Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense

before the American Society of Newspaper Editors

Montreal, Canada, May 18th, 1966

Any American would be fortunate to visit this lovely island city, in this

hospitable land. But there is a special satisfaction for a Secretary of

Defense to cross the longest border in the world and realize that it is

also the least armed border in the world. It prompts one to reflect how

negative and narrow a notion of defense still clouds our century.

There is still among us an almost eradicable tendency to think of our

security problem as being exclusively a military problem-and to think of

the military problem as being exclusively a weapons-system or hardware


The plain, blunt truth is that contemporary man still conceives of war and

peace in much the same stereotyped terms that his ancestors did.

The fact that these ancestors, both recent and remote, were conspicuously

unsuccessful at avoiding war, and enlarging peace, doesn't seem to dampen

our capacity for cliches.

We still tend to conceive of national security almost solely as a state of

armed readiness: a vast, awesome arsenal of weaponry.

We still tend to assume that it is primarily this purely military

ingredient that creates security.

We are still haunted by this concept of military hardware. But how limited

a concept this actually is becomes apparent when one ponders the kind of

peace that exists between the United States and Canada.

It is a very cogent example. Here we are, two modern nations, highly

developed technologically, each with immense territory, both enriched with

great reserves of natural resources, each militarily sophisticated; and

yet we sit across from one another, divided by an unguarded frontier of

thousands of miles, and there is not a remotest set of circumstances, in

any imaginable time frame of the future, in which our two nations would

wage war on one another.

It is so unthinkable an idea as to be totally absurd. But why is that so?

Is it because we are both ready in an instant to hurl our military

hardware at one another? Is it because we are both zeroed in on one

another's vital targets? Is it because we are both armed to our

technological teeth that we do not go to war? The whole notion, as

applied to our two countries, is ludicrous.

Canada and the United States are at peace for reasons that have nothing

whatever to do with our mutual military readiness. We are at peace-truly

at peace- because of the vast fund of compatible beliefs, common

principles, and shared ideals. We have our differences and our diversity

and let us hope for the sake of a mutually rewarding relationship we never

become sterile carbon copies of one another. But the whole point is that

our basis of mutual peace has nothing whatever to do with our military


Now this is not to say, obviously enough, that the concept of military

deterrence is no longer relevant in the contemporary world. Unhappily, it

still is critically relevant with respect to our potential adversaries.

But it has no relevance what ever between the United States and Canada.

We are not adversaries. We are not going to become adversaries. And it is

not mutual military deterrence that keeps us from becoming adversaries.

It is mutual respect for common principles. Now I mention this-as obvious

as it all is-simply as a kind of reductio ad absurdum of the concept that

military hardware is the exclusive or even the primary ingredient of

permanent peace in the mid 20th century.

In the United States over the past 5 years, we have achieved a

considerably improved balance in our total military posture. That was the

mandate I received from Presidents Kennedy and Johnson; and with their

support, and that of the Congress, we have been able to create a

strengthened force structure of land, sea, and air components with a vast

increase in mobility and materiel and with a massive superiority in

nuclear retaliatory power over any combination of potential adversaries.

Our capabilities for nuclear, conventional, and countersubversive war have

all been broadened and improved; and we have accomplished this through

military budgets that were in fact lesser percentages of our gross

national product than in the past.

From the point of view of combat readiness, the United States has never

been militarily stronger. We intend to maintain that readiness. But if we

think profoundly about the matter, it is clear that this purely military

posture is not the central element in our security. A nation can reach

the point at which it does not buy more security for itself simply by

buying more military hardware. We are at that point. The decisive factor

for a powerful nation already adequately armed is the character of its

relationships with the world.

In this respect, there are three broad groups of nations: first, those

that are struggling to develop; secondly, those free nations that have

reached a level of strength and prosperity that enables them to contribute

to the peace of the world; and finally, those nations who might tempted to

make themselves our adversaries. For each of these groups, the United

States, to preserve its intrinsic security, has to have distinctive sets

of relationships. First, we have to help protect those developing

countries which genuinely need and request our help and which, as an

essential precondition, are willing and able to help themselves.

Second, we have to encourage and achieve a more effective partnership with

those nations who can and should share international peacekeeping


Third, we must do all we realistically can to reduce the risk of conflict

with those who might be tempted to take up arms against us.

Let us examine these three sets of relationships in detail.

The Developing Nations

First, the developing nations. Roughly 100 countries today are caught up

in the difficult transition from traditional to modern societies. There

is no uniform rate of progress among them, and they range from primitive

mosaic societies fractured by tribalism and held feebly together by the

slenderest of political sinews to relatively sophisticated countries well

on the road to agricultural sufficiency and industrial competence.

This sweeping surge of development, particularly across the whole southern

half of the globe, has no parallel in history. It has turned

traditionally listless areas of the world into seething cauldrons of


On the whole, it has not been a very peaceful process.

In the last 8 years alone there have been no less than 164 internationally

significant outbreaks of violence, each of them specifically designed as

a serious challenge to the authority, or the very existence, of the

government in question. Eighty two different governments have been

directly involved.

What is striking is that only 15 of these 164 significant resorts to

violence have been military conflicts between two states. And not a

single one of the 164 conflicts has been a formally declared war.

Indeed, there has not been a formal declaration of war anywhere in the

world since World War II.

The planet is becoming a more dangerous place to live on, not merely

because of a potential nuclear holocaust but also because of the large

number of de facto conflicts and because the trend of such conflicts is

growing rather than diminishing. At the beginning of 1958, there were 23

prolonged insurgencies going on about the world. As of February 1, 1966,

there were 40. Further, the total number of outbreaks of violence has

increased each year: In 1958, there were 34; in 1965, there were 58.

The Relationship of Violence and Economic Status

But what is most significant of all is that there is a direct and constant

relationship between the incidence of violence and the economic status of

the countries afflicted. The World Bank divides nations on the basis of

per capita income into four categories: rich, middle income, poor, and

very poor.

The rich nations are those with a per capita income of $750 per year or


The current U.S. level is more than $2,700. There are 27 of these rich

nations. They possess 75 percent of the world's wealth, though roughly

only 25 percent of the world's population.

Since 1958, only one of these 27 nations has suffered a major internal

upheaval on its own territory. But observe what happens at the other end

of the economic scale.

Among the 38 very poor nations those with a per capita income of under

$100 a year not less than 32 have suffered significant conflicts.

Indeed, they have suffered an average of two major outbreaks of violence

per country in the 8 year period. That is a great deal of conflict.

What is worse, it has been predominantly conflict of a prolonged nature.

The trend holds predictably constant in the case of the two other

categories: the poor and the middle income nations. Since 1958, 87

percent of the very poor nations, 69 percent of the poor nations, and 48

percent of the middle income nations have suffered serious violence.

There can, then, be no question but that there is an irrefutable

relationship between violence and economic backwardness. And the trend of

such violence is up, not down.

Now, it would perhaps be somewhat reassuring if the gap between the rich

nations and the poor nations were closing and economic backwardness were

significantly receding. But it is not. The economic gap is widening.

By the year 1970 over one half of the world's total population will live

in the independent nations sweeping across the southern half of the

planet. But this hungering half of the human race will by then command

only one sixth of the world's total of goods and services. By the year

1975 the dependent children of these nations alone children under 15 years

of age will equal the total population of the developed nations to the


Even in our own abundant societies, we have reason enough to worry over

the tensions that coil and tighten among under-privileged young people and

finally flail out in delinquency and crime. What are we to expect from a

whole hemisphere of youth where mounting frustrations are likely to fester

into eruptions of violence and extremism?

Annual per capita income in roughly half of the 80 underdeveloped nations

that are members of the World Bank is rising by a paltry 1 percent a year

or less. By the end of the century these nations, at their present rates

of growth, will reach a per capita income of barely $170 a year. The

United States, by the same criterion, will attain a per capita income of


The conclusion to all of this is blunt and inescapable: Given the certain

connection between economic stagnation and the incidence of violence, the

years that lie ahead for the nations in the southern half of the globe are

pregnant with violence.

U.S. Security and the Newly Developing World

This would be true even if no threat of Communist subversion existed is it

clearly does. Both Moscow and Peking, however harsh their internal

differences, regard the whole modernization process as an ideal

environment for the growth of communism. Their experience with subversive

internal war is extensive, and they have developed a considerable array of

both doctrine and practical measures in the art of political violence.

What is often misunderstood is that Communists are capable of subverting,

manipulating, and finally directing for their own ends the wholly

legitimate grievances of a developing society.

But it would be a gross oversimplification to regard communism as the

central factor in every conflict throughout the underdeveloped world. Of

the 149 serious internal insurgencies in the past 8 years, Communists have

been involved in only 58 of them - 8 percent of the total- and this

includes seven instances in which a Communist regime itself was the target

of the uprising.

Whether Communists are involved or not, violence anywhere in a taut world

transmits sharp signals through the complex gangli of international

relations; and the security of the United States is related to the

security and stability of nations half a glob away.

But neither conscience nor sanity itself suggests that the United States

is, should or could be the global gendarme. Quite the contrary. Experience

confirms what human nature suggests: that in most instances of internal

violence the local people themselves are best able to deal directly with

the situation within the framework of their own traditions.

The United States has no mandate from on high to police the world and no

inclination to do so. There have been classic case in which our

deliberate non-action was th wisest action of all. Where our help is not

sought, it is seldom prudent to volunteer. Certainly we have no charter to

rescue floundering regimes who have brought violence on themselves by

deliberately refusing to meet the legitimate expectations of their


Further, throughout the next decade advancing technology will reduce the

requirements for bases and staging rights at particular locations abroad,

and the whole pattern of forward deployment will gradually change.

But, though all these caveats are clear enough, the irreducible fact

remains that our security is related directly to the security of the newly

developing world. And our role must be precisely this: to help provide

security to those developing nations which genuinely need and request our

help and which demonstrably are willing and able to help themselves.

Security and Development

The rub comes in this: We do not always grasp the meaning of the word

"security" in this context. In a modernizing society, security means


Security is not military hardware, though it may include it. Security is

not military force, though it may involve it. Security is not traditional

military activity, though it may encompass it. Security is development.

Without development, there can be no security. A developing nation that

does not in fact develop simply cannot remain "secure." It cannot remain

secure for the intractable reason that its own citizenry cannot shed its

human nature.

If security implies anything, it implies a minimal measure of order and

stability. Without internal development of at least a minimal degree,

order and stability are simply not possible. They are not possible

because human nature cannot be frustrated beyond intrinsic limits. It

reacts because it must.

Now, that is what we do not always understand, and that is also what

governments of modernizing nations do not always understand. But by

emphasizing that security arises from development, I do not say that an

underdeveloped nation cannot be subverted from within, or be aggressed

upon from without, or be the victim of a combination of the two. It can.

And to prevent any or all of these conditions, a nation does require

appropriate military capabilities to deal with the specific problem. But

the specific military problem is only a narrow facet of the broader

security problem.

Military force can help provide law and order but only to the degree that

a basis for law and order already exists in the developing society: a

basic willingness on the part of the people to cooperate. The law and

order is a shield, behind which the central fact of security - development

- can be achieved.

Now we are not playing a semantic game with these words. The trouble is

that we have been lost in a semantic jungle for too long. We have come to

identify "security" with exclusively military phenomena, and most

particularly with military hardware. But it just isn't so. And we need

to accommodate to the facts of the matter if we want to see security

survive and grow in the southern half of the globe.

Development means economic, social, and political progress. It means a

reasonable standard of living, and the word "reasonable" in this context

requires continual redefinition. What is "reasonable" in an earlier stage

of development will become "unreasonable" in a later stage.

As development progresses, security progresses. And when the people of a

nation have organized their own human and natural resources to provide

themselves with what they need and expect out of life and have learned to

compromise peacefully among competing demands in the larger national

interest then their resistance to disorder and violence will be enormously


Conversely, the tragic need of desperate men to resort to force to achieve

the inner imperatives of human decency will diminish.

Military and Economic Spheres of U.S. Aid

Now, I have said that the role of the United States is to help provide

security to these modernizing nations, providing they need and request our

help and are clearly willing and able to help themselves. But what should

our help be? Clearly, it should be help toward development. In the

military sphere, that involves two broad categories of assistance.

We should help the developing nation with such training and equipment as

is necessary to maintain the protective shield behind which development

can go forward.

The dimensions of that shield vary from country to country, but what is

essential is that it should be a shield and not a capacity for external


The second, and perhaps less understood category of military assistance in

a modernizing nation, is training in civic action. Civic action is another

one of those semantic puzzles. Too few Americans and too few officials in

developing nations really comprehend what military civic action means.

Essentially, it means using indigenous military forces for nontraditional

military projects, projects that are useful to the local population in

fields such as education, public works, health, sanitation, agriculture -

indeed, anything connected with economic or social progress.

It has had some impressive results. In the past 4 years the U.S. assisted

civic action program, worldwide, has constructed or repaired more than

10,000 miles of roads, built over 1,000 schools, hundreds of hospitals and

clinics, and has provided medical and dental care to approximately 4

million people.

What is important is that all this was done by indigenous men in uniform.

Quite apart from the developmental projects themselves, the program

powerfully alters the negative image of the military man as the oppressive

preserver of the stagnant status quo.

But assistance in the purely military sphere is not enough. Economic

assistance is also essential. The President is determined that our aid

should be hardheaded and rigorously realistic, that it should deal

directly with the roots of underdevelopment and not merely attempt to

alleviate the symptoms. His bedrock principle is that U.S. economic aid -

no matter what its magnitude - is futile unless the country in question is

resolute in making the primary effort itself. That will be the criterion,

and that will be the crucial condition for all our future assistance.

Only the developing nations themselves can take the fundamental measures

that make outside assistance meaningful. These measures are often

unpalatable and frequently call for political courage and decisiveness.

But to fail to undertake painful, but essential, reform inevitably leads

to far more painful revolutionary violence. Our economic assistance is

designed to offer a reasonable alternative to that violence. It is

designed to help substitute peaceful progress for tragic internal


The United States intends to be compassionate and generous in this effort,

but it is not an effort it can carry exclusively by itself. And thus it

looks to those nations who have reached the point of self-sustaining

prosperity to increase their contribution to the development and, thus, to

the security of the modernizing world.

Sharing Peacekeeping Responsibilities

And that brings me to the second set of relationships that I underscored

at the outset; it is the policy of the United States to encourage and

achieve a more effective partnership with those nations who can, and

should, share international peacekeeping responsibilities.

America has devoted a higher proportion of its gross national product to

its military establishment than any other major free-world nation. This

was true even before our increased expenditures in Southeast Asia. We

have had, over the last few years, as many men in uniform as all the

nations of Western Europe combined, even though they have a population

half again greater than our own.

Now, the American people are not going to shirk their obligations in any

part of the world, but they clearly cannot be expected to bear a

disproportionate share of the common burden indefinitely. If, for

example, other nations genuinely believe - as they say they do - that it

is in the common interest to deter the expansion of Red China's economic

and political control beyond its national boundaries, then they must take

a more active role in guarding the defense perimeter. Let me be perfectly

clear. This is not to question the policy of neutralism or nonalignment

of any particular nation. But it is to emphasize that the independence of

such nations can, in the end, be fully safeguarded only by collective

agreements among themselves and their neighbors.

The plain truth is the day is coming when no single nation, however

powerful, can undertake by itself to keep the peace outside its own

borders. Regional and international organizations for peacekeeping

purposes are as yet rudimentary, but they must grow in experience and be

strengthened by deliberate and practical cooperative action.

In this matter, the example of Canada is a model for nations everywhere.

As Prime Minister Pearson pointed out eloquently in New York just last

week: Canada "is as deeply involved in the world's affairs as any country

of its size. We accept this because we have learned over 50 years that

isolation from the policies that determine war does not give us immunity

from the bloody, sacrificial consequences of their failure. We learned

that in 1914 and again in 1939. . . . That is why we have been proud to

send our men to take part in every peacekeeping operation of the United

Nations in Korea, and Kashmir, and the Suez, and the Congo, and Cyprus."

The Organization of American States in the Dominican Republic, the more

than 30 nations contributing troops or supplies to assist the Government

of South Viet Nam, indeed even the parallel efforts of the United States

and the Soviet Union in the Pakistan-India conflict these efforts,

together with those of the U.N., are the first attempts to substitute

multinational for unilateral policing of violence. They point to the

peacekeeping patterns of the future.

We must not merely applaud the idea. We must dedicate talent, resources,

and hard practical thinking to its implementation. In Western Europe, an

area whose burgeoning economic vitality stands as a monument to the wisdom

of the Marshall Plan, the problems of security are neither static nor

wholly new. Fundamental changes are under way, though certain inescapable

realities remain. The conventional forces of NATO, for example, still

require a nuclear backdrop far beyond the capability of any Western

European nation to supply, and the United States is fully committed to

provide that major nuclear deterrent.

However, the European members of the alliance have a natural desire to

participate more actively in nuclear planning. A central task of the

alliance today is, therefore, to work out the relationships and

institutions through which shared nuclear planning can be effective. We

have made a practical and promising start in the Special Committee of NATO

Defense Ministers.

Common planning and consultation are essential aspects of any sensible

substitute to the unworkable and dangerous alternative of independent

national nuclear forces within the alliance. And even beyond the alliance

we must find the means to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

That is a clear imperative.

There are, of course, risks in nonproliferation arrangements, but they

cannot be compared with the infinitely greater risks that would arise out

of the increase in national nuclear stockpiles. In the calculus of risk,

to proliferate independent national nuclear forces is not a mere

arithmetical addition of danger. We would not be merely adding up risks.

We would be insanely multiplying them.

If we seriously intend to pass on a world to our children that is not

threatened by nuclear holocaust, we must come to grips with the problem of

proliferation. A reasonable nonproliferation agreement is feasible. For

there is no adversary with whom we do not share a common interest in

avoiding mutual destruction triggered by an irresponsible nth power.

Dealing With Potential Adversaries

That brings me to the third and last set of relationships the United

States must deal with: those with nations who might be tempted to take up

arms against us.

These relationships call for realism. But realism is not a hardened,

inflexible, unimaginative attitude. The realistic mind is a restlessly

creative mind, free of naive delusions but full of practical alternatives.

There are practical alternatives to our current relationships with both

the Soviet Union and Communist China.

A vast ideological chasm separates us from them and to a degree separates

them from one another. There is nothing to be gained from our seeking an

ideological rapproachment; but breaching the isolation of great nations

like Red China, even when that isolation is largely of its own making

reduces the danger of potentially catastrophic misunderstandings and

increase the incentive on both sides to resolve disputes by reason rather

than by force.

There are many ways in which we can build bridges toward nations who would

cut themselves off from meaningful contact with us. We can do so with

properly balanced trade relations, diplomatic contacts and in some cases

even by exchanges of military observers. We have to know when it is we

want to place this bridge, what sort of traffic we want to travel over it,

an on what mutual foundations the whole structure can be designed.

There are no one cliff bridges. If you are going to span a chasm, you

have to rest the structure on both cliffs. Now cliffs, generally

speaking, are rather hazardous places. Some people are afraid even to

look over the edge. But in a thermonuclear world, we cannot afford any

political acrophobia.

President Johnson has put the matter squarely: By building bridges to

those who make themselves our adversaries, "we can help gradually to

create a community of interest, a community of trust, and a community of


With respect to a "community of effort" let me suggest a concrete proposal

for our own present young generation in the United States. It is a

committed and dedicated generation. It has proven that in its enormously

impressive performance in the Peace Corps overseas and in its willingness

to volunteer for a final assault on such poverty and lack of opportunity

that still remain in our own country.

As matters stand, our present Selective Service System draws on only a

minority of eligible young men. That is an inequity. It seems to me that

we could move toward remedying that inequity by asking every young person

in the United States to give 2 years of service to his country whether in

one of the military services, in the Peace Corps, or in some other

volunteer developmental work at home or abroad.

We could encourage other countries to do the same, and we could work out

exchange programs much as the Peace Corps is already planning to do.

While this is not an altogether new suggestion, it has been criticized as

inappropriate while we are engaged in a shooting war. But I believe

precisely the opposite is the case. It is more appropriate now than ever.

For it would underscore what our whole purpose is in Viet-Nam and indeed

anywhere in the world where coercion, or injustice, or lack of decent

opportunity still holds sway. It would make meaningful the central

concept of security a world of decency and development where every man can

feel that his personal horizon is rimmed with hope. Mutual interest,

mutual trust, mutual effort those are the goals. Can we achieve those

goals with the Soviet Union, and with Communist China? Can they achieve

them with one another?

The answer to these questions lies in the answer to an even more

fundamental question. Who is man? Is he a rational animal? If he is,

then the goals can ultimately be achieved. If he is not, then there is

little point in making the effort.

All the evidence of history suggests that man is indeed a rational animal

but with a near infinite capacity for folly. His history seems largely a

halting, but persistent, effort to raise his reason above his animality.

He draws blueprints for utopia. But never quite gets it built. In the

end he plugs away obstinately with the only building material really ever

at hand his own part-comic, part-tragic, part-cussed, but part-glorious


I, for one, would not count a global free society out. Coercion, after

all, merely captures man. Freedom captivates him.


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