag of Reuben. Reuben was on its left and the
tribe of Gad on its right hand. And the tribe of Gad knew
all the hymns of praise, and it is the first who established
hymns of praise. And that is made manifest from his
statement in the Asatir, (25) "and with the harp and
the cither, and timbals and drum and musical instru-
ments." (27) And when the daughters of fornication came



270



21. And Pharaoh came to Egypt in the first
year and he dwelt there, and he kept Egypt by force.

22. And through him there was tribulation in the
land for three years and the king of Egypt died.

23. And then Pharaoh arose and gathered large
armies from the Kfteim and he reigned afterwards
there for sixty years.

24. And in Egypt there was a wizard whose
name was Plti and he saw the greatness of Israel.

25. And he saw Levi going up to Pharaoh in a
chariot with great honour and he came out with
great honour.

26. And he said "Who is this man" and they told
him that he was a Hebrew.

27. And he said: "Great is the honour of this man
and of that which is hidden in his loins, and what
will come out of it."



(21) The text here is somewhat
confused. Evidently reference is
made to some wars of Pharaoh with
other nations. Jubilees XLVI. 9,
contains a description of such wars
of Pharaoh with the Canaanites.

(24) "Plti." So Meshalma 231 a:
This name is mentioned as the
wizard of the time ofMoses and also
in other Samaritan literature, see
Introd. Josephus II. 9. 2. 205: A
scribe . . . who foretells the future.
Palestinian TargumExod. 1. 15:
Janis and Jambris the sons of
Bileam are the wizards consulted
by Pharaoh to interpret the dream,
and they advise the killing of the
male children.^- In the Book of the
Bee Ch. XXX p. 5 1 : the name of the
sorcerer isPosdi probably a corrup-
tion from Plti. A similar name in



Numb. XIII. 9, and in the Aramaic
papyri (see Introduction). The
daughter of Lot is called Paltia,
or Pletith feminine form. Pal.
Targ. Gen. XVIII. 21. Pirke de
Rabbi Eliezer Ch. 25. T. B. San-
hedrin, icxjb. Gen. RabbaXLIX.
6. Yashar XIX, 24, etc.

(25) Josephus II. 9. 3. 210: "Am-
ram. one of the nobler sort of
Hebrews." Probably means Am-
ram son of Levi, and therefore Jo-
sephus says "Amram." Amram
man of nobility; T. B. Sota 123.

(27) Josephus II. 9. 3. 212:
Through dream of Amram birth
ofMoses is foretold. "Great "is
the glory of this man." Predic-
tion of birth in a somewhat differ-
ent form; Mehilta ed. J.H.Weiss
Wien 1865 p. 52.



271

the daughter of Sur was in their midst: she travelled in a
chariot, of wood [driven] by the wind from all sides, and she
travelled in it whither soever she wished. (28) At that time
there came a voice from the clouds saying, "Slay ye every
one his men that have joined themselves unto Baal-peor."
(Numb.XX V. $ .) (29) And the judges of the children of Israel
had come together for the Sabbath midday prayer, and after
the end of the prayer the judges rose up quickly and did
not do as Moses had commanded them; and those who
took first the daugthers of fornication were of the tribe of
Simeon, and his word, "behold the judges" means those
who were the first to take from the daughters of forni-
cation were judges. (30) And after them the foolish youths
took [the women] "and there went into the pavilion Zimri
and Cozbi, (Numb. XXV. 8.) and this their abomination
became revealed before the whole people. (31) And the
cloud removed and a plague came instead ; (32) and
then there arose a zealous man, the well-known master,
the high priest Pinehas, from the midst of the community.
And he took a spear in his hand (33) and performed the
two miracles: one with the living and one with the dead.
The cloud of plague brought plague (34) and Pinehas
brought the cloud of mercy, which carried away the
plague which oppressed all the sinners. And the miracle
for the living was that Pinebas, by his zeal, saved allt he
pure ones. P. 130. And he did good unto them by the
deed which he performed. (35) And the miracle concern-
ing the dead was that when he had the spear in his hand,
not one drop of the blood of the harlots fell on him, for
a burning fire came down from heaven and stood between
the blood and the hand of Pinedas, and all the blood came
down on it and burned it away. And the Lord may He
be exalted rewarded him for his zeal by the seven gifts
especially granted to him and to his seed after him: the
sacrifices, the spices of incense, the new offerings and
the sin offering, burnt offering, peace offering, and the



272



28. And his speech reached Pharaoh and he sent
and called the wizard.

29. And he said unto him, "Truly out of the
loins of this man will come one who will be mighty
in faith, in knowledge, and the heaven and earth
will hearken to his word; and by his hands will come
the destruction of Egypt."

30. And Pharaoh commanded they should sep-
arate the women from the men forty days and
when they separated from one another nineteen days,

31. A man of the house of Levi went: mighty
is the tree from which Moses was plucked.

32. And the wizard saw in his enchantment
that Israel's star was in the ascendant and he saw
that the mother was pregnant with him.

33. So he said to the king, "Thy intention has
now been frustrated."

34. Pharaoh said to him, "What shall be done ?"

35. And the wizard replied, "His death will be
through water."

36. And Pharaoh commanded the Egyptians
saying, "No Hebrew male child shall be left."



(29) I Enoch X. 1 6 and XCIII.
5 and 10. Palest. Targ. to Exod.
1. 14.". . . and by his hand will be
destruction of Egypt.

(30) Amram keeping away from
Jochebed until told by an angel;
Poem of Abdalla ben Jacob,
Cowley, Liturgy 626, exactly
like Josephus. Malif. Q. 139:
Pharaoh prevented the men from
approaching their wives. Am-
ram and the people separated from



their wives; T. B. f. Sota 12 a.
Ps. Philo. IX. 2ff.

(31) "Glorious is the tree from
which Moses has been plucked."
Same phrase referring to Moses oc-
curs in Markah (see Introduction).

(32) Appearance of star in con-
nection with birth; v. Dieterich,
Zeitschrift fur die Neutestament-
liche Wissenschaft III, Giessen
1902, p. I ff.: Die Weisen aus
dem Morgenlande.



273

011 of ointment. And He completed them by an eighth,
namely, the high priesthood. P. 131 And He made the
covenant of peace with him according to his statement
in Holy Writ, "Behold, I give unto him my covenant of
peace : and it shall be unto him and to his seed after him
the covenant of an everlasting priesthood." (Numb. XXV

12 and 13.) And it is said in the Book Asatir, (36) "Those
who keep the faith have been guided in the establishment
of all the prayers by the numbers seven and eight." The
explanation of it is that all the Jewish laws are connected
with seven : seven days, seven purities ; the Ancients have
also said that every seventh thing is holy. But also the
eighth is connected with the Law: as, the eight days of
circumcision; but if we were to enumerate here all the
sevens, then the number would be too long, P. 132. while
we are anxious to write as briefly as possible, and not
to expand it. And God knows.

(37) And know that on the new -moon of the eighth
month was the coming of the daughters of the harlots into
the camp of Israel, and in the tenth month the Lord said
unto Moses: "Avenge the vengeance of the children of
Israel on the Midianites, and afterwards thou shalt be
gathered unto thy people." (38) And the messenger of
God may the peace of the Lord be upon him selected
12,000 men of war; (39) and when they went up to the
war, the Lord said unto Moses that he should go with
them and do to them as he had done in the war against
Amalek, and he should stand on the top of the mountain
with the rod of the Lord in his hand. And he fell on his
face and prayed P. 1 33. and he called the children of Israel.
(40) And it came to pass when they went to Midian, our
Master Moses the Messenger upon whom be peace gave
the trumpets unto Pinedas, and he commanded him to go
before the army and (41) "they made war against the
Midianites as the Lord had commanded Moses." But before
they reached them on the fourth day, there came spies

Asatir. 18



274



37- And he put Shifrah and Puah over the
birth of the Hebrew women and Pharaoh said to
them "Every male child shall be killed and every
female child shall be kept alive."

38. And Amram was a good physician trusted in
Egypt and Shifrah was showing lovingkindness
to the Levites and Puah showed loving-kindness to
the Hebrews.

39. And the fear of God dwelt in their hearts
and they did not as they were told.

40. And the people multipled and waxed very
mighty.

41. And Pharaoh commanded his people
that they should throw the children into the
river.

42. And the fathers and mothers were frightened
and the women acted in faith and the women
destroyed themselves with their children.

Chapter IX. [Moses.]

i . And the great prophet may he be remembered
for good forever was born in the month of Nisan
on the fifth of it on the Sabbath.



(42) Pitron : children born in the
fields and miraculously fed under-
ground, cf. T. B. Sota f. irb.
Jerahmeel Ch. XLII. 4 Jo-
sephus II. 9. 2. (207), says: "They
and their families would be des-
troyed." Here it says; They did
destroy themselves. Ps. Philo IX,
2 ff. (see James' notes in loc).

Ch. IX.
(i) Birth of Moses 7th hour, 7th



day (Sabbath), 7th month (Nisan) ;
Poem by Abdalla ben Shalma
(Cowley p. 747). The story of
Moses, etc.; Jerahmeel 43. Seder
Hadorot p. 77: Born on Wednes-
day 7th Adar, 3rd hour of the day.
Other dates are also given there,
among them that he was born on
the Sabbath. Josephus Ant. 11.9.
3. 216: "His memory will last
forever." The very same words:
Sanhedrin, loib.



275

who told the Midianites that the children of Israel were
coming. to wage war against them. And they sent men to
Bileam and said unto him: (42) "O thou who art the head
of the sorcerers, arise against this community which does
not believe in thee and does not hearken unto thee.
In a short while some people [of the tribe of Dan] came
from the side of Edom." (43) And that is the word which
P. 134. our master Jacob upon whom be peace had
said, "Dan shall be a serpent in the way, an adder in the
path." (Gen. XLIX. 1 7.) (44) And Bileam hastened to come
to Midian, and he came to the city of Sur, south of
Midian. And he lifted his eyes towards the East and he saw
the tribe of Gad facing them all, and this is the word whic
is said, "As for Gad, a troop shall press him." (Gen. XLIX.
19.) And the interpretation of it is that the tribe of Gad
shall always be in the front of the war. (45) And as the
angel had furthermore said to Bileam son of Beor, "A
star has arisen from Jacob and a rod from Israel." This
star was our master Pinebas, "and the rod which has
arisen from Israel was our master Joshua, the successor
of the Messenger of God. (46) And all were shouting, P. 135.
"The Lord is our God, the Lord is One, separate, always
segregated, with Him is no other God like Him, nor has
He substance nor any form."

(47) And when Bileam saw these great sights and
the torches of the angels round them and the holy Kbla
round about them, then Bileam was frightened and he fled
before them seeking safety and peace. And the Lord may
He be exalted gave him neither safety nor peace. And
Zered, the son of Kmual, the son of the brother of Kaleb,
who was of the tribe of Judah, caught him and brought
him before Pinerias, the son of Elazar, the high priest,
and before Joshua, the son of Nun. And he talked to
them, but they did not understand what he was saying
P. 136. (48) and Rdit, the son of uriel, the son of Salu,
of the tribe of Simeon, rose up and killed him, for he had

18*



276



2. And on the tenth of Sivan he was thrown
into the river and when he was thrown into the
river the waters subsided.

3. And all the women went out to look at it.

4. And when all the women went down, the
daughter of Pharaoh also went down.

5. And (with every day) that passed the water
decreased.

6. And all the wizards and sorcerers came to-
gether and they were in great tribulation.

7. And Phi the wizard found by the secret
of the Book of Signs that the child had gone down.

8. And the ark was in the flags and- the daughter
of Pharaoh saw it in the fifth hour on the seventh
(Sabbath).

9. And she sent her maid and she took it and
opened it and she saw the child and behold the
child wept loudly and the daughter of Pharaoh
had compassion on it.

10. And being filled with love for it she com-
manded her maids that no word should be spoken
about it.

1 1 . And Miriam who stood close by when she saw
it rejoiced and ran to her and said, "Shall I go
and call (etc.)."



(2) Moses hidden unscathed in
furnace; Poem of Abraham b.
Jacob (Cowleyp. 626). Poem by Ab-
dallah b. Shalma Cowleyp. 747.
On the 6th Sivan; Seder Hadorot
p. 77. Molad: The waters sub-
sided.

(4) Pharaoh's daughter healed



of skin-disease by the touch of the
child. Pitron. So Molad f. 133.
Poem by Abdalla b. Shalma
(Cowleyp. 747). Maif.l Q. 139:
Pharaoh's daughter cured from
sickness. Pal. Targum Exod.
II. 5.

(n) cf. Exodus III, 7.



277

caused the abomination to be practised in Israel, and this
had happened among the tribe of Simeon. And the number
of the tribe of Simeon was in the beginning 59>3O> an d
after Zimri and the daughters of fornication had per-
formed that deed and brought the wrath of the Lord
upon them, then he reduced their number to 22,200,
for those of this tribe who had died of the plague on the
first and second occasions were 37,100, although the evil
deed of this tribe had only been made manifest on the
latter occasion. Behold, O my brother, search and in-
vestigate and ask, and open thine eyes, and see that the
plague of Korah and all his company came, when they
spoke against Moses and Aaron may the peace of
the Lord be upon them. Then the plague came swiftly
upon the people, and those who died by it were 24,700
(14,700) according to his saying in the Holy Law, "And
those who died of the plague were 14,700." Since he
says that in the later plague 24,700 died, P. 138. that
means that those who died in these two plagues together
were 38,700, and the tribe of Simeon was reduced by
37,100. And then the above mentioned Zered smote him
(Bileam) in the presence of Pinedas and Joshua, (49)
and Joshua was frightened at him, and shouted at him
to bring him (Bileam) near to smite Bileam before him
and before Pinefcas, the priest. The chief of those who died
in the war was Bileam, and this is made manifest from
what is stated in the Asatir, "the heart of the avenger
of the blood grew hot at the sight of him (Bileam.)"

(50) On the fourth day (Wednesday) they returned from
the war, and on the fifth P. 139. the overseers over the
thousands of the army brought the spoil from those who
had gone out to the war, from everyone, whatever he had
found, gold, bangles, chains, bracelets, signet rings,
earrings and armlets. They placed it in the tent of the
covenant as a memorial of that war in which 12,000 men
smote five kings with their camp and their host and



278



12. And she said unto her, "Go. "And she went and
called its mother Jochebed.

13. And she said to her "Nurse this child for
me and I will give thee the money of thy milk."
And she suckled him with undefiled milk and he grew
up and she brought him to the daughter of Pharaoh
and she called his name Moses.

14. And after this Moses grew in strength and
he was appointed with the chiefs of Pharaoh over
the Hebrews.

15. And he saw an Egyptian smiting an Hebrew
man and he killed him and hid him in the sand.

1 6. And on the second day he saw two men
striving and he said unto him that did the wrong,
"O thou wicked one." And the Hebrew was angered
and he said unto Moses, "O thou murderer."

17. And he fled to Midian and he tarried there
sixty years.

1 8. And after that there came oppression upon
Israel and Gots (Pharaoh) died.

19. And Israel sighed and their groaning went up.
And there arose a Pharaoh from Kittim whose
name was 'Atirt.

20. And Moses kept the flock of Jethro and he
came to Mount Horeb.

21. On the fifteenth day of the third month on
the fourth (Wednesday) God fulfilled the covenant
which he made with the Meritorious Ones.



( 1 3) Moses refusing to suck defiled
milk of heathen women ; Pitron so
Molad f. I3a and 130. Poem of



Abraham b. Jacob (Cowley p. 626,
5). Malif. Q. 139. Josephus II.
9. 5. 226. Exod. Rabba I. 27.



279

destroyed them and spoiled them and took them captive,
while of themselves not one man was missing. And this
is made manifest from his word in the Holy Law, "and
there lacketh not one man of us." (Numb. XXXI. 49.)

(51) And after all these words, there came forth P. 140.
a voice from the Lord, saying, "No Ammonite or Moabite
shall come into the congregation of the Lord." (Deut. 23. 3.)
(52) And furthermore the Lord said, "Now, therefore, kill
every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that
hath known man by lying with him. But all the women
children, that have not known man by lying with him,
keep alive for yourselves. "(Numb. XXXI. I7and 18.) And
they did as the Lord commanded them. And the word
which says "they who did not lie with man," means the
virgins who had not been married. "Smite all the males"
refers to the young boys whom they had brought captive with
them : and those who were suckling were to be killed with
their mothers, P. 141. for anyone who has reached the
age of manhood he is no longer a child and he is counted
among the men of war. And God knows.

Chapter XI. [Death of Moses and Prophecy.]

(i) And after this war, the Lord said unto Moses may
the peace of the Lord be upon him "Take thee Joshua,
the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay
thine hand upon him; and set him before Elazar the
priest and before all the congregation." (Numb. XXVI.
1 8 and 19.)

And this happened in the fortieth year of the going
out of the children of Israel from Egypt in the eleventh
month. And Moses did as the Lord commanded him with
great joy and pleasure, as is evidenced from what is stated
in the Asatir, P. 142. (2) "thus did Moses with great re-
joicing and pleasure, as if he were of his sons. May they
never be lacking in happiness and faith." And the
explanation of it is this, that none of the sons of our



280



22. The rod of Adam and his clothes were given
to Moses on that day.

23. And this is the word which is said, "And
this is a sign to thee."

24. On the fourth (Wednesday) He showed
himself to Moses.

25. On the first (Sunday) he went down to Egypt
and God said to Aaron, "Go and meet thy brother."

26. He went and met him and they both went up
to Egypt and they made the signs before the Is-
raelites.

27. On the third (Tuesday) they went to Pharaoh.

28. On the fifth (Thursday) they smote the river.

29. All the judgments were enacted within nine
months.

30. On the fifth (Thursday) they went out of
Egypt at the sixth hour; they went out in the sight
of all Egypt.

3 1 . At the going out of the Sabbath (they passed)
through the divided Sea.



(22) See III. 25: It is not stated
here who gave Moses the rod of
Adam and the clothes. According
to Jewish tradition, the rod was in
the house of Pharaoh left by Jos-
eph, taken by Jethro and planted
in his garden where Moses found
it. See above literature on rod of
Moses. As for the clothes, Adam
gave them to Enoch. Noah; then
they came to Ham and from
him to Nimrod. Thus far Pirke de
R. Eliezer XXIV. Zohar II. 393.
Esau killed Nimrod and took the
clothes, Gen. Rabba Ch. 68,
similarly Yashar VII. 24 ff.
Book of the Bee p. 55.



(24) Chs. of Rabbi Eliezer, Ch.
8: God appears to Moses on the
New Moon of Nisan.

(25) cf. Exodus III, 12.

(28) Seder Olam Ch. V. Ratner
ad loc. Note 10: The whole Rab-
binic literature.

(29) Mishnah Edujoth II. 10
cf. Jalkut Machiri to Isajahf.iosb.
Seder Olam Ch. Ill, Ratner ad
loc, note 20. Urim ve Tumim
Plagues began on the 25th day
of the month.

(30) Malif. 145 and 198.

(31) Urim ve Tumim: On the
26th Moses cleft the waters
of the Red Sea. Seder Olam Ch.



28 1

Master Moses, upon whom be peace was with him on
the day of his death, for he, at the time of his death,
remembered them and prayed for grace for them, and
sent them "greetings of peace everlasting," for there is
be no other peace besides his may the peace of God
be upon him. And our master Markah upon whom be
the favour of the Lord said in his well known writing
that Moses, at the time of his departure called the congre-
gation of Israel and said, P. 143. "Oh Gershom and
Eleazar, ye are the two sons, upon whom I com-
mand the peace." And the meaning of this "peace"
has been, that they shall never be in any trouble. Their
father, the Master of the flesh, and the Lord may He be
exalted shall befriend them through the prayer of
their father. And their father testified about them in the
Book Asatir wherein he says, "May they never be lacking
in happiness and faith."

(3) And afterwards there came the priests and elders of
the children of Israel, and he commanded them to keep
the Law of the Lord, which he had brought down with
his hand. And he told them that, except for the Law, the
world could not exist; and behold, P. 144. there is proof
for my word that our Master Moses the Messenger upon
whom be the peace took the Law from the hand of
Glory, for no man could speak about that Book, no man
could describe its true form, whether it be of skin or
light, nor of its grand appearance, nor of the greatness
of its majesty; and no man could touch it save Moses alone,
our Master, upon whom be peace ; and from this he copied
the book which he wrote down. And now we shall bring
one proof out ot many proofs for the justification of our
statement that God gave to our Master Moses with the
first two tablets upon which He had written P. 145. the
ten words, also the book of the Law; and this proof is the
word which Moses spake in his prayer to the Lord at the
time when the children of Israel made the calf; "For their



282



32. On the third (Tuesday) the waters of Marah
were sweetened. And God showed him that rod
by which he smites and heals.

33. On the sixth (Friday) they gained the victory
over Amalek.

34. On the fourth (Wednesday) God called him
up to Mount Sinai.

35. There are three mornings in the world, one
is the morning of creation on the first (Sunday).

36. Another the morning of Mount Sinai on the
fourth (Wednesday).

37. Another the morning of the day of vengeance
on the sixth (Friday).

38. On the first the Tabernacle was set up; on
the third they went away from Mount Sinai. On
the third Miriam died.

V. On Friday night they entered
the sea. See Ratner note 1 5 ad loc.

(32) According to Pitron.

(34) According to Samaritan
tradition and practice, the day of
the Giving of the Law was on the
3rd of the month (Ex. XIX. 11).
It is kept independently of the
Feast of Weeks, which is al-
ways on a Sunday, with spe-
cial services arranged for each
of these occasions, v. Cow-
ley, Sam. Liturgy and Codd. Gas-
ter Samaritan Prayer Books.
Seder Olam Ch. V: All the five
days: that means from Sunday
to Thursday, and on Friday the
Law was given, but in T. B.
Sabbat f. 88a Moses came down
on Wednesday. See Ratner notes
46 51. Mechilta Exod. Bes-
hallah, sect. 4. 1. Pirke de Rabbi
Eliezer Ch. 41.



(35) "Day ofVengeance" (Pitron
no stars visible). Book of Laws
and Ceremonies: Last Chapter
contains full description of Sam.
eschatology. See also Pinehas son
of Amram, Yomal Din, where all
the passages of the Pentateuch ref-
erring to Judgment are collected.
Sibyl. Or. VIII. 337 ff. Pal. Tar-
gum ExodusXI 1. 42 :There are four
nights prepared by God, the Night
of Creation, the Night of Cove-
nant with Abraham,, the Night of
going out of Egypt, the Night of
Redemption from Exile. Sibyll.
Oracles. Book II. 185. See
Charles Eschatology on general
happiness at the end of days.

(37) David Apocalypse in Merx.
Archiv II. p. 21: Light of Creat-
ion to reappear at the Advent of
the Messiah.

(38) Miriam died. loth of



own sake, now if thou will, forgive their sin, and if not,
blot me out from thy book which thou hast written." And
if we should say that this was referring to the two tablets,
we find that there was no mention of Moses to be found
on the Tablets. (Woe unto those who forsake the Law of
Moses for there is no salvation for them !) (For verse 4 18
see XII. 5).

(20) Then afterwards he began to speak about what
was going to happen in the remaining 3,204 years of the
6,oooP. 146. since the Creation of the world until the Ad-
vent of the Taheb. For from Adam until the death of our
master Moses were 276 (2,796) years, so that all these
together make 6,000 years. And then he began to speak
the words "when ye will beget children and children's
children, etc." (Deut. IV. 25), for this section contains
everything that will happen at the end of days. And
there in is a prophecy foretelling the Advent of the
Favour and of the Mercy after the end of the days of the
Fanuta, according to His word may He be exalted
P. 147. "when all these things come upon thee, in the
latter days thou shalt return to the Lord thy God, and
hearken unto His voice; for the Lord thy God is a merciful
God ; he will not fail thee, nor forget the covenant of thy
fathers, which he sware unto them." (Deut.IV. 30, 31.) And
the explanation of it is this : That the Lord, may He be
exalted if ye turn unto Him with repentance, will
establish His covenant with you and He will do unto you
as He did in the time of Favour; and this He will do and
still more, and this is a true thing and there is no falsehood
in it. And concerning this there is a large amount of matter
handed down from our fathers the patriarchs, and there-
fore, our Master Moses began his words in this section
and everything that they mention is deduced from it,
for therein is included the teaching and the future; and
furthermore he said P. 148. "The beginning of the
Fanuta, the gate of the back-sliding" and furthermore,



284



39- On the fourth Aaron died.

40. On the seventh the King of Arad ^fought
against them and took from them captives and
afterwards the Israelites utterly destroyed him
and his possessions.

Chapter X. [Bileam.]

i. M'rtis the wizard fled from Arad to Midian.
This was Peor whom Balak son of Zippor, King of
the Moabites, sent to call Bileam son of Beor son
of Gditt son of P Vh son of 'Amingf son of Laban.



Nisan. Seder Olam Ch. X.
Jerahmeel 48. 17. Cod. Caster
97a.f. na: On the loth of Nisan.
Pirke Rabbenu Hakkadosh.
(Eisenstein, Ozar, p. 505 ff.)
Albiruni (Sachau) p. 274: Fast
day of the Jews on loth of the
month of Nisan, and according
to some on the Monday. Seder
Hadorot p. 90: Qn the loth of
Nisan Miriam died.

Ch. X.



(i) D'WyD unquestionably a
mistake. It is the result of double
correction. D^iSiy for QiBltS and
DnSTD for ffVflto. The last copyist
combined both. Pitron follows
Asatir. MS reads l!?tPK*Tinstead of
irftffNT Either scribe's error or has
fallen out owing to its not being
pronounced by the Samaritans.
The whole episode of Bileam as des-
cribed here, especially his worship
of idols, may have formed part of a
book of magic, ascribed to Bileam.
It differs considerably from the
lext of the Bible, and contains a
targe amount of legendary matter
to which no direct parallel can be



found. Much ancient material,
hitherto unknown, seems to have
been preserved here. In the Introd-
uction. I have dealt more fully
with the legends of Bileam, and
the cycle of legends, which has
gathered round him. The story of
Bileam from here to his death is
given in full in the Arabic Book
of Joshua ed. Joynboll, Chs. 3 5.
Much better in Cod. Caster 1 140,
p. 14 22. The description of the
deities worshipped by Bileam as
well as the words of blessing and
their interpretation are missing in
this description, but the temptation
by the Midianite women and espec-
ially the death of Bileam are
described in greater detail, as it
were, interpreting more fully the
brief references in Asatir. See
below, v. 45. Bileam identified
with Laban. Tabyah (Ghazal) el
Doweik in his commentary to the
blessings of Bileam says : "Accord-
ing to tradition Bileam was the
son of Laban" and he promises to
explain it more fully in its place,
probably referring to a commen-
tary to Numbers which he intended



285

he upon whom be peace said, (21) "A Levite will arise
and his name will be Ezra, the son of Fani. And the begin-
ning of strife will be by his hand. (22) He will add a sanctuary
in his days (23) and he will exchange the sanctuary of the
Hebrews for a strange sanctuary. He will throw division in
the midst of the assembly. (24) The order of turning away
and arbitrariness Krtm of Benjamin will establish among
them." All this refers to Ezra, for he was the first who
turned the letters of the Law from the Hebrew language
in to the language of Assur, which is now in the hands of
the Community of the Jews, and he established the work
of Shelah (Solomon) by saying that the chosen place was
Zion P. 149. And he expunged from the Law the fourth*
paragraph from the Ten Commandments, and he did
with the Book of the Law according to his desire. And he
added to it and took away from it many things which have
been preserved by us, and he was the father of everything
that is between us and the Jews; and though the wrong
had already happened before the advent of Ezra, through
him, however, it increased and was added to, but no
error will remain when the Taheb will return to us; and
the deeds of this man are all recorded in our book of
Chronicles (Sefer Hayamim). And should we wish to
give it in detail, the tale would become too long.

(25) And after that, the Messenger Moses upon whom
be peace said, P. 150. "In the world by the power of the
House of Judah, divers statutes will be annulled." And the
explanation of the word n^ry "world" is found in the
numerical value of its letters, i. e., 4367; and the reason
for it is because the tribe of Judah changed the commands
of God. And the matter is further alluded to in his words,
(26) "Hear,oh Lord, the voiceof Judah." (Deut. XXXIII. 7.)
AndGod alone knows whether this interpretation agrees with
what our master Jacob upon whom be peace said, "The

* This refers to the additional loth Commandment of the Samari-
tan recension. See Gaster, Samaritans (Schweich Lectures) p.



286



2. He grieved and did not grieve over what
happened to him. He (did not) grieve for the trust
(honour) [shown] to him by the King of Moab, but
came to grief through his empty vanity.

3. For he had sent messengers to Bileam and
he had asked him that he should come and curse
Israel.

4. On the sixth month. messengers went to Bileam.

5. And Bileam knew the Book of Signs and
enquired therein.

6. And he worshipped the god of fire, god of
the firmament, the god of waters, the god of heavenly
lights and the holy god.

7. Him, Hml, Ihml, Vhml, Haml, H'amal,
Gmgal, Hsrfh, Hsmikm, Hid, Lil, Hlk-lb, Hlk,
L'el Elyon, Hlyn, Hntr, Hlgfr.



ed to write. This is a very ob-
scure passage. Maybe that it is
intended to explain the word fc^aop
(Numb. XXII. 7) which they
read to^obp i. e. wizards and thus
introduced the otherwise unknown
figure of the wizard Martis diffe-
ring here also from the Sam. Targ.
Further also itis meant to explain
somehow the mention of Midianites
in connection with Balak, King
of Moab. Josephus IV, 6, 2, 103
tries to explain it in a roundabout
way, and Palest. Targ. to Num-
bers XXII. 4. makes Balak a Mi-
dianite. Genealogy of derogatory
names Ch.VIII. 151". Bileam son of
Laban as an ancient tradition by
Tabyah el Doweik, who refers to
the oath made by Laban not to
cross the stone of witness (Gen.
XXXI. 45) which Bileam did, and



thereby incurred God's wrath.
Bileam = Laban; Pal. Targ. to
Numb. XXII. 5; XXXII. 8.
Tanhuma, Gen. : End of Vayese.
Bileam same as Laban. Numb.
Rab. to Numb. XXII.

(2) The passage is corrupt, and
has been translated as best pos-
sible. Josephus IV 6. 2. 105 : He
wanted to go but God opposed to
his intentions. Numbers Rabba
XX. Pal. Targ. XXII. 5: Inter-
prets Beor as the man who became
foolish through the greatness of
his knowledge. Tanhuma to
Numbers XXII. 20.

(7) These names differ slightly
in the Arabic paraphrase, pro-
bably due to scribe's error. The
narmes are the permutations of
the letters of the names presumed
to be those of the gods worshipped



287

sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor the rulers's staff
from among his flags until Shelah come." (Gen. XLIX. 10.)
And Shelah is he who was before the advent of Ezra.
P. 151. And the tribe of Judah remained protected and
favoured until the turning away of Judah when Shelah
came, and committed all those wicked deeds which the
congregation of the Jews acknowledge, and they recount
it in their chronicles and in spite of all that they call him
a prophet.

Furthermore, he upon whom be peace said, (27)
"The tower of shame He will build with might. The con-
gregation which will be praying for truth, will be oppress-
ed by a son born of a harlot, rebellious, he will be like the
enchanter Bileam. In his days the worship of strange gods
will be established." All this refers to the advent of Jesus,
the son of Miriam; and as for his statement, "the tower of
shame will be built," the explanation of it is, the faith of
the world in Zion will grow, "peya with might." The ex-
planation is to be found in its numerical value of 1472
from the establishment of the kingdom of the children
of Israel, i. e., the year in which that man will be born. (28)
And his statement, "the congregation will pray for main-
taining the truth" means "up to the time of his advent,
the congregation of the Israelites will be searching for the
truth," And because of the desire for preserving the
truth, they wished to kill him; for his killing was for the
sake of the truth, as the Holy Law says, "And that pro-
phet shall die:" (Deut. XVIII. 20.) (29) And as for his word,
"the son born of a harlot and by fornication," the ex-
planation is, that he was the child of a harlot ; and of "forni-
cation and rebellious;" the explanation is that he was
rebellious and straying from the way of truth. P. 153.
(30) The explanation of, "he will be like unto the wizard
Bileam is that he will be a sorcerer like Bileam and
he will perform miracles and wonders by way of sorcery,
so that the world should believe. (31) And that is followed



288



8. These are the seven angels whom Bileam
worshipped.

9. The holy god is the angel that met Bileam.

10. The god of the winds (El Harukot) is the angel
who gave him the words at the first altars: three
were his speeches.

n. The god of fire was he who rebuked Bileam
that he should not curse the people.

12. The god of firmament obscured his sight.

13. The god of water was he who said, "Thou
who canst not see but nearest."

14. The god of the luminaries said to him, "But
not now."

15. The god of the corners of the heaven said to
him, "There is no sorcery in Jacob."

1 6. Hdr, the God of winds said unto him, "And
Israel is doing valiantly."



ped by Bileam ; or possibly a me-
thatesis of divine names written
here in order to avert the influ-
ence of these heathen gods as the
author is doing on other occasions.
They occur also in the astrono-
mical poem of Jacob ha-Rabban
(v. Introd.) and in the Samaritan
phylacteries, ed. Gaster ("Studies
and Texts" p. 388 ff.) where their
high antiquity has been shown.
Angels appointed over various
elements Book of Enoch, Hebrew
Apocalypse of M oses( ' ' Studies and
Texts" p. I25ff.) and a complete
hierarchy of angels is found in
the Pirke Hekhalot. As for the
mystical use of the names of
angels see "The Sword of Moses"
ed. Gaster "Studies and Texts"



p. 288 ff. together with a very long
list of angels, culled from the
Sefer Raziel.

(10) nffte So in MS. letter
and word.

(12) The word D"ttN is nothing
but a Samaritan transliteration of
the Hebrew word DflD in Sama-
ritan Targumto Numbers XXIX,
13. This word was not properly
understood by the Samaritans;
for how could Bileam see when
his eye were "closed." The man-
ing "wicked" or "froward" eye
may have been suggested by the
root.

(13) cf. Numbers XXIV, 3.

(14) cf. Numbers XXIV, 16.

(15) cf. Numbers XXIII, 23.
(i 6) cf. Numbers XXIV, 18.



289

up by the word, that "in his days the worship of strange
Gods will be established;" which means that in his days,
"the worship of strange gods will grow mighty and he
will call himself God," and so it happened.

(32) After that, Moses upon whom be peace said .
(31) that in a short time the strange sanctuary would
be destroyed by a people of hard face (33) and those of the
house of Shhamh (God ?) and those of the house of Fanai,
(i. e., turning away, rebellious) would be scattered through-
out the earth. The explanation of it is this, that a short
time after P. 1 54. the days of Jesus the sanctuary of false-
hood and vanity would be destroyed through a hard-faced
people, and the houses of worship which had been erected
by the community of Jesus would be scattered which
had remained still under their sway, in the year 2,127 from
the time of the kingdom of Israel. And that refers to the
advent of Mohammed who came in that generation. And
then again he upon whom be peace said, "And be-
cause of the wickedness of the congregation, the latter
will dwell in their stead in great arrogance." And the
explanation is because of the multitude of the sins of the
children of Israel, the Lord will annihilate them in the
land, and other strange people will dwell in the land and rule
over it. P. 155. Furthermore, he upon whom be peace
said, (34) "The community in turning to strife will persist,
and the land will be inherited by the chosen ones of
Alinis." And the explanation of it is this: that Israel will
be lead astray, but the law will be saved and the land
will be ruled by the good community of Alinis. (35) And
after that, he upon whom be peace said, "There will
be in the world peace, freedom, might, honour and a life of
happiness." And the explanation of it is this: He will
bring upon them a time in which they will be resting
in joy and pleasure safe from violence and from the rule
of oppression, in glory, in happiness and in lovingkindness.
And again he upon whom be peace said: (36) "After

Asatir. 19



17. Hazin the holy god said unto him, "The
Lord God is with him and the trumpeting of a king
is among them."

1 8. And when Bileam heard that, he hatched
an evil plan for he saw (knew) that the God of
Israel hated defilement, and he advised Balak con-
cerning adultery, and the Moabites commenced to
practise it.

19. On the Sabbath the harlots came out.

20. The covenant with Pinehas was established
by the Seven for him and his seed after him. Great is
the loving mercy of God. On the seventh the harlots
came out at the third hour.

2 1 . And the heads of the community were congre-
gated at the South before the Tent of the Covenant.

22. And Reuben was encamped there in the West.

23. And Simeon in the middle.

24. And Gad in the East.

25. With harps, zithers, cymbals, timbals and
musical instruments.

26. And facing Simeon were about 120,000 harlots.

27. And the daughter of Sur was in the middle on
a wooden chariot driven by the wind in whichever
direction she wished it to go.



(17) cf. Numbers XXIII, 21.

(18) Evil advice concerning the
daughters of Moab; Josephus
IV. 6. 6. 129. Ps. Philo Ch.
XVIII. 13. Sin through the
daughters of Moab; Palestinian
Targum to Numbers XXIV.
14. The evil counsel agreeing
very closely with the text in
Asatir. Sifrei, par. 131, ed. Fried-



man, p. 47 b. T. B. Sanhedrin
Ib6a. Chs r of R. Eliezer XLVII
Tanhuma to Numbers XXIV.
25. Jerahmeel LV. 10. Yashar
LXXXV, S4ff .Story of the daught-
ers of Moab. Petrus Comestor
to Numb. XXXIV. Slavonic
"Palaea" (first version, p. 106).
(27) No parallel to this except in
the Samaritan Book of Joshua,



29 1

that, P. 156. the writing will be changed (37) and a new
wording they will produce out of the old." The explana-
tion of it is this : after these words there will be a complete
change in the world, and new things will come out of the
old ; that is, a book full of lies and frowardness will be
made manifest, and it will take as its basis the Holy Law
and the words of the ancients.

(38) And after that he upon whom be peace fell
upon his face and said, "And the Lord thy God will bring
thee up into the land which thy fathers inherited (39) and
Luzah will be rebuilt." He said this referring to their return
from the great Exile, for at the time when they will come
back from the Exile P. 157. to the Holy Land, they will
go up to Mount Garizim, which is Luzah. Those days
will be like unto the days of the Divine Favour.

Behold, O my brother, in this word there is something
put before and something put after (not chronologically)
for first he mentioned Jesus and Mohammed, the pro-
phet of the Ishmaelites, whilst the above-mentioned
exile was before their appearance. (40) He follows up the
matter in his statement, "There will be a Jubilee in
rejoicing." And this refers to the remnant he saved from,
persecution and from great oppression. And after that, he
upon whom be peace said, P. 158. "A second turning,
away in error. At the end of days*. . ."And the explana-
tion of this is, that after that Jubilee there will be for a
second time error and turning away from the good
path. (41) And in the community of the pure, whose root
is from Isaac, in the year 5,237 [corresponding to the
numerical value of pty] since the creation of the world,
there will be great oppression. And he said again, (42)
"On the holy hill, he will destroy the images and he will
break the idols." And the explanation of it is this: on
Mount Garizim in those days, the image and idol will

* He divides the text differently from the Asatir, and he confuses
the real meaning of \izby which he takes as a numerical cryptogram.

19*



28. And a voice of the Living came from the
cloud of glory and gave the command that those
who went after Baal Peor should be killed.

29. After this the judges rose up and they returned
quickly, and they did not perform the will of Moses.

30. And then Zimri and Kosbi went into the
tent and the abomination was made manifest in the
eyes of the whole people.

31. And then the cloud began to remove and
the plague descended upon them.

32. And Pinehas rose up and took a spear in his
hand.

33. And two wonders happened, one for the
living and one for the dead : the cloud of the plague
and Pinehas.

34. The cloud of the plague removed all the defiled,
but did good unto the pure.

35. And the sign for the dead was [that from]
the spear in his hand not one single drop of the
blood of the harlot fell on him, but it was burned
away (congealed ?) on the spear at a distance of seven
knots (handbreaths) between the blood and his hand.



Ch. IV, probably borrowed from
here. Turning by the wind. Mov-
ing by the wind see above III. 26.

(28) Voice of the Living see X,
50 and XI. 17. For Mandaean
parallels see Introduction.

(30) Zimri's sin more fully elab-
orated in Samaritan Book of
Joshua p. 59 ff.

(33) Pal. Targ. to Numbers
XXV. 7. 12: miracles happened to
Pinhas. So also Numbers Rabba
XX. 25. Book of the Bee Ch.



30, p. 63. He lifted both on his
spear. See Ginzberg, Legends
of the Jews, Vol. III. p. 387.

(34) D'O'T probably another form
for D^KSl pBK: variant is pSK.
"And on his prayer the plague
was stayed;" Pal. Targ. to Numb.
XXV. 8.

(35) Blood congealed; Pal.
Targ. to Numb. XXV. 8: One of
the twelve miracles. "Their blood
thickened so as not to flow upon
him." cf. T. B. Sanhedrin 52 b.



293

be broken; and the explanation of the word TY 1 means
that there will be there [destruction] of the images; P. 159.
and the darkness will be removed and illuminated by the
breaking of the idols. And God knows.

Chapter XII [Oracle.]

And after he upon whom be peace had finished
these words, he mentioned the kings who will arise in the
time of the Fanuta, and he completed them (i. e., the
list of kings) with the mention of the Taheb. And he
mentioned two things as already afore-mentioned, and
he mentioned another twenty-four each one separately.
"A prince will arise with a strong hand for ten years.
The proud nation Nds will come in his days." And the
explanation of it is this: A prince will arise with a mighty
hand; P. 160. and for ten years he will rule with honour
and glory, and afterwards the mighty and exalted
nation Nds will appear in his days." And they will wrest
the kingdom from him. And God knows.

And the word "Kli" means exalted beyond degree j
and there is another and fuller explanation of this in the
statement of the men of understanding, like their expres-
sion, "Kli ledinih" worthy of being a judge, or, worthy
of judgment.

(2) "A prince will arise with might from his people for
five years and he will not be exalted." And the explanation
of it is that a prince will arise with great power; he will
appear among them for five (years) and he will not be exal-
ted. And God knows whether this interpretation is correct:
or whether it means that enmity will arise among his people
against him, or from himself, after five years of his
reign. But for all that, the people will not overpower him,
neither will they remove him from his kingdom.

(3) "A crowned prince will arise of evil repute. In his
days they will be destroyed through the hand of strangers."
The explanation of it is: P. 161. A prince will arise who



294

36. And thus it is said by those who keep the
faith that all the fulfillments of the commands were
connected with seven and eight.

37. At the beginning of the eighth month came
the harlots, and in the tenth month the Lord said
unto the prophet, "Avenge the children of Israel,
and after that thou wilt be gathered unto thy
people."

38. Twelve thousand were armed as men for war.

39. And it was after the men had gone that God
said unto Moses that they should go to the war.

40. And when the armed spies went to Midian he
gave to Pinehas before the people the trumpet
in his hand and they made war with Midian as
God had commanded.

41. On the fourth the people came unto Midian
and the Israelites captured it.

42. [And (the Midianites) said], "O! thou chief of
the sorcerers. Arise for those who believe inthee!"
In the twinkling of an eye there came a small troop
[of Dan] from the direction of Edom.

43. And that is the word which Jacob had said
"Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in
the path."

44. And Bileam hastened to return to Midian to
Shur in the South. He lifted up his eye to the East
and beheld there a troop of Gaddites.



(42) Josephus IV. 7. i. 160:
"Would suddenly be upon
them."

(43) The interpretation of Bi-
leam's prophecy in accordance



with the Asatir is found in El Do-
weik.

(44) nK"!3 Exactly so in El Do-
weik Commentary on Bileam's pro-
phecy. Another reading <T"Q.



295

will speak falsehood. In his days they will die through
the hand of a stranger. And God knows whether the
meaning is so. In the days of this king falsehood will
increase and he will be the leader of it. And afterwards
will appear a people who will be strange unto him and
to his people.

(4) "A prince will arise strong in truth. In his days the
salvation of the community will be great." And the ex-
planation of it is this : There will arise a prince very strong
in truth. In his days the salvation of the congregation will
be great. And the explanation of it is that there will arise
a prince very strong in truth. In his days Israel will be in
peace, and he will love those who are of the truth. And
God knows.

(5) "A crowned prince will arise. In his days, the yoke
of iron will return." This is the king of Egypt and the
children of Israel groaned from servitude. And I will now
refer again to what happened under that king, and will
tell it as it is told in the Asatir of Moses.

To VIII. (24) In his time there was a wizard in Egypt
and his P. 162. name was Plti. And he saw the might of
the children of Israel. (25) And he saw Amram going up
to Pharaoh in a very great chariot, coming and going with
great honour. (26) And he asked, "Who is that man ?"
And he said to him: "It is a Hebrew man." (27) And he
said, "Great is the honour of that man for that
which is hidden within him and what will happen to
him." (28) And this word reached Pharaoh and he sent
for him arid Plti was brought before him. And Pharaoh
asked him about the words which he had spoken (29) and
he answered, "It is so." He said that out of the loins of
that man there would come forth a great man, who would
shine in faith and wisdom. And the heaven of the heaven
would be under his hand and the destruction of Egypt
would come through him. Within forty days he would
be in his mother's womb.



296



And that is the word that was said "Gad's troop
shall overcome him."

45. And what the angel had said unto Bileam
"A star will arise from Jacob," this refers to Pinehas :
"And a sceptre shall come from Israel." This
refers to Joshua.

46. And their battle-cry was "The Lord is our
God the Lord is One."

47. And Bileam fled and he was caught by Zrd son
of Kmuel son of the brother of Caleb of the tribe of
Judah; and he brought him before Pinehas, Joshua,
and Caleb: and they did not pay heed to his speech.

48. Then arose Rdyh son of Suriel son of Slua
and he strengthened himself against him and killed
him by the sword.

49. Then Joshua said: "The heart of the avenger
of the blood grew hot at the sight of him (Bileam).



(45) At alaterperiodthe Samari-
tans also refer this prophecy to the
Taheb, like the Jews. So Tabyah
el Doweik, in his commentary to
the blessings of Bileam where he
says, that this prophecy may be
interpreted as referring to the
Taheb, but preferably to Pinehas.
Similarly he explains this passage
in his treatise on the 2nd kingdom
This application of the verse
is very significant. There is no
trace of Messianic prophecy in
it, as found already in the N. T.
story of the star of Magi as
later on. See Introduction.

(47 48) Identical story in Sa-
maritan Arab: Joshua, p. 63, and
ed. Joynboll. Ch. 5. In Arab.
Book of Joshua: no name is men-
tioned except the fact that he who



killed Bileam is described as
belonging to the tribe of Simeon,
which had been decimated through
action with Midianite women.
This explains words of Joshua in
v. 49. Pitron agrees more closely
with P.T. Palest. Targ. to Numb.
XXI 8: close parallel, but Pinehas
is the one who kills Bileam. A
much closer parallel is found in the
Zohar II. 21 B: to the effect that
man who captured Bileam was a
certain Ilih of the tribe of Dan.
He brought him before him and
killed him there in order to avenge
the death of the 24,000 who were,
killed in consequence of Bileam' s
evil advice. In Pal. Targ. also
reference to the confused speech
of Bileam. T. B. Sanhedrin
io6a.



297

(30) Thereupon Pharaoh commanded quickly that the
men should separate from the women for forty days P. 163.
And they imprisoned the men in one place and the women
in another according to his command. (31) And it came to
pass after seventeen days of the forty had passed, that a
man from the house of Levi went and took the daughter
of Levi, the son of Jacob, and she became pregnant with
the Master of all flesh, the Master of all mankind, as it is
mentioned in the Book Asatir, "Mighty is the tree from
which Moses was plucked." (32) And when Jochebed
became pregnant with the Master of the flesh, then Plti
saw the star of Israel in the ascendant and knew that the
mother of the child was pregnant with him. (34) And he
said unto Pharaoh, "Thy deed and thy plans which thou
hast made have this day become void." So Pharaoh said,
"What shall we do?" (35) Plti said to Pharaoh, that he
would die through water. And that is evidenced from
his statement in the Asatir: "His death will be through
water." (36) Then Pharaoh commanded the Egyptians
P. 164. that no male child of the Hebrews should re-
main alive. (37) And he sent the overseers to the mid-
wives, namely, Shifrah and Puah, who attended upon
the Hebrew women, and Pharaoh had them brought
before him; and he said unto them, that every male
child which would be born to the Hebrews, should be
killed but that every female child should be kept alive.
(38) But Amram was wise and known for his wisdom and
intelligence, and he was overseer in the land of Egypt,
and did good unto all the people. And Shifrah was the
midwife appointed to attend to the tribe of Levi, and
Puah was appointed as midwife to the congregation of
Israel. (39) And the fear of the Lord entered their hearts,
and they did not do as the king of Egypt had comman-
ded them, for there is no peace like the peace of the
Messenger upon whom the peace of God is. And our
master Markali upon whom be the favour of the Lord



298



50. On the fourth (Wednesday) they came from the
war, on the fifth (Thursday) the elders of the
assembly brought the offering of gold, and it was
brought up to the Tent of the Assembly.

51. And there came a voice of the Living [say-
ing] "No Moabite nor Ammonite shall enter the com-
munity of God/'

52. And the women that were taken captive were,
killed.

Chapter XI. [Death of Moses and Prophecy.]

i. And God said unto Moses, "Take to thyself
Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom there is the
spirit and set him before Eleazar the priest and
before all the congregation in the fortieth year in
the tenth month."



(51) See above X. 28 and below
XL 17.

XL

(i) "May they never be lacking
etc. . ." This phrase is probably one
of the many pious exclamations
inserted by the author of the
Asatir; unless it is to be taken
as one made by Moses concerning
his children. This passage, more-
over, is open to a different in-
terpretation. It agrees curiously
with Josephus IV. 8. 2. 180:
"There is one source of happiness,
the favour of God." cf Sibyl. II.
170 171. Already 4 Ezra,
XIII. 4off. mentions the ten tribes
hidden away, in distant lands.
Midrash of theio Exiles (Jellinek
IV, 133 ff.). Bousset, The Anti-
christ Legend London i896p. 103.



Here is evidently a reference to
the old legend according to which
the children of Moses were then
separated from the rest of the
Israelites and sent away to a
distant country in the desert to
live there a pure life. They
will emerge thence at the end of
days, and come with the Taheb
or Moses Redivivus at their head
to revive the time of God's favour.
Thus runs the Sam. Legend.
The Jewish counterpart is found
in the story of Eldad, the Da-
naite (ed. Abraham Epstein,
Pressburg 1891, p. 42 ff.) a
host of other legends which
have appeared round the story
of the disappearance of the
children of Moses. (Jellinek,
Beth Hamidrash, II. loff. and
VI. 102 ff.)



299.

said in his exalted saying, that the Messenger said unto
the children P. 165. of Israel before he died, "O Gershom
and Eleazar, ye are the two sons upon whom I have
commanded peace ." And the Lord knows that from this
day to the last day, they are happy believers in the Holy
Law. And the Lord may He be exalted is favourable
unto them through the prayer of their father, according to
his word in the Asatir, "May they never be lacking in
happinees and faith!"

And the Taheb will only arise from among them. And
know that the cause of their being hidden away from the
sight of the creatures and their absence from among the
children of Israel was only in consequence of the request
of their father to the Lord God, may He be exalted. For
he upon whom be peace saw all the creatures and the
generations from the Day of Creation until the last Day of
Requital, and he saw the days of the Fanuta. P. 166. And
he saw also everything that would happen to Israel and
all the great oppression which would come upon them,
and he asked of the Lord that his children should be
exempted from all this, and that nothing should happen
to them of that which would happen to the children of
Israel. And the Lord did according to his request and he
hid them until the day of the advent of the Taheb, who
will arise from among them. And he will come with a
mighty host from the eastern side.

O, may mine eye behold them when they will come with
the Taheb among them, and the pillar and cloud covering
them and the angels with them! I pray of the Lord that
he may cause this time to draw near and that the day be
not distant but nigh ! And of this there are many things to
be told which would be too long here. And God knows.
P. 167.

(to Chapter XL)

(4) And after that came the command to the Master of
the flesh, Moses, that he was to write the scroll of the Holy



300



2. And Moses did so with great joy and delight,
as if he had been one of his sons may they never
be lacking in happiness and faith!

3. And Moses began to copy out the Holy Law.

4. And God said to him : "Go up the Mount Abarim
and see the land of Canaan and fix its boundaries round
about. And this is the beginning of the boundary.

5. In the East from Kori to Ivai, and the boundary
of the land in the South from the shore of the Salt
Sea eastward.

6. Ascending into the midst of the land : because
he said that the Valley was within the boundary from
Akrabim passing on to Sin; and now it is in the
middle of the land and it continues unto the town
which is called today El Kdr.

7. The boundary of Paran is from the side of
'Asmonah until the river of Egypt going on to
Sukkoth passing on inside the boundary until Shaki.
of Egypt.

8. Going down to the sea and then going up to-
Trss. It turns towards the mountain and ye shall
espy unto yourself [the mountain of God] in the
midst of the land.



(4) The following geographical
description of the boundaries is
based on Numb. XXXIV. 412,
but the author has taken great li-
berties, the same way as he did with
thekings of Edom above Ch. VIII,
7 ff. He has, moreover, substituted
new names for old and the text has
suffered also in the hands of
copyists, so that in many places it
is quite unintelligible. The P.T. ad.



loc. offers a close parallel and
also in P. T. Deut. I, 7a similar
tracing of the boundaries of
Palestine with the substitution
of new names for old is.
found. See brief description,
of boundaries Josephus Antiq.
V. I. 22 (80) ff. and Sam.
Book of Joshua ed. Gaster ch..
XIV, i which agrees in the main,
with Josephus.



3 01

Law and he was to read it before the whole congregation
of Israel. Then He said unto him, "Get thee upon this
Mount Abarim and behold the land of Canaan, and its
boundaries all around." And Moses went up and beheld
the land of Canaan and its corners and its boundaries, as is
mentioned in the Book of Numbers, Ch. XXXIV, "And the
mighty prophet went down with joy because he beheld
the Mount Garizim Bethel, the most Holy of all the
places of the land." And he was in great sorrow because
he could not go up to it.

(15) And after that, on the third day, he began to copy
the Holy Law and he finished it on the fourth. (16) And
he brought it to P. 168. the tent of the Covenant on the
fifth day. (17) And the voice of the Living came down
from the cloud of glory, saying, (18) "Completed is thy
work, O perfect One. This is thy last day." And the
explanation of this is: The word of proclamation came
out of the cloud of glory, that is the glory of the Lord,
"O thou hast performed perfectly thy good deed. This
is thy last day." Make known to the generations what
has been revealedto Moses, the mighty prophet, even
what his master had told him. And nothing of this is found
in the Law. (Up to v. 26 there is no commentary. The
author merely repeats the words of the original text.)

26. Twenty six corresponding to twenty six! May He
be praised, He, Who sees all that is hidden and revealed !
May He be exalted, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses.
Upon them be peace for ever !

Know that just as there were from Adam unto Moses
twenty six prophets, so also from the beginning of the
Fanuta to the time of the Taheb will arise twenty five
kings and the Taheb will be the twenty sixth. Praised
be He, Who is Omnipotent, and may His name be sancti-
fied'



302



Q. In the North Hmt on the river of Hanohiah

*f *

which is Zifronah, and goes on to Hazar 'Enan.

10. And from Hazar 'Enan to Shefamah which
is Askofiah unto the Arbelah.

11. And its borders go down and reach unto the
eastern shore of the sea of Kinnereth.

12. And the mountain (Tbris) in the west which
can be seen from, all the four sides.

13. And the prophet went down in joy and in grief.

14. He rejoiced because he had seen the beauty of
the land, but he grieved because he was not al-
lowed to enter.

15. And he began to copy out the Law on the
third (Tuesday) and he finished it on the fourth
(Wednesday).

1 6. And he went into the Tent on the fifth
(Thursday).

17. And there came down the voice of the Living
from the cloud of glory.



(15 1 6) Tabah: Moses copied
the Law on the 3rd and
went up on the 4th. (This may
mean either Tuesday Wednes-
day, or 3rd and 4th of the month.
Arab. Book of Joshua p. 8:
Many more details are given like
in "Death of Moses" further on.
Josephus Antiq. IV. 8. 49 (327):
Moses died on the 1st of Adar.
On the yth day of Adar Moses was
born and died; Pal. Targ. Deut.
XXXIV. 5. Seder Olam Rabba.
Ch. 10 (p. 41 42, ed. Ratner)
interpreted: "the Law for 36 days
from 1st Shebat, to 6th Adar, on
which day he is ordered to go up
the Mount and on the 7th Adar he



died." The Hebrew word "IKI is
translated by Samaritans as "copy-
ing," by Jews as "interpreting" (as
in Deuteronomy I, 5). Moses
died on the 7th day of the month of
Adar; T.B. KiddoushinsSa, T.B.
Megilla I3b. Jerahmeel 48. 17:
Moses dies 7th Adar. Dikduke
Hatamim ed. S. Baer and H. L.
Strack Leipzig 1879 70, p. 58:
Moses died 7th Adar, on the
Sabbath. Moses died 7th Adar;
Albirunip.273. Died on Sabbath
afternoon: Seder Hadorot p. 92.
v. Baer Abodoth Israel p. 265.
(17) See Ch. X. 28. 5 1 and Introd.
for Mandaean parallel I f. Pal.
Targ.



SAMARITAN STORY
OF THE DEATH OF MOSES.

The Samaritan story of the Death
of Moses (from the Samaritan Chro-
nicle in my Cod. n68f. ib 8b).

For the literature referring to this chapter, the parallelism
with Josephus and its relation to the pseudepigraphic literature, see
Introduction where this has been treated fully. Various de-
tails in the beginning are found in the Asatir Ch. XI, such as
the writing of the Law, the taking leave of the people, and the
Prophecy. The phrase of approval by God, and the announcement
of Moses' last day have been referred to in connection with Mar-
Icah. The last sentence in which Moses is lifted up and sees the
whole world, as it were, under his feet, is strongly reminiscent of
the wonderful vision of the Hellenist poet Ezekiel (see above).

1 732 A.

Chapter concerning the Death of our Master Moses, son
of Amram, upon whom be prayer and peace.

In the year two thousand and seven hundred and ninety
four years from the creation of the world, and in the
fortieth year of the going out of the children of Israel
from the land of Egypt, in the eleventh month on the first
day of the month, began our Master Moses, upon whom
be the peace of God, to copy out the holy Torah from the
book which was written by the finger of God; perfectly
he copied it, rolled it into a scroll, and divided it into sec-
tions (Kissim) and portions (Parashot) by the holy spirit:
for thus it was (found) in the above mentioned book. And
he finished the copy of this holy Torah from the above
mentioned original book in thirty days, and he read it in
the sight and hearing of the Elders of his community
and of the priests, the sons of Levi, and he gave it unto
them. And after that he went to the Tent of Assembly
and opened the Ark of Testimony and he placed the Book
of the Law which was written by the finger of God in it,



1 8. "Completed is thy work O Perfect One.
This is thy last day (that which God has allowed),
thou who beholdest the generations'" (i. e.) that
which Moses the great Prophet had revealed by
the permission of his Master.

19. Therefore it is said "And he beholds the
vision of God."

20. And he foretold what would happen in the
next three thousand two hundred and four years,
as is told in (the section) which begins "When ye
beget children and children's children," the begin-
ning of the Fanuta, the gate of the backsliding.

year 2,796 from Creation. Samari-
tan date. The confusion of the
dates concerning Biblical chrono-
logy and the differences are so
profound that only a few exam-
ples are mentioned to show the
utter impossibility to harmonise
them. Book of Jubilees: 2,450;
Book of the Bee ch. XXX p. 65 :
(30): 3,860; Josephus 2,550
(2,530); LXX. 3,859; T. 2,706.
In the Assumption of Moses
the date is given 2,500 or "ac-
cording to Eastern reckoning"
2,700, and 200 since Exodus from
Phoenicia. The last figure but one
approximates to the Samaritan
calculation. Apoc. of Baruch:
Hebrew calculation of 2, 700 seems
to be the nearest. This calculation
of the Asatir differs from Sam.
Chronology and rests upon an-
other text or another calculation.
For the form and contents of this
Prophecy see the Aramaic pro-
phecy ascribed to the high priest
Ishmael, best preserved in the
Pirke Hechalot ch. VI. 4. ed. S. A.
Wertheimer Jerusalem 1910.



XXXIV. 5: The berath kola; (i.
e. bath kol) Fell down from
Heaven. cf. X. 28; X. 51.

(18) This sentence is quoted ver-
batim in poem of Jacob ha Rab-
ban. See Introduction.

(20) Arabic Book of Joshua
p. 22. 23, refers to the Song of Mo-
ses Deut. XXXII. and suggests
thatit contains revelationsof future
events, but gives none of the de-
tails found here: So Abul Hassan
al Suri (ca. 1030) in his Al Tabah.,
and other Samaritan Commen-
tators on the blessings of Jacob and
of Moses. None, however, contain
this Prophecy found in the
Asatir, although they seem to
hint at it, for they say Moses
revealed the time of "Favour,"
and the day of exile, and also
foretells the flood of fire and day
of requital and reward, and the
happiness when God returns back
to them. This entirely corres-
ponds with the general outline
of future events, for which the
Asatir gives definite details. 3,204
years. This corresponds to the



305

by the side of the two Tablets upon which were engraven
the Ten Words, and placed upon the Ark the covering
(kaporet) which no one could lift from the Ark up to this
very day. There he bowed down and worshipped before
the Lord in front of the Ark of Testimony. And the Lord
whose holy name be praised, spake unto him, from be-
tween the two Cherubim.

[f. 2 a] "O Thou whose work has been perfect, nigh is
now the last day," and thus He informed him, that the
day of his death had arrived. This happened on the morn-
ing of the fifth day, the day of the New Moon of the
twelfth month of the above-mentioned year. Then the
exalted prophet went to his tent, which he had set up
outside the camp; his tongue was praising in hymns his
Master and saying: "Unto Thee, O Lord, belong the
righteousness and the judgment. Thou who dost not show
favour, either to a prophet or to those who are meri-
torious before Thee? O Thou who art wise; thou art
righteous and just, a faithful God."

And after that stood up the exalted prophet upon whom
be the peace of God and prayed to his Master. When he
had finished his prayer, he called Joshua his servant and told
him all the words which the Lord had spoken to him ; and he
said unto him ' ' O my servant, go to the house of the priethood
and tell them of this, and tell Eleazar, Ithamar and Pine-
has that they come hither quickly so that I may be able
to see them." And when the master Joshua son of Nun
heard from the prophet these words at the door of the
Tent of Assembly (f. 2b), he went forth quickly to the
holy sanctuary, and stood before it weeping and called
the three priests. And they heard his call; they came
out of it quickly, and they beheld our master Joshua stand-
ing there weeping and the tears of his eyes washing his
face. So they said unto him: "O thou Minister of the
Excellence of the children of Eber, what is the matter
and wherefore art thou weeping ? and why is thy heart

Asatlr. . 20



306



21. There will arise a man from the Levites; his
name will be 'Azrz son of Fani and the beginning of
the strife will be by his hand.

22. And he will add a sanctuary in his days.

23. He will exchange the sanctuary of the
Hebrews for a rebellious (strange) sanctuary. He
will throw division in the midst of the assembly.

his view encompassing the world
rolling under his feet. F. Delitzsch,
zur Geschichte der jiidischen
Poesieetc. Leipzig 1836. p. 21 iff.
(21) The Prophecy starts with
the beginning of the Fanuta, the
hiding of the temple vessels, in



Another one similar in cha-
racter, also in Aramaic short
sentences ascribed to Rabban
Gamliel is fully discussed in the
Introd. p. 93. Other forms of such
Aramaic prophecies connected
with the High priests Simon the
Pious and Johanan, see Megillath
Taanith ch. XI and T. B. Sotah f.
33a. T. J. Sotah IX. f. 24b.
these are similar to the Asatir in
their syntactical construction and
in the use of Aramaic. If Charles'
hypothesis is correct, then rhymed
prophecies were in the original
of the Book of Enoch. Their real
form would be similar to that
found in the Prophecy. The
Pal. Targ. I Deut. XXXIV. 13.
contains a succinct history be-
ginning with Jephtah continuing
without historical sequence to
the time of Gog and Armilos and
the Angel Michael who will
redeem the people. The same
survey is found here from the
point of view of the Samaritans.
They run on parallel lines each
leading to the same final redemp-
tion, and period of freedom (In-
trod.) Moses ordered to write
down this eschatology in the Apo-
calypse of Abraham XXIII. 32.
Similar eschatological pronounce-
ment Jubilees XXIII. i8ff. Eze-
kiel the poet. The vision of Moses
sitting on the throne and with



the time of the high priest Uzi.
The Levite referred to here, under
the name of Azrz, as the head
of the Rebellion, is none other
than Eli. The Samaritans write



his name ^K for which the cryp-
togiam HT>' nd has been substituted
by way of the permutation of the
letters. This method is already
known in the Talmud and pro-
bably also in the Sibylline, and
above all in the Samaritan Phil-
acteries v. Caster Studies and
Texts p. 387 ff. This procedure
is already used by Aquila and the
LXX to Jeremiah 25. 6 and 51. 7.
etc. (see Dornseif, das Alphabet in
Mystik and Magie, Leipzig 1922,
p. 136 f.) and so also in the Tar-
gum ad. loc. With slight vari-
ations this passage occurs also
in Sifre to Deut. XXXIV. I.
Others surveys are those in Ps.
Philo, Jubilees, Ch. 15. Assump-
tion of Moses. See references in
Introduction.

(23) This refers to the establish-
ment of the sanctuary in Shiloh,
which the Samaritans describe as
a heretical and vile sanctuary.



307

broken ?" And he answered them and said in a mournful
voice: "My Master the prophet Moses, the exalted Mes-
senger, is going to die this day: and this thing is bitter unto
us and hard to bear and surely not pleasing to your souls
nor to mine." And when the priests had heard this of
Joshua, they grieved and they went to Moses with their
faces troubled and their hearts broken. And when they
came near to him they quickly bowed down before him.
And Pinerias the son of Eleazar upon whom be the peace
of God held the trumpet in his right hand and stood
weeping before him. Then he told him. "Go thou and thy
uncle (f. 3 a) Ithamar to the gate of the Tent of Assembly,,
and blow the trumpets, so that all the people should hear
and come hither and stand before me, so that they obtain
(the greeting of) peace from me."

And when these pious ones had heard this, they went
quickly to the door of the Sanctuary, and blew the trum-
pets according to his holy command. And when the people
heard the sound of the trumpets they trembled and were
frightened and said : "What is this sound of trumpets which
is so loud ? It is neither the time of the sacrifice, nor is it
the time for journeying." And they rose all up quickly in
fear and after enquiry were told the reason of this ocur-
rence.

Bitter was the hour when they learned of it and when
it was told to them, that the exalted prophet Moses, son
of Amram, of the highest rank was going to die. They
all gathered themselves together and went out and came
to the door of the prophet's tent, the heads of the people
and the judges and overseers and the priests and the sev-
enty elders, and stood before the mighty prophet, they
stood in proper order and in perfect reverence. And
the mighty Messenger stood up and he told them dis-
tinctly what the Lord had told him (f, 3b). And he
made a high throne and mounted upon it, so that he
might see all the people which had gathered there before

20*



308



24. The order of turning away and arbitrariness
Krtm (of) Benjamin will be established among them.

25. "In the world" through the power of the house
of Judah diverse statutes will be annulled.

26. Hear O Lord the voice of Judah.

27. He will build the tower of shame with might.

28. The people will be praying for Truth.

29. Will be oppressed through the son who is
born of a harlot.

30. He will be ... like the enchanter Bileam.

31. In his days the worship of strange gods will
be established.

32. And within a short time the unholy sanctuary
will be destroyed by the hand of a nation of a hard face.

33. And those of the house of Shmh (God ?) and
of the house of Fanyh (i. e. turning away, rebellious)
will be scattered throughout the earth. And because
the congregation is guilty, they (the conquerers) will
dwell in their place in great arrogance.

(24) Krtm evidently refers to
Shemuel or, much more likely,
Saul, as he is described as of the
tribe of Benjamin. The name of
Krtm is a cryptogram like Azrz.

(25) Refers to David. See also
Assumption of Moses II. 3.

(27) Refers to the building of the
Temple of Sion cf. above ch. 111.
v. 13, where Sion is called Shame
(Gifna).

(29) This refers to Solomon
born of Bathsheba, whom they
describe as a harlot.

(30) The witchcraft of Bileam
refers to Solomon whose great
wisdom is described in the Bible
and is explained by them as the



result of sorcery. Solomon also built
temples for the idol- worship of his
heathen wives. The word nxia
is obscure. Abisha skipped it when
reading. See above in the Trans-
literation. In the Pitron TYID is
substituted, i. e. rebellious. It may
mean, "the soothsayer," or mis-
spelt for mi=son of.

(32) Refers to the destruction
of the Temple trough the Chal-
deans. The words "A nation of
hard face" are taken from Deut.
XXVIII. 50. V. Jubilees XXIII.

23-

(33) Refers to the evil deeds both
of Judah and Israel and the oc-
cupation of the land by foreign



309

him. They were looking at him. He upon whom be the
peace of God was weeping and the tears rolled down from
his eyes to his loins like dew upon the seed. And he showed
them the glory of the Commandments and the high sta-
tion of the faith and its decrees and statutes. And everyone
of them heard his voice and hearkened to his speech.

And the master Joshua listened to everything that came
out of his exalted mouth and he, may the peace of the Lord
be upon him, stood there like the moon in its fulness, in-
structing arid teaching his people the children of Israel.
And his weeping went up to the heart of the heavens and
he cried with a loud voice: "O ye dwellers of the cave,
O ye the meritorious ones of the world ! Does your spirit
know what is in store for your children ?

"Oh thou son of Terah, thou the root of the Perfect and
Meritorious Ones ! Dost thou know that the plants of thy
garden which thou hast planted are being spoilt through
sins and rebellion ?

"Oh thou Isaac, the sacrificed and sanctified (f. 4a) whose
blood had not been spilt! Doth thy spirit know that thy
inheritance which has been established through thy merit,
is going to destruction through sin ?

"Oh thou Jacob, father of the favoured tribes ! Doth thy
spirit, the purified one, know that the tribes which issued
from thee and were saved through me from Egypt by the
power of my Maker and heard His voice crying out from
the midst of fire the Ten Words, and which saw all that
had been done for them and how the mouth of Bileam was
changed so that he said: How goodly are thy tents. O Ja-
cob, thy dwelling places, oh Israel! that all these good
things will be covered up by the curse; and that the
Favour will become hidden, and the sanctuary of the Lord
will be hidden away, and Mount Garizim will be defiled and
the Fanuta spread everywhere, and that no one will be
found zealous for God?" And he the peace of God be
upon him testified against the people with his words



3io



34- The community in turning to strife will persist
and the land will be inherited by the chosen ones
of Alinis.

35. There will be peace in the world, freedom,
might, honour, and a life of happiness.

36. And after that a change in the Writing will
be made.

37. And a new wording they will produce out
of the old.

38. And the Lord thy God will bring thee up
into the land which thy fathers have inherited and
thou shalt inherit it.

39. And Luzah will be rebuilt.

40. There will be a Jubilee in rejoicing and (after
that) there will be a second turning away.

41. And transgression will be seen among the
pure people, but at the end of days

42. On the holy hill he will destroy the images
and he will break the idols.



armies. All these names are pro-
bably cryptograms as the result of
a peculiar permutation of letters.

(34) This refers to the first
return under the priests who came
back from Babylon.

(35) Referring to the same
period probably; See XII. 24.
Jubilees XXIII. 28 ff. Agrees
with Sibyl. Or. III. S73ff. and
657 f. A more materialistic view,
ibid. V. 281 ff. V. XII. 24.

(36) Refers to Ezra who changed
the script.

(37) In A the words Jfiin ]^O
(B, Pitron )have been corrupted
into \my fi^D. A altered the



text so as to differ from and con-
tradict the Samaritan contention.

(38) This probably refers to the
2nd return under Abdiel when a
large number returned from the
exile.

(39) Rebuilding of Sichem
and of the temple on Mount
Garizim.

(40) The author referring to the
time of a Jubilee being re-estab-
lished by the second return of
Abdiel after which again another
turning away will come to pass
(v. 41).

(42) It is very difficult to refer
to any definite period when such



and began rebuking, them saying "Ye have been rebellious
with God and still more so [you will be] after my death.
And thou whom I have brought (f. 4-b) out of Egypt, my
strength and my song, let not my good actions for thee be
lost, so that thou perishest after my death ; for I am going
the way of man, and my heart is frightened of that
which I have seen concerning thee: I am now standing
in the position of a prophet and I behold what will happen
unto thee and unto the generations after thee. Happy shalt
thou be Israel if thou hearkenest unto me and what I now
speak unto thee by my mouth and my tongue. And know
that three times did the Lord say unto me "Come up to
me," and I went up, and I came down with the Law and
with the Tablets ; and at this time now my burden is being
taken off me, which I have inherited from the Father
of all flesh; but ye shall not doubt my return; and now
before my death I will bless you with a pious (beautiful)
blessing founded upon the Name of the Lord thy God."

And all the people were standing and kept in perfect
order in front of him ; and he looked at them and blessed
them each tribe separately, and he began to command
them saying: the commandments and statutes of God
ye shall keep, and ye shall not change it (p. 5 a) lest there
should happen to come upon you the Fanuta, and destruc-
tion should seize you.

Then he turned towards Eleazar the priest the son of his
brother who was standing at his right hand, and he said
unto him "O my brother's son; O thou who art the "Kha-
lif" of God ; O thou who art the heir to the high priesthood ;
now thou hast been placed in this position where the Lord
is thy possession; keep it fully." Then he turned from him
to his brother's son Ithamar, and he said unto him "O thou
in whose hands is the keeping of the watch of the Levites,
and all the goodly vessels, keep thy priesthood and the
holy vessels which are in thy hand and make thyself
worthy before the Judge of judges."



312



Chapter XII. [Oracle.]

1. A prince will arise with a strong hand for
ten [years], and the proud nation Nds (or Ami-
nds) will come in his days.

2. A prince will arise with might from his people
for five [years] and he will not be exalted.

3. A crowned prince will arise, of evil repute: in
his days they (he) will be destroyed through the
hand of strangers.



images on the Holy Mountain have
been destroyed or whether the text
should notbedifferently translated.
(42) Concerning the cult of
Zeus and temples and statues in
on Mt. Garizim, see. A. B. Cook
Zeus vol. II, 2. p. 888 ff.

XII. Ch.

(i) See Introduction, where the
history of the Oracles has been
dealt with fully from the oldest
form found in the book of Daniel
down to the latest of mediaeval
oracles in connection with the
Sibyl of Tibur. Reference has also
been made there between this
set of Oracles and especially
the final portion with the vari-
ous Messianic traditions and
their relation to the Bileam
saga and its further development.
It is a hopeless task to identify
these names with any historical
personage. The Samaritans them-
selves have failed to find a satis-
factory interpretation of this oracle.
As the parallelism between the
Asatir and the Sibyl of Tibur is so
remarkable, I have limited my-
self to refer to it here almost
exclusively. It may be mentioned



that at the same time, the Sama-
ritan writers seem fully conver-
sant with this oracle as shown in
Introduction. In the Asump-
tion of Moses (ed. Ferrar 1917)
Ch. II. there is a list of kings
of Judah and Israel and the
action of the latter is similar
to that given in the following
oracle. But this may either refer to
the one or they other, both being
held in abhorrence by the Sama-
ritans, with rare exceptions; for
they considered them to be wicked
and idolaters. Josephus Antiq.
X. 8. 4. 143 reckons 21 Kings from
David to Captivity. Assump-
tion of Moses II. 316, mentions
19 and 20 (?) kings of Israel and
Judah up to the destruction of the
Temple. The Samaritans them-
selves no longer understand the
meaning of ""^D. It could also
mean: complete, or the whole of.
Aminds, interpreted by the
Samaritans, as "abominable na-
tion," a metaphor probably for
"Greeks" a cryptogram for p* 1 (?)
(3) Tiburtine 4: According to
Paris recension of Matthew where
"barbarian nations" are men-
tioned missing in Sackur.



313

His eye lit upon the master Pinehas who was standing
at his left, and he said unto him, "Thy zeal has been mani-
fest when thou didst behold a man turning away from the
way of truth and sinning, thou didst rise and smite him
according to thy excellent habit." Then he turned his
eyes which were not dimmed to the master Joshua son of
Nun his servant and he said unto him: "Be strong and
of good courage (f . 5 b) for thou shalt bring this community
into the land which is the most perfect of all the lands,
which the Lord has sworn to give as an inheritance to the
seed of the root of the Meritorious Ones; and may the Lord
who prospers those who pray unto him assist thee and
grant thee divine prosperity."

After that with his mighty countenance he turned to-
wards the house of the priesthood the sons of Levi, and
he said unto them: "Keep your priesthood and all the holy
things which are in your hands ; ye are taking the portions
of God, and you eat them in those places where Israelites
are found ; and this is the reward of your service unto you
and unto your seed after you ; ye shall not defile the holy
things so that Belial should cause you to act treach-
erously through his treachery." Then he turned with his
word to the heads of the tribes, and he said unto them:
"Beware lest ye turn away from the statutes which I have
established ; so that there shall not be destroyed that which
has been built up by me through my holy teaching." And
then he spoke to the judges to every one of them singly
"Ye shall do no iniquity in judgment; and ye shall take no
bribery; and judge righteously between every man and
his neighbour."

And to the scribes he said: "Teach the community the
laws and statutes and commandments with good care, as
the righteous and the just has commanded, and each one
of you shall watch carefully upon his station (f. 6 a) And this
is the end of my presence with you, and ye shall not doubt
that I will return from Mount Nebo unto you." Then he



4. A prince will arise strong in truth: in his days
the salvation of the community will be great.

5. A crowned prince will arise: in his days the
yoke of iron will return.

6. A prince will arise mighty in wealth: in his
days the house of worship (?) will be built.

7. A prince will arise who will dwell in Luzah
and Aminds will be in trouble.

8. A prince will arise mighty in the knowledge
of the truth : the people will rejoice.

9. A crowned prince will arise: he will walk in
darkness: his days will be of trouble.

10. A prince will arise mighty in wealth: rulers
will perish in his days in secret. A hundred will
flee to the borders of Sichem.

11. A prince will arise [Gog] (he) will perish in
grief: in his days the people will turn back to sin
and they will forsake the covenant (or, they will turn
back and sin against the covenant and be punished).

12. A prince will arise: tribulation and weariness
will be before this.



(4) Tiburtine 7.

(5) To this many parallels of
wicked kings can be found. So
ibid: 13 or 22.

(6) This passage may also be
translated "the house of worship".
cf. Tibur 3.

(7) D13 >&$ according to the
Samaritans is interpreted "Abo-
minable nation being a deliberate
change for SI^By n. pr. meaning
"generous nation" probably a
cryptic form.

(8)cf. Tibur n.



(9) cf. Tibur 13.

(i i) The nation Gog is taken as
typical for froward, wicked or
cruel. The word Gog is missing in
Cod. B., but it inserts it in v. 13.
cf. Tibur 18. In addition to the
remarks concerning Gog, Introd.
should like to add that Esther,
the Greek Lucian ed. (ed. La-
garde) instead of Agag in
the Hebrew text there appears
Gogos, i. e. Gog.

(12) Simple forms of Messianic
Woes. More fully elaborated later



315

lifted up his voice and spoke with a high voice, O "Gers-
hom and Eleazer my sons, unto you be the blessing of ever-
lasting peace from me."

And all the people stood in front of him him and the
tears were bedewing their faces, and his weeping was
greater than theirs, for he saw what would happen unto
them through their corruption.

And when he had finished speaking with them he, upon
whom be the peace of the Lord, stood upon his feet and
looked at them and repeated the greeting of Peace unto them.
Then he hastened to go up toMountNebo to die there ; and our
master the priest Eleazar supported him on the right hand,
for the Lord had exalted him, and his son Pinehas suppor-
ted him on the left side, and Ithamar and Joshua and the
whole house of the priesthood walked with him weeping
with a loud weeping. And when they reached the foot of
Mount Nebo, then the heads of the tribes drew near together
and kissed his hands, and the whole community of Israel
were shouting "Peace unto him." And then Eleazar and
Ithamar and Pinehas drew near and fell down to his feet
and kissed his right hand and his left hand, [f . 6 b] And after
that his servant Joshua drew near and kissed his face and
his right hand and his left hand; and then bowed down
and knelt, and began to address him with "Peace" unto him.
"May peace by upon thee O thou who hast rent the heights .

Peace unto thee thou who didst tread upon the fire. Peace
unto thee O thou who didst draw near unto the thick
cloud. Peace unto thee O thou who was clothed with light.

Peace unto thee O thou who didst receive the Law. Peace

unto thee O thou to whom the covenant was handed.

Peace unto thee O thou whose hymns were so powerful.

Peace unto the O thou to whom the Lord spake mouth to
mouth. Peace unto thee O thou who art the essence of the

Meritorious of the World. Peace unto thee O thou whose

glory was not hidden. Bitter unto me is the hour of thy
separation."



316



13. A prince will arise at the end of wickedness :
in his days desolation from the land of the mighty
a mighty force will bring.

14. A prince will arise who will increase the tri-
bulation of the people.

15. A prince will arise through wickedness of
sorcery :. the Temple of Sichem will be burnt by his
hand.

16. A prince will arise, Gog, after these.

17. A prince will arise with tribulation: the
land of the Hebrews he will lay waste.

1 8. A prince will arise through modesty (prayer ?) :
in his days he will be wise.

19. A prince will arise, the son of sin: in his days
the false sanctuary will be established at the end
because of his evil deeds it will be burned with fire
and brimstone.



on in general eschatology see
Charles Eschatology and Weber
Eschatologie. Tibur 22.

(13) cf. Tibur 13. cf. Matthew
Paris.

(14) cf. Tibur 13.

(15) cf. Tibur 17.

(16) -The appearance of Gog
here before the days of the Taheb,
and the wars which will ensue,
leading up to the final victory of
Israel, have been fully treated
(Introduction).

(17) The word ETHS does not
occur in the Samaritan. It is pro-
bably a corruption from ttM"D,
i. e. violence, tribulation. The
initial S must have been read
like 2 as in v. 21 in the word
nk&JB = rPBVO and T has easily
been mistaken for 1.



(18) Tiburtine 23.

(19) Ab Hasda in Tabab. f. 508
interprets Deut. XXXII. 22 as
follows: This verse refers to the
two places on which the rebellious
rely and seek them, and that is
Jerusalem, towards which the
Jews are turning and made it
a place of worship. A fire will
come out from before God
against this city and brimstone
and salt of which it is said:
(Deut. 29. 23). "And thatthewhole
land thereof is brimstone and salt
and. burning, that it is not sown
nor beareth, nor any grass
groweth therein." And is evident
from his earlier saying (Deut.
XXX. 22). "And shall consume
the earth and its increase." The
wording is absolutely identical



317

And when he finished these words, then the exalted pro-
phet lifted up his beautiful voice to those who were sur-
rounding him, and he said unto them: "Remain in peace,
and from this day on I shall have no further intercourse
with you."

And when the people heard this word then they felt
sorely grieved, and they lifted up their voices and said : "By
thy life, O thou O prince of the prophets, tarry with us
an hour longer. By thy life, O thou Messenger of God,
stay with us just for one short.while." And the Lord pro-
proclaimed unto him saying "Hasten." (f. 7 a.) And the
people never ceased weeping, and shouting aloud they
said "O thou glory of the prophets, tarry with us for one
hour." And the angels of heaven shouted to him with loud
shouting "Quicken thy step O Moses and come accor-
ding to the command of the word of the God of Gods;"
and when the people realised this word which caused them
so much pain, and they knew that he was going away
from them, then they said with one mouth "Go in peace
O prophet; go in peace O thou the of the house of Levi,
go in peace O thou to whom the Lord God hath revealed
everything that was hidden and open."

And the prophet Moses, the son of Jochebed and Amram
went up to Mount Nebo, with great honour crowned with
light, and all the angels came to meet him. And in the hour
when he became separated from the people and he has-
tened to go up to the top of the mountain, then the whole
congregation of Israel shouted with a great and bitter
shout which went up to the heart of heaven from the earth.
And the Messenger upon whom be the peace of the Lord
went up slowly, slowly, and he looked back to those whom
he had left behind and the tears were trickling down
from his eyes for his people when he separated himself from
them. And he grieved in his heart (saying). "How will they
fare after me." (f.7b) He was like a loving woman who
leaves her suckling child. And he blessed them with a



20. A prince will arise, one who abolishes cir-
cumcision: in his days he will suck from the abun-
dance of the sea.

2 1 . A prince will arise : in his days the community
of abomination (Aminds) will again be scattered in
the land ofGb'alah while Israel does valiantly and the
top of the hill will be in glory, and faith established.

22. A prince will arise from the section (portion)
of the Lawgiver. From the West the messenger of
peace (comes) to the gate of glory. The community
will rejoice; for they will worship our Lord in peace.

23. A prince will arise who will spoil the [gentile]
nation and "will come out of (rule from) Jacob and
will destroy the remnant of the town."

24. A prince will arise who will write the Law
in truth, the rod of miracles in his hand. There
will be light and no darkness.



with the Oracle. Tabyah el Doweik
in his treatise on the second King-
dom adduces the same argument
as the Vlth proof, but in a slight-
ly different form and he does
not mention distinctly the burn-
ing of the Temple. But on the
other hand in Proof IV he inter-
prets the prophecy of Bileam,
Numb. XXII. iyff. in a manner
which shows his dependence also
on the Asatir XII. 21. See also
Introduction concerning this por-
tion of Bileam's prophecy. Sibyl
XII. 28 ff.

(20) Literal phrase taken from
Hebrew text. Deut. XXXIII. 19,
but the passage seems to be
corrupt and the spelling is entirely
phonetic e. g. nDt?3 = ySBtt.

(21) This verse seems to reflect



in a different form the same
outlook as given in the Prophecy
above XI. 41 42. The word
/TWB has no meaning. Pro-
bably a corruption from rPBVi
i. e. in his days, which occurs often
in this Oracle. Initial S was pro-
bably pronounced 1 like tt^llS
= m in v. 17.

(22) Deuter: XXXIII. 21. It is
noteworthy that both in the Asatir
and in the Samaritan Targum, ed.
Walton Hebrew words were re-
tained untranslated. Briill gives a
translation. In the P. T. it refers
to Moses who is to come back
and lead the people in the time
to come. Tibur 23.
(24) A full description of the Time
of the Taheb and the signs of his
advent in the poem of Abisha son



319

choice blessing, full of mysteries, rejoicing at the call
of his Master and looking up to the top of Mount Nebo.
There he beheld the rows of angels resting there, and the
community of the children of Israel were standing at he
foot of the mountain and they lifted up their eyes to look
at him and he likewise may peace be upon him did also
look at them. Bitter was the hour in which the prophet
was covered up by a thick cloud and was lifted up beyond
the ken of the eye. And the angels rejoiced and were
delighted. They came down from heaven with hymns and
they praised and thanked God, lauding and magnifying
Him with honour. And the Lord opened the light of his
eyes and he beheld the four corners of the world and he
praised the Lord of the world.

Great was that hour in which Moses beheld the boundar-
ies of the land, the inheritance of the people. And the Lord
revealed unto him the ordinances of the day of requital
and all that will happen [as described] in his mighty oration.
He therefore did not fear death, which is the passing out
of the soul from this world, and he lifted up his eyes (f. 8 a)
and he beheld Mount Garizim Bethel Luzah. And he bowed
down and prostrated himself on his face and he turned
in his prostration towards it. And when he rose from the
prostration, he beheld a cave with the door open. When he
saw it open he praised the Merciful One and the Gracious
One and he went into that cave and he turned his face
towards Mount Sifra and he laid himself down to sleep
upon the ground. And the Lord let fall upon him a deep
sleep and his holy spirit went out with the breath; and the
angels of the Lord were ordered to take it up, as be-
fitted his greatness and his countenance. And the
days of his life were-as is written in the holiest of teachings
one hundred and twenty years. Of these he spent in
Egypt: twenty, in Midian sixty, and forty in the wilderness,
and all of them in great honour which cannot be sur-
passed, in prayers and fasting and in goodly knowledge.



320



25. May the Lord hasten this: and happy is
he who will see it and will reach [that time] Blessed
be our God forever, blessed be His name forever.

26. Twenty-six corresponding to twenty-six.
Praised be He who knows the hidden and the
revealed, may He be exalted, Adam, Noah, Abraham,
Moses, upon them may peace be everlasting.

of Pinehas (Cowley, pp. 5 1 1 5 19
and Merx, DerTaheb ef. my review
in "Studies and Texts" p. 638 ff.
Concerning this rod and its
Messianic significance see above
note to Asatir III. 25. The
vague allusions to the future time
of happiness and redemption agree



with the Sibylline Oracles III.
282285, 367380, 573595,
702731, 740760, 767794.
See also above XL 35.

(25) In the colophon 26 is given
as the final number: evidently
these lines must be counted as the
last of the 26 stanzas.



321

And at his death his eye had not grown dim nor had his
sap vanished.

And as to our master Joshua his praise grew mighty and
his throne became exalted, and he became filled with the
spirit of wisdom ; for he who was the flower of all that
breathes, had placed his hand upon him; may the peace
of the Lord be upon him.

And this is the end of all that we have found of the
record of the death of the Messenger (f. 8 b) Moses, son
of Amram. May the prayer and the peace be upon him
and upon his forefathers.



Asatir. 21



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.

Albiruni: Ed. Sachau.

Algazi: Toledot Adam, Venice 1 600.

Anonym. Chron. : Anonymi Chronologica, ed. B. G. Nie-

buhr, Bonn 1831.
Anon. Poem: Samaritan MS.
Aptowitzer: V. Aptowitzer, Kain und Abel, Wien-Leipzig

1922.
Armen. Adamschr. : Die Apocryphen Gnostischen Adam-

schriften aus dem Armenischen, ubersetzt von E. Preu-

schen, GieBen 1900.
Assumptio Mosis:

ed. R. H. Charles, London 1897 (see also Charles,
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testa-
ment, Oxford 1913, Vol. II. p. 4O7ff.;

ed. E. Kautzsch, Die Apogryphen und Pseudepi-
graphen des A. T., Tubingen 1900, Vol. II. p. 31 iff.).

Bate. Sib. Or.: H. N. Bate, The Sibylline Oracles, Books

III V, London 1918.
Beer: Abraham Beer, Das Leben Abrahams, Leipzig

1859.
B. of Bee: E. A. Budge, The Book of the Bee, Oxford 1886.

Charles, Eschatology: R. H. Charles, A Critical History
of the Doctrine of a Future Life. London 1899.

Chs. of Rabbi Eliezer: The Chapters of Rabbi Eliezer
(Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer);

ed. pr. Constantinople 1514.

Trsld. by G. Friedlander, London 1916.

Chron. Pasch. : Chronicon Paschale ed. B. G. Niebuhr,
Bonn 1832.



323

Cowley, Liturgy: A. E. Cowley, The Samaritan Liturgy,
Oxford 1909.

F. Delitzsch: Die Geschichte der Jiid. Poesie, Leipzig 1836.

*

Eisenstein Ozar: I. D. Eisenstein, Ozar Midrashim,
New York 1915.

Eisler, Orpheus: R. Eisler, Orphisch-Dyonistische My-
steriengedanken in der Christlichen Antike. Berlin-
Leipzig 1925.

Enoch: The Book of Enoch ed. R. H. Charles, Oxford
1912.

Ethiop. Adam: The Ethiopic Book of Adam and Eve ed.
and trsld. by I. C. Malan, London 1882.

Fabricius: Codex Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testament!

ed. J. A. Fabricius, Hamburg and Leipzig 1713.
Frankel, Einfluss : Z. Frankel, "Dber den Einfluss der palas-

tinischen Exegese auf die alexandrinische Herme-

neutik. Leipzig 1851.
Freudenthal, Hell. Stud.: J. Freudenthal, Hellenistische

Studien, Breslau 1874.

Gaster Exempla:

M. Gaster, The Exempla of the Rabbis, London-Leip-
zig 1924.

The Chronicles of Jerabmeel, London 1899.

Studies and Texts, London 1925.

Gedalyah Shalshelet: Gedalyah Aben Yahyah, Shalshelet

Hakkabbalah, Ed. Pr. Venice 1587.
Geiger Mohammed : A. Geiger, Was hat Mohammed aus

dem Judentum aufgenommen? Bonn 1833.
Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der Bibel Breslau

1857.
Ginzburg Legends L. Ginzburg, The Legends of the

Jews. Philadelphia i9O9ff.

21*



324

Griinbaum, Neue Beitr. : M. Griinbaum, Neue Beitrage
zur Semitischen Sagenkunde, Leiden 1893.

Gruppe, Griech. Myth.: O. Gruppe, Griechische Mytho-
logie, Munich 1906.

Hastings Encycl. : Hasting's Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics.

Jerarimeel vide Gaster.

Jew. Enc. : Jewish Encyclopedia.

J.R.A.S.: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Jellinek: A. Jellinek, Beth Hamidrash, Leipzig 1855.

Jubilees: The Book of Jubilees,

ed. R. A. Charles, London 1902;

ed. G. A. Ross, London 1917.

Kampers, Kaiseridee: F. Kampers, Die Deutsche Kaiser-
idee in Prophetic und Sage, Munich 1896.

Kampers, Werdegang: F. Kampers, Vom Werdegang der
Abendlandischen Kaisermystik, Berlin 1924.

Kebra: Kebra Nagast transld. by C. Bezold, Munich 1905.
[Budge, Queen of Sheba is the English Translation.]

Langlois: V. Langlpis, Collection des Historiens de 1'Ar-
menie. Paris 1867.

Malif: Samaritan MS. Biblical Questions and Answers.
Mechilta, ed. pr. Constantinople 1515,

ed. Friedmann, Vienna 1870.

Merx, Taheb : A. Merx, Der Messias oder der Ta'eb der

Samaritaner. GieBen 1909.

Meshalma: Commentary to Genesis, Samaritan MS.
Methodius vide Sackur Sibyll. Texte.

Pauly-Wissowa. Enc. Klass. Alt: Pauly-Wissowa-(Kroll)
Real-Encyclopadie der Klassischen Altertumswissen-
schaft, Stuttgart i894ff.

Pesikta: Pesikta de Rabbi Kahana, ed Buber, Lyck 1868.



3 2 5

Pesikta Rab: Pesikta Rabbati,

ed. pr. Prague 1656,

ed. M. Friedmann, Vienna 1880.
Pseudo-Philo: The Biblical Antiquities of Philo trsld. by

M. R. James, London 1917.

Sackur Sibyl. Texte: E. Sackur, Sibyllinische Texte und

Forschungen, Halle a/S. 1898.
Samaritan Ar. Book of Joshua, ed. Jpynboll, and different

recension Sam. MSS.
Schatzhohle: Carl Bezold, Die Schatzhohle, Leipzig 1883.

(Cave of Treasures.)
Schiirer: Schurer, Geschichte des Jiidischen Volkes zur

Zeit Jesu III.
Seder Hadoroth: Seder Hadoroth by Yehiel Heilprin,

ed. pr., Carlsruhe 1769.

Last edition by Naftali b. Abraham, Warsaw 1878.
Seder Olam. ed. pr. Mantua 1514.

ed. B. Rathner, Wilna 1894.

ed. A. Marx (Chs. I X), Berliner Dissertation 1903.
Sib. Or.: Sibylline Oracles, various editions.

Tolidah: Chronique Samaritaine, ed A. Neubauer, Paris
J873.

Urim ve Tumim. by Abraham b. Abraham, Dyhernfurth
1700.

Vita Adae

in Charles, Pseudepigrapha.

A. Kautzsch, Pseudoepigraphenj

Weber, Eschatologie : in F. Weber, Jiidische Theologie,
P- 332 #

Yashar: Sefer Hayashar

ed. pr. Venice 1625. English translation by Donalson,
New York 1840.



INDEX.

(Note.) Figures not preceded by a letter refer to the pages
of the Introduction. Figures separated from these by a dash and
preceded by the letters A, N, or P refer to the translation of the
Asatir, the Notes and the Pitron respectively. These references are
by Chapter and Verse, Roman figures being used to indicate the
Chapters and Arabic figures for the Verse. References have been
given to the Notes and Pitron when these give matter not found in
the text and not merely comments on the latter. References preceded
by M are to the Translation of the Death of Moses and give the page.

Aaron: page

Death A IX 39

Stones of breast-plate P II 7

Ab Hasda, author of Tabah, borrowings from Asatir 58, 135
Ab Hasda, Samaritan High Priest, copies of Asatir made by 163, 173
Abdalla ben Shalma, date and dependence on Asatir 73, 139

Abimelech, theft of Sarah 34, 69

Abarim, Mount from which Moses see Holy Land A XI 4

Abisha, Samaritan poet, dependence on Asatir 139

Abisha, Samaritan priest, aid to author 163, 164, 174, 176, 177

(footnote)
Abraham:

Angels' message to P VI 27

Asatir version of story 24, 33 34, 68 70

Assyrians, fight against 70

Astrology, supposed knowledge 31, 34 35, 41

Astronomy taught by, see Calendar below.

Babel story connection 28, 39, 41

Birth:

Omission in Josephus 66

Titan and Chronos legends, parallels 22 23, 25

Various versions 24 27

Calendar taught to Egyptians and others 31, 34 35

Chronological discrepancies in story 38

Circumcision accepted A VII 26

Dwellings A VI 8, 12 A VII 2

in Egypt variants of story 32 35, 37, 40, 69 A VI 10 26,

VII 2

in Elijah de Vidas' version 26 27

Escape from fire 27, 69 A V 27

Eusebius version of story 39

First prayer and proclamation of faith A VI 2023



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Abraham :

Genizah version 25

Idols destroyed by 23, 34 A VI n

Josephus account 33 35, 66, 68 70

Melchizedek's gifts refused A VII 19 20

in Meshalma's writings 37

at Mt. Garizim A VI 9

in Phoenicia 18, 28, 41

Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer, version of story 27

and Philistines 34, 69

in Pseudo-Eupolemos' works 18 19, 27 28, 32 35, 37 39

Revelation to A VI 8, VII 22 23

War with Kedar Laomer and others A VII 8 21 P VI 7

Zeus, identification with 26

Abraham ben Jacob, see Ibrahim ben Jacob.

Abraham Kabasi, borrowings from Asatir 139

Abraham Sakuto, writer on chronology 145

Abraham, son of Pinehas, copy of Asatir made by 163, 164

Abul Hassan, author- of Tabah see Ab Hasda.

Abydenos, history of Tower of Babel 13, 15

Adah, built by Lamech A II 9

Adah, descendant of Canaan A VIII 7

Adam:

Age 146 A I 24, III I

Astronomy and the Calendar instituted by 35 36, 65, 85, 108,

137, 141 A I 22

Book of Signs, source of his wisdom 35 36 A II 7, 12, 37

Death and burial A III I 4

Dwellings A I 19, 21, 23, II 1 1

Flood foretold A II 17

in Garden eight days A I 25

Hebel beloved by A I 15

and Mt. Garizim 123

in Pseudepigraphic literature 5 6, 113 115

Rebukes sons of Kain P II 12

Separation from Eve for century A I 26

Teaches descendants in Book of Truth A II 7, 12, 25 31 37

Adar Shgg, dwelling of Noah 148

Adrms, place of worship of Adam 148 A III 14

Afrikia see Phrygia.

Agag see Gog.

Ahidan :

Builds Sion A III 13, 19

Chief of Kainites A II 35

Children of A III 18

Idolatry set up by 100 101 A III 14 16, 20 30

Taught by Adam P II 31

Towns built by A III 19



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Aholibamah, descendant of Canaan A VIII 7
Akiba, Rabbi, new versions of Palestinian Targum and Pentateuch 82
Akushim see Gezurah.
Al Doweik see Ghazal al Doweik.

Al'alah, twin sister of Kain and Rebel's wife A I 3
Albasra see Skips.

Alexander, treatment of name Kamarine " 30
Alexander Polybistor see Polyhistor.
Algezirah see Great Kutah.

Alinis, promise of land to A XI 34

Al'ns, site of Rechobot P II n
Alrif see Rifon.

Altar, first, erection and restoration A I 6, 7, VI 27

Amalek, defeat by Israel A IX 33

Aminds, "proud nation" of Oracle A XII, i, 7, 21
Amr see Hobah.
Amram, father of Moses:

Plti's prophecy 73 74, 140 A VIII 25 29, P VIII 31

Saves Hebrew children A VIII 38
Amraphel, king of Shinear:

Identification with Nimrod 29

War against Abraham 28 29 A VII I, 4

'Anah, built by Lamech A II 9

'Aniram, covenant with Abraham A VII 9

Antichrist legend:

in Apocalyptic writings 51 52, 60

Development from Bileam legends 96, 104

in Mandean teaching 128

in Sibyl of Tibur 47

Antokia see Hanohiah.

Apocalypse literature, meaning 4

See also Oracular writtings.
Apocalypse of Daniel, see Daniel.
Apocalypse of Moses:

Asatir, comparison 115

Ascription to Moses, reason 6

Character and contents 5, 115

Apocryphal literature, meaning and origin 4, 83

Aquilas, Greek translation of Pentateuch 82, 83

Arabic, use in Asatir 150 153, 165

Arad, King of, wars with Israel A IX 40

Aram:

Land received from Shem A IV 14, 30

War with giants 30

Aram Naharaim, dwelling of Bileam P X 8

Aramaic, Jewish pronunciation 175

Ararat, Mt. in Asatir and Josephus 68

Arfat, dwelling of Kain A I 17



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Argarizin, meaning 19
Ark:

Accounts compared 67

Made by Noah A IV 8
Armilos :

Identity with Bileam 93, 94 96

Occurence of name in various works 94 95
Arpachsad:

Dwellings A IV 14, 31

Identification with Saturn 25

Persecution by Nimrod II, 24 25 A V 16
Artapanos :

and Asatir, divergence 40, 42

Date and nature of work 40, 72

and Josephus, relationship 63, 71 72
Asatir Moshe:

Anachronisms in legend of Nimrod 38

Anti-Jewish bias 42, 128, 133

Antiquity 60 61

Arabic glosses on names 150 151, 165
Arabic paraphrase:

Characteristics 57 58, 168 170

Date 170

Manuscripts and copies existing 168

Apocryphal literature, relationship to 4, 42 43

Authorship 5 7

Characteristics I, 39, 80, 84, 140
Chronology, characteristics and objects 122, 141 147 PXI20

Contents i 3, n, 158 159, 121
Date of composition 9, 39, 79, 80, 109, 153, 158 160

Discovery 8

Editing, method employed 166 168

Eschatology 145
Geographical names:

Forms used 150 153

Identification difficulty 147

"He learned" characteristic phrase 144

and Josephus, parallels 61 79, 122

and Joshua, Arabic Samaritan version, correspondences 37, 77,

136, 171

Language 150, 151, 156 158, 160 161, 165

and Mandaean writings, comparison 127 134

Manuscripts and copies, description 163 166

and Mosaic prophecy, place 5, 86 87
Oracle:

and Bileams prophecy, connection 90

Contents 42

Daniel's visions, comparison 50



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Asatir Moshe (contd.):
Oracle:

List of kings 45 46

Omission from Arabic paraphrase 57 58

Origin and antiquity 57 58

Poetic form 58 59

and Palestinian Targum parallels 80, 84 90

Period covered by 5

Personal names, treatment 154 156

Prophecy, contents and characteristics 42, 46 47

See also Oracle above.

and Pseudepigraphic literature, relationship 8 9, 105, 120

and Pseudo-Eupolemos, relationship 17 42

Punctuation 163 165

in Samaritan literature, references 5, 137, 140

Samaritan view 3, 6 8
and Sibyl of Tibur:

Parallel passages 53 57

Relationship 42 61
and Sibylline oracles:

Parallel passages 32, 45 46

Relationship 19 42

Sources in Midrash 98

Title, meaning and origin 3 5

Translation difficulties 167 168

Transliteration 174

Unique features 119, 121 124

and Universal legends, connections traced 99 105

Asbolus see Chus.

Ascensio Jesaiae, use of name Beliar in 96
Ashur:

Book of Wars given to A IV 15

Land allotted to A IV 14, 27

War with race of Joktan A VIII 9
Assumption of Moses:

Character and contents 5, 116

and Hebrew legends, comparison 78

Prophetic character, comparison with Asatir 43, 87

and Samaritan Chronicle, comparison 180

Astrology: Abraham's supposed knowledge 34 35, 40, 41

Astronomy:

Abraham as first teacher 31, 34 35

Book given by Noah to Elam A IV 15

Origin 37

Samaritan system 37

See also Calendar.

Asur, birth A III 18

'Atirt, name of Pharaoh A IX 19



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'Atrot Shafim, built by Kenan . A II 4

'Azrz see Eli.

Baalhanan, king of Edom A VIII 10

Bab el Abwab, town of Corner and Magog A IV 27, 29

Babel, Tower of:

Asatir version 20 21 A IV 32 V 3 5

and Giants, stories linked by Sibyl 13

in Sibylline Oracle, compared with other versions 12, 13 16
Variants in different writers 12 15, 17 19, 21 22

See also Nimrod.

Badan, dwelling of Adam 148 A I 19, III 2 P I 23

Balak, sends for Bileam to curse Israel A X I 3

Barah, built by Lamech P II 9

Bel see Belus.

Bela, son of Joktan, king of Edom A VIII 8

Beliar, evil spitit identified with Bileam 96 97

Belus:

Builder of tower 41

Identification with persons of Nimrod and Abraham legends

15, 38
Two persons so named 33, 38 N VI 2

Bene Elohim, interpretation of name 17, 121

Berosian Sibyl, version of Titan legend 24

Berosus:

Babel legend in works of 14

Compiler of list of kings 141

Bet Ad, dwelling of Hadad - A VIII 11

Beth Maktash see Jerusalem.

Bible:

and Asatir, relationship 61 62, 161

Chronological system evolved from 141

Literature of, debt to Josephus 61, 71, 105

Samaritan recension, evidence of Asatir on date 161

Ultimate source of legends 14, 19

Bileam :

Advice to Balak to tempt Israel A X 18

in Al Doweik's work . 137

in Asatir 59, 7677, 85, 88, 122, 130132 A X

Ass frightened by Angel P X 8

in Bible, references 88

Blesses Israel P X 10 18

Capture by Israelites A X 47 49

Demon worship attributed to 130 132

Genealogy 154 A X i

Gods of, names A X 6 17
Identification withLaban, Armilos andothersSs, 88, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99



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Ass frightened by Angel

in Josephus 76 77
Messianic development of story 88, 94, 95, 98 99

in Palestinian Targum 77, 88 89

Prophecy of, influence on Asatir Oracle 59

Source of Antichrist story 96

Bispara see Sifra.

Book of Astronomy:

Given by Noah to Elam A IV 15

History of N III 25

Book of Creation, learnt by Noah A III 9

Book of Enoch, see Enoch, Book of.

Book of Generations of Adam see Book of Wars.

Book of Signs:

Adam's wisdom derived from 34, 36, 37, 65

Authorship 37

Given to Arpachshad IV 15

Parallel in Josephus 65

Prophecy of destruction of Nimrod 24 N V 16

Taught by Adam to his sons A II 7, 12, 35
Wizards using A VI 18, VII 4, X 5

Book of Truth, taught by Adam to Lamech A II 25

Book of Wars, given to Ashur A I 21, IV 15

Book of Wonders, ace: of death of Moses 78

Bousset:

on Antichrist 96, 97

on Worship of Elements 131

Brandt, W., work on Mandaean literature 125

Brktrs, dwelling of Arpachshad A IV 31

Calah Rehoboth Ir, built by sons of Shem A IV 35

Calendar:

in Asatir, comparison with Bk. of Enoch 108

Festivals and fasts, how fixed 142, 143
Institution by Adam 35 36, 65, 85, 108, 137, 141

in Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer 117

Reformation, evidence in Book of Jubilees no
Samaritan view, controversy with Jews 31 (footnote), 35 37, in

Taught by Abraham to Egyptians etc. 31, 34 35
See also Chronology.

Cave of Treasures:

and Asatir, comparison 113 114

Contents, comparison with Methodius 21

Chain of High Priests:

Compiled to discredit Jewish claims 145

on Noah, agreement with Josephus 68

Chain of Tradition see Gedalyah aben Yahia.



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Chaldaean Sibyl, ascription to, of Sibylline Oracles 12

Chanoch, see Enoch.
Charassan the Black see Great Kutah.

Chosroe, claims to worship 100 101

Chronica Maiora see Matthew of Paris.
Chronicles of Jerahmeel see Jerahmeel.
Chronicles of Moses, parallelism with Josephus 71

Chronology:

in Asatir, peculiar features 122, 141 147

Days of week given in dates A I 25, IV 8 12, VII 14 15, 22,
25, 27, 29, IX 8, 21, 24, 2537, X 50, XI, 15, 16
Eras in use among Jews and Samaritans in, 143

First ten generations, table by Geiger 146147

Noah's calculations A IV 19 22

Rival Samaritans and Jewish compilations 144 145

See also Calendar.

Chronos:

and Abraham, connection of legends 23, 25

Indentification with persons of Hebrew and Babylonian legends

19, 3i, 33

in Sibylline Oracles, connection with Babel 15, 22 24

Chus, progenitor of Ethiopians 33

Circumcision instituted A VII 26, 27

Constans, name of last king on list of Sibyl of Tibur 55

Cryptograms, use in Asatir 124

Damascus, built by Seth A II 3

Daniel literature:

Apocalypse of Daniel, character and contents 51

Book of Daniel, comparison with Asatir 50, 56

Seventh Vision of Daniel, Armenian version 51

Dates see Chronology.

Day of Punishment and Reward, in Asatir 145 146

Demetrius, book on Biblical chronology 122, 141

Divine Institutes see Lactantius.

Division of earth A IV 13 26, 37

Doweik see Ghazal al Doweik.

Dumh see Tbris.

Ebal, Mt. burial place of Enoch A II 39 P II 39

Edom, identification with Esau and Rome 92 93, 97

Edom, kings of, names in Asatir 155 A VIII 10 1 1
Egypt:

Debt to Jews 34 35, 40

First kingdom, origin of legend 19

New dynasty 71 A VIII 14 15

Rise, in Sibylline oracles 12, 13 14, 19



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Elam:

Book of Astronomy given to A IV 15

Land given to by Shem A IV 14, 27

Eleazar, priest, at death of Moses M 305, 311, 315

Elements, origin of worship 131

Eli, schism of 47 N XI 21 23

Elifas, fight with children of Ishmael A VIII 5

Elijah de Vidas, on Nimrod-Abraham legend 26 27

Elon Moreh, dwelling of Abraham and Lot P VI 8

Ennius, use of Titan story 23

Enoch:

Age 147. II 31

Astronomy first taught by 33, 37

Birth A II 6

Learning of Book of Signs A II 7

Death and burial 68, 145 A II 32 40

Piety A II 13 14

Town built by A II I

Translation, view of Meshalma N II 32

Enoch, Book of:

and Asatir, comparison 87, 107 109

Date 107, 159

Symbolism . 45, 50

Enos, Mandaean name for Messias 128

Enosh:

Age and birth A II 2, 27

at Burial of Enoch A II 34

Era of Entry of Children of Israel see Calendar: Eras.

Erythraean Sibyl, authorship of Sibylline Oracles ascribed to 12, 23

Esau :

Associated with Ishmael A VIII 6

Substitution for Seif in Samaritan writings 92, 97

Eschatology in Samaritan writings 145 146

Eshkol, covenant with Abraham A VII 9

Essenes, rise of 127

Euhemeros :

Sibylline Oracles used by 14

Titan legend, version 23

Eupolemos see Pseudo-Eupolemos.

Eusebius:

Collection of legends 13, 39

Knowledge of Sibylline Oracles 12

Eve:

Sojourn in Garden A I 25

Visit to Kain A I 1617

Exempla (Caster) evidence on legend of Universal King 100 101

Eyul Mth see Machpelah.



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Ezekiel :

David represented as expected Messiah 103

Source of Gog and Magog story 92

Ezra:

Charges against in Asatir 47 P XI 21, 24, 36

Influenced by Daniel 50

Fanuta:

Duration foretold by Moses A XI 20

Origin of belief . 144

Fanyah, scattering foretold A XI 33

Fate-willed child legend, in Asatir etc. 101 103

Flood:

Announced to Noah A IV 2

Duration and dates 144, IV 9 10

Foretold, by Adam A II 17 18

Josephus' and Samaritan accounts, difference 67

Flores Historiarum, see Sibyl of Tibur: in European Literature.

Forikh, see Bet 'Ad.

Frankel:

on Messianic idea in Septuagint 91

on Palestinian Targum 81

Freudenthal :

on Artapanos, date 71 72

on Anonymous story of Abraham 41

Pseudo-Eupolemos distinguished from Eupolemos 17 18

Gabala, connection with Messianic idea 92 93

Gamaliel, Rabbi, prophecy on destruction of Gabala 93 (footnote)

Garizim, Mount:

Abraham goes up to A VI 9

Defilement 158 M 305

First altar erected A I 7

Holy Mountain of Samaritans 123 124

Identified with Luzah P XI 39

Meridian used by Samaritans 37

Name in Asatir 66

Restoration foretold A XI 39, 42, XII 7

Seen from Nebo by Moses M 3

Gate of Heaven, name given to Mt. Garizim 123 1-24 A II 40

Gedalyah aben Yahia, writer on chronology 145

Geiger:

Chronological table of first ten generations 146 147

on Palestinian Targum 81, 82

Genealogies, fictitious, purpose 154 155 N VIII 15

Genesis, story of giants 16 17

Genizah fragments in British Museum, contents 25, 27, 53

Genza of the Mandaeans:

Characteristics 126

Publication 125



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Geographical names:

in Asatir 66, 147152

Modernisation in ancient authors, stages 149

Gezurah, dwelling of Pharaoh A VIII 1 8

Ghazal al Doweik:

Asatir first mentioned by 137

Borrowings from Asatir 58, 136 137

on Prophecy of Bileam 90

on Second Kingdom 137

Giants, in Babel and Nimrod legends 13, 16 17, 41

Gibeon, see Rifat.

Gibor, meaning 1617

Gibtai, see Gitt.

Gifna, dwelling of Javan A VIII 16

Gifna, symbolical use of name in Asatir 154

Gifna, wife of Asur, establishes idolatry A III 20 30

Gitt:

Death A V 14

Head of Seven Nations A V 10

War with Nimrod A V 12

Gnosis, see Mandaeans: Doctrine.

God:

Mystical name in Asatir and Moses books 138

Name in Mandaean writings 129

Gog:

in Asatir 90 92 A XII n, 16

Greek Empire identified with 97

in Palestinian Targum 86

Corner, receives land from Japhet A IV 17, 29

Gomorrah, destruction P VII 28

Gots, see Pharaoh (of Moses).

Great Kutah, dwelling of Ld and Aram A IV 30

Greek language, excluded as language of sources of Jewish apocrypha

156
Greek literature:

Jewish rivalry 141

Parallels to Jewish stories of Genesis 33

Hadad, king of Edom A VII u

Haggada, ref. to Laban (Bileam) 95

Haig, counterpart of Abraham in Armenian legends 29

Hakadosh, changes of meaning in Asatir and Mandaean writings

130, 133
Ham:

Identification with Titan and Belus 16, 38

Kingdom of, end A VI I, VII 7

Marries Skh A IV 6

Portion of earth alloted to A IV, 13, 14, 17

Asatir. 22



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Haman, genealogy 154
Hanohiah:

Built by Enoch A II I

Dwelling of Kain and his sons 152 A III 9
Haran:

Death of 102 A V 28

Idol worshipper N V 28

Haran, dwelling of Abraham and Jacob A VII 2. VIII I2mmm

Haran, dwelling of Abraham and Jacob A VII 2, VIII 12 P VI 8

Hayya, see Voice of the Living.

Hazin, "holy God" of Bileam A X 17
Hebel:

Marriage to Makeda A I 3

Murder A I 16 20

Sacrifice A I 6 II

Twin sister A I 3

Hebrew Sibyl, ascription to, of Sibylline oracles 12

Hebrews, land to be laid waste A XII 17

Hebron:

Dwelling of Ahidan A II 35

Identification with Eyul Mth 148
Hellenistic literature:

and Asatir, relationship . 9 42

Debt to Midrash 162 163

in Palestine, date ' 39

Hermes-Thoth, identification with Moses 72

Herod the Edomite, death of, in Bk. of Jubilees 1 10

Hiram, claim to worship 101

Hobah, place of Abraham's meeting with kings A VII 1 6

Hohmata, see Sifra.

Holy Mountain, various identifications 123 124

See also Mt. Garizim.

Horeb, Moses at A IX 20

Husham, king of Edom A VIII 10

Ibrahim ben Jacob, borrowings from Asatir 140

'Irad, birth A II 8

Isaac, son of Abraham A VII 29
Isaac, son of Amram, assistance in transliterating Asatir 174
Ishmael :

Contest with Children of Esau A VIII 5 6

Dwelling according to Josephus 70

Succeeds Abraham A VIII I

Ishmael Rumihi, borrowings from Asatir 74, 139

Israelites, escape from Egypt A IX 30

'Ith, dwelling of Noah A IV 12

Ithamar, priest, at death of Moses M 305, 306, 311, 315

Itanu, son of Ahidan and Gifna A III 27 28



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Ja'azer, built by Mahalalel A II 5

Jabal, town built by A II 23

Jacob, son of Isaac, age and dwelling A VIII 12 18

Jacob, Samaritan High Priest, copies Asatir 168
Jacob ha-Rabban:

and Asatir, correspondence 137

Date 137

Place among pseudepigraphic writers 119

James, M. R., translation of Pseudo-Philo 112

Japhet:

Land given to A IV 13, 14, 17, 37

Marries Mkisth A IV 6

in Nimrod legend and parallel stories 16, 25

Jared:

Age 147, A II 30

at Burial of Enoch A II 34.

Javan:

Ancestor of Pharaoh A VIII 15 1 6

Land given by Japhet A IV, 17

Jerahmeel, Chronicle of:

Characteristics 71, 117 119

Jerusalem:

Abuse in Samaritan literature 128, 154.

Built by Ahidan A III 13

Rock established by witchcraft of Na'amah P II 24

Jesus:

Asatir prophecy applied to P XI 27, 33

Birth, stories in Samaritan writings 172

Hayyah, use of word 129

Mandaean view 132 133

Jethro, flock kept by Moses A IX 20

Jobab, ancestry P VIII 9
Jochebed, mother of Moses 140, A IX 12 13

John the Baptist, Book of 125, 130

Joktan:

Dwelling of children of 66 A V 13

Wars with Ashur A VIII 9

Jonathan, Targum of, evidence on Bileam 94

Joseph in Egypt A VIII 13

Josephus, Antiquities:

Anti-Samaritan bias 64, 67

and Asatir, parallels 61 79, 122

Character and aim of work 61 64, 79

Hellenistic literature neglected 63, 69

and Joshua, Samaritan book of, relationship 66 67, 77

22*



340

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Josephus, Antiquities:

Legendary matter in history, sources 64 65

on Passover 76

Place in Biblical literature 105

Joshua:

Consecrated by Moses A XI i 2 M 313, 320

at Death of Moses M 305, 307, 315

Judgment on Bileam A X 47, 49

Joshua, Samaritan Book of:

and Asatir, relationship 37, 77, 136, 171

Date 171

and Josephus, relationship 66 67, 77

Hebrew version, genuineness 136 (footnote)

on Moses, correspondence with Markah etc. 179

Jskr, burial place of Enoch ' A II 38

Jubal, town built by A II 22

Jubilees, Book of:

and Asatir, comparison no 112, 142

Character and contents no

Chronology 142

Geographical names in 148

Origin and date no 112, 159

Judah, apostacy under Solomon P XI 25, 26

Kabelhaber companion of Mohammed 25

Kadosh, destroyed by Kedar Laomer A VII 5
Kain:

Dwellings A I 2, 17, II 2

Four years absence from Adam A I 14

Killed by Lamech A II 9, 21

Murder of Hebel A I 18 20

Sacrifice A I 8 13

Sons of, evil deeds P II 8, 12

Twin sister A I 3

Visited by Eve A I 15 17

Kamarina, birthplace of Abraham 18, 28, 30 31

Karaites, genealogy of exiliarchs compiled by 155

Kenan:

Birth and age 146 A II 2 3, 28

at Burial of Enoch A II 34

Dwelling A II 4

Kenaz, built by Jabal A II 23

Kedar Laomer, wars against Abraham's kindred A VI 5 7, VII

4 1 6
Kings, lists of:

in Asatir Oracle A XII I 24

Examples 45 46, 49 52

Purpose 60, 141



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Kings paying tribute to Amraphel P VII 7

Kinnereth A VII 13, XI, 11

Kittim, ancestors of Pharaoh A VIII, 15, IX, 19

Kadosh, see Hakadosh.

Kohn, S., work on language of Samaritan Targum 150

Kol Hayyah, see voice of the Living.

Koran, version of Abraham's story 26, 66

Kosbi, killed by Pinehas A X 32 35

Krtm, cryptogram for Saul A XI 24 P XI 24 N XI 24
Kush, confusion with Nimrod 19, 22

Land given to by Ham A IV 17

Kushta, meaning 130

Kutheans, see Samaritans.

Laban, identified with Bileam 85, 95

Lactantius, acquaintance with Sibylline writings 12, 23

Lamech:

Age 147 A II 25

Ancestry A II 8, 25
Images made by A II n P II 31

Murder of Kain A II 9

Noah brought to Adam by A II 19

Towns built by A II 9 10

Law:

Book written by God placed in Ark M 305
Copy made by Moses A XI 3, 15 M 303

Lefehand, name of Lamech's image A II u

Lehaburatim, name of Lamech's image A II II

Lehadim, chief of seven Nations A V 9 10

Leitner, Dr., translation of Arabic Asatir 170

Leo, Emperor, oracle 49
Levi:

Blessing of Moses M 313

Prophecied as ancester of Moses A VIII 25 29

Lidzbarski, work on Mandaean literature 125, 127, 128

Logos Ebraikos, embodied in Book of Enoch 109

Lost hero legend, general account 103 104
Lot:

in Canaan A VII I P VI 8

Capture by Amraphel A VII 8, 13 20

Leaves Egypt with Abraham A VI 26

in Sodom A VII 3 P VII 28

Ld, land received from Shem A IV 14, 30

Luzah, see Garizim, Mt.

Machpelah, burial place of Patriarchs, description 123 A III 3 7,

IV 38



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Mahalalel:

Age 146 A II 29

Birth A II 4

at Burial of Enoch A II 34

Mahlat, sone of associated with Ishmael A VIII 6

Maimonides, references in Arabic Asatir 170

Makeda, twin sister of Hebel and wife of Kain A II 3

Maktash, Samaritan name for the Temple 154

Malif:

Characteristics, borrowings from Asatir 140

Destruction of Tower of Babel described 21

Mamre, covenant with Abraham A VII 9

Manda-de Haya, see Mandaeans: Doctrine.

Mandaeans:

Anti-Jewish teaching 128, 133

Doctrines 126, 129
Language and terminology, affinity with Samaritan 126, 128 130
Literature:

Comparison with Asatir 127 134
History of publication and bibliography 125 (footnote)

Manichaeans, similar in beliefs to Mandaeans 125, 127

Manetho, author of list of kings 141

Mar Apas Katina, versions of the Genesis stories 14 15, 29

Marah, waters sweetened by Moses . A IX 32

. Markah:

Borrowings from Asatir 78, 135

on Passover P IX 31

Poem on death of Moses 78, 178 179

on Sons of Moses . P VIII 39

Matthew of Paris, influenced by Sibyl of Tibur 48, 54 (footnote)

Matthew of Westminster, influenced by Sibyl of Tibur 48,

Mecca, built by children of Nebaot A VIII 3

Mehetabel, wife of Hadad A VIII II

Mehuyael, birth A II 8

Melchizedek, offer of tithe to Abraham A VII 19

Mertis, wizard, flight to Midian A X I

Meseda (Rabta) built by Jubal A II 22

Mesha, dwelling of sons of Joktan A V 13

Meshalma:

Names, treatment by ' 149

Rejection of legends of Terah's idolatry 67

Asatir, early mention by 140

Flood, commentary of 67

Versions of Genesis stories 21, 27, 37
Messiah:

Moses descendants to produce P VIII 39

Twenty-sixth from Fanuta P XII 26



343

page

Messianic idea:

in Asatir 87, 92, 144

in Ezekiel 103

and Lost Hero Legend, connection 103

in Palestinian Targum 92

in Ghazal al Doweik 137
in Bileam prophecies 88 92, 94, 95, 98, 99

Oldest sources 87 88, 90, 93

in Vision of Daniel 51 52

Mestraim:

Ancestor of Egyptians 33

Land given to A IV 18

Methodius of Patara, Revelations:

and Cave of Treasures, comparison 21

Characteristics 114

influenced by Sibyl of Tibur 48
.Metushelah:

Age 147

Birth A II 15

at Burial of Enoch A II 34

Midian:

Dwelling of Moses A IX 17

Wars of Children of Israel against A X 37 51

Midrash:

Antiquity, evidence of Asatir 162

Palestinian, use by Josephus 65

Probable dates 118

Source of Asatir and other writings 98

Miriam, sister of Moses A IX 1 1 12, 38

Mkisth, wife of Japhet A IV 7

Moabites, send women to tempt Israel A X 18 37

Mohammed:

Coming of P XI 33

in Daniel apocalypse 52

Mohammedans, identified with Edom by Samaritans N VIII 7

Molad Moshe, two Samaritan poems agreeing with Asatir 7374,

139

Monotheism, origin attributed to Abraham 69

Moriah, Mt. rival of Mt. Garizim 123, 124

Moses:

Abraham ben Jacobs's account 140

Address to Israelites before death M 309 313

Anonymous poem on, compared with Asatir 137 139

Artapanos version 20, 40, 75

Asatir version 72 75, 77, 122, 137

Benefactor of Egypt 40

Birth 24, 72 74, 140 A VIII 22, IX I

Books ascribed to 3, S6, 7



344

page
Moses:

Children, legends of seclusion 138 P VIII 39, XI 2

Death, various accounts 77, 97 98 A XI I 19

See also Samaritan Chronicle, Death of Moses,
in Egypt 24, 71, 7475. 40 A IX 1417, 2530

Foretold by Adam P II 22

Heavy of tongue, origin of legend 75

Hermes-Thoth, identified with 7 2

Josephus' account 71, 72 75, 77, 179

Length of life, Samaritan tradition 67

in Palestinian Tragum 97 98

Prophecies made by 86 87, 144 A XI 20 42

in Pseudo-Philo 87, 179

Redivivus, Samaritan hopes 55, 60 61, 97 98, 103

Rescue from river IX 2 13

Rod and clothes of Adam given to A IX 22, 32

in Samaritan literature (Codex Caster) 73, 77

Songs of, comparison with Asatir Oracle 46, 59

Vision of Promised Land A XI 4 14 M 319

Wars against Midian . A X 37 51

in Wilderness A IX 30 40

See also Asatir: Authorship.

Moses of Chorene, version of legends 13, 24, 29

Mourning, Mount of see Ebal, Mount.

Na'amah, witch, sister of Tubal Kain P II 24

Nabaoth, meaning of name .. 71

Nablus, substitution for Sichem in Arabic Asatir 149

Nahman Ketufa, mystical oracle 52

Nahor, defended against Kedar Laomer by Abraham A VI 5

A VII 12, 17

Nbu-Mshiba, demon identified with Jesus 133

Nds, see Aminds.

Nebaot, children of A VIII 2 3

Nebo, Mount, dying place of Moses M 315, 317

Nigug, tower made by Ahidan A III 20 26

Nikl, city of Kain A I 4

Nimrod :

and Abraham, attempt to prevent birth A V 19 25

Asatir version of story II, 20 21, 24, 27 28, 65

Babel built by 12, 14, 22 A IV 32

Chronology of legends II, 27, 29, 38

Death A V 28

Elijah de Vidas' version 27

Genizah version 25

as Giant, growth of tradition 17 18 A IV 32

Josephus' account 19 20, 65



345

page

Nimrod:

King of Ashur A V 14

Midrashic exegis based on name 16

in Philo 17

in Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer 27

Ruler over children of Ham IV 31

Sibylline Oracle version 16 18, 22 24

Titan legend, parallels 16 18, 22, 25

Two persons in Asatir 38 A VI I 3

and Universal kingship 100

Variants of story, summary 3 1

Wars against Philistines and Nahor A V II, 12, 15

See also Babel and Abraham: Birth.

Nine Suns, vision, interpretation 48

Nineveh, built by sons of Shem A IV 35

Nistarot, connection of word with name "Asatir" 5, 52

Nisah, built by Lamech A II 9

Nisan, important events according to Samaritans N IV 8^-10
Nisbor, see Kenaz.
Niss see Book of Signs.
Nisus see Belus.

Noah:

Age 147 A IV 24, 33

in Ark A IV 8 11

Asatir version of story 68

Astronomical calculations A IV 19 21

Birth, signs in heaven A II 15 16
Books of Wisdom learnt and given to sons A III 9 A IV 15

Calendar revealed to 37

in Chain of High Priests 68

Death and burial A IV 36 38

Dwelling A IV, 12

Earth divided by A IV 13 26, 37

Received by Adam A II 19

Teaches faith to children A IV 12

Noldeke, Th., Mandaean grammar 126

Onkelos:

on Messianic prophecy 89

Targum substituted for Palestinian Targum 82

Opsopeus, treatment of name Kamarine 30

Oracular writings:

General character and range 43 45

Recasting of old oracles 44

See also Sibylline Oracles and Sibyl of Tibur.

Ourie see Kamarina.



346

page

Padrai Tns:

Built by Lamech A II 10

Idolatrous place of worship P II 10

Palestine, boundaries 148, 152, XI 414

Palestinian Targum:

and Asatir, parallels 80, 84 90

Character and language 80 84

Date 8 1 82

New version of Rabbi Akiba 82

Prophecy of kings 51

Various texts 82

Plti, wizard:

Counsels Pharaoh concerning Moses 74, 75 A VIII 24 29,

3233, 35, IX 7
Occurrence of name in various works 138, 155

Parchment, used only for sacred books 7 8

Parker, Archbishop, use of Sibyl of Tibur 48

Passover:

Institution P IX 31

Samaritan and Jewish practices, divergence 76

Patriarchs:

Ages 144, 146 147 A II 25 31

Ten generations from Adam A II I 9

Pentateuch:

and Asatir, relationship I, 61

Greek translation of Akiba and Aquilas, purpose 82

Source of Messianic idea 87 88

Peor see Mertis.

Peshitto, use of story of giants 17, 29

Peterman, H.:

on Mandaean literature 125

Work on Samaritan Hebrew pronunciation 174

Pesiktot, meaning 83

Pharaoh (of Abraham):

Detroys idols P VI 24

Theft of Sarah from Abraham 32 34 A VI 13 14, 26

Pharaoh (of Moses):

Attempts to destroy Moses A VIII 2837, 4*

Death A IX 18

Defiance by Moses A 24, 40, 74 A IX 27 30

Dwellings A VIII 18, 21

Genealogy 121, 122, 154 A VIII 14 15

Wars of A VIII 2123

Pharaoh's daughter cured of disease P IX 9

Philistines :

Take kingdom from Nimrod A V II

War against Canaanites A V n



347

page

Philo, account of Nimrod and giants 17

See also Pseudo-Philo.

Phoenicians, taught by Abraham 18, 28, 41

Phrygia, dwelling of Ld and Aram A IV 30

Pilonah, built by Seth A II 2

Pinehas, son of Amram, translation of Malif 140
Pinehas, son of Eleazar:

at Death of Moses M 313, 315

Kills Zimri and Kosbi A X 32 35

Leader against Midian A X 40

Seven gifts as reward of zeal P X 35

Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer, contents 27, 117

Pitron to Asatir:

Authorship problem 171

Characteristics and language 172

Manuscripts described 173
Place names see Geographical names.

Planets, fight of seven A I 22

Polyhistor, references to legends and Sibyl 12, 13, 17, 40

Praeparatio Evangelica of Eusebius 13 14, 17

Precious stones of Book of Signs, meaning A. P. N II 7

Proper names, symbolical 154
Pseudepigraphic literature:

Age, method of judging 106
and Asatir, relationship 5,. 8 9, 105 120

Classification into three groups 119

General characteristics 105 107

Jewish sources for Greek texts 118

Origins 83
Pseudo-Eupolemos :

and Asatir, relationship 17 42

Date 17

Chronology of stories 28

on Giants, account quoted 1 8 19

and Josephus, comparison 63, 69

and Sibylline oracle, relationship 30 31
Pseudo-Philo, Biblical Antiquities:

Character and contents 43, 87, 112

and Asatir, comparison 112 113

on Moses 87, 179

Puah, midwife, saves Hebrew children A VIII 37 39

Puntos, king of Egypt N V 10

Qolasta, Mandaean liturgy 125

"Questions" of Philo 17

Rabbot, meaning 83
Rabta, see Meseda.



348

page

Rdyh, kills Bileam A X 48

Rechoboth 'Ir, dwelling of Adam A II II

Reitzenstein, work on Mandaean literature 125 126, 127, 128

Resen, built by sons of Shem A IV 35
Resurrection of the dead:

Omission of reference in Asatir 60, 158

Recent element in apocalyptic writing 60

Return from exile, prophecy A XI 34, 38
Revelation of Methodius, see Methodius.

Rifat, built by Lamech A II 20

Rifon, dwelling of Abraham A VI 12
Rod of Adam see Rod of Miracles.
Rod of Miracles:

Delivered to Moses A IX 22, 32

Source whence Moses obtained it N IX 22

Test of genuine Messiah 55 56, 98 A XII 24

Rome, destruction to precede advent of Messiah 97

Romi see Brktrs.

Ruha d'Kudsha, changes in meaning in Mandaean and other lite-
rature 130 133

Samaritan Chronicle, Death of Moses:

and Asatir, comparison 182

General account 7778, 178 182

Translation 303 321

Samaritan Targum:

Geographical names, treatment 151

Obsolete words replaced by Arabic glosses 150

Samaritans:

and Asatir, views 3, 6 8

Astronomical system 35 37

See also Asatir: Chronology; and Calendar.

Demonology 96 97, 130 131

Eschatology 146

and Mt. Garizim, claims 123 124

Idolatry charge by Josephus 159

and Jews, rival Targum and Midrash 81 84
Language:

Affinity with Mandaean 128 130

Pronunciation 174

Legends, oldest source of universal stories 100
Literature:

Antiquity 78

Influence of Asatir 134 140

and Mandaeans, relationship 127, 133 134

Messianic expectations 91

Moses chief national hero 55, 60 61, 71, 75, 103



349

page
Samaritans :

Names, double forms 153

Return of Moses, divergence from Jewish views 97 98, 103

Song of Moses, views 46

Samlah, king of Edom A VIII 10

Sanchuniaton, author of list of kings 141

Sarah, taken by Pharaoh A VI 13 26

Saturn, identifications with Noah and Chronos 19, 23

Saul, king of Edom A VIII 10

Scheftolowitz, work on Manichaean writings 127

Script, change by Ezra 47 A XI 36

Scroll of Fasting, Calendar 142
Second Kingdom, see Ghazal al Doweik.
Secrets of Moses, see Asatir Moshe, title.

Secrets of the Heart see Abraham Kabasi. "
Secrets of Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai see Simeon ben Yochai.
Seder Hadorot see Yechiel Heilprin.

Seder Olam Rabba, oldest Jewish chronology 145

Sefer Zerubabel, oldest legends of Messiah 95
Seir see Gabala.

Septuagint:

Messianic idea in 91

Neglect by Josephus 62 63

Seth:

Age 146 A II 26

"Image" of Adam P I 27

Towns built by A II 2, 3

Sethians:

Connection with Holy Mountain 123

Legends of, absent in Asatir 121

Seven, sacred number in Jewish laws A X 36

Seven Kings see Seven Nations.

Seven Nations:

Disappearance, various accounts 19 20

Names A V 9

Origin of story 48

Sibylline oracle's version 16, 20
See also War of the Nations.

Shalem the Great:

Built by Jered A II 6

Meeting place of Abraham and kings A VII 17
Shalshelet Hakabalah see Gedalyah aben Yahia.

Shekina, meaning 129 130

Shelah see Solomon.

Shem:

Identification with Zerouan 16
Land given to 1 1 A IV 13 14, 37



350

page
Shem

Leadership given by Noah A IV 34, 37, 38

Towns built by A IV 35

Shem Hamitfaresh, agreement with Asatir . 138

Shemhazai and Azael, legend 12 1

Shifrah, midwife, saves Hebrew children A VIII 37 39

Shinear:

Dwelling of Noah's sons A V i

Site of Padrai Tns, idol P II 10

Shobakh, war with Joshua 30, 171

Shrit, wife of Shem A IV 5

Shur, dwelling of Bileam A X 44

Sibyl of Tibur:

Antiquity 53

and Asatir, parallels 42 61

Contents 47 49

Influence on subsequent European literature 48

Oriental origin evidence 49, 52

Slavonic and Rumanian versions 47

Sibylline Oracles:

Apocalyptic character 43 44

and Asatir, parallels 9 42, 45 46

Book III, origin and contents II 12
Book VIII see List of Kings below.

Book XII, authorship, date etc. 45 46

Chronos and Titan legend, source of version 22 23

Date 12

Jewish elements 9 10, 12

Kings, list, compared with Asatir Oracle 45 46

and Moses of Chorene, relationship 24

Place among pseudepigraphic writings 120
Sources . 10, 16, 17, 23, 30, 31

Sichem see Sifra.

Sifra:

Dwelling of Adam and children of Joktan A I 21, II 19, III

3233, V 13

Identification with Sichem 149 P I 21

Temple to be burnt A XII 15

Sifre, commentary to Deuteronomy 86

Simeon ben Yochai, Rabbi apocalyptic writings 5, 52, 95
Simeon, tribe of, plagued for sin with women of Moab P X 48

Simon Magus, identification with Beliar 96

Sinai, law given to Moses A IX 34 36
Sion see Jerusalem.

Skips, built by Tubal Kain A II 24

Skh, wife of Ham ' A IV 6

Shmh, scattering of A XI 33



page

Sodom:

Destruction A VII 28

Dwelling of Lot A VII 3

Sodom, King of, meets Abraham A VII 17, 21

Solomon :

Samaritan charges against 99 A XI 24 30 N XI 2931

in Sibylline Oracles 12, 20

Witchcraft, views of Jews and Samaritans 99

Star:

Connection with Messiah 90, 137

Prophecy of angel to Bileam, interpretation A X 45

Sukkotb, poem on, by Abdalla ben Shalma 139

. Sur, daughter of, leads Moabite women A X 27

Sursan, built by Ahidan 148 A III 19

Symbolism in oracular writings 44

Tabah, comparison with Asatir 58, 135

Taheb see Messiah and Messianic idea.

Targum, rival versions 81 83

Tefillath, see Simeon ben Yochai.

Ten kings, story based on Nimrod legends 100

Tenth generation, importance 48, 67, 68

Terah:

Contest with Kedar Laomer A VI 4 6

Hatred, of Chaldaea 6869

Father of Abraham 23 24

Idol worship conflicting accounts 25, 26, 66 67

Kingdom in Canaan A VI 4 6

Testament of Moses see Assumption of Moses.

Testament of Twelve Patriarchs:

Divergence from Asatir 113

Use of word Beliar 97

Tharbis, wife of Moses 40

"Three mornings" A IX 3537

Tibris of Kinnereth, camp of kings A VII 13

.Tidal king of Goyim A VI 5

Tmnta, name applied to Garizim 66 A VI 13
Titan:

and Abraham, parallels in story 22, 25

in Euhemeros' version 23
and Nimrod legend parallels 15 16, 17, 22, 25

in Sibylline Oracles 12, 15, 22 23
Tolida:

Borrowings from Asatir 135

Identified with Book of Generations of Adam P III n
Torah, see Law.

Tower of Shame, name for Temple at Jerusalem A XI 27



352

page

Tubal Kain:

Kain killed by A II 21

Metal worker A II 24

Taught Book of Signs by Adam A II 36

Turts Egyptian magician:

Dwellings A VI 25, VII 4

Explains plague upon Pharaoh A VI 1819

Wars of Kedar Laomer prophesied A VII 4

Twenty-six, final number in Asatir Oracle 60 A XII 26

Universal King, connected legends - loo IOI

Universal sagas 99 105

Ur, meaning of name 18 (footnote), 30
UrKasdim, dwelling of Elam, Ashur and Arpachshad A IV 27, 31

"Urschrift" of Geiger quoted 81

Voice of the Living:

Commands to Israelites A X 28, 51, XI 17

Meaning 129

War of the Nations:

and Egypt, connected in Sibyl's account 13, 19

Various versions 19 20, 28 29 A V 8 9

Yakubi, commentary to Koran, on birth of Abraham 26

Yashar, Book of, description 118 119

Yechiel Heilprin, writer on chronology 145

Yemen, dwelling of children of Joktan A V 13

Yemenite documents 94 175
Yuhasin see Abraham Sakuto.

Zimri, killed by Pinehas A X 32

Zered, captures Bileam A X 47

Zotenberg, on Apocalypse of Daniel 52

Ztotai, attacked by Canaanites A V n

Zunz, view on Palestinian Targum 80 81



D



ASATIR
SAMARITAN TEXT



x



m



i

VIM : BHK DTO D'pKI : nfito *7^jn PlStf naw (i)

row tank ani : n:nya ppS am (2) : inaa Sam

mpa am : nnsb tank jp na^n n^? arw ( 3 )
j taa nnpna : HD noD^a^ pp men w : nn^ 1 ? ppf? tan
DW DiDDa nini () : n rrrzi : vVi nS ny^K ibfii ( 5 )
nin pmnD n^wm w : pip WK Snni : nma pp



jnna

(DTmn.HTP D

JTBMSTTTTJ ni'jbnm bnxD thy mrr DI^CT rnzr& ]3n>c

ax iDBn:.nvnDn ba ^SB DTK N-Q IK >! bvb
DTxn nx o^pxi D*riyn rmy "JBTK o-'nbx *?bnn < ':"iwan
mn n>f T^ ma DTK p nriinnn ntarir' own an?i TNI
cf p> ican :nnpn "or QTD "mx ba : D^oxn "aor naoo -6 |n:i
pbrm : m*> pn mnK(2) nan crnp&> noon napa TDTI
. : naa si : njissr ban bx inaiina 1 " ppi pw.-npr^y pxn rw
bam fp rsai) rby rrsr Dibor iioxa p mna lain nn
nbsrbx jrricnaaai n:iD3T ban bx ]rn:no 1 ' ^pb yrm cmaa
ntzrxb yp bx ban rnnx mpo |rn .:narxb banbx ppninx
nas* yp bnxi . : ax tznna : r:a bsi ib ^nxn Jibe vm
aibizm fby iiaxa w ]D smno nn : ba^a Ian; -npno mp&
:ax erma pxn nx absi cba^ npno oip& naa 1 * ^p bnxi)
xniipip xn D3 x-'an bamrnnja pp xa-n DW fP D > ' rp1
arxi nn : ffmnm n7ib pa : wnpn ffma "in n-'nnna nara
aw ^po vn> Dibarn pby -naxa p ynno rm : xaanx naTD
c.tpip x^an banirmn-'b nn:D noixn 'isa pp xa^i
rm omaim rmb pa : npan n^nnna rrn(4) ninaian
n&KD ""saipipm nnaan Ttoy nrarnrb m D^bio D^nxn
onn p or Q-ntwr -pbn n^n la^ipx bam pp 7x1 cnr bin
dm p>aa DP D-'iwya bam rp anpx TXD naxa ^sara^axn
bnpn na^o TT mn naa nbapna narx mn rp nxn TXI



a?) : nay Vam : n-rV rtaxn : m p *f?a nin
nriSaos) :nny nnnx npna nib intfe
ppn pTi : nanak "[Hi n-inn SDI : nrvniy



runa* nvrurrnn
: nav nm : nn n*?m D-IK Srrn (20) ner^a nnnn



nanoi DIK oypicai) nns iDpn nav ~pn
nian^a 1301 PTIBD nnpnat
(23) nn v m . : n :



nssn DNr^Ta oiKQ-m ]x xn nrb pnsn din bDn nnsi
rnx bnnb ]^p "IDX inbn mn xb -QTI rrr nnxi . : an ix aiifl
mt&n onrnn "TTI : itn 1 ' orrsof izbv . morn naba TIX nx oip
inn mix im nx ^^I2?^ lain TXT : inain 1 "! rnx ban bx pp Dp 1 "!
xbx : inx nnarn ]x : ban DT nx bapnn xbi ^"ixn npjrxi
]^p ann ny : rnvn : wtoam 112 qoanxi pxn Tinm : nin 11 's by
norrnx no mx nxn TXT :]xixabxa parzr mx -m:ban
n?a : ixa x-i^i p ixn n~nm HTTTI erattm msoa )a :
fm -HBO inorxi Xin .ibaxa or laa ib ntn orn rrmr
XTH niDD bx |xixan ]a DIX byv . : ]3n -jina
n-'a^n mbjrn XTI : mrp au mnnbo -ISD nxT ir :
an px D^crn raa 'a XTI : nabra 'innan bba jrp
: mxtsn ]a bs3 wm : bbn mx jxi : pxa o^pa ana mx
.: ]xixabb atzri : bban xin nr |x DTX TTI : nnx xar: "iwx
TPirnattr orobw ban bx fp Jin or bxi DIX nxna orai
ora DIX DMbx x*ia : na^M tznn p nery nanzr ora ban mam
: o^a 11 naazrr ]aa morx mm DTX us; pan : n^unzm nran : ^rran
nbaa iryia naennxi^aa na^aizr naia mx mn TT xbi
pn ]a xs 11 ! . mx xnanx na "iwx nytzn : ]an |a wianxi :



xbi inxiana DIX sm^p ananxi ban pp- ain |x
enn : o-nbx mxa imsbnab : nain^an n mbn:b : n7 ib
rr xbi : naar mxa ib i73nxi : mm nx lay 1 ! : naitzm DTX
DTX rr ]a inxi : malar mm bap TJT : nyn ma inx nx as)
-py obxn nx XTI nain^an baa : nor nx ibm inm inarx nx



(8) : nrK oyp nnK : DTUTTI nrft p : wipo ^is&n
TO w :ia p DV DnBtys tarn pp npn
rnn*n nnnao : >&y : sffot mm *jn nSapna nnm& pp
, : m (io) : nnvii n&Sy -oyriN nnpnm VDS> n yr
nim nrnnN pyp jj . : nv* ) : Son
nnnnx



nin nini



: nn an i :



|p



: *n i im TDI as) : ^n cm DINT :



nraD snpx nM DIX ^ : DIN rax mnaa



anpx TXT cnnx nnaD nxii in^nD rrn -jn nbapno

rotzmiip'n xin ^D iwsaa rr bnpn na^o nxi 1
:pn xin 13 rT):oten rbr TIDXO isa : niixnx inm:rasn
7X xin 13 -inx ]nnBT(:im"n:rffla naby nacrn a-npx 7x1
n?a :inm < naby nDn anpn 7X: >| x : irrrn nabir nDcrn anpn
ban bx mrr ynr myor a ban anpn) nrai . : yT mm : mix
nron p fp ^ DJT (:nycr xb inma bxi fp bxi :inn:a
xbi : p7nn i| i isx -im : nbapna narx inn:a nx nx-i
vaxb nxT 1 xbi : D^BT yaix o^pxi rcix bx aari : ^
nxn ny> nton rby ^ajn "iaxa ^sa : ban rnx bx xbi -. DIX
rixix bx anmrfpb "in-iv.nxnx xb biapm 171 n:wx-in
mn nrvm (: ban bx xbi mx bx nxi xbi : c^tzr i
xb n:a pp ^a mn n7n 7xi:bai anx 11 rm cixirpp anxn
ban nnx nxi 7x1 . "jbm DIX p is npm -. ib nsoa: n^bx xia^
op : pirn rbx nabn x^n ita^x cipam : mab nabm nbyn
ia atzr n^n iryx mpan p "jibn wxamrnaar ^i mnaa
7x1 o nxe-iy) p inx iDizr'xiprp oipa bx mi : rwrarma
nbyn* 1 Dtzrm : imnn by laba aom -. ban nx rnx nx ^p nxi
ib lax^i -. yin lab ly nbyn^ man arm : 'oa rby noa 1 xb
:iaia fiman xm ]x p DyDi:inaiar -pbx ban nx n:in ^
. : i pins : i pis n^r&xia isoa xa nn nxi : rby Dp:n t >i
ox xibn 73B ibs: nobi : -jb nin nab ]^pb .mrp
inpnn "pbxi : ^ai nxtan nnsb yon xb <9> DXI : nxa?



n 5

w hy na&'s napi nnp am : ^aS r\v T^KI ( 2 )

I

npyn nana w waai: p*pS '^ia nVi^K 3 ) :^ia

p"p ' nViw w : p'p D^ W ptyan
-iViKi.(5) :D*S^ nnay natyi nana
it nViw(6) :Tijr nnsna r
"fian p) 1 ?^ na^ . : x (?) nnn t nnnn

'am , : TD paw : DTt6 naann niniwn
: apjr aa r.^aiD ninn 1 ? . : *n : nnnrfr . :
pp ^



nm nmap on* : fron : now mm nar

"JOfSOf pXa (D3B ''XTIB) ilDBT : T2TD naTUlBl : P6m KXH

:37T mm

'Tiny (is) IIJT : mam b>K 7x1x2.1 ]a DTX nbr xvm nra
10x1 iBrxinariJX nrn nxsoa nm rano XTI jx lax 1 !
nxi mr: nx p-n nwx xx^.-x 1 piDs.- 1 ' pie mzrxia IBDS

(.-.pi nxi nba nxi T'y mam
<no? na nay pp p "]i:n ]x xn D^abjn naxa
"mxi : T3?s^ mx DDW xip xin ]x -IDXM : amn p
TMDxbx (19) iDoa vby mrr abm nn?a pnx ix
-itzrx r:a ^B mmxn isoa xip 'x (: raa 'ap oo^a mx i"ip>
.nroinx xbi minn : D^oriran nx7D;Dnx n^aimipp JTIT p
nya xn T* marn^x ]ixa^x p DIX mby bba ]x
:onx rrar yrab a.T'bx ^^^ pp p IB?X raa ""lawa
xn ]x 73 Drwi : mmxn IBD p pbn xip orrbx iintzraa | n > 'i

p lawn xb DX. : nrb m naxi Dimxi nimxn IBD nns

iins xbi iaa iyaw xbiroaba imon n-unn
|a -pan raara TPI : |xixaa Taipab atzni anxa
nx. "p:n jxvm : nab nsxi : ixa orb ITF pp
"jbnmi n:irr o^izran oran r^n aar ''a 1 ' rn xMn
bxonna nx ibixi .:Dix iano na7a -jian pnown nx-ra
na ibia -m:na nx -6-n "jabi(2D :-jab nx ^ bxonnai
7xi : Qiatzra nsia ^nx itbia p yam ora vn .- pa anna
mx bx ixa^i : DM^X nnn cmbr nTT naby 'xiia inx ixi

: nsian n7 by inx fexon ur



pp op iy PWB> . : *? rwbi (24) :
5 nnsvin D-IK K-dntn ( 25 ) : rwaa D w new . ;
run : nin yr Vi p&v . : n : nroja nini DTK nnnew
: ^am nVbp -rai w : nertn nrfebn prrsnb
n- nSni : nnnx nsn irai (27) rw . : p



ii

pp
: p pp -|Sai : H^DJN*



na nx"i 73 y TSTTTT : yamn TD xin 13 QIX rr marn^s
TPD : a pros -. n pis -. n-'tzrs-a isoa rbyrp nmn
me? nx mp'n : inbsa imam 6 < n.:nnrr nxai

: bam fp ibrotH) nr -IDX xb -"a nax men bx nxi
-. T>by mrp oibtzr nizm "n: Dbs xin nbsn nn ciabara

nxsb i^p- ibn n i-n iD^ai . : iaj bx iaj p pnrn 1 ' rm II

now -izrrx rraxarx x^mi-jun i:n nnx xaa nx -rrn bx nsnp

mxo : DTTI : i33m inn p p "jbEn : rpaffl3K )3 n



DOT by nyibis notzr xip-n TV x:m : crux nx nar ibri

nria nizr 3ai :]rp (is) nx an:x -ibn :
nniz? xipi nria xjai:bxbbnD nx ]rp ibn
naor xip^i :nna xsai : TT 1 nx 'bxbbna ibm
.rnnai tbm nao? xip^i nna xm:7i:n nx TT
bnxrnjizr iy ntrrbor r^n -"a" 1 irrzrm "pan bia TXT
by ix-ona ison nr rrnirDixb jn:x IBTX mmxn isoa
o^an : nnimb iy irsar ona : nn ]nx onizrin ae) ya-ix
mmi : ]rby bx nay mibinbi : apy 'n -. mnaoran yaib
on : pan pnx ]am by ii&x pxn itzry o^cr jx :
bx 'ny mibinbi apy 33 mnet&an yanb n-nby
pxn -iy D-'auri . -. ]fby bx -nay mibin csrrby ix->ana nm
: pinx mn bx TTDI na^o nn nmmb omby iax ix
Tbix iy nsp p obiya mni : Dnnunaa pp <n) ":a iib-'nxi
: bxtznnab bxn^ai : bxmab -n^yi . : -n^yb mam : -junb ]^p
p yo: T"h p T naerai^ab nx ib 1 bxannai



tn oypi (17) : DTK n^ vwi : naty -wn S:D
: n*vo TW *Ta*n TOW : nVnai nosi : nnaan wana
DDITI : oapa rvsx 1 n i DTK DysriKi j nppn vh\ a)
: mew? DIN *rt "p^ nnjx m tein 131.
(20) :rrtea niiD nvn'Maany p
pnn pyai m:nfln nan na^ ^ -nnp
: o % n^6y ^a 1 ? -friNi ( 2l ) : Dnniin nanpa
: nnm na nno^a n:n tav (22) pp StopKT iVm pp.



rnnxi .:nDxban rX7 xnn -IWN Kim bnam naman
nora MTTN -p*> ^ : IDX p nnmb <26) naw pp bain
irbarrp Tsra rbon nopx ix nar: nxti ..-owa
neon nabnx IBTN nbsi . : rr mn-'i . : pjonrt yna
on3N:nn pi n i nw:^ n::p Tpb DiN:niaarpT
pm- an n bK^nD:n: ptai -K&nx jrp : naor : pm : rmv n

3 TTPl : n3 pjl D1 H 7n : TOW pm 31 T TV

: f p 'JSD xin UK 1:1137 xa IBTX -pb) nwa wb

|Tnx ano Tab pa mx by iabnx jTnx ^ p
rm nil : naii : natzr D^r&tzn nwom (27) c .: naxn xm rrn : DTX
ba ixa T^n nia ora : inia DTS Tiaxpxbxa f by ]na7rr xa
ara ima vn : rby 'aa 1 ' DIX iraar 7x meo bx DIX >
i aa > ' DIX irarzr 7X mso bx inx ixtzn .- ^xixaa jnain
iaa nbcnnai Tn bxbbnai jrpi aruxi nan DTX rm
bx i-paa rwn iy -nbr niaan p la-ii : jxixaa paw rm
bia 11 urxi ^^jnana aor rrn -izzrxtpp bam (as) p ]THX
by mrnxn ISD nabnx otzr rm nw : f p ^a ba by Dipnoi

.: D1X

xa^i : o-'a: ib ix-a 11 T.X DIX |a icsm . .- ban IBDXDX 7x1
:n:na rmpnan nniaaa DTiain bia ia -pan nap^ : ia : mx
ba-'y in ]iinsi : ia Tian inap ^a : ba^y -in inn DW xipnxi

.:baxn in

xin a) Ti:n iax "iizrxa D^ai onap ba^y -ina nwynxi
a^ao aipn xb.orxn irrrx B^awn nsaTs9) (:obiyn bx map
^a : nax fjbx D^B? insp baa ia |axan p npimi a*ma inn



Torn : *\vrh pp T^IN ny : STKMCK p

: aranno 1 ? te'nw : te'nof? TTO :
rraun p -pS ^K : rw mpy . : -vs () t
nSrn KUI : ppb Sapi ( 10 ) : myi 710*31 ray



D-JK n iin:D('2)



:rariD

: p33 : rub -pf^ : -jtoS 1 ? n^^nDi : rfwnbb



maia DHX Dp->i)
KXDID ^^3^ n a qx nnb -UMH



nnaxa nnpn nna nibcm r^y DIN nxi p -HINT (22)
n: T^^nx TXi:Dibwn T"br nwa xmaa T^a iar "m
p jabsn- 1 xbi .: nmrpen bya xin -3 rn : in DTK
ma raab DTX r>Tim nizrbBn rjai : na -"nba biaan
nxi XTPI ^ DTX onam) T'MDxbxa -naxa ]a rnnD rm : -cnn
-.ornax br n n:x xxoi ]x bwn&> ( : ]aa Tab JPTIKI : mxia.

rOmaxa : : 250 : DOJ33)) (: THX 1BOD DfrOKai DDp3) TpTj? \D

n: bia TXT : omaxa no^Brn Dibn )x ma DIX WB TPI ((250
mxia vririanaa nob 1 ' ir DTX bx rax wan oibtzm rby
"ix noTxn.p:iy>T fiasrai irayoa uanr m> iox ib DTX
DT xbjx -nxn -"a 73 inDai iibiaa aitan 'a (: mn 1 ' mnx
naxa |a rnna mi : D^aizrn Tina bnj iix (24) Tibia
. :raa -ran rrn ]x ix o. nbiaa aran n^m) nibi&n
:nbbttan : nsraa x^mrnsn naizr nx xip^i laar "by Ty "jab
"aaa ix ^ab. patb aiw:i .: DT-tainb nnos nxsa
: nnx nbinai o^a nwbw ib ib^nx xn ]x -taxjj
n:aa xbax. nyb ^a xin -vraxoxbxa nbinan wnai bbjj
isoa onx "lai "jorxa wxin nyn iax: -nyi : ynn mzryan (25)
ib-nx x-n 's xm Darn ma inxnp bbai -. pp bain Tisoxbx

. : pp -rnnn nya ^ab bx

bairn : wp x:a ba 11 wbarn . : nbun na mo^a xsa bar visn
bx naxba n-'a na nwyi mxabx naan DS^D xsa f p



9

in mm : nSnm mai "rvi W:/?ni p*pi
pn T 1 ? nsriDtfa ST nytn 1 ? paa wou^)
mm (36) : wp Vn en pnana TTT mm : jp Sain
wa inN 131 (37) : DTK r&p mmxn nstm *|V pn
ia Tian Tapi (s) na DTK mpi : ww npn DIK p
npni (39) ^DD nhpn& n : ^aa DT-WTI- pa^a
ona na wanv.na ^n frnann : Sa'y TH mats

K ^sty n DTK ^ijn naxi ^n ()
^ nanp nn^ nViw :n % Di^ mn



: n!wrp own

-HZW ISITDT n-'sa pn p IDJT NS "JM pxn
nara -viflKDNa nDNa p nr y-nna (: DDTTK) NTTH oipan sar

xvi "i^ : ooinx nanr N"jpnan >"
mrrirmaan Dipn-.Da-nx "inDai(:|n p iiom
^rp ix:|ab i:pnsi wna by DTK m 'sa 1 ' rrn
naxi (34) nnx^in nsD n rob-' rrn iwx "nabnm oman oipa
: ia ron "ITS) "njram pnx nory .narx pxn
mzrir TK rm ( : nr mxa anzr nntzra rainx-hia noa -IWN
nannxiria is&wi ipa-p n->arn ibnx laram pxn
p inxT . : ruar mxa ara? : nixonn rn&ra bar
onnx DMbx rnur -jx mnsai (:oyp x^> narx



:Dna -m inx by nrnsB mm Tar prnjur nbiax 7xi:ipx rb
.:iaar xbiriaiar 1 ^ix oxara rmanx-ia nbyw oan 13 (35)
ram rrrai : oan pxn xbam : rruwn p ia"i

ir x:ai : ITDX iaar nx xip^i nai ]a
axn DBPiinpinaTn ]rrix x^m : nbn frs m"ipna
na H3D3 x^am nban : na aanan anxi : na may
nmn "jab by narpaa o^ann ]a nn^n narx baa pt

n^a nan 1 narx (36) x^m . : qaran mara nnT nearaa
narx i:ab n:n:i : in^ab .- ]Tnx nxiam nbar 73 majrai : ]rn
air3)'nanr nssa xaia nnxi qaran mar by na lyon-i
p 111X1:3.17 ja mx o^abs yaix by mm obs -nnsai
yaixn Tina HTT tzraar nwyitji^n ]^y ]a mxi : naman p inxi
Tina nan . : TJJS am ]a araa ayaarn



8 n

pp tain- 2 *) :-naD3 arm rap ^ ( 23 >



mSD'i *p*|K DIK . : si . : p DTK
: prn nnt? . : n en j (27) * nne> . : pi . : n sf? mi ne> ( 26 )
(29)* : rw : pts\ pp . * * ^ p %
prn .:w .n^-nuso) nn^ /.pni



mx nniDii (34) : mao*?



70 bs 7 p Tnnei : rumzrn na? : ir jo on a!?pD
vb naK D^sbx w mas wan "jatn : nnra



"pan DTX wax am : swam w nbx warp nr
: rue? mxa ratzn nn
x-ipi Tabnx ror:ruB7 mxa

. : Tisof mxa wo? irabnx TBTX DTX T&oa
: man ma nbaa araaxi rneh DTX w mp ixi III

iwx (rntaa brr) bx inx IXBT Dis? 11 ! : |XTxan bx laipa bx T:a
w nxnanx X%T ]x mraa nxn o-.pian par
naanxi : narin psr xnaa nya nxianxT : nmar

(i^arn) . : pn p D-'xxrb (.BnnrDrcrcfefi
: nbeaan na xipna x^m : n^an ]a D^xxr^ (: 'izrbwn) -. nann
na Tabnx n^sar yatzr : DTX ma -nnx DTX nnri n:
on nbx : manba TSDI : majj TSDI .- mmxn IBD : nnxna

.:DTX

^nbx Tiaa 'a mrr D^^xa T^iaa ^a> : DTX mbin TBD m
mbin TBD m naxa d-mx mrrropj D-P issian morxTa
.nTjroT DTpnx TX nT^inn bym xin DTX
Dim iaTi ;. oaipah DTxn bai ni a DTX napx nnxi
nx pti -. T'p bam p -na p jrnx ^i -. Txa T&xsn
izrnaa Tneai . : naa ma x^m . n:B3 na xipnan
oipaa aTa-.Tajra ixipi: pints ]ax na rvtsn'.yx nam
ppn DTX a : naierxna DTX m:o X%T TarxroaTTX -npnan



11



(6) : m&n nito wi KTTI w njm : nniDT nw
: nnwn 'piMto : >pisA : ppfrn
mrw to ni nrn w : rbtoa npyt n (?) ; moa
: nnna nsD nrfrnsfn* pp $ n (9) : OIK ni& *ina
mhn nso nr : niante nsoi : niwa naw ninwh

-pas



prn ^n^ (is) : frnnw niby UDN Dnn via 731

TO



pm xb binan 13 : nbanna xn narx irpnsn inx no
rrnnn ]ai . : in i:rx nbarmD TFI .- D^TTSH ^a nia
]N ^T mrri:nn n:on ina nbermai *pb ]x rnn 11 mzrnpn
DTQ inia rrn -wx nbanno ma -nnxi : PBIBTK-D. na -pb
nmn nw na^ar nnxirpxn raaTriaan onn p:-p
vn : inns: o^atzm maixi : ran bmn mrra ba M'
mi: iBnbwn nrn onnb DT nwsr nyaan ^orn anna : pxn
pxn na^aiXiTa) -mxoxbxa rrbisn naxa ]a smna
DTQ DBOT nrrn bibs -rn : oramn ti^x mns: : ssi
sp :7i> naxa p smna rm : b^bn p rvBrt&n nsnzn
nia bbax ]x (nbba mra nbiba naom 7 : b^n p ^nzr. : .n
]a ""mx"! ^xi : i*a "QTI mnw (43) nerora ia oamn
rarcrarnbba D^arm mxa nratzm):naa inx inea
jx rr nrrn (: sp : 7) naxa p IDT (: naom n^b p



. : oman p -01 : naxn by i:rx |nnai m
"iax ixa naxai I3ro7a in:x ixb aiwa nron
: nat&n DT>a nann 'p ixsia nM oibom rbjr n: ]x Ttaxoxbx
>Ba mn^b nnao Tbjr anpxi : na?a xn(44) ivrbmm wn o-nai
canpxi naTa xaa : ai nann ]a n: xx 11 : XD : 7 n:x naxa
ox -a "ix: xbi:naixn ^s by TI ba rnai biaan biba nnxi
aw ]x iaba iaxi aarm n: XT^I .rnana inx -wxirna
vb iab bx lax* 1 ! aam na mn 11 arTirpixn br rratzr bnan
imi : npn rma iar ma^ : ^n ba nx manb -nr PJDIX
anna lay man n7 mnna Ynrrrnnn nnxb^) nnax ib
iabi : baa -nra naip nxoa nb^nxa n: aan .



10



-prof? &SpD np 11 *n : D^K : n
.:n



-pf?



in

: niton niton BarKO : D-JK nito nv r nai o)



jnpei(3)
HTIV H : nni^wn ntojn ( 4 ) . : nan : jnan



rrnaan nx7 nasa -IQNI : orw w |nx mm
mxa rn-ix b-rn naea na-'pxi nobya narynx
namp noisr) Traox^xn n:x IDX nrncrDBms rn : D->TD
men ovfcxn HMD XM iwx (mx ntaa by rn nwx QI-QTI ^
p nbanx 1B7X owaran in mrtan |x -pyTn mm- nmn m
may p inxi : mby rrx-n DIX niaa by mna : nbxn DVimn
baa rmn bia bxare xnpnios) mia inx nxizw aira naea
nxa .la-'pxi bip laa xx 1 ia rrnn iay ny xim TTIXS
n:n-x) laor nx xn ( Ti naaa ]a p iioxb -6n:ff3Br
gau;nb xipn n:sa nmn : npnor Taw nx xip^i p iwx bx
Txii-'ann naa nay D^abn bm ]-rnx onx rwy ix .nrm
oba TTThDnb Tmnan IBTTH ipns D^yan nxrobiyn ba ixn
n: ]nxn Tn:rrom oan pxn vbarnm :onb Tiashi Tmnor 1 IV
no D->x"nan ba -a XTi:inx laoa'yaor xbirobiya Tab^i -HP
bx nan |a xm : rrbsn xb n^ytznn -pna aiznan -"ai "pin p
nor WTIXI : narin ia nary iizrx (raw ny^ law ix inn
nres XTI miiixn iso -"Tea nkr ns o-'pxi biaan xaiaa
nrp xba nan ]a ixsia nybirnann by mxn na xxa 1 "! DTX
rnbna nxT n: XT-'iria rwn xn -iwx(40) oipaa bna naia
nxi DOT nx nbia nnx : n:a? mxa mbbnm mbsna na o^pxi
xaiaa yT mrr -"a : ib mam : ib nb^nx xb m:ai : ne 1 " nxi on
na nao) nn np-i (: narxb ib nor na nnur) our np-i: biaan
nrcntsn maiy ian nya ^iTi:(7ib na nno^pa) n^ np'n-cn^
nnx naryi:nann nx nwjn m bx nrp iax:Taxan bx irorm
yaix -nnxi : ^san cnn p D^ (4 marya nnwy bbai



13



TIKI: am inx . JDX . : n mm (21)
"inn BW lain^) JJVT orp nr?Ni:nBTU
mm iA am (23) nao arm:|W new ufr am

xn rusjfr Tto&m^) JDW



ins npnD n raiK IBK nim :
nra yp -rji ^M^ npno *nm ^3*3 man ( 26 )
*7^1 pe? . : i . ? p nnDi ( 2 7)
vn -a UJVN



X1H

near by DOT TPI (innynrn iy notzr
nrron TJQ TOBPI DIKI nb "jb 11 !) : aiaoi
rrrtsn rmpnon "nanmn D^iwn xipnn
(. :ppon natrr xipm "ix biopia : o^-mra -nxn per
. : on > by ibn : bi3 'a TH Tna: nx 12712

I

nnx 1:^1 nbian bnn 7x^33 by nnx



: f "ixa, xbanx TIM ba xi xin mi : }nxn TQ^ TIID: bnxi

. : bis&n -"-inx

o-'jrn-ixi rroam : natrr mxo rizrn (so n: -m >: 'a 1 ' n^n 7x1
Tarx m nrrri) . : nunn rcrynm in yazzrn : -maan x^jnx narzr
(. : Ton PPH n a maya : nD^aan rn by ITS an^n mn
rppan Tax n: b~n TXT : wTa ipis rrn i:a DC? : xin nt
Q*r>y> raa ntrran bx oer nbur n^a^n nxiai . -. robaan
bx ixa 11 ! -..ibsx bx anxan CD-IXT ibi iwashw
XM pTi : pn nxi : nbs nxi . -nr mam nxi mr:
(. : nbian Tyn x^n) : mzmpn mina rr*>y Taxi : nba ] <i ai
r:ab xip^ nbor mob n: ]nxn w ia-ip 13



(: ]xixnx rby ibyi) : nata laa^i : nnai nbtrr bx rbx
n: 711x^3 Tri . .- ma 11 xbi Tin D^nbxb niaam mbbnm
a-'pbn -W ib Timn pbn o^Tann u^so by f Txn aba fUzr'XTa
Ttzrx ba my absi : pbn ns 11 bxi : pbn natb (ss) |n: imo nybi
xin ^a in t : ns 1 by DOT biiaxi : cnb naby nsbaa ]a ib
jn: xb an 'jsbi .'roompn nsybam bysirins^bn xim.-mssn



12



HD rvn :rrrTwnraWrtt naw 14 ) :naD rvn
ipsm nrvKfip ona* wipwo vntcamK mpnan
ro (is) irnsjn rfa : in von TO Tn w : naa p
nay oyp N*?n usi * nrren . : p . : i nwa
: PWDK nnsona 1 ! nnias *n app Vsn ( 17 ) :
na



p nim to p:-r3 nna -n^af? maw

ram : h n^nn *TTD



:-mx mrr ]Ni:Dorn nwrnn, mnon

TBWM&K bSQ 1DMD ' p HT 3TTinD:^3Br "6

nr D-'Bran BPSB -nni (mnon RW pxan -ipx

DBm:paa by pxn nx aba



mmxn TBD ]IYD: DOT ffaan ni&an nbx
nionba IDD 71111 : rfrur bx rnaa neo 7m :
onzpaam ownpi ff^na iionn obvi Twaeix DBTI (:
-TD juai noa nm n^p^n ya-ix ns^b mnro- : paa

''pbn ra-ix on bx nwn (:pbn crrm .r-prim bain
: pbn innwn DI^T one bam (47) : pbn MIBI : pbn Dnsai : pbn
nx^Bni-naan xin o.-nnx'na neD nnb ijnaa DW b-'Taxi
p n: bba 7x1 : DJibfii nanaTai xiaj ima rar : D^pbn ? ib
n^sbx ranx "IDDD DIDTT nnMfl) by op : TJibsi iroxba
OP x-n biaan 'mx ow yaor ion .:nzr mxa orban
annn bx DTX p xin p insm <-. D^sbx nww nrerna
x-ia nrai () : b^a-n nvawn pjbxm : nsm D^sbx nwtzr
yaan mxa wbtzn p)bx biaan nM iy Dixn nx
by mm mra-nrbaa ]W32 DT bx raa by n: aba n
yTino nri:n3tzr mxa yanxi nsm D^yarm nwb:]nxn ba
]nps nx Dfn iy p^a na aibs DPOD T>rflXDxbxa naxa p
by nmaba rnbam vby -na absi (: wsv . ai yi pi : -JTTI TI
(49) ( : n:ar nnoryi n: mxn tzrbura) biaan nnx : i



n absi : nszr trnTban mxD y am p raa ^bna abs ora na
"pna D^x^p nayi : bib-'x nT p 'Taryn ova narbam Taa by
A .rinyo TXB31 : laipab anx ba T^ raa



15



TO rw PIK& |na&5>ni ia nawp ttp*n : nan
nrwrf? w" ma mp DB> awi ( 5 ) : nsn oni DB>
rwpo w son a) : nn TV rna HDD on aw (6)
HDiDi may ia>n naya r6 TB- TO w . : ^ ma
: si (io) rvfci mnK rows . : na : nym ma ( Q ) |*ov . : % a
.:T n^ p ]W nwa mw .: f p .: n :

a-rtt wa ao. . : ai : nnia^n p m ps: :

.: ra : nn^pi no :



nnnnoi .: % nn

aa 1 ? nyn n^snK a . : ai . : D nna (is)



Da pff -TTI .:D t| ays 'aor TTIB7X rrnzr.nx ID Tnjyn : nrxa,
mx ba ]x yn .-.nampn minn nsoa ffTsn monbo p
TJT : mrra niD: xvn nm wpm T"n nsa rrn D^XDTH p
ob^Tri Drvairva nx xarn : nobjr mjr p onx irnaf
rron nnb TP TST qroo-p/. o> mx mr ^TXI nnnxiflabra
]VPD) D^XDin bar rby . : m 713:1 npna ]jnx TDXI . .- nan
mm (: pa^pa fn^a : DX 11 ? .7^ -QT) naxa xim



i-naon . : yaw naarm -. raraw x^n nn : 7 mxa : TBT -meai
ixa norx nianban iso 1 ' am VP 7X ^ixi : invcr 7a
intan nmi wn-.artby ^nn nmi it&x mrwrn : n^xaTn
nnsan mbi . : Tyrn mrrn : -p-naw!? natrrn irra 11 naa (59)

-jsoa Tax . : nwian ^ya ib WT : 7Tirr nan
n->n nianban tzrxn oxap DTi^an manba awn)
. : inanb arx isoxnx D^nboai D^oinsi n^nnen o^anbi : n^ryi
y ix-ipnx "Kzrx oi-nb naa tata-'a laar. iw onb nnai
-nx njwxna nanban iwin DinBrbD 7a ixrn : ixtsa^
(em px 7a laba^i Tna:n Ta nabaan inp->i : nem
:a ]a in : BB^a ^eb |m Tna:n ^i : ana in
n rbx iyaar xbi : ly-wi : onxa ^a by inx nyo s
mso naxa xaraa) ib "laxn 1 " cipaa IOT iri&n TX pi :
in meo 7a <i bx -ry naw xnpnan nnrin bx (Dipn
man yaara TPI :dnsan ner aa^a na^ . rnnaan bx oipn



14



najrumnn new npy? niw mm()
new ipa mn nay nai (*>) : nay
Toa S^ ^ani s n&fy



IV



wm : HP my nam mi&a nan p m pun u)
wa m oypiirfoaaa n^ moaics) :nnia'n
mm (3) : nrnaTft n DDI : cn mob



n: nann : rrnnn lanar xs HD ntzyy rrn D : mxa .xinn
(:|ya3 ia Kin nmrrnxb rrrp ffnasr "nr ]3r33 TP)
srnnM ma |x yn : OTH ores rax nnrr> ]a np^ vb p

. : -nean an 1 " xb ]axam : ]axan tzn- 111 (54) xb -nean ]x
WM THBHsnaw D^anam mxa yn p mbwn rby n:
"itzrxa DIX na inpx nerx nbeaan niyaa mx nap- 1 ! :



mxa ra-ixn nnx %-n : laipa x ar
baa Tjra pap rrn n: jnxn nrrtor xaanx itzrx ruar D^jrorm v
rarpa, ixxa baab mpo pbiaa jnpn 1 " Dipa xim . : n:iaa ]ibtaaa
:Da purpa TTI rarpa x^m:DW nan nraizr ]nxa(55> nanx
nbw rinrt BPX TTDinrBtnrn in in nbsxi:X-na pbx xim
ba ^s by fiS3 |B : b-uai IT pirnzr ]x^a i:b nsxn : inn ntb
]a -"bar 1 mix n i| i : miaa pBianma Tbar laa-n inn bx ibjm : |?ixn
nanrj) nax iwx nban XMI .-DBT naar unpn : nabr TIXS raix
nx frai:anpa nam aib Dbonse) xbi ]x^jan |a ibbai
aia arx JTT xbi : ]nxn ba as by Dixn ^a i2?sn :



:TiaxDxbx iroa .iax imxa : manban bbj nrrn iam rm
(:D^nb n-'snawm D-'mab nmn ix manban ipx x-'n nx:i)
on DTpam : inyib arx amsn manba : rnnxab o-'aipi iiaxa
(OTpaa favp> arrby laxm : mabam ]a o^m mxiann -"bya
m x^nn nsra nmn iwx w manban ]x rra^pb : n naxai
)a mbia rnptn ombr wi : naaa nism narnpn



mx la-'bam i:a camax) ib noxi inx.mp (rnn> D t| -ma:n



. : y\ SK rv& : TTI TT jnpST DV ny j

TT nsn n&v n v ro :rf?a DVW ( 22 ) pp . : n : p



nrv



: mnrf? 6^: ^D Vi w van SD pV onn^ -axn ( 26 )

psx 1 ? ni^^i oVy STNI : n^npa
nin(28) asiarfpN nsn mbno HI jnnn



BTKH Ksm isicrn tzrxn nhe ]Ka ISIBTDI bna fjorsD HT ]in
nnmpn rrnna rbsr TOK na nxi . : pn nK (66> bsxm tenn

TNT : (D^iora iixi imta fnn TON nnn JD !?y pn
r 1 pn nx rfeDNi nxs- 1 " Kn 'D imsri man
xsian -man TS^I : onx qiwm on-'by xsn ]x IMTI onbx nnn
Tbnm man TIDBT nnx^si n^aa-'D Toy- nnnor 11 )*: on-ox ]nxn

"TPI : Tna:n na nmn nta CPSB ysar nnx "vrn (: ronxb



]iorx"in -Tnasn |ai : nbbsnx Tina: T byi :nbnx Tnaa T
]a iierxin Tnaan : n3 anon . nso qbx 3B7n -man

. : ffnnsa ]a ^sarn tnaam :

KYI "a ]V:D px bx fbnb mn xs "mean ma nnx YPI
in TO^T : onniM ny 'baiv ?x XT' 13 : Tnan nabaab
brnm : iayb man per m -nnai . : Tsnn "rna:n ncry
ironp^ D-'Brax wxin : mn xsian oyaorD am 'n-'i . : era
nin iDxi nben : nayb IID 72: nban T^non ]a mx iysGr ~iy
iy D-'iora -nxb -iayh -na bx nibn D-QX xx^
ib-xip nor .rinon n^n ]a rax nnn > xsr iy
iay Tnx -p isibi : ]y:D ]nx bx xa^i : pn ]a xsiaa

.:X-na

: rrfexb amax ]3nx yaara ai na YIX nx nx"i nnyi
nnaa ]a nxT -inon n i oa rax aiyi imbooi) isixa



)x ynnx lam niai (: mm 'xrera pin xm mm ^anx
rmmn: i:a mx nap icrx iax:i ibsx isrx i:a nmaxi na mn



16



dry : nam , : i nsn . ; wfin .1* tar
am ( 15 ) pSn wansNi . : n pbn :
roanto n&Di : Dbtf? rwa nsoi : TO>w6 nrrotn
ns* nasn TO : na ^a W paiai jrajn ( J6 )
pbn : DTni -JB>IDI ^ain jvi HJ& JUDI TW D

pSn Dnacoi pSn D^p^n . : i on -isyi (i)
DVp n^Vs ro EODM nai o) : p^n 5^331
|>3^ . : T jns : n^ |wa n^ni psStf . : i : n w
DVD (2i) njcy flfo* : i nnna *DV ni (20)



naar xnpnan N\TI : IWN Ty aarp DV on^nb o" 1 ! tata^j nioa
nx n



nn 'a : onarn nx njns mrry na "jn -nzraffix ay
BTX oi|T ]x Dnoy pnjrnx nizrx rnrnxn ison ixn xnn
ba PIDX^ .ronb TBT ^nn avbsn bx 'inner-' p ba TID
br ib rpj" nn tzrmrnfip 'aairGn nwn rn -ran* n^Diann
iax inn DT OOTW nnx ib nax^i ib rrn erxn m ibia DT
: TOSS-IX (62) baa mwx bra BTX ba nox" 1 jx -man is 11 ! : ia
Dipaa D^orrn : Dipaa n^orsxn -nDX 11 ! : p ^n^i : DT> D^yaix isoa
^nxa nsia mm xbj rrpawi n^aM p or D^ar nnx ^n-'i
na D^atzrnn ba IXT^I . ]nxb o^atzm p TT 1 wx may xim

: o^absn ISB pTura n-'aa mbsn, wan:nVu nxm
pizrm:D' i a 1 ' narbor nor la-'pxi .-.-iiyb pina bx mam
|nxn ^n x^nncea) nra^omoxn nx inaan naxba cnb nor
nx mn aaar TXT : -inm : inarx nx aaanrmma mxiaa mn
: imin mnan brarnsian xaranx .-ixon n^ab aan : inarx
om bx jwn ! T^n nax xaranx neian ]x o^saraan ix-i 'a vn
ba nx ix-'sn lax 11 ! irian TITI ]aa -rnayr bx rrn iax
narxa laipab arx ba KTI : p Ttzryi oniaipa bx omoxn
bia-'n ntoa oibam rby omax ]:nx nb^nx p -inxi . : lax
p vn IT nnn iaari Tna:n (64) mpb bi3 13 vn .
xm : wxn mna la-'barm mpb ]a nnxi : mxnb rssh

]rtx bbn vn iar rnn- 1 mn ^a omax ]:nx pjtarn bain
mm ib nax na nx"i : impns nianb oai P3?bna XJP "iarx
bain xb wxn ]x ixi TXI (D-'Tara -nxa Tnxsin ia?x rrtrr



J9



mm ?3 nmsfc m n-rn inb rnmima
ansi "61 WKI oVj/? my DB> rbw (35)
nmp KYI pii my rrarni rtei ni33 1311
ns s i DID D^S pyn n^i mia 1 ? m w
IK vbp iDKi n^iD lani : nnnn



(38)



runs rrn -iwa Din IJT omaK pixn

.- ib> i-ron mrp*> bbm oiawn bx TJS K:I cp : irnn

me; ns ib natzn : rntan ]o iar norr na br wnpi



]D nn^n IN DTtfjran ba IK nnb mns'i
by MIT : rrae rnx-ib nnx by xb nizn : nizrb ny-is nw"i
ixm nssnnx car) iiaxa p m ynna : y\ -wo mx
Dtzri (: ran nxr mas by mar mxi p nnxbys ba |x
nnn. ny-isj OTTH : n-nax narx XTt 13 nar nynnx
aibarm n^arn inxa xs^i : marx na; nx ib ]in : uaa
runs maara bbsnxi : rnrr ^sb iayi inarx rnabara
(741 amax pnx na bbsnx narx mbsnn arxi x-'n nxti
pan pxn ^nbxi awn Mbx mm) inibsna iox no b^ba
runs aarpnx 7x1 : irra nxi nans nx o^nbx XBTI (. : ]sn
^nbx sin rnbx *3\ . nbapna imban "DI nmax pxaa
nbsnn ^3 y-n : ibb:a DTisian narn -. c^nxn ]nxi D"nbxn
IXST xbi : ib mn narx jrm p inx xsin xb o^absn >
Tia nmna ms xvm nya : rnbxb amax mbsn- xbx
ba laxai ffobsn ba nnawnTS) : na -ofobsn IBTX Tayan
cnb a; 1 xb -o : D^absnb o-'innaran ba manna mizi rna^san
xom : nabya nao ib vr anb -"innarx p bai : ona "pis
'n-'a bai) Ttaxoxbxa iiaxa p y-nna lam ni bai : nnnxa
(. : ffxarana xbi : a^bs: ib ciinnaran bai .: isnbnx Tayan
: Tayan ^naa puns nary na nx-i 7X cara nby romo nanm
naoo byi'(76i ansaa iayb ba^ xb rnswyn



ny lab Dnb iaxi rar:xa crmjtK nyis ms ]a inxi



is

p JMW TO bjn (29) : new
KDTI n&Bn nm nniDm wi D^KI -ft STNI
(si) - : irp'TSKn *n HTT^K mprtb n
naen nn&pni D'-IB
am ra



m T nxn^o ?w e^ .:m .:DI .:to 3 mi (33)



aonn xbi cpnn mn TID^) nbyn-" TTOKO

"owe p inwitpra mn
m IDS tzritanTiD -imn VP TV crax nspn imn bnx D m

TP x!? rmtixa ir m rrnnn



13 nbjrn-' mn-'a nixiaa x-na ]ibxa on-ax ptzr TXT

x-na pbx^ rmn ny T^ nrxnn VPT qxin -IBTX ]nxn bx> -b

nbr p inxi : n:i DTK Tanp nata p-n: onion no *D

m rn rnmrmrpb ottr 'inntzn ip^^x n^nb oipa DTnnn

max ro 11 ! ]WD |ixa an n^n nbn ana-n -inx vn

irtm iXTtnainija rrntiw xiia ^x ]a iay rnx p
iXTKDnsaa.ii2rx:iajran 'na baa nbia nnn nmi
-npw mpaa nmax 7^1 . : iayan Tia -"aarp
morn bx nnxa fix *orj uwp.-mn o^ain n-'a-'a
ixn ns 1 xSi ^a IXTI amax ntzrx nor ixsa^i :

B nnx ibbn aiya niBrn ]a oaunaa TPT : nxio
VPI : nrish nnx ibbrpi rons- naona bx iam ran
i nnaxirnnx np i ni' i in <| ab nx^am n^or7j) nTaoa
najra ib aiff*^ : nai mana nris ib jn^ : iai murrb bar
: prn -"aa abn Ta runs nxa Dmax NSPI .- mzzr
: mrv .ib inyi : nsns "pa inorx mtzr ^xaa mn 1 !?
n YIHI : in-'a nxi n-^ia o^ja nyis nx nTn- 1
a nx xip 11 ! nyis nbon:]aK"Tn n^n mnsi army nxsa
caina (72) mm : onx SIDX^ -. maan. ba nxi onsa ^aiain
m labnxi : mmxn isob o^iaban ]a : omia iai onn
oipan ma or iax^i pram : pp p ^i:n p n-'aun ]a iscn
. : miaya nnM mprnn nxt bai mma n:axa nwx



nnym : i avna mu mm i*n. vy nm

? nropyn (5)

vraro ruK'tt marwi jaak wpv w j
. ; man t?S DDH S paa nni (?) run** SK

n mni



onx nc?y naxn. 'aba bit injrb ma rtzrn nrn VPI :
D*OK TTK nn: nx n-n .:onx n^i : nnx brn : nanba
anp TTI : iinan rrn naa rnsb rrr n^nbtzr nb'am : onnr
nana namn nW .iav IBTN n^ixm xn ]^n : nnorn -xma
oracrn xma nnx nntzrn xsinn Tm : tynao XM nizrx
aits onb rtzn 'awn D-PSI cpai) 6pb> Dmax xs mn n^b
a^aw orn ni TPI : nmn pDira a^n nxsa^ oroBrrr xiaa
nain pasra : nn^n tznn p mx on : bib-'x arm p
Dmax ]x : p by Tsrm . : paroib bxaa (n7-ia>
ba nx aari : nb^ba onx cnb^i : aizrn xiaa nnx
"isoa xa na nx-i . : yarn wnaii rn^ raib nx am : anain
man xin nb^ orrby pbm) iax : TB pins T pis mwna
p ntrranai cpanaib bwacrD icrx nain iy DBTn:aa i 'i_a)
: isaa nxT 1 npiobi inxipb ixs^i : nnan obcrb xa nTn tznn
wa-n : nnai abrrr bx -rssh ixa -nn: 'aba bai : DTD "jba
rby Drnax pixn mm ixi TXT rmnxa Day mn: -jba
nbsx w\ . frby bxb mixi : r:Db unnan npy :
bbsn 11 mx IXTI mar -naya njnsa mm nary naa
: ^x mxa arbara o-oban ]a an pjTT 1 ! . : msn mxn bx
7x1 : rby nbia 11 ib mx an xb ]x nbsx isarpnx pbi m
-. mbm i:aa impa^ iy inxipb ixs^i : nnbxn baa bna rnbx
: ]"! nnb x-2rim . : obar -jba pis ^aba pa bnx ]a arxm
'a : nnDnm rnanan p iay nary na by Diax nx ma^i
baa ncrya ib ]TTI . Twar by iys:i iaarn ba nx ib a-'arn
a?ia-im ars:n ^b h:n ib -tax nari : uaa np-> Dmax yT xbi
"bsx ]x aarnna 'jx DTD -jba bx <w onax -lax- 1 ! . : -f> np
: naixa i:aa npx baix xb p -naya oin in DTD ^ap ba



20



pan

:" mnrf?
v

3 nypa iroB>K mtaa pb&aa hxh iBosnKi o)
"IP onsr nypn *p ni (2> pn nni TSW
mnan Mrn pV p naNi (3) Dptnn 71



ins lawn Ni : - ina^ iw mpan K WK -own
oT niD iaya DIK& innrx or IK ior raoy p
bam rnx ]n raibm in ixa'n . : nsnu
rpY.on tx XIID iibx bx nns irwn nr nnb
mppb (77) rn^r rby ^mi) T3T7n nn7an nx cn-ax p-n
|ra3 }nxa taibi omax inc? <| i (. : onxo TO ib^sn
TT ix-'X Bnrm : ]in orrox xn p^ BTTO : nnx
. : nnx nsar DTDS pan : rbro ^ib -nan p-"3 onnm
naern . : bsnax lyjar ]nxa ^nn onn o^a^n ^n^i
]rnn p by^D Tsim DBTBD Dbn : DTDS raib nn )DBT -wx
TTIPP on |K nnx -itzm ia.vb i-pi bsnox bx -urjizr
mnxa nnb .mn- 1 TOX nx onb Taxi : D^ni <78>
<| 3Bn <| xbi : oten rby n-nax rr i^n -iarb mai .
bbn bx xn^i : T>:sa cr^x ba iin^ bnxi : D^ra-i
p jnxn ^aba -inx nbx rrn . : onp xipnn nria

~fet TPIXI "tyjc? -jbo bfinox bx 'n' 1 ! . : on
: QTD iha ana br DID D-na "jba .byini : Db^y -jba
lax DBT (79) byi nmx -fba axaonimiMr -jba
D^D^an rD-ix wpKi : IPS x^n 127X jrba "jbai o^xias
: inx izzrx o^D^an bxi : bsiax bx oiam nnan inbi
: Dixa inbtzr xbi iabn -itzrr ni&bc? naorm . : njizr irzry
]yab:inx itzrx nrobnm narb -na xn nacr mwr ranxai
raib nx intzri : afa^a nanban Mm : aio -"aba nx lanb- 1
iwxa Qmnx mb 13*1 iflib nbari : max n nx p wiai to nxi
rrna ^ara on rn wi x-iaai .biaorxi DTaan ..-."b rrn
cna ami : rnx p taib ^x : nwwix naa on!? in
nanban bx -i ibx-'tzr by inx 12^1 : DTD bx iay



23

en tab's rvfci a*) : p'Vtf I 1 ?! mpnD
: -nm oy nip -ay T^B iy\ as; : ^i 11^ nnw
nyns nnjn -jn n^as^N 1 ? -iittt "ayi (i fi )
^SIK p ayp n % nyi : niriixn 1301
?D HDXI (i7) tn^x ^ innDv.nn^D
11 n^K DDHD p30 *va oni : ns*
iDSido) :ra njbn HDX ovtaS n^ mo (is)



tzrmn nbia n^n ^ixi : rown Dra pnir pixn i^nx nnx
raor) T'BNDNbx brn "iaxa |a imna- nil : nnizrn ora 'snaBrn
crm : BTDnn ora isratzr nitzriax Q-na naorn ora o^pnn
]nxn ma -HI-IK TTH (: pnx- 1 ib^nx tai : DTD mpinK 'ararn "vnr
aer o-nonn yat? ^Kyanp ^a ai^wn r^jr omaK
isba nwa: .maa TIT -ja "icrx (89)
n:u? o^bizr iaba inia nnxi : nnx nso "
: naxa ns inii : n-is in: bnn inn isr

rr pios : IM p-is rrtpxia isaa nornpn n-nna nax
p TS^X xaia xMn nra YP-J (r^s: rnx ba asb
pxn aibsa ix-n ix-'sin DJI : bxraizr 1 133 nx nnb^i .
n ior:Dnxi : Tmi omazr bKyaani izz?j7 wsa n:
xim> : manx irzrx nban XMI bxyacr 1 ^n oy K)) nbna
naa^nxi my ini (: OTTK xin wri . : Dixn ms rrrp



rm nrp -prpaw isoxnx prmaip ^aa aarn
nbxn ona-rn ba nnxi : itz?r im ^xratrr ba : omax

ixa ibu lap- 1 -m norx in jx nmax
p i ror 11 jx XT"! mrp 133 oniarya myi p
x iDoa <ai naxa p .ynna rm : oixaa
in -nrunK 13 Dmax yaur nbxn.. onain ba

13T13T nnx ni "1371 (:nbna nxT KTI 1107x1
sxi : naa^nxi my in byr nbna in by ia"n .riory
in om : Dmax ma -nrw rrn oixa naT xin ia nxi:
xa TX xn nsn cmax ]ns7 |x y-n : naa^nxi myi nbna
yba am : 01307 ana yiorina 127 : axia ]nx iaba 771373
nbx ba jx nan ITP TS omax yao? 73 inxi : aan



22



3D



mso



paa



fi nmp myi D'nes wo
-mw p nirate law
men nviM ^wvo 2 ) . : ena
' nynn 03) on^D ^ nyo



% KDI&TI 'joy:n cy
te^a
v/t:p



: pp*



-iwx pn : w jnw -nn Bina
nra nbxn jrimn inx TPI . : opbn inp- 1 on
' nnm snann nra omas bs mrr -]sbD

"ia xin . : rb*bn Dibna n? TPI : niaixa
oan) ib iaxi : }*ina bx wnn ^tzrn (: nxa naiK -pawi ib
na ib nax 11 ! : onx isob bain ox n^D-an nsoi D-OBWT a
]X mx inm (: np^st ib i-awn) -"orborn . : qsnt rrrn
mm 'jx) i^ iax ojnain) : y 73 ijnaiz? p xri



mi (rnnnnb nxin fixn hx ^b nnb Qi-nzra -nxa
nnrm i:axa rnam mptnb nma pixb mn iba : ain ipian
nxTm:niD7n pxan orxi t| 3:nbyn > ' oizrn msab iratzrai iniaT
x^n nmaa^x xi) :-pzbXDxbx nso bra "iax iwxa narom
naizra anax IJITX^ rrn nr bai (: naiam : maim : rorm (sei
p mn "lain ma mm nai OTairDy anarn o^rerarnnx
n^na ims XTTH nnz^ai : n^ajn DID': n:nr a^nrm ywn
Via 11 xb IOTX 137 biyi) ib "iaxi : ]3 by rvnan iar n-oi
nr -"mi (: XMH ars:n nmasi Tn nra inbir nzzn nx
'izrann nn : naorn nra rman iar rnrvnai lain
bnn nna -IBTX n^nrijxn nfzrbor rbr ixa xnn
x awx aw) -. -b -iaxi : pnara on-iax (an nwaa
ia nx xnpnxi (: int&x mizrb )a n:m mn
-iwa ]x -""inxi : mayi mo rrcranb nn iar ix n^onaxn
onman jyyyn iDbn : -jbm pns^a nmax pnx nna -mx
-. masn mo nDitzrrn : ttib ir'na irb^ mn i~\y bx
rn ]n wxi nnsa nn^br mm -mxi . : xinn
-p ba nxi -oan ba nxi -. nbxn anam nwan mm
n:izy -nnx TTH . : mab rnwa TII&I intzrxi taib



ro 25

S nrtini II-IM raoai (27) : nVrn ura DJTOK
pn sfty 131 (28) n^ n&V^ issn Vn



pn rn&i : nai : nrtoxi nw n33 enn n



pp 1 7 irai omw ifiwa vas mn

VI

p on nirfeb spy IJDI o>
pi ( 2 )



: nns n? nn o6 D->pxi rora
(: -nay) romn vn : nn-'sonn qnsaa Dp p -inxi :
n,Ti : onaro iba na^i . : a*ser nurbvr m n^ncra
5px*i : 'nrbwn nans 72 oa lOTin o-nso fix by -jbo TBT
70 D^aban nsoa ^ppiinaw n^nriy *]bo c^pxi TOjop.p ai nano
narx : ncra 'o^a ppn no?x runs bx pjor ^a iTn norx runs
Tb-iny iy qor |nxn ma ara -"a -. o^abo ranx -. PJTD
tzr xb BB7pno n: TO3:n:w D-W
onsa pxb na p mbarn jnxn naiar tyn m . : qbna ia
ovaixi ntybtz? nbxn o^nzm ba TTTI n:tzr o^aizr p n^n
IE?X xin ni ncra |jnx >i a >i a ib^nx ny-isi . : nstzr nxai

TIB bxian ^m .:<na^) ..-ri^y naxi ^o.naw
nys baa nb^- a^aran rn a : ixa ixaa losani
ba : laxb iay bab nyis wi . : yT rrm narbar ix
-. D^a/ni D s 3xn i:aa w TXT^I . : pa^aHi nx^n T^
nmn "ix'a onb i^n -atn pn ba ia >i b >i -nane o
^ai . : r-inx fiara: ainn nx^a n:a "jibayn 11 iarx narxn
^tz?3 rn -<a -mx ]a nnb ^barnx xb : n.siaxa rn
a narsaa yin :x }x n^aabn HIP -pyT Dibxa? a
Dxn x-im : oar ibm : man bx xyn inaa ibn nama
niara inbarn -137 ]a mn ']xi unsm p ia x-anx nai i*yn
abn i:aa pr oixa ib ]m IM> nbyn 11 aawn : nix-nan r-iab
inpro : nyn lanaa nbyn* 1 riaxa BS : TIX- a^abna Bran
nay nx-'an x-'n na nxi (: iix arabna ]aari ybda'ara-i
naxa xbx ix^a D n :an fbarna' isn frn xbi inn^a bx
mbyai;Tmrpi -ina 1 nab mwwr bbnn 11 : onsan ipyb
Dbyb iy aab i^aix; auryn -an ib^nx pnsn lasiarn oam



-24



(20) DV : o rwj oy mai "TEES-IK
-inn (si) : -inKi rrE>3i : . : ."in&o
(.22) :B>K -nay nyj&> 'jma JD>D ^n DV.

nrfrm ran jxwa myi-: rm nVn
(24) nr\r\yh :npi mn ^TKI (23) * pVVi ;w
npsi (26) : TVX m^iD-r I-IDNI : nj^D pSnDN t nS
p nnni (26)



7x1 : Dibwn -p*jy amnx "n i| a >i a IT^TIN 02)
p riDi inir pi oar p nn rn DI : -oy p pp^i : oar

isoa rby las' 1 nan . : nKT ib n^n pbi : D^
:naxn br WK prurno m ]K JTT mrr mia^p aao xin
73: -or p ppi p Kin-na-p p-i:y"iab anp IWK sin

JTBHna "ISO p : 3 pIDB plB3 mp^l- HNT "1C7NT :

3Kio p DErn . : TTTn mrpi : ")3in nt nn^ax ib

70 730 brs -nn: no ^IKBH : nbw 70 nbntzri osi

DBH :'WB ^33 D^BTP TH TOK : TS^X iMO TTH

mbin nbx . : n^na ns 11 70 : -nraa na bxsxcj^a
n;n TX : bxicr -3ab "jba ibo 'jsb DUX pxa iaba -IBTX
7nxm : pnb IT n3 crw 73 apjn
cmrv naawr natz? mwy y3izr 73 ppn TX
y-i7 70 xin spr ^o^a rrn inrx rons . :
ns* 1 y-ir 7^ ntzra 7^nx 'a^a rpn icrx nyisn
iayi) TMXDxbxa rbr "iaxi:nora Tbinx w
73 tawa-i 73 DD-'iax 73 trtaia 73 nsns ntbm nbxi (.
ninixn IBD labnx norx I-P pio^na p : pan 73-:

7X1 . : HIM bx XS^l 7T3 XS^I : nblJH ^33

rrn n:or o-'crbcr Dibizrn -pby ppr |nxn ^n -"aw a' 1
: 131137 mpnan njns labaw-,) ^vn nyis Trirnnso 7nxa
73 nnx DJI : n^a 11 rm : mar narbar n3 o^pxi m3 i) 3 bx X3
narbar nar sari . : BTID *py x^m : nrns bx pa?an bx -jbn
nnzri:Xinn 'IITI bai rnx bai ^DT na^i .:.i3ar D^a?a?i
niaba roan) TiflXDxbx 1SD3 "iax narxa bxyaar nabaa

. : ofnana 7nx by ^a^i (: pbay -isanxi : bxyaw
"jba ma3 mrj Tra rpn IB?X t| 3arn nns yaara



nm "IB>I do) b rn 1 ? nn&D : "D^rnain 1 ? p^D p
S:n pw *aynx tfixa oinra rw IDIOO :an^
nim (12) : PTUD TD nxn So inmi ; nnVn
npna n : D-MD MB : paa psm nt?
nnraen mp tin pni (13)
runs rvnV nnnx. nno^nx 1 ! j ny^

t nVii



n7 Taon insb TTT xb |K nnax ^a nisi : rrc
n-rnyno D^arpn n^imrm irnax ^D p by nb
mar ona nansn minx nn^m . : nar ib-'n ix-i doi
nris nn o n7n 7x1 : "isan Tn : ib nery na nytb pnia
nn ISB^ mnoa, naipnx ib nan-n in nnnxi inx nnpb
p mpro irox yb Tixipi ^bx^ nbx -iaxm rnriB
-jbrn : ^b nrns na nb "iaxm : ib^n nx -pb prm
mn -6^n nx ^abn nans na rb "iaxm ib-'n nx nx xipm
ib'n nx ncrxn npm : T>iazrr nx px ^xi -6 inp^m
n:n3i dosi nms na bx ix^am baa^i iiran bia^i : inprm
minn nawa "isoa nampn mina ynna PIT naa : maizr nb
nxip PBHB na bx ixaia inxi .^wujn pioeara pis
pri . : 'trram rabsm tzrxm a-'an p ^a maxirncTa ia
liiax "itzrxa : p-s HT ]a inrr norana naizrn era nbia
ni" 1 ]a ~wy ntzrana : "ix^a ^bornx naizrn DTQI . : brb
rroznann nrcra Tairn nat&n Dra nx-'n ]a ixxia TTI : p-o
'a iy iaiai np^xi 7ira a^ixn n^aa ntzra nainxi i:aa
n^a^a xs'n : onayn by o-'Tpisn nins nizr DV npi : bia <is)
nair tzrx naa -nso arx n cmbaoa nxT ~iy nnn
in:at: >i i nsan nx *pi : tzr-'X px n a XT>I : nai na p^i : -nnxa
^& nam o^a^n ]a anrn nra nr xs^i . : bina
ib -tax^i |jn fin nan nab rcnb -iojn
iax nnx "annbn .- irby D3ibi -nr izrxb
px nax^i : ntzra xi^r . : wax nsan nx na-in
-ia-n nx nms sronn nyan irnnx w ^ai : lain rn:
yon : runs ^sa nora ma^i : ncra nx Jinb crpa 11 ! PITPT
]xsb nyi xim : .mp-'an nstzr o-'ercr o-'pxi . : ]-Ta pxa



26



sD p *: a TUMI ttsna p n 111233 (3)



run 33 111*33 rvzs 131



Syini i&y 1 ? ToS ins n-a umi o>) n
IID m ptei (6) : nnirfes *?y D*n3 inm
?n DISK pS3i (7) : pm rnnS
s 1 ? inxi nnW n^ py? pn () :
irai (o) mi DINI nnniD 3ai nun



trra n^ia mm (mbtzm rbr mar p rroa ]:nx
.- rnn nrn doo> laan or inrr ntzrann

: DT> D^yncn inx Disoa mm crrrr nnrbirr
TXT (:"ixin T^ornx p-o p DT ifirr nananrn)

"ix^n 'a TDJT HK-Q nura n^x-nnn ]nx
bnw . TVS in ix-'nizrx xbi : i:i273r -jbm : nbyn^ otzrn
a : onsa bn: yn^a IXT iy onsa -w: p ixs^i . : ana?
bnn nx rrarfc D^aran TTT 7xi:bnan ?)Dia nr Dnn n-'a^n ppn
ynaa Pioin 1 am injr na ^D TFI uoi) : nins na onx nnvr
(: mra nyB ^m naf ba mm) -riflXDxbxa naxa ^a : IXTI
T br nabNn.-nBrm na^na manna nan "pna -frn
isaxnx : n33on" xbn -psran ]a "ix^n -"a lay ixi . :
wsrn .- npa-n nbna naxbaa rm o-'ssraan bai o-'arainn
Tina TPiiix-'n -"a mTar bb: by orpoaina rip*!
iDDn <io2) ipn^i orsn 11 ! nxi 11 mm nabs lacr ETX
: -iaxi 1B7X1 xtzrn : DTI . : Dr6 x^cran xm mn -a : mmxn
inn^m : o^an m ima bba nawxnn rby laiax -io?x
nanm xn ibvn) -iax p-i : bnsn D-a iax xbi . : qio
. ibnan. p m nn ^srnbyn- 1 mma nxiai mn n7i onsina
: na i^n nm xba riax nsioa xm xn ^bs nax 7x1
-ix : inn-'n bx ixn xbi isbn xbi -rby ibxc? xb 73 b-nm
xorrr biDM Q-'nbx bbnn 1 bna nsia mi : nainn xm
nann n7n 7x nris nai . : nnn^ ina 11 na ba ncrrn an
nnpm : nnnn nx nb ix^a^i nnax nx nnbo? D^n mna
: mn y::n mbra -IDT . : tzmp aiia -ura na x-im nnnsm
na rbir banm : aa" nann -jina wi : ntznpn nws:
laxm : ixa "iy na-n mn- 1 nanxa ib nanxi :



29

pn (21) - jNiym naiB6 *IP Vty : rhyi r\rbx
rbrn : rvaN by m^n nim p nnstys VD
Dmn nnx H ma? *m nynnK pn (22)
(23) -jBfc 1 ? WM an-as roxi VTDI njns
\T DrnnK TOST : nnxr-o Bn



: njns 'onn^ "iBn (24) . pn pan pxn r

HHWD bs\ ivn^ns* : n'Trn n



BTisncm mmxn ba mm vnrb ranzmn .- DTI
ixs 11 'or^ann nb^b ]D n^ororn nyirn
rwara na iD^n mn n^b . : onsa ba Tjrb nan
nosn ijnD rrn -TODNDX^K IBP in s ^ri . : cm
iDoa nampn- mina "inx mrr n a . ..t^anann
a ixx^ nosn rnnoa) . : 3 pwea : b pis
r aiva xin roan pipi (o-nxa bD wb nan
DBN . : irian xin i&anrn xiao bx "inizrn niby pi -.
"iox inresa rby mn" 1 pan npia |mx naxa 'S by
: inos naD) nax 1 ^ : laom ora Bnaraa rm irian |x
n* 1 bx ixa nr isbn aw) a^r no^Jizr TITJ iiroa Doan
prwan D byi (: na^a ixa ipan nrna ^son Tsnan nb^ai
n7 br |roT i:^ --a -. mn rtob qv D 1 bx oxaia n-n naxn
-laxa ""S by rpm . : ixnp: mn rW ba mn orn
: mn BT 1 ''aBKT Tsnam : *sam ara naai Tjria npia
mrp 1B3XT : np-ia j:nx naxa xin 'barx naxm . .- XT mm
pnaxirD^x bx ixa -"imbBm arai . r'aanrn xtann p
i:aa nibpa iann : ma far rnn- 1 aw) anx i| T i i . : ma a
ntn arn in : y-nnan : nbsin p v xm yvn nti pnax -iv
-ix 'izrtan arai . : ixa iy man own pna 11 'inx nxi:
anb 11 ! pbay an^by xa ^zm inan rnnaa ar wan xm
nx mrr yarn : a^aom nnna iaor mai inx wbm anx
ara 'onbtzm onn p TZTbam : -nbyn 11 iniba^a vby bxner
(: norbor naby nsar ba> . : TB TIB by .mm xip
xm ntzrx mn ar iss (us) (ana -orxnn) : mai anb
ar xm -iirrx ^ann ar isar c>30n) .- naby nx-na
nxi nx yn . : apa DT near OBrborn) . : TD m iaya



28



man nen a*) : Daiai o'nsifc rsyns : n$ns
npfoa nenn p&* *jn ijnsji nSaoi Sapa
(17) : nan 'tfOD? 7i enn paw *6
mm (is> j an twiDa wpi n'fiop tai rwin
rvawo roniKn ""130 ^iW p DITTOD rwi &nn
jna r6ri rinWrr J-TOD idsi : c|x
^ im (20) : nin nV?ja nnpy nnn



nmsi bxntzp in by man rnptn nm p "inxviann inn" 1
onsa iba ran': pia pxa mbwrr jp-isa mb-u
nnxaa -jba rnnn opi ]x OTHI nnn xipnan xm
-. mayn p bx-ian in inn uos> isoxnxi pm bx-iizr in
ombx jrann : mayn p ombxn bx arenar bym : iparan
pnr nxi omax nx inna nx onbx nan nnxpa nx
naxa . : ombx yTi bx-itrr in nx ombx vm--. apir nxi
. : ffnsa p : na rn icrx arnsv bx nxi mnsa (Dmbx XTD
: iiz?y naa onsran b^aax yx : mnsa (: crnbx yTi) naxai
: nmax dog. |:nxb -rby nax itzrx -non yT ot&n ]x nai
ID pis n-'iyxia isoa naxa xim ibiba aiip rrn 13
op nbxn onam inx TPI <. .- onx i:yi nrpjri) in piss
n7i (: nTtay) xim n^na p nyis iaizr BnxB _by onn "jba
nyis p : 01*1x0 px by fba itz?x iBribarn -jban xm
n-pn cnn p ur nory ncrana imi . : ^or wa rrn
nibizrn nnna ]3nx xa lyaipi ora iirrbi&n urin xin
ombxn -in bx mTS'xba lain Tin 11 jxsa oibcrn <no>
DTX niaai .- D^xa7n nx mna own o-'px xirrn ora i -.nai a*
7 mn 7X mx by -nx p rn ntzrx rmoa am
ib nbyni naxa xin p by iym : xinn ora ncrab i3n:x
ix 13 na^o "\b nan: xmi (: mxn -\b mv -m ba

iyiain ora uaa lOPbEra icriborn anna ,
mni HID -tax* 1 ! : onsab TV mn DTQ . : nerab mm

-ina inwjflfn ^i . maian ntzra nx-ipb ^b
mmxn nx itwri omjar onsa by ibyi . : ib .-
nayn iby lerbttrn ova . : nyn tsovn bxinr in
nsia nm .inrann Dra . .- mn 11 nai ba nx ib rrn r

B,



31



nro IN^I : pn p
. : ins rw nro w . * g rw DTDS "i*ni : nay JD

p*nn JD ^TK DfcniD pan



ninixn ISD t^i <& p\>D



i : DPTQK Qjn TB na nim w niya n&
vznn BON ^D Se nw () vbin



iini (7) : ty-r nnna no



(: ban obn x> . : ornotzr Kim : 73sV nxan own nta
n> : D-oDn mBxn i (.- b>f aon ^xnrn j) baxn barn
nrniz? an r6x (:n^bn 7) inan ]->bn i (:ab pbn
awnx IKI . : Q-6 -"innttri rnnn oybn _rm
nn -insna ^ri i:inx by nail : pba nor ay
ma xbn ib inns* cnpa bab ^ "j^n |inxn 'a

rum ->mn ma naT xim (ia ^i . : TTTH by -. nb
]inxn iam ITQ nsibrzr mm ^tn ass ozmpn bx> mrr
.:ynn nmtanb pnxn nx orbn 71 mora "jim "IITI p
. : bpaa pnxn nx yi orba P)X -jmi oyba nnn y aim
nx x-n orba vy nx mm bn : pnxn -"D nx mn > ' nns 11 !
^xba ib laxii : rsxb "innsri I ( TI : ^iia asa mn 11 ^ba
fn : ~pbx "iaix "icrx naTi ]a mon xb *p nawi mm
nraiz? jx^oa by imar iizrx ^xba^ . .- pba nw or oyba
inxi mnaian xsa D^VB raabm . .- n^wxin mna7an (121)
IT x^n IBTX anna DIX p innbm arba jx nsn urrnx p
isoa mrmpn n-nna lira Ty x-'n 13 m 'bz naa :
bx nnra DIX bx> naxa xim -. piosa : Ta pis
(. : DIX p TCI Tbwbun nax Tiaxoxbx "isoai (: -nna
na TJP-BXI T/IE^XIH ^xba^ -rbx xa nirnan ^eb nara
nyn nx "ix 11 o^ba ^xai (: .-nxn bx> ib xa p inxi : "aT
( : mm iajn xb DJTIX nai (122) bx Tap xb apx na> narba iaxi
is ini7n Tsn onpin bx> ib xa 73 nnxi : mx *paT
srss man) nax mxian nx7 nxi 7x1 |-ur ]aa bx-ior nxn
m mss p pba jrasra -"mi (: maa 'nnnx van an'izr ma
: Tna naia n3m Tnnpb ^a^x apb b rwyy na lax
: iaib natzrx inx fl sa mm D^tzr IBTX nx Nrbn



30 L

runs npsi ( 2 6) ? jranV pwb pSo DDIID nenni ( 25 )
(27) . nay biVi nnwi niv inVcn DTOS
K poxi noDipi nonp nrana



VII

nroi : WIDK rw



ona on t6.nbxn omwrn nw^tzr ]K pa inson | -nn-ib
jnain BP IBS Tib-'ba p 13 . -. traaia xbi ni 11 xbi mam
-. ~i pis Gnm noon naxDa rmrnpn minn irn rby xa
onai bip r&xn Tino DS^M rnn 11 -QTD a\ pios
xb miiBD xvn (:bip ^nbrr D^xn oarx rmam
(op: DP nsx 'BP^Brn) ..-mnonn p njian
pis p xin Dxxoa ataaia xbi-.nT xbi waw xb ia
-lEoa p!?y IDX bai . : ^^^s onb or xb np: arm :
noxo 70 nr ynno : 'mm DP xin- orn nt T>tflxoxbx
a ro "iitaT mes . : x a nnxnai mss) ana
nran ]ii2nxin wmb inxa (: i a op: DPT
ino 13TD3 -"BrbBrn ina . : natzra oaipnx o-nxa pxa
na ""yain onna .lona nia rpn irybBn anna aw . .-JD
-n T'a nanban nn-'n Tiawn wma .:]inx pixn
^Br bxinr > rby ii7r oai^anr isaa 'aayiiTiy "fbai
cm: x-'nn nya TH . : ib iizrx ba nxi inx lain 11 ! : ib
xiaa watzra vn : -nir Tra laena vn : D^flira
IBTX IIJTB oar vn' j^Ta i?x Da 03 Tir Tr bx
]a o-'ta-'ia p nra ]a ojrba bx xip- axia inx
IT p xn itzrx o-'Binn bra pb p ^3ray p : jrors (as)
f p p axia ^a wcrp ]a a-sinn HT -6 ram ^a : irs
lira p Dia bx D^K^a pba nbnri . : y-r mrn naan
x: nab laxb ib xipb pay 133 fix inrr br IB?X mns
M-"! : -"BrBrn nnna ia-n m wi : bxior 'BST nx -^ nix
D-oxban raaorb -"inriKr n^irnrnxn isoa pjrri ]ia: orba
Wrnnxan bxi : owi bxi snpin bxv.iixn bx> cm nbxn.
Tan onb xip 1 mm (: msnan bxi : rnmin bxi : ompn



33



pw nnas? pis&a fl*) : rroaa onata n&an
rnjn piDib pa n&DK ai : as) pan *?p^ DJTQK
rain pDya nmS : si : an oe) *>iVn rrvn. p&ya
onnax KHK nnraia a?) . : n&K pa nnprtb HID
DJTOK !*> in "Yin: latoi ono *f?& nnan
vatf? naoi npy on-a w na () nnai
npyr pn o) : p^s? VM nn^ 1 ?
n 1 ? an^ nwsn nat? ^y nmn naipx;
an nS nbs* JDHI (20) : ^apjb nax
DID -ii? onna^ nawi vv : *? ao
(-^; : Din



an T&KI n^na 1 ? npsxi (23)
.:nnia n^Vr HDIDSJ Kin an .in-aaian



wsasn txnan

ib Dinara TPI ^s-iw> > nana biaa bx DHK
xin man TIDX SKID > "a naern DT ]

maino. yiNon-Tr iy ran ora main mn
pna op tpnre rrnai us?) . : naarn ava nanrhon ain
: TKa&& Dnb 'INI JTipp 'anx ]r>aita rinx isntbi ib
bnx nns D-'BDXDD mm ^pT rn rpfirbmn nya natzm
naaa nxao p oa pixi n:na b:n TTI : mas nxea
air ]iyoiz; aaizri : nmp nxsa ntzr Q-'TOIT ff>arnpn msnam
na wai : ibxac? by pixi aaw %-n : ]aixn
an^ p xi xim : marn ba yT n^n in
mn^pi -jria) -naxDxbxa nag) maKa p y-nna
nabn oaina ms nai mam nua ixa TXT <]na7a7 njiisai
rmma ^sa na "jbm n^nxs baa : mia ^y |a mbay by
raraM nx -BTM ia-in> max ]3yn -]ina bip xs x^nn nya
mbsn bx zrsDxna asm vaBm rrn ("iiys byab
: mnaa D^tasitzm rap nbsrin biba nnxi : nnns naarn

mrrn maan npb "ixi : na nai nxa iy xbi



32



. n nsj> "IB>I : pi wh aopi (8) DH oa p
Yin : KTD&I ^DPKI onwi < 9 ) : na
\vDnpS nTO : p 1 ? *n ns T&NI no)
cy TOKI i^y 1 ? ma sa TOE? . :' ..: in UD

TIN TITO ninv a?)



ina tin b) umivh r



T3Q 1BT" ''lN inx DlO K TIN K3



. : Dtzra mapi
1*5 Nna23) mnsTon by



na yaor inx ) aycr <i x mnsm (: ran? 'TOST
ION xinn : onrn mxn pi 37311 bx BTX x^) 'a

: i"I3T3n bxnBT ^SSh 7D3 'JX ->3 3TTI (: nBT

lax (nisron bx> ib xn 73 inxi . = inanoa 3iorx xbi
o?n:b yottr- 1 x^J DJT m mnsoi nin apra zzrna

n^nn nixm crawboa iin car nt 7x1 : 13
TOST tt> -mbx n-'.Trib iax (irm pn bx> ib xa 73 inxi
isxbo aan .- ib 1^00 mm ]x n7 -insai (: ia ibo wrnnt)
nx T>3i merger Drs njrbs TOSTH . :tnpa ybaa
prrxi ib oyba r6x "lax- 1 ! : pba onia > nary xbi
ib "i3T mai : ff'Q'n nnnxa ^rb mn curn norr 11 nsrx nx
vbi inwx nnjr xbi) ib "iax cninxan bx) T"bx xa -an
p "inxi . :ni by "pr mn -"mi < : apyo asis Tn-.anp
xm p nnsai (: b^n noy bxiwi) ib "iax (rnnnn bx> X3
-inxi . : noby 'ox ba by bir bxiw u-2si D^TI
orx Dip 11 3313 (: nawxi pb p7xn> ib Tax nbxn
71101 : bxnora BSBT Dpi) iiaxa XTHT axia 'nxs b3 aim
]i3nn X3in by 13 nr oixa Dyb3 -137 uan (-.sxia TXS
. :iwnpn mins 1:1137 X3 'a Ttaxoxbxa inx 137 xbi:3nnm
anm nbxn n-'-ia-n bs nx D^sxban p curbs jraws TTI
bx naxi -. xaran xaor 1 " bxiw Tibx ->aba "iaxi y-\ pom
: m:73 -pby mnaa mm DJT iaxn aao loma n^m ]x pba
nisbn ->-inxi -. laipab pn oyba zwi . troy TX inx JPTIXI
: ajrba nnb nax nwx3 inijr bsi pbs nvy wrba



36



rh .

aav pp v na v^a : nxna p'fy la^ai iSm w

: nan nSm ^nni ^itDp^i nni^
ID Si^^i : oVv p rteen : aia ja
nim niy^N oaa nnnjo^y poo pn



p

spv - nn: p^ : ni n^ : * r in os) pit?
^ p wfc-T nsns^Nva^* p'cjovn njns ( l4 ) D



> p ia DTO "ia oan na D^DIJ
ni nasj p psai nnan Vaaa mniKn -TSD
pn in^i (is) anstta *f?b B|din HD^I (i7>

JDI : p^o-fr . inw : rrvi



( : m : T by mbsnn f aypo ba nm:a >i x -aoipa nox
D^ri) . : nrntzrn morp bx-p BSI&D ba Kin p
(: onp jnaw 'ba a) nax o^irrrxim (ruraw mnan :
i:oni 7x1 : n3DB7 n^>a:n >' IDD xim : iflstzna nb naown
i:iznia naa Tanaxi . isaan i:ay "pin 11 nur^wn- b
annn twna ]x ^T . : irp mm .- 13110 xb .- imn
tznnai . : bxitzr nana bx o'wipn ni:nn xaia rrn
nxa bxiar ^32. napa op nnra bx mrr nax
mm oibizr n-'born ins 11 ! (: ^ay bx qoxn tnxi
: nanbab D^br isbn ixi : nanbab nnx 5)bx iy
nianban nt&y TWXS m&jri : oar ib 1 * nsnab mm nax
bs:n^i : ITS DMbxn msai . : nnn irrxi by Tain . : pbar
pro bx isbn nys, -mi . : bx-iw ---anb xip^i C
rran nnsiwn onrs bx cibt&n rby mbtzrn nara ]:nx
( : nwa nx : mm ms IBTXD pio by ixam> n:nan ^sb
]x onb iaxi y^in ora po bx cTiu rwn
bx my n^on:x inburi : aanx onbnb oa^by trxa bxiar
nbxn myn by x: Dip c^atannn arxi nx ib anax ayba



34



mn a (25) : nnainni nnian nnm #n
ttfib rf? p . : ai : aa : naro
: ta ( 2 7) nmTa Sap nae> : xi : b : "ia (26)
t DID mpM-iK *:ia(2s) ; na pVap

: nr-



VJll

(2) nas? . : n : a Sftw* "j^b DH-QK nio "inn o)
nniib inniGi) nnn na ^wwy* wa ID^ nwaai vaa
pi (4) naza iaai : nns nna ny o*-a nnaD naty
(5) : *?3a vhw ^D *as ^v nnwx naxa
naVon Daa ipsw Syn^* <ai oy -n^N* iw p
nSnib ^aa ii^i "*?NOB^7 sw W tn^^i ce) nan



noa^nw n-iy ^aai : DI-TK Nin ityyi D-TN



an ]x mnsD : c^siBTn nri TTOKOT proizr waer xn
inpb nrmnw Qiaswn on : nwrn maao i) npb
Dmmnn nbax n-'ntpi 'naii nnap xnm -. trinaBn
rornnon nxspn byn op sen nsaaa xy i jjrn TDI : orn
: ITS nan n,Ti : rrnrn -jina (: DHJ^S) bnrr pan jrnx
nsjan |ay . : cpTvfcb ^sam h^nrb inxn O^STD *?
"iizyx ns^an xrw nizrx o^annn ]ar onrsi : nsaan nx
inx:pn ona^s 'p n < mn nsiai . : o^Konn ba by pox
nsiai . : norr nan nnb n^xi : nmntan bsb
.nsia rbr niana xb o^aripn en TTO nann rrn
n ain i^n man ffacyn ]a nsnor wx mm ^D : nnx
nbyri 1 DOTni . : mx qicyrn n^y ir 1 am ba TPI : onrs
iinm in omox maixa nyacrn inx:p nnn inx ^oac
. : mznn. nn:ai n-'aon mapi . : a^a-ipn) am : rnnx
an y?D"i c. : nnoran ]aT -. c^a^Brm . : nbrm . .- nxonm
rrnn rrbv iav mpi USD : r6ian naian x^m : rpyacr nnxa
"irna nx ib fn: ^aan> nampn nnnn ison naxa
mtsxaxbx ison naxi (-.obiy nana nna wiTbi -b nnvn r



ipa j&n (so) V-IK on^n minrn
DV . : a rrtu p rro pensnn
Kin n : 'V? n*a

nasim vfiDpa nenn nayi (32)
TOKI (33) : nn niba
nib njns n 1 ? -12^1 (34)

(36) : nm& vi n^on n^nn nS nai (35)
-rrorw n^ pan* ^ onxoS nvns
: nniay nSio TV ny^i nnstr oanxi (37)
nnnn napi tai : Vbpn* IDT ^ ny-is jV

J^HD a nsox D*i&y nini -(38)
worn nip njnsi wV nitons nip
nay ^i tpa^a n^K n^m men (39)
ipsi (41) T^ iVnnKi n^y WDI ( 4 )



njrizrn njiB^xia neoa -mn.
xmm noryan n7 nwn m:m no? niwjr nnxi : rnxa
Bison issr cr6 nn-n ntrrx nsaam : mir
isnorn ma nssaa D t| n >i an rrn : OTixai
nwra xbanx xi> USD 'aawn ]iixia . : BPK mxai
ipm tzmxi 'nx nx nxi . : ttnizrn nia xbx
m-inx : imsr bsi rnp ne-'aa nmn 7x : TOTT nps
oibtzr ]inx rnx bn : rby m,T> nibar mzra ]mx br mirn
na DTPan TTTI : orna nsaan nn-'n n-inaa : nnby mn- 1
rmna rbym naxa IBS mxa yatzn : qbx Dnwn nvaix
(: mxa jraan qbx itzrr niranx nsaaa n <i n <i an rm) nampn
(. : ?)!w onnnn nyanx ns^aaa jrirwr rm) : nax nm

tzn n:a) nbxn rrowon ^tEra D-'n^an -pm
nya) ]iyaw aatzr p jnsan TFI (: mxa
jrrxn -3B orba^ TDTTH -nt nan 7x1 (. :sa mxai
imam .- inr^nb rbr pysn i^oa yonm -nnx ronpn onrs
nxia na p orxm . : pan DWB ^ebi Taeb or^a



V?



. : 31 :

ptep ^nnKi : 'pKyoer nia^fc w^i (20)
: na nna , : N njfc? onvJbS njns nroi ( 2] )
-nay nii nvrnsa) njvsp&a tfixaa oyp p nnai
nyns oypi (23) onxa *f?D ivai : pp . :



SSy "6

wo "IONI ( 2 6) nan lain psai iniD nan
nnian nan i&i (2?) nnav : n^ ioni n



pyn n^i nyis? nOD innxi (28)
pxi rxSn p oyp .i*nyi : p n 1 ? IDNI (29>
njnxi n % fiii snoai i30Na an



nnx van onta -psb ovaw orsi : ^n afa arx
max nnx nba *rm : DTTK nxsa D^rara o^ay

TTI by arm p> oton rbr spy ynxn (1
ITS rpy bx f TO bx Tbnoa orba ino-'i (: nix
. : ban -SB 13 taaarb x-n noip nxsb rrr xizn : pab
>n i < xin mnebi nrpap 1 TITJ 13) : nianx TWN nban XMI
bx nr T^xban nax .narxai nanbarr *3B is wary Tan
rm (: bxiora raaar npi apya aaia -pi) iwa )a oirba
]3nK XTI (: bxnizra isatz? Dpi) : onrs ]:nx sn aaian
HTTP) D^naxi ffprs abai . mm mbcr ns-'bn mhrn
xbi.:-inx bx iay px Ton TIB Tia.i-jnx mm irnbxaa^
nibiri mxion nxr arba nxn "icrxa mi ( : mai xbi -. 71
XT^ : aaina onpn rbaai ana na^aia a-'axban ^Tsb nx-n
xb nbsrrn owm : aibizrn nta^bsn wpao am:sa msn . ayba
daba 'nx p bxiap 73 TIT) mx imn . labc? xbi nsbs
rjnan ntrbx p DTVB ^ob inrayi rrnm taaora xin it&x
na (136) WT xb am nma IIT mm : p ]a yiznm 'jsbi
3imi qiyairr aasr p xiba )a bxms ]a n-'-n) op-n : iax-



Kb.

mss\ ism rfr-w aw nV& nyis> mi vty norm



nopp D*IW ao nnto pun
Vr nS mow n&yi . : ni -nw nnoy
-aiv npyn - nVno : ^T nS mow (")
jrwi pn mb* >pys nS mow ( 13 ). :
-nnnjNi : nnni ninto J?n nnpaw : ^
p nnni a*) . : n^fi no^ . n* npyn nyns mi
nyis wp cy oypi : nniD^^i n^o
my 'iij TID ^TXO -oa nasno) :
pn n&y : i novii < 16 ) : nSni



(]7)
: p nnii n.8) , : rw . : D



"a mi "iz^x tzrxn pa ]n ynnn 11 nx *p np) rbr
(. : mrrr bs 'aDbi ]nai iTjrbx jsb mx rnosrm : ibv
ansno |nxo bKiw ^n nxsb DTmxn ruora irnn rrr
iwmn, nnarn mm. ms iwNa ncra nn : tznn iy -rnzna
pi) (mi TBKDN*>NS iias % a p imna m nwxs : i.xa ir m
niD xb ran 1 ! . : inx mn ibxi in PQI in7i iina na my
ubam vby nwa ]jnx ]x p insiai (: o^rb : nma^x paw
onb nb pbi : mx xx&a ima ora "nana inx mn xb
cnb IDT rby mm nibw ima ny xn -o nibor inxa
mnx > vb 13 . : abyb iy nibizr Qib nbizri : amby jam
-ibx rby mn- 1 ]ixi npia ]anxi . : aibiy Thy mm
bnp bx imnbizr ny aibwn T'by nn?a )x : y-nnan
^aai .Tan nn iTy^xi aana nx> (ws) naxi xnp
^n 1 xb jx y-nnx pnynan nibcrn mai (: Gbn -"aa
TI YP nbyni oarm : amax ii&nn ]nxi : msn ]a -m
naxT -i^xcxbx nson cmnx Dmby Tnoitamax nibsna nrb
up7i o-'anan ixa p nnxi (: zbyb nmaa-'x paw nata
: IT by IT-IIX -ix : mn 1 " mm -iatz?a by DDX in



38 Tf?

wni (42) . : mmV nn'V



rro mm wa nnKtty naxn



IX

nx? atf? wra : n:n rrai
ai : ft (2) : HUD DW . : na : p3 rrra
mm nnsj mma vnm nai mma 'fi^nN p'D
mm ID w : wibV 'bm. n^p ^D ipsai
HDV bi nim (5) nins n^in nnn: n

(6) nnna nns



nnrni nsioa nrm'm () nna m^n

nnV^i (9) : ?a : n nny^a nsns
m mfy n" nini nnnns^i



yrnx) TBKD^a naxn p nr y-nna : orba n
ovai : nanban ]a isn "anain ora (. : nsap mn
p |TTB xnyn isbxb nx D^Tpsn wnn <i
am ! xsa -iiw! arx -. nanbab
71137 "Una bna m
nan ian crx

ana ipsi xbi nnx inirr 11 ! : Dnb mai : orb TONI orranai
ntzmpn rrnna nbrn 1 naxa p rnna m nawea : THN BTK
bip NX nbxn ona-n ba -nnxi (: BTK i:aa ips3 xbi)
( : mn- 1 bnpa 'axiai ^lajr xia 11 xb) : naxb mm aw ijsfeo
BTK n^T narx bai pjraa IDT !?D inn nrnri) 112: naxi
IDT aaera WT xb TWK o-'araa qian bar inn 137 aaizrab
urp xb narx) iiaxai . : mm my iwxs wy^i (: D3b rnn
-ax 71 nxn . -. wx WT xb> "iizrx nibinan m (-137

or aay DJIX ix^an isrx nnyn by xin ?jaa "137
mn (i4i) pi : iaxi xin ana mx bs mn ipr 11 rn iizrx
nanban izraK 70 VP ix : qta ib xnpn- 1 xb onaan 711 rare
nora bx mm iax nanban nx7 nnxi . : y~r mmi XI



Kb



41



DIH ma* . : ia (37)



* : na



oini



x



: p 1 ?



nim pa 1 ? TTJ; p pro nsrin :

p



nrrva



(3) : nan ny



mm <) :
KTI W? naw : n^ ce>
: nniN&n



msx , : Na (36)

: wa . : ia
:a osj *JD

: Ta (40) pro*
nnai



a)



amb



?K
: i
wnwn



"QT3 n 7X1 . : HStff .

rrrp no ba neox nspn DNT *s (Q^a ^ai cnn

nnx : ffonm |TSin xmoa -VRW rrn : ov"i rvnnxs
ona-n ba Tixsai) r&rjr naxa -"sa nmss IDT
'a ibia nyaan TI^X mrr -or mBniD-ia^n nnnxa



Dim



nx roar xbi ^n >| ^fi^ xin ^B^ x^ TTI^X mrp

nort ]x 73 insDi (: QT^ raizr: nnrx ymax ma
-jb PTHrr'i TDV ima criy : Tnawa rbx awn nr
f x Bwp -jai nti : i3&a am : T^ ntzyr 1 p njnn ^a mzrr
. : irawrmn irniax -laxa p ma ai nai on : ipor ia
bairnspn nxra nn P"m nns nora ^anx Dor.p
TDK DJJ nxam pjibxn nsap xvi ^a n^a xna TOT
: Di^am "pbr iax oai. (nnx^iaa nin nm em) (HS)
mxa nmxapx arm : ^xe |a niry naan : nxib iaj

1 ' nnunasr onp rn anpa ra-ra PJDP nipai



40

?NV *in ns^jbi (20) b"Vby n/b^ D^HD ta ntns
* ' * i



(22)

:mbrn nrfefc w(*3) jnav run

. : KI (25) : nBto 1 ? 'inna* . : in (24) : nitfn nn



rojn jpnn D^xo ijn n^sxi TNI (26)
(28) nina mp iW : jn w
rn (30) HT . : & lA n3H ^D (29)



: ai (32) no intt nm ^peai (31)
nn m&K ?K nin* nnm



Tib ; nK np : 11 (34) s



.am . : aw nor rm x rrnnn nst x i ]N msrmw
nwo 3nx nnx nb namn minn K naib > nxi nx



N ISO
: TTK ]O IN : ITST ]D Kin : Indian NTI TOI N1H "p

in yr inx ton xb imxm: nimbi : ixa bna inxna
"iBDrt aroi pror i:aai .: yby mm nibizr mre ]:nx
mp'nxa GFwn Wa p THK ir >ra3 nnn . : lana
rnrrfei aw or nizra ]3nx bx ]na nbyn- 1 azsn ]X
BTTTI minn IBD nx : b-nain mwy ombjr -aina iwx o>
IDX barn nx bxior iz&y ny nwo -loxo xm p by
px oxi. xw onxtan xtzrn DX nnsn) arnajra mmb inibsna
3W by mn wno isiax ]xi (: nana TWK TISDO vno
>ix) ona IIIDT nimbn br ncmb w xb |x nx-i3 nimbn
p "inxi (. : jnano DW nnb n^b -"a nara mm 'airy nnb
nixo D^WI o-'Dbx nwbizra TP iyix xin no by "lax 1 bnx
D^sbx nwizm mni3 70. on (ue) on 'ffawn nx7i ff3W yaixi
nio bx DTX p 'a : annn xaia bx naby nxna p iwx
ba rmi : naw a^nxDi D^yawi nww oibam vby nwo



43



nSno m iim (21) \y& : a rinKtr^p nN ; n
pn plan n^o nim (22) jDrn&rnyiD

nil (24) rvxfifca jywn ( 2 - 3 ) V
(26) pDni rnsmi |hflje mrvpv : *pna (25)
mai (27) jenpn j'sfctf .\y\ . : p PM jwp



rvn ^pi (28) : ,-Q H'PTN x*n 73 rowi t sr|l?
Dpni : ib ^NI psi miM py
n % an ittyn TPQ (29) : TO*
nnap
nm wv(si) :nDy

: Dni^s nypi (32) nns^ men
s x oo&'D . : a' nnynw (33) j
py on^si (*)' : nns^ py : frwtn . : w
(35) D\n ^D 1 ? ab s Jbi PIDD ta by paw
nwn ffrw : m^i HDI :



]nxn ibx iwxa nax' 1 TT xin irnn ms TBHTD
ppmai : rnirra

D113 N2 "WN .

or : rrnrp naitzr!? tjnnai nanwa ix^nerx rmrp aatzn
'mn^n rror f?3 -IB?X minn D^wrDn mwn : r6tzr
iba m DSH . : ar& norx : D^M nsoa rb nx^ai : na

n:sa biaa) Dibn T&r nax nyi : x^a:
wop %T ilia wipx "fcifc "ia psnbrr' : naarp va TT
br -6a lain nr oDDipnn ""xia: TI^X izrDBrn ran
mnea oaa, 1 " nasa biaa) -naxai : ana p ritzn xaia
jranxi fj^x natrr mnea (para) : p^sa obwn pxa imr o
: tzrxn m Tbrn ^xinn -ija roiaab D^aan ff>n mxo
mr TTP ixaia TJT xin mnea <rozrp va TP inp) naxai
: iars: nx ainb : aimpa xin naxm : naxn .- crerpaa
nai) nampn mina vby nax "iwxa.-nax minn



42

j pis-ran : hxxtt : ^byn : S&an : S&ni t



: \hr\



mm
: )W? Dipn HD^SD enpn *?K w p?



: n 1 ? "ID niswn VK () : nny ^1 n 1 ?
: n 1 ? TDK :'wnrn h : Ta a)

Bmpn b:pn(") :Vn
(is) : 11 -jfe nynni

nttn ws nnt^n
nnuta



(20) nrwnp ipSK nnn^n (i) : p
nib nim nvn^i : n 1 ? oatnN : 11



]iJMra o-'a^a oiaip iam ws ITD rfcnp
ID rrnnn ninix T'B.I p BTKI xin o .mw by lain m
: D^TTPH my Ta TON : ITBTX ^ bx nam
tt49> : jrnx -pya -inaan tarpon ]K riDKaa rba
nwan D-nain nnwy p n-'yann nxpn rrnnn p
onai naaa JHJJ rrbr PJDIKI : w>"ia ^so mini
i:ra PPH na bab ax mn iwx xm .- ix>y niancra
IT by pi : mtar xaia DIB rrn oanm D^TTPH my
. : annn xaia DT bx nawa rara nxvuzrx x^i : nannxi
-uam |XT:D t| a^n -isoa nsmna nba orxn m Tain
nwa rrtnzn lax p inxi . : nsoa "pirn nay na nsoa
nnxTTJ . obura n-nrn mn men) dso) ai^arn pbr
yaon rnxa wban D^X ranx xin obur insai
: iTnrp oatff xm mn* 1 mita ma^finb ppn "iwx bba
nrn (:mrp bip mrr' ran?) naxaa nain



45



Dpi : DTO'fi ini aplfiD 3M "[m : DjW?

: (46) Vpi yew ini * : btwo

ay^n pun (4?) . : nnK rv wnto* nirv
mvr ea pr? : ate >n ta bwDp 11 : TIT

tfVi atai wnnn : DH^S
Vnnsi irf?o ^a ^wnw n^
ym yew i pn (49)
j na : rftnpb in na (so) , nap Din

nann nniSo rfwi



XI



pa p yenn^ n np n^to? n nbi a)

K onpb npi ni nm



pi (2) : nn^i : D
vaaD nnx nin i^n n nnn : inn nro



oai (155) . : nb isbD^ onVn OTOJK nnmpn pxn
rrmm rix nurn > > nninapxb oao TP bnp>
bsanii mnna ^xnar VP 71* 73 -maoi (:
IDX p inxi : DT^N mr o^aittn ^"JKH 13^1 : mn
(: awn o^m ip^xi : "ITQ nobra VP TTBD : D-6iz7n
BOOK ]iBron nowa tran ia TTP pr arpbr xy Kin 73
-p^jr TIV noxi .- Tom aiwi "i|Txa D^trypn MBWO oon
(: ipa 11 ]pnr labo ]mn pba layrv 1 ana fjibn (iso p -inai)
onnn 11 tea xirm qbnDm nbxn nnain nnx xn p nneai
: in iptzr 1^3 IBD <| ban <) xrm : 70^ ]a arm -m
p inxi .:D <i yiarxin -nai pi minn IBD p npx
itzrx pxn bx T n ^t "^ Dabari) "IDXI Dib
p nw -nzrx by nain nt inx (:naan nrfri ^max Tan 11
mrrnpn (is?) pxn bx rnban p ixa nsra ^ nbnan niban
-p onn o-'O-'n < pn-<i:rmb xn iwx D^inn bx



44 125



nyp

ro* pi (36) : p'Dp . : T am wi mm
(37) : rn . : T Vy pan pa

. : * nrrra : nrwenp w n : n nrrv
p -rai *w >a napa Dp: rrcuk
?mp *W# um ^K . t * .
n^aV nV TDK na-ip ^iVy inn n&m ( 39 >
pri? ^W Awn 'wbsi (40) s np , : ^ -jVi
bj; wain : ma nmnch nVnp *op : DTOfit an*
pDa bnp pfe) . : na () : mn ipa naa pD
Dip nwnn en PIK (42) ^KW rh -PK

71 :^a fao*Fifin
p apjr nax^ nnte *nu) an
nn (44)



n (45) : UT^ ini na -cm



"nw p KTI ]N mnBO cnnpM iia ia> TTDNOT (. :xrn
:nai 711 p rrnm TTD PHTIBD nrwD mam pi

TD3 PjDD TT mriBB (: PQ-'a OT^S -"DDp TP) TOCDl tt5

wax 1 ' TT oopn I'm DTISTDT mm** nwm narba
mnea <:-o: TI^N oraayn ra-'a) naxaa ion
ws: by naxi xrn . : -on 'nbx nay a-cnnn
Tara -"sa) Dibn pbr nwa nax p inMi . : p
mail nanor n^aii : ETOD rr Ta Taurp nrvnr anpa
p aw) trajro uvs* 'inx ]K p nnsa (: nxa : THD rrB
:D-3B w or Ta ainn 1 * bitaan ipmn onpa anar mo
DT.nnn rrnm vaxr my nnx i IWK Tajran "na Taba^i
rm : btnar nabaab : D-B^N D-'MH : nxai onwi *aw nna
aan .-.'MTTI -ma waia rrn nwx Tana xaia by -mn
(rrn laaoxa ]rnnn nxi Taarxi bnp) oi^Brn rby Taxi
:pxa mn 11 DTaer bxian nw man p ]x p inea



47



rft Vy&i (i6) . : TI nS bwrm :

py p nn bp p^i a?)
na mrr DWID : nNnpy nw un : rrw3
nV n^nT HDD nan TOJ : n^D

(20) b:r' n roiani Tb pi a 9 )



qpp (2i) nrowab nnn nni^s
em : 3e in niy

enp I"IT B^npD (23) : VDVS f)DV nenpbi (22)
TID nSnp iA th mVs tf?n nnnay
(25) . ; n* : jiaya oa % pbnp itrni (24)
(26) J^DT : nrun'H t)iVnn rmn nn nw*
(28) p&ya n3n* n3W VniD (27) min -Vip nin*
nar psrftn* (29) rwp



73 -IDBOI c :w para on: TMri-a .-.' ne^n Ta Dip 1 '
ifnxa waboa -nnca^a? my npm Ta x^: Dip- NTH
:Drn cm n < n,TNi ma-i m-a 'bsrv p -^nxi : mai
ID ^W3 mnen : ^a nbai : rrTn mmi iaaa nabaan
iaa irons! naxa p nra a-i nnx nnea xa r6i
na naa >| ajra ^na Dip 1 * npip .:a .:nT-6 'ba) o-iaxa
-. bna maa x^ms Dip- 1 : p -ineai (: 'ba xbi
pa nnsan ]x rT mrr> : xmsw xbi : nwana
m Dn':ia^a p o^w wan nnx iaoa ix lara
max : TT: ipip nrp . : a> . .- inabaa bra ixer xbi : r6r
XT&3 Dip 11 xm p -wEiai (. : jnax 1 na: Ta rara nnora
jrn mrp : inTQ 1 ' naa Ta Ta^a npi&a o^naian dew : -ntsia
: "b x^izrsi TP xm . ipon aiain 11 nr wa xm p ona jx
. : iay babi i? lairp -"ia: DJT ra^a ^ajy 73 inxi
r6np nxsbD TP : opa : j^sw npip Djrp . :



46



&nnKi (3) : n? nrmb'K pac?
pD rhx rf? IBM (4) : nwnp nnirm
: -ino nwin D'psfl : pttD jn ^yi way

nnao w 1 ? nftp&w rv&inna *TP& Kirn
nnna nn^D D> -i&D'D : n&mb
p n&inn inoD nnvpi n

|*nn :

Qinn w : nfot
njbinn p -tb nniao Syib D^
IMI : D^D^ID VNX HD^ nn: () : onxo
nan ptob ( 9 )
(io)



n s a: nmi
: ns?*)n



nnynn
nn



nwai nna



n-n mpna
03 nana



nxi



nnxno



man mnn

irpan bnpa

nxnab
TT nnraa anp>
DTiinna onn
nwionn p ia TV
inxi . : VT mnm

iwx



: NTH

pbra
p



XII



n or. wn nsx TIK nx
ncr by ini nawrx-a ->
DIM nn n n rrranri rnbrn -.
nVian rnpinm TBWI p na^s xim (: nna

T3T13 Din : 'MTMI T3B) nten T^tf ION p

x-n natn nt ineai <rraT<i
xnn barn '-nn. maw aitan

ntzram : pai ib nawa : pny ]D npK
-w IDXI : rnbn mpm INT NTH nawai
TP xn p ineai (: pns f absi imsnr
CTD nneoi . : naarn naiam : bos

nrnava TX^I xtzrwn roam
jrota xa lain ma oibwn
vipnan naia -an : nann ^-nata otoi nm:e
x> : nab nat -mx ba onwyi yaix -rar -on



49



XII

: a : K

: Dip* Tjnp ,-2) : Ta Dip' npnp



: tfSi : na rob : v/bva



. :



ipnp Dp 'i> n s n npnp nyp

n^a



: i : n

;np oyp iG) nna npnp oyp

n*a



mn 7x1 (. : nao TO noroi nN xn a-i> :
irn bxntzri 3313 bx ""B^B nxi . : iwan ]nxa
JTSIST runs bx iDX" 1 ! : in mn ibvi DX 7x1 .:'nby inx
no nne ib lax-ii .- biiaa om inx mwr iwx ^nwm
]a mno rrn : DD TT o^aa ransb IXM IB^B |n : rnwra
ms x^nn rora (: nrraa xrr rraa) Tzaxox^x nsoa naxa
rs-n : nar "OT p IK^DBT xb aeti ]x omson njns
: nnei msw nn nriayn 'tzrsb rn ntrrx nn^-'an *JJT
: ma- 1 sHssb -k^n pn ba : on!? lax^ .- r:s^ niris onx
: ixa ir an inaana TV-PI man onay vn-.ppnn na bar
nnvf msan .*: onwrn bab a-'iaai -. onsa f-ixa
rrppis nn^n nsnsi : *& taatzr p norx nn^an by
: nrraaba mrr nxT rm-'i : bxnar jnjr p TOX
xb rrbtzm oibw ^a : onsa -jba ]rrbx nai "itzrxa WJT xbi
:rby mn- 1 ]is-i npia jynxvr-pbir mrr mberrTaa oiba? ar
bx iax n-ibam ?x inrssa TDK rb* mm ^IXT npna



48



jvnnn "n
nniitixV



nnriT enpa : DW Tva^i ( 32 ) DDipnn
: nans? rvani ( : ) : D^S w 'ij na

ip npKa inn :
w Vipw ya->
(35) pjno* : D^K nnina
p nnni (36) : y&z Dm ip^i *?n
pny I^D nnn ^ (37)



nna



nw



(40) t nian nti^i (39) :



. : pna



oipn
-PT nnya^ enp (42)



: naxa IND pin N < 'a73 DIJT xm p "insi (:
mm naxn am -it&xb ano rn : Dibtzrn %T>
xin m (:iT3r T>aT3 ^na T'JITTJ ip-rp oarp . : ro
mn no p"O7^ awn : mam p ^ow ^a inn : D-HSD
mn ] : nwa TBDK nsoa xa HXD loxn "]ban m D i a vnr

!?X XT! : ''lObB 1BTI Wn3 (162) BTX DnSD pXS

naanoa runs ^B^ nbr oiasr XTT : bx-wn ^n mam
-IDX-H onxn nt xin p IDXI : nbia rnana xs^i : HXD rfna
: orxn m man xvi nbna lax^i pni . : -naar t^x nr i^
nsne bx lain m sen . : ib M" 1 noi : la 'Dana xin nai

ibxan : rbx : "obs nx xa 11 ! nban

. : p wi

Vna tzrx tzrxn m sbna Dip-" ]x xn
mainm : rr nnn o^aom Dttn o^awm : ruroai
nra . : IDX aipa im DT ovaix inai : TT by
"IBDD D^n p OWMCT ipnm ]x rone ms mnaa
: orab Dipaa D^:m : oipaa ventm nx nox-'i aes) : or
urx ^n : DTaixn p DT "itzw raar nnx TPI : TIDXD
inm nnx aaan'.-apjn p : *b na nx np^i : n

xa "ixa : naai nx ba nx : -ian nxa norxn



ix mai



fin



51



:






-ma t M

. . : pro . j mad



. : Vy



vwa nnnt enpo
vibvi nB"a npy eptv



. : anp pi pim om m DBT xi HT

. : JTP : iTl : mpai H7S niDDD T1TTP B

]K cibtzrn rbr nwn innn ]TTN^ is xa p
. r^KiBp bnp ba ^D inic Nip-'i. nompn mwin IBD
nxi ]3r:3 ^IN nx n*m : mn D^iaarn in bx nbr TUT
: ppnxei |y fix ba nx XTH rwb bsm : a^ao
an n^ . : ib pis 'TO lauaa iBoa xa iarxa
baD : nmpn bx rra DTiain^ inixi p . : naan nts?rn
. . r<bx. m^yb ba 11 xb 13 ai baxa rrm : f ixna maipnn
ban DT>a mmpn rmm -roras bnx p inxi
ora IJTID bnx dee) bx nnx x^am . : >r i ain DTa

n^ys nx inn . : nnaa jar p n^n bp
:rrn33'pr p rian iai xx ]x p. ineai .-.nxapr
: inxn urn xn nr : aran nr nx na^ian . : Dizm ip^x xn
6 IIDX it&xoi : Disrn -"an naro "h xba nanmin

. : nnbrc p X3MD wx mmn by pi

(rnaa-i W3 nonba jvs inwa 7^r ipip orp :i)

(. : iajra DI: ^ar : nor rmba iyi ipip Krp : 7)

(: -"in -TP nbnp iapo snaa ny ipip orp : ro

(: T^Tar n^DT <i m:na bx7<i69> T7: ipip orp :>

p DDia ro^a nax^ tnybw imra r7r ipip Drp : >



50



: n : T

riy'np
nSnp



. :



Tpl DVD (9)



(12;



: T

?ra V^K p

. : ftDV



rp ^in irybKi onna nx . : no TN aes) bunar
DP -on mn Drn TJT QT ]K JTT mrn:Dbi&n >
trb T\ rbyw Dwm:nnmpn mira PND aito br
TBNw6x TBoa naxaa QTbar TTD nTaxi n-rax

.:DTD Xbx Dip 1 " X*J PDnm (: D^b TttYBOK pSOf natfl

pro oniDDip iom oixntan mxi ]D omoa bba ]x am
a : rbyrv own p orrax mtsn-n ^BD rrn xn bxnar <
DP p nnm baa oranran bab nxi pby ,-nrp oi^er xn
baV mm : nm U66> -TSP bx nxm -. op: DP nnxi n^iwna
an-n : orpby Tm IBTX ro*nn mpmn *>ai : bxnara YP no
na onb TP xVi : PITD oipirn p prp ]x nbyn 11 own p
bx onx "^noxi : wnpa ^a "6 rwjr oam : : bxion iar TP
nxjDD ai runoa ixa^ : ona oipi xm nwx : nann xai& DP
mnm ixa 11 TX : orpbx T^ ->axn ib xn> : nrmo noip
srnx (: Dama o^axbarn .- b roaa naav -nan : omra



53



m



aio : pa 7-rr ]ia (iw : Tern TP Ki -nx
(. roburb TW "jnai oburb irnbx Trm.-uaDn
: Donrp nnx^ji nn>TD3 Dian nanan : ia bap : ia
]x n (. : tbiyb nkmn frby nwn omax : n:
nonzr na o^x^an ]nx bx DIX p rrn
nann Dip'' ]x ur nrvue wxn ]D TBT MI p : x^aa
1 " onnrjn nam xm nanm : ipip DI-BOTH nwon
. : TOW onpm i Diba ba br



52



np^n Tprip wfpra-a Vnp



mn

: nn \T nnyai &ni .: Vn r
. : o^a i-i&V KW^b . : p JDDI : ni?na

: ja

(24)



j pa n? :



: : ]ip*r natrp iriana iTan nay TO-D : Tax 1 Tpip nsrp

:]nj* cnp -prbi firm ipip osrp
: rbrn nx p oxao? nya prara apr J3 Tpip oyp



(: pfW nnp WTO ipip DVp : T)

: mxn 1,-y DDBH nba^x VP D-^op rfciDxa ipip carp : rp

: ]nx ina M ipip orp : T

rbisa 1 ' nnxiasr nanx oms ipip orp .-r

. : TT i^a naana para TXS ipip DTP : m (no)

apr : PJOT pa^a nnnt iznpD -. rare ia ipip wrp : w

: rmsaD arxa ipin s rvtzra

. : pr 1 na 1 ' newa rara : nnHr TJM ipip orp : a

ina nnx baa .- irsn DT: ^y bnp : rporo ipip orp : xa
mtna nnyaj orii : Vn nurr bxiam : nbran nxa



mn obons ansra : ppma npbn ipnp q?p : aa

: D^tzra pab trauma )nx ''Tn ^rv nbnp
Tiar Taxm apya ITT na ?n ipTp oyp :3a



APPENDIX
(Codex Gaster No. 1168, folios 16-86).



1BD

mbxn rby Diay p nara ]anx mo piata pbn oi. i6>
D^yarm yaixi . mxa yaan D'ttbx ow naan . : obem
bxiBn < xsiab D-oraixn naaniinaby nx-na 70 rum
bnn annb mxa arm iary nnmra o-nxa pxa
narnpn minn anaaa rby mm oiba? noro pnx
ipnr la-'ona n-ribx ynxxa ananon nionn

iBDa p mm anpn rma manw
rot Dipnxi iBpnn by rmmpn mwn nxtb
DTiarn imr vpT jroarai vyb nnx xnpi : DT
nrurn jrix nnsi nrTD inx bx xa p nnxi:Dnb narui
'aw rbsa . : ia DM^X rasxa ananan nnrnx TID onn
itzrx rnaan rby nnn : onain mory ana ppmnon mmbn
ipy oar .:mn DT>n iy r6ya IXBTO -ny bar mx vb
TDBT nanan mm ma-n . : miyn ]nx ^B mD -T fa TDI
Tf rrraa nbys nx nar oi. ^ . oianan aar fao ornpn
DT> ns2 HTI nurima >&' DIDD -"a wmn ^aai.-nxapy
X3T oar : rrraTtn rwam p twy o^aar ann anna
mm : n:nan pia inx yiaM mn -ix -fcnx bx Din
:Tix "p MBaram p-'TOT naxb rna jnaama ^>n
nx i^i nmar : bx xbi ia xb JD xam xb p nx

.:nnox bx narm p->T3n Tmx:man
xbsi Dbarn -rby aiay p nans Din 'an my p mxi
ba ib Taxi iniwa yanmb xip imbs mbaaitmo TP pa
rvab ^bn 'niara nx nb IDXI : inx mm lan onam
m^ onrsi lan^xi iwbx bx laxi.-pa nib ia-n nnana
p yanm |nxn yaa? iai:Drnrn p -"bana iy maa naxb
oi. aw iyia bnx nnsa mm D-nam nxr 'an p p
xipi iaa rae Tcan-.namp naaara Tb rra xnxi xan
yarn 1 ' pnx irm : 1x2: maa DBTD : ixipa iyaar iai : uwbwi
niara nx nb -naxi : T>:B by nbbraa rry myan : -aa lay
iana?a ^aah^ : -can nnx na byi : iam na : iay ^aa
: x-'araxn mbam : -six 'aan nara : 'ay bax bipa nib



53



Wh* : Tra\ . t to p : to

DOT ran*



DJTOK ra DTK '



STB : pa nr pa (m> : Tom TP
(. rrinirb msr -p-im D^irb imta
: DTK) : Darin 1 ' nn^ai nn^oa man nannn : ia tap : is
] n (. : Dbi^j D-feizrn ]r>br nt&a a-nnx : na
nomr ncwi D <| N < 'an ]nx bx DIN p rrn



nann mp 11 ]N TJT nrnae BTNT 70 TUT I,T p :

ntznzr xn nannuipTp nnwan ntznan
anprnsmba ba i>3r



52



J aa t fcO

(221
ins Saa w D-W



rfrhp : TpKr mn

FIN j HPI TP nnya:i Bm : Vn
pd? crtt^D . : p pD) :



ana*

iii ii

*& na



ai& j pa nr : |-ia



natrp rriana 17^ nar roin : nair ipip oarp

:|HM DTP rrbi tzma ipip mrp

snx p DKDW TD^S prora apy aa Tpip carp



nbnp orm npip mrp :T>

: ma Tp 1 " Daizn nbyx TP D <i aop rrtnBxa ipip orp : m

: )nx nna aa ipip curp : T

nntnnsr nanx cms ipip carp : r

naana ]Tara -no ipip carp : rr tno)

apr : 5JDT 1 ra-'a nnnt onpD : nzrs in iprp carp : ir

:imB 8TNa TpW PPBTQ

. : paf" no 11 nBon Tarn : nnbiy IBB ipip carp : a

-ITO inx baa : -run 01: ^r bnp : rrara ipip carp : sa
mma nnraa ami : ^n rimy bxiom : nbaran mxa

: ba pai

mn Dbt&a a-ura : ppmo npbn ipnp carp : aa

: DTtzra iia? tzratzra ]rw *nn VP nbnp

Tier Taxm apjna ^TP TO Tra ipip carp : aa



APPENDIX
(Codex Gaster No. 1168, folios 16-86).



HBO

rby oiar p nara JJTIX mo ]rnn pbn tfoi. i
avmrn ranxi . mxa raan D^abx DW naara . : obwrn
bxnar 1 -ya xxiab nwiNfi naaairnab* rwna
brm annb mxa arm new nnaura D^is

nampn minn anaaa T&T mpp o-fcar nara ]3nx

inbai ipiw imam DTT^K rasxa ananai inm

: TSWI "iDDa ]3 mm anpn rma manw o-^pb
1-Dt Dipni iBpnn bsr nampn mmn nxib Taroo
"ib Eranapn imsr vpr jraarDi w*j rmx mpi : DP
nnrn ]nx nnei TTID inx bx xa p inxi : orb nsrm
130 rbxa . : n DM^X raxxa aron&n nromx TBD onn
nrzrx n-iaan -rbr nan : onaTn mwr ana ppuinnn mmbn
ipir D .:mn orn TJT rbra ixana TBT bar* inx xb
TOBT nanar mm ma-n . : nrum ]nx ^B mo -T pa TOI
^jnx miara nbrs nx ion oi. *$ : D^anan *3B pao nrnpn
or lexa nvi rniriniD >a t ' ntao -0 rumn pai:nxapjr DP
xr> DBT:nT3i7n nrern p -IBTJT o-'Mr ann arxna anann
mm : n:non ^mD inx na mn narx ibnx bx mn 'an
:vix T^ laBanam piiarn iDxb rna ]naama ^rro nsiwb
nx i!n nmaT : bx xbi ^aA xb ^B xarn xb p nx

n^ax bx "jarm p-'isn r
p nans DTF an nasr 73 iron
ib Taxi irnaro ranmb xnp imbs nibaairm

-]Vn Tna?a nx rb -IDXI : mx mm nan D < nain
TTP onrsi narpxi -)7y^x bx IDXI : pa orb nan nnana
p jranm |nxn roar 131 : Drum 70 'bana TT inaa naxb

(foi. aw -B7ia bnx nnsa mm onain nxr 'asi p 713
xipi -"aa V:B Torirnamp naaana T?J nra xnxi X3r
yarn 1 ' ]:nx irm : ixs inqa oana .- ixipa iroar Tai :
rnara nx nb TIDXI : T:B bar nbbian Tav nwon : aa
lanara ^aah^ : ^aan nnx na bn : lain na : -ay m
.- x-'araxn mbam : TIX 'an nara : -ar bax bipa a-rb



57



; naxb ama-p bnm : rbbaaa bnpb : rby mm oibtrr
>T br oi. 4b> -jnxi : Tvia nnx 13 qxi : mm or on^n
nnmni : p Tiizra -ox- 1 nb^bn : man TO o-nxaa

rTTOO "J3a naa XT ^1:^.1 > D1X Tllb : Tlia 1HX

pi -pa mm na 'ayi.-nnr'aa navra by lay 'jn nnn
-i3"ia nnr nair-'ao yaorn bxiar TIO?X ..-rmnnK
rtor i^x mm nm o^ars nwbm ^ yn : ^B^I TOD

npbna Djrsn nxtm vnr ninbm minai
Dip nnyi : Timy n^ aah xb : ^nbna itzran !?3 ax(jo)
. : mo^na -prfcx mn 11 oon nmon nanan is-ia
xim : D-QTpna am- 1 aaa:ows3 raip fn oyn
onb ms 11 xitzn -. raaan taaor bab onb Tiai : laana
75 oi, 6a) : nnx -n^an xbiriiaw r6x mpm nnsa

. : nnx-'aja can pmm nm
iar mm : irybx pan rnx ]a nxeb 'aenxi
: rib-inn riaron BTTP nx.-nbx rtD-'bn nx -"nx p nx ib naxi
nb npas ^n : nbn: -jb mmT nawan nx? by oaipna nnx



-|Ta .p nx ib -taxi namte rnx ]a bx

^na iaw : D-aian onpn ">ba bai : o'nbn niasra
. : D^X^TI jx^ib -piap ""ati : ^Ta^ unpn
rbxaa? by lay xim : onre ]nxn bx rrya Tyxi
awpn yna ID BTX 'ayn na : mbana Tnwp ib

..-matti "jnaaoa inx nan Dip
: irnara 71: p yim ^nxb : inna mbi yrya ^snxi
pxn bx : nmy nx x^an (M. 6&> nnx 'a : faxi p7n ib naxi
pi : nmat mpx sntb nnbn:a nbx yaarrr : nniyix yai

.inmnbsx xsa- 1 ! nyo 11 nbbs mm mbap
iaxi : iib TI nnna mab ^enx : -"ann mx-iaa |a inxi
nbx mpbn : oa^Ta *ix o^anpn bai : oanrsa naizr onb
: o^xsaa bxiar onai ni:iaaa onx o-'baxi : o^npb onx
xb o^anpn . : oannx oay-Nbi oab : oamay 5)bn

. : ibyaa byba oabya 11 xb iy :
p natwi onb iaxi : D^awn 'mxib nbbaaa ^s
by ran* na Taxm xb ny : nion oab nasn nppinon
|i:a bai D^aewb nax DJI ..-^ebx cnpa *r
P s " nra TOBBTXT mpn xb -man : Mseraa biy ia?yn

. : nyn p ai
aoa DTODBram o-'pnm nmnn bnpn nab : nax mieobi



56 13

xb p : nitfpi 73^ Tna nain rm ma 11 izrpaa orn ma
ytznm 70 msna lyaw IDT . : TOBS pai ]i3 1| nws3 ib mxn
: D.T3B nayriTa na -nb ixai Dmby axynx "am m
orwDi : T>T pa rum ma nb usax nyai : Daab mantzrai
:T>3B laa Tayi iwa -lawn Dibam rby jnan ntybx ]a
bnx nnsb nan'-K oi. sa> -ja^an nx -^n nb nax
. : ixa-" naxbi : TSTOBP Drn bs ]y&b : urpn
m n^TDnn ]^nx WDBr iai 130 obar jin 11 rsT
mai ID by nsrnna vpm : ptzron nirtb nnoa isbn ia"in
i-msi WTrx : ypnna mis^sn bip crn waw nrai : iznpn
: pnp ny xin xb : npinizr nnir inbipT : ypnnn nt na
: ipn ]i3a 73 -inxi : o^m 7ibna nosi . : roa 731



-a or6 -laxnxi : "lain m na JWPPT nrnrn mna
iBDxn- : mab -{bn -. mat rrm : o"ian ma rwa . Din

nam TOXT : ixa -"Sri bnx rnn bxi : ixsi
"3jn mbiJ biai : o^prn DTaizrm : o^nsm
btan -. n-bvm rnbi:i oarpi . : -ip-x ana : itzraa
ir : rby nbri an -b nt&yi oi. aw : ma inarp na
Dibsn r6:r ximrrbx rar amr^s D^soxna oyn
nnpx DOX nam ronab yirb bma : try 7a iT
: nbipb yatzr 7i3a bam .- n-'-npsi rmrai nni3a <i x ami : xipan



xim : Din nas 7a xx- 1 na bab 7-iTxa yonrr
bab Tabai :maiai : la^an nya n-pb 'ana nay fby mrp
pyxa ximrrraw ab bx npbD rnn irnaaiiiay bxiKr 11 bnp
inn nx : naby 'xai nx : myan ^laer nx : iTan mbipa
p-'xatm npx nx mn 73 nx . : oa^ab oaipn 11 naa oa^nn
niana avina nas3T ^DTIB TD .13 yin nx : o^aan

; : n-'i-iai

yin nx >DT ib "]BByn xbi (M. 4a> : cripai n3aip pnr> nx
nx : n^aina nmnb nbtx -]ma7a nssianxn ^nbns a inn
Diiaatzrn 'airraian ^nn yin n:nnirm Ditaawn ^ax apjn
: -nay rnba-a nansa 7a :. -T by ipnsnxi : -jaa iapT
7ib*Ta na irm : onain rrwn, nnx wba np ibip iyaon
apsn ybnx -DE na naxi Dyba DB -jsnnx 7x1 : Taynx
nmmi : nbbya D^ybpa nrnan nxt ba : bxnizr ymsatzra
baa nni3Bi : xaia 11 DTinm : -rnDrn mm 7aarai : Dann

. : mmb xsp" 1 7a xsa* 1 xbi npnn 7133



59



Tnnx bx ta'ODTriasrD mm pbo rby mrr pto rrbom
-lawi : T3pnoa TJMT by : TW p : nwran myaim . Trial?
mm:naattoi.7w mpra nary ruran nwxa:Tnna 13TP -px naba
iraoi mo nxnpa maw nm rrron na-m nanaa
bnp mn : na D-'iw D-oxbon mta mnai : xa: in
xm jaai .- Tnimb ]rry nixar: : nnn rvnnna
]ara noanx -oan nan rwwn rrrna : ]pbx rm
: tnm DTTT TOM^DT : fwi nxioa ajtrnx

nb pare : D^TIOI o-'nanra r6xbi c^aorn p m
naan rrabar jwan nyaix nan -nrr 112 mrT



nbna pxn mbiaa nay na?a nai nnytzr xvi na-i

p & rpFT nai napa DP mppmo ma
xnn naby p naizra nyin iai man p bm *tb p
: T:B by IJDI ipn : nr -6 bx n^a onnn mm <foi. s a )
n-uran rnn nay nrmao p oyp ipi : P^X im:oa
nx7a xai wTpn oimn na : rrns mx nay nyai nnena
bom -. nax pxn by "pn .- moo inb r:sa ^snxi rrwon
mponxi : nawaxa nanpn irm nxm : na-'-nn rby
-jn r^n la* 1 rm : nmratsi nni^nai* ""ixb ">aa ovibx
naaa : nwr onaryi nxa : ^sbx ba enpa ixiana na
ip^xa ]ibnai : "laiaa craranxi : DIBTBT p iaai : onwy onxaa
nnna xb imaai ny"ia aoa .- DXTT yxibara : nnia iy an
nxtwnxi : inxa^a neiy yonrp jnxm : nrrb 02 xbi : rry
ba qrap r^y rn "po a : naann . mi p xbaxi : imrrr
ma pnaia xxa: na "inx mi : vby msv cnbm . .n
mbsn Tnnax byi rbyiDnay p



yn



nb : irrairva <foi. M oaa bai : -iwm prsn ms naa :
xaa "n ]a awx i:sn xbi :-canx maa rnba nxrc :
:?3a -itybxi aiznj nx^by bipa naxi ibipa xiwi .

. : <i apo obyb ob

r BT39 by nbbaa Dpprr mya-n .- ras own oyn ba urn
nnn : snx xi* 1 nan pan rrn a : orr^jf nansr imam



nan : r!?r ,TBT cibar rbn by my : nnx rai
xas "in bx imbara, bssn : mrby obcrn

mm ira^n "pan niybx pan ]rnx mm : D ma* 1
nn;na n^a bai yin-i nan-'xi .- ibxacra Tian TTb 1
xa: in n^nnnb naax ra -. nnai i^iaaa inx
obora bxiBr 11 ^np bai : rn ipE73i : TTTP n^zaaom
rbrb iam cnrsi lan^xi mrbx w:3i .-
ptzr:i : irnara rcnn 11 CTJJ p inxi aoi. 6)
. : rby D^rzra bnm Tb3i by HODI ipyi :
on ]a nx ^by obom : rmnanr yipn p nx T>by oibrnn
7>by nbcm : nmbsiyb 0733 p nx jby tbvn nnizrx
: nnimx bapi p nx 7>by obwn : nnnxa crab p nx
p nx 7^y Dborn nnna ib '13X p nx
obarn :neb ns rmj rr yiai p nx -pby obtzm :
xb Tip n x p nx -pby Dbwn.-obwn 'xar yai ]a nx

. : lapis nyw ay mna

iay bab : atsn ibip : ann aan xzzr nbxn cnam rnbaai
aca jrx nxbm nrn orai : aba nn naxi aainoan

. : oaay

ina-'aai omby asynx bbaan nr oyn yaw iai
nx 7->na : nnyw i:ay ayp c^ajn x i| Br3 nx *pna : ornbip
: "na na ib 7ia oi. ?) nbxi : Tay i:ay osrp 7nbxT nrrbo?
np^x nx onax mpyzrn rnam : rnaan p mot vb
. rnpys ana nb o-'pys n^aiw axbai : nys? isay oyp
oyn iKpnx lai : .-rn!?x nbx na^a ) by xai ntrra nx
as nas : crrbya ixsiaa n-'anxi .- cnb axai la^an nt
brx -"ib rr'a Tp 11 nx Dbcra brx : ^an nx Dbtzra bix "inx
: nnx'-bn nnx^oa by "jsbax nrnnbxT ma p nx : Dbwa
nnaaa .- xaa nnb pbo n-iayi laa-p ]a nrna -. Din s asn mm
nny^ai : inxipb owana D^axban bai : T3 "iT3na : nai
ba ipyj? inn orx-ib mbyb bsyi : oyn ]^aa -nanx nai
: yix p n^aior aab bx npbo : mai nbu npyx bxnsr bnp



BL GASTER

16UO The Asatir

.A8

cop. 2 ' (DUP.34-2U-72)



UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

111 i"

19 343 941



BL
16UO
.A8
cop* 2



Gaster



The



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