Home > Einf�hrung in Linux/UNIX -- Anhang -- Sonderausgabe f�r Leseprogramme

Einf�hrung in Linux/UNIX -- Anhang -- Sonderausgabe f�r Leseprogramme

Einf�hrung in Linux/UNIX -- Anhang -- Sonderausgabe f�r Leseprogramme
Wulf Alex, 2008, Karlsruhe

Copyright 2000--2008 by Wulf Alex, Karlsruhe
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under
the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later
version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sec-
tions, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license
is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License on page
402.
Ausgabedatum: 18. November 2008.
Email: alex-weingarten@t-online.de
Dies ist ein Skriptum. Es ist unvollst�ndig und enth�lt Fehler.
Gesch�tzte Namen wie UNIX oder PostScript sind nicht gekennzeichnet.
Geschrieben mit dem Texteditor vi, formatiert mit LaTeX unter Debian
GNU/Linux.
Die Skripten liegen unter folgenden URLs zum Herunterladen bereit:
http://www.alex-weingarten.de/skripten/
http://www.abklex.de/skripten/
Besuchen Sie auch die Seiten zu meinen B�chern:
http://www.alex-weingarten.de/debian/
http://www.abklex.de/debian/
Von dem Skriptum gibt es neben der Normalausgabe eine Ausgabe in kleine-
rer Schrift (9 Punkte), in gro�er Schrift (14 Punkte) sowie eine Textausgabe
f�r Leseprogramme (Screenreader).

Seite 3
Vorwort
Die Skripten richten sich an Leser mit wenigen Vorkenntnissen in der Elek-
tronischen Datenverarbeitung; sie sollen -- wie Fritz Reuters Urgeschicht von
Meckelnborg -- ok f�r Schaulkinner tau bruken sin. F�r die wissenschaftliche
Welt zitiere ich aus dem Vorwort zu einem Buch des Mathematikers Richard
Courant: Das Buch wendet sich an einen weiten Kreis: an Sch�ler und Lehrer,
an Anf�nger und Gelehrte, an Philosophen und Ingenieure. Das Lernziel ist
eine Vertrautheit mit Betriebssystemen der Gattung UNIX einschlie�lich Li-
nux, der Programmiersprache C/C++ und dem weltumspannenden Internet,
die so weit reicht, dass der Leser mit der Praxis beginnen und sich selbst�ndig
weiterbilden kann. Ausgelernt hat man nie.
Zusammen bildeten die Skripten die Grundlage f�r das Buch UNIX. C
und Internet, im Jahr 1999 in zweiter Auflage im Springer-Verlag erschienen
(ISBN 3-540-65429-1). Das Buch ist vergriffen und wird auch nicht weiter
gepflegt, da ich mich auf Debian GNU/Linux konzentriere. Meine Debian-
B�cher (ISBN 3-540-43267-1 und 3-540-23786-0) sind ebenfalls bei Springer
erschienen, aber nicht im Netz ver�ffentlicht. Die Skripten dagegen bleiben
weiterhin im Netz verf�gbar und werden bei Gelegenheit immer wieder �ber-
arbeitet.
Warum ein Linux/UNIX? Die Betriebssysteme der Gattung UNIX laufen
auf einer Vielzahl von Computertypen. Unter den verbreiteten Betriebssys-
temen sind sie die �ltesten und ausgereift. Die UNIXe haben sich lange oh-
ne kommerzielle Einfl�sse entwickelt und tun das teilweise heute noch, sie-
he Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD und andere. Programmierer, nicht
das Marketing, haben die Ziele gesetzt. Die UNIXe haben von Anfang an ge-
mischte Hardware und die Zusammenarbeit mehrerer Benutzer unterst�tzt.
In Verbindung mit dem X Window System, einem netzf�higen Fenstersystem,
sind die UNIXe unter den Betriebssystemen mittlerer Gr��e die leistungs-
f�higsten. Linux/UNIX-Rechner waren von Anbeginn im Internet dabei und
haben seine Entwicklung bestimmt.
Warum C/C++? Die universelle Programmiersprache C mit ihrer m�ch-
tigen Erweiterung C++ ist -- im Vergleich zu BASIC etwa -- ziemlich ein-
heitlich. Der Anfang ist leicht, an die Grenzen sto�en wenige Benutzer. Das
Zusammenspiel zwischen C/C++-Programmen und Linux/UNIX funktioniert
reibungslos.
Warum das Internet? Das Internet ist das gr��te Computernetz dieser
Erde, ein Zusammenschluss vieler regionaler Netze. Urspr�nglich auf Hoch-
schulen und Beh�rden beschr�nkt, sind mittlerweile auch Industrie, Handel
und Privatpersonen beteiligt. Unser berufliches Leben und zunehmend un-
ser privates Dasein werden vom Internet ber�hrt. Eine Email-Anschrift ist
so wichtig geworden wie ein Telefonanschluss. Als Informationsquelle ist das
Netz unentbehrlich.
Bei der Stoffauswahl habe ich mich von meiner Arbeit als Benutzer, Ver-

Seite 4
walter und Programmierer leiten lassen. Besonderer Wert wird auf die Er-
l�uterung der zahlreichen Fachbegriffe gelegt, die dem Anf�nger das Leben
erschweren. Die typische Frage, vor der auch ich immer wieder stehe, lautet:
Was ist XYZ und wozu kann man es gebrauchen? Hinsichtlich vieler Ein-
zelheiten verweise ich auf die Referenz-Handb�cher zu den Rechenanlagen
und Programmiersprachen oder auf Monografien, um den Text nicht �ber die
Ma�en aufzubl�hen; er ist ein Kompromiss aus Breite und Tiefe. Alles �ber
UNIX, C und das Internet ist kein Buch, sondern ein B�cherschrank.
An einigen Stellen gehe ich au�er auf das Wie auch auf das Warum ein.
Von Zeit zu Zeit sollte man den Blick weg von den Wellen auf das Meer rich-
ten, sonst erwirbt man nur kurzlebiges Wissen.
Man kann den Gebrauch eines Betriebssystems, einer Programmierspra-
che oder der Netzdienste nicht allein aus B�chern erlernen -- das ist wie beim
Klavierspielen oder Kuchenbacken. Die Beispiele und �bungen wurden auf
einer Hewlett-Packard 9000/712 unter HP-UX 10.20 und einem PC der Mar-
ke Weingartener Katzenberg Auslese unter Debian GNU/Linux entwickelt.
Als Shell wurden Bourne-Abk�mmlinge bevorzugt, als Compiler wurde neben
dem von Hewlett-Packard der GNU gcc verwendet. Die vollst�ndigen Quellen
der Beispiele stehen im Netz.
Dem Text liegen eigene Erfahrungen aus f�nf Jahrzehnten zugrunde. Sei-
ne Wurzeln gehen zur�ck auf eine Erste Hilfe f�r Benutzer der Hewlett-
Packard 9000 Modell 550 unter HP-UX, im Jahr 1986 aus zwanzig Akten-
ordnern destilliert, die die Maschine begleiteten. Gegenw�rtig verschiebt sich
der Schwerpunkt in Richtung Debian GNU/Linux. Ich habe auch fremde Hil-
fe beansprucht und danke Kollegen in den Universit�ten Karlsruhe und Lyon
sowie Mitarbeitern der Firmen IBM und Hewlett-Packard f�r schriftliche Un-
terlagen und m�ndlichen Rat sowie zahlreichen Studenten f�r Anregungen
und Diskussionen. Dar�ber hinaus habe ich flei�ig das Internet angezapft
und viele dort umlaufende Guides, Primers, HOWTOs, Tutorials und Samm-
lungen von Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) verwendet.
Die Ausgabe f�r Leseprogramme blinder Leser wurde aus der dvi-Datei
mittels des Werkzeugs catdvi erzeugt. F�r Verbesserungsvorschl�ge bin ich
dankbar.
Weingarten (Baden), 15. Februar 2006 Wulf Alex

Seite 5
Inhalt
A Zahlensysteme 7
B Zeichens�tze und Sondertasten 13
B.1 EBCDIC, ASCII, Roman8, IBM-PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
B.2 German-ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
B.3 ASCII-Steuerzeichen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
B.4 Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
B.5 Latin-2 (ISO 8859-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
B.6 HTML-Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
B.7 Sondertasten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
C Typografische Ma�e 32
C.1 Papierformate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
C.2 Schriftgr��en . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
D Farben 34
D.1 RGB-Farbwerte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
D.2 X11-Farben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
D.3 HTML-Farben . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
E Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) 36
F Die wichtigsten UNIX-Kommandos 39
G Vergleich UNIX -- DOS-Kommandos 44
H Besondere UNIX-Kommandos 46
H.1 vi(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
H.2 emacs(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
H.3 joe(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
H.4 Drucken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
H.5 ftp(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
I UNIX-Dateisystem 49
I.1 Zugriffsrechte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
I.2 Kennungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
J UNIX-Systemaufrufe 59
K UNIX-Signale 61
L Videomodi des Linux-Kerns 63

Seite 6
M C-Lexikon 65
M.1 Schl�sselw�rter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
M.2 Operatoren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
M.3 Standardfunktionen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
M.4 printf(3), scanf(3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
M.5 Include-Dateien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
M.6 Pr�prozessor-Anweisungen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
N Slang im Netz 75
O Spezielle Sprachen 82
O.1 Hayes-Modem-Kommandos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
P ISO 3166 L�ndercodes 84
Q Requests For Comment (RFCs) 87
Q.1 Ausgew�hlte RFCs, ohne FYIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Q.2 1.-April-RFCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Q.3 Alle FYIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Q.4 Alle BCPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
R Internet-Protokolle 99
S Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 101
T Abk�rzungen aus Informatik und Telekommunikation 103
U Karlsruher Test 388
V GNU Lizenzen 396
V.1 GNU General Public License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
V.2 GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
W Zeittafel 410

Seite 7
A Zahlensysteme
Au�er dem Dezimalsystem sind das Dual-, das Oktal- und das Hexadezimal-
system gebr�uchlich. Ferner spielt das Bin�r codierte Dezimalsystem (BCD)
bei manchen Anwendungen eine Rolle. Bei diesem sind die einzelnen Dezi-
malstellen f�r sich dual dargestellt. Die folgende Tabelle enth�lt die Werte
von 0 bis dezimal 255. Bequemlichkeitshalber sind auch die zugeordneten
ASCII-Zeichen aufgef�hrt.
dezimal dual oktal hex BCD ASCII
0 0 0 0 0 nul
1 1 1 1 1 soh
2 10 2 2 10 stx
3 11 3 3 11 etx
4 100 4 4 100 eot
5 101 5 5 101 enq
6 110 6 6 110 ack
7 111 7 7 111 bel
8 1000 10 8 1000 bs
9 1001 11 9 1001 ht
10 1010 12 a 1.0 lf
11 101 13 b 1.1 vt
12 1100 14 c 1.10 ff
13 1101 15 d 1.11 cr
14 1110 16 e 1.100 so
15 1111 17 f 1.101 si
16 10000 20 10 1.110 dle
17 10001 21 11 1.111 dc1
18 10010 22 12 1.1000 dc2
19 10011 23 13 1.1001 dc3
20 10100 24 14 10.0 dc4
21 10101 25 15 10.1 nak
22 10110 26 16 10.10 syn
23 10111 27 17 10.11 etb
24 11000 30 18 10.100 can
25 11001 31 19 10.101 em
26 11010 32 1a 10.110 sub
27 11011 33 1b 10.111 esc
28 11100 34 1c 10.1000 fs
29 11101 35 1d 10.1001 gs
30 11110 36 1e 11.0 rs
31 11111 37 1f 11.1 us
32 100000 40 20 11.10 space
33 100001 41 21 11.11 !

Seite 8
34 100010 42 22 11.100 "
35 100011 43 23 11.101 #
36 100100 44 24 11.110 $
37 100101 45 25 11.111 %
38 100110 46 26 11.1000 &
39 100111 47 27 11.1001 '
40 101000 50 28 100.0 (
41 101001 51 29 100.1 )
42 101010 52 2a 100.10 *
43 101011 53 2b 100.11 +
44 101100 54 2c 100.100 ,
45 101101 55 2d 100.101 -
46 101110 56 2e 100.110 .
47 101111 57 2f 100.111 /
48 110000 60 30 100.1000 0
49 110001 61 31 100.1001 1
50 110010 62 32 101.0 2
51 110011 63 33 101.1 3
52 110100 64 34 101.10 4
53 110101 65 35 101.11 5
54 110110 66 36 101.100 6
55 110111 67 37 101.101 7
56 111000 70 38 101.110 8
57 111001 71 39 101.111 9
58 111010 72 3a 101.1000 :
59 111011 73 3b 101.1001 ;
60 111100 74 3c 110.0 <
61 111101 75 3d 110.1 =
62 111110 76 3e 110.10 >
63 111111 77 3f 110.11 ?
64 1000000 100 40 110.100 @
65 1000001 101 41 110.101 A
66 1000010 102 42 110.110 B
67 1000011 103 43 110.111 C
68 1000100 104 44 110.1000 D
69 1000101 105 45 110.1001 E
70 1000110 106 46 111.0 F
71 1000111 107 47 111.1 G
72 1001000 110 48 111.10 H
73 1001001 111 49 111.11 I
74 1001010 112 4a 111.100 J
75 1001011 113 4b 111.101 K
76 1001100 114 4c 111.110 L
77 1001101 115 4d 111.111 M
78 1001110 116 4e 111.1000 N
79 1001111 117 4f 111.1001 O
80 1010000 120 50 1000.0 P

Seite 9
81 1010001 121 51 1000.1 Q
82 1010010 122 52 1000.10 R
83 1010011 123 53 1000.11 S
84 1010100 124 54 1000.100 T
85 1010101 125 55 1000.101 U
86 1010110 126 56 1000.110 V
87 1010111 127 57 1000.111 W
88 1011000 130 58 1000.1000 X
89 1011001 131 59 1000.1001 Y
90 1011010 132 5a 1001.0 Z
91 1011011 133 5b 1001.1 [
92 1011100 134 5c 1001.10 \
93 1011101 135 5d 1001.11 ]
94 1011110 136 5e 1001.100 ^
95 1011111 137 5f 1001.101 _
96 1100000 140 60 1001.110 '
97 1100001 141 61 1001.111 a
98 1100010 142 62 1001.1000 b
99 1100011 143 63 1001.1001 c
100 1100100 144 64 1.0.0 d
101 1100101 145 65 1.0.1 e
102 1100110 146 66 1.0.10 f
103 1100111 147 67 1.0.11 g
104 1101000 150 68 1.0.100 h
105 1101001 151 69 1.0.101 i
106 1101010 152 6a 1.0.110 j
107 1101011 153 6b 1.0.111 k
108 1101100 154 6c 1.0.1000 l
109 1101101 155 6d 1.0.1001 m
110 1101110 156 6e 1.1.0 n
111 1101111 157 6f 1.1.1 o
112 1110000 160 70 1.1.10 p
113 1110001 161 71 1.1.11 q
114 1110010 162 72 1.1.100 r
115 1110011 163 73 1.1.101 s
116 1110100 164 74 1.1.110 t
117 1110101 165 75 1.1.111 u
118 1110110 166 76 1.1.1000 v
119 1110111 167 77 1.1.1001 w
120 1111000 170 78 1.10.0 x
121 1111001 171 79 1.10.1 y
122 1111010 172 7a 1.10.10 z
123 1111011 173 7b 1.10.11 {
124 1111100 174 7c 1.10.100 |
125 1111101 175 7d 1.10.101 }
126 1111110 176 7e 1.10.110 ~
127 1111111 177 7f 1.10.111 del

Seite 10
128 10000000 200 80 1.10.1000
129 10000001 201 81 1.10.1001
130 10000010 202 82 1.11.0
131 10000011 203 83 1.11.1
132 10000100 204 84 1.11.10
133 10000101 205 85 1.11.11
134 10000110 206 86 1.11.100
135 10000111 207 87 1.11.101
136 10001000 210 88 1.11.110
137 10001001 211 89 1.11.111
138 10001010 212 8a 1.11.1000
139 10001011 213 8b 1.11.1001
140 10001100 214 8c 1.100.0
141 10001101 215 8d 1.100.1
142 10001110 216 8e 1.100.10
143 10001111 217 8f 1.100.11
144 10010000 220 90 1.100.100
145 10010001 221 91 1.100.101
146 10010010 222 92 1.100.110
147 10010011 223 93 1.100.111
148 10010100 224 94 1.100.1000
149 10010101 225 95 1.100.1001
150 10010110 226 96 1.101.0
151 10010111 227 97 1.101.1
152 10011000 230 98 1.101.10
153 10011001 231 99 1.101.11
154 10011010 232 9a 1.101.100
155 10011011 233 9b 1.101.101
156 10011100 234 9c 1.101.110
157 10011101 235 9d 1.101.111
158 10011110 236 9e 1.101.1000
159 10011111 237 9f 1.101.1001
160 10100000 240 a0 1.110.0
161 10100001 241 a1 1.110.1
162 10100010 242 a2 1.110.10
163 10100011 243 a3 1.110.11
164 10100100 244 a4 1.110.100
165 10100101 245 a5 1.110.101
166 10100110 246 a6 1.110.110
167 10100111 247 a7 1.110.111
168 10101000 250 a8 1.110.1000
169 10101001 251 a9 1.110.1001
170 10101010 252 aa 1.111.0
171 10101011 253 ab 1.111.1
172 10101100 254 ac 1.111.10
173 10101101 255 ad 1.111.11
174 10101110 256 ae 1.111.100

Seite 11
175 10101111 257 af 1.111.101
176 10110000 260 b0 1.111.110
177 10110001 261 b1 1.111.111
178 10110010 262 b2 1.111.1000
179 10110011 263 b3 1.111.1001
180 10110100 264 b4 1.1000.0
181 10110101 265 b5 1.1000.1
182 10110110 266 b6 1.1000.10
183 10110111 267 b7 1.1000.11
184 10111000 270 b8 1.1000.100
185 10111001 271 b9 1.1000.101
186 10111010 272 ba 1.1000.110
187 10111011 273 bb 1.1000.111
188 10111100 274 bc 1.1000.1000
189 10111101 275 bd 1.1000.1001
190 10111110 276 be 1.1001.0
191 10111111 277 bf 1.1001.1
192 11000000 300 c0 1.1001.10
193 11000001 301 c1 1.1001.11
194 11000010 302 c2 1.1001.100
195 11000011 303 c3 1.1001.101
196 11000100 304 c4 1.1001.110
197 11000101 305 c5 1.1001.111
198 11000110 306 c6 1.1001.1000
199 11000111 307 c7 1.1001.1001
200 11001000 310 c8 10.0.0
201 11001001 311 c9 10.0.1
202 11001010 312 ca 10.0.10
203 11001011 313 cb 10.0.11
204 11001100 314 cc 10.0.100
205 11001101 315 cd 10.0.101
206 11001110 316 ce 10.0.110
207 11001111 317 cf 10.0.111
208 11010000 320 d0 10.0.1000
209 11010001 321 d1 10.0.1001
210 11010010 322 d2 10.1.0
211 11010011 323 d3 10.1.1
212 11010100 324 d4 10.1.10
213 11010101 325 d5 10.1.11
214 11010110 326 d6 10.1.100
215 11010111 327 d7 10.1.101
216 11011000 330 d8 10.1.110
217 11011001 331 d9 10.1.111
218 11011010 332 da 10.1.1000
219 11011011 333 db 10.1.1001
220 11011100 334 dc 10.10.0
221 11011101 335 dd 10.10.1

Seite 12
222 11011110 336 de 10.10.10
223 11011111 337 df 10.10.11
224 11100000 340 e0 10.10.100
225 11100001 341 e1 10.10.101
226 11100010 342 e2 10.10.110
227 11100011 343 e3 10.10.111
228 11100100 344 e4 10.10.1000
229 11100101 345 e5 10.10.1001
230 11100110 346 e6 10.11.0
231 11100111 347 e7 10.11.1
232 11101000 350 e8 10.11.10
233 11101001 351 e9 10.11.11
234 11101010 352 ea 10.11.100
235 11101011 353 eb 10.11.101
236 11101100 354 ec 10.11.110
237 11101101 355 ed 10.11.111
238 11101110 356 ee 10.11.1000
239 11101111 357 ef 10.11.1001
240 11110000 360 f0 10.100.0
241 11110001 361 f1 10.100.1
242 11110010 362 f2 10.100.10
243 11110011 363 f3 10.100.11
244 11110100 364 f4 10.100.100
245 11110101 365 f5 10.100.101
246 11110110 366 f6 10.100.110
247 11110111 367 f7 10.100.111
248 11111000 370 f8 10.100.1000
249 11111001 371 f9 10.100.1001
250 11111010 372 fa 10.101.0
251 11111011 373 fb 10.101.1
252 11111100 374 fc 10.101.10
253 11111101 375 fd 10.101.11
254 11111110 376 fe 10.101.100
255 11111111 377 ff 10.101.101

Seite 13
B Zeichens�tze und Sondertasten
B.1 EBCDIC, ASCII, Roman8, IBM-PC
Die Zeichens�tze sind in den Ein- und Ausgabeger�ten (Terminal, Drucker)
gespeicherte Tabellen, die die Zeichen in Zahlen und zur�ck umsetzen.
dezimal oktal EBCDIC ASCII-7 Roman8 IBM-PC
0 0 nul nul nul nul
1 1 soh soh soh Grafik
2 2 stx stx stx Grafik
3 3 etx etx etx Grafik
4 4 pf eot eot Grafik
5 5 ht enq enq Grafik
6 6 lc ack ack Grafik
7 7 del bel bel bel
8 10 bs bs Grafik
9 11 rlf ht ht ht
10 12 smm lf lf lf
11 13 vt vt vt home
12 14 ff ff ff ff
13 15 cr cr cr cr
14 16 so so so Grafik
15 17 si si si Grafik
16 20 dle dle dle Grafik
17 21 dc1 dc1 dc1 Grafik
18 22 dc2 dc2 dc2 Grafik
19 23 dc3 dc3 dc3 Grafik
20 24 res dc4 dc4 Grafik
21 25 nl nak nak Grafik
22 26 bs syn syn Grafik
23 27 il etb etb Grafik
24 30 can can can Grafik
25 31 em em em Grafik
26 32 cc sub sub Grafik
27 33 esc esc Grafik
28 34 ifs fs fs cur right
29 35 igs gs gs cur left
30 36 irs rs rs cur up
31 37 ius us us cur down
32 40 ds space space space
33 41 sos ! ! !
34 42 fs " " "
35 43 # # #

Seite 14
36 44 byp $ $ $
37 45 lf % % %
38 46 etb & & &
39 47 esc ' ' '
40 50 ( ( (
41 51 ) ) )
42 52 sm * * *
43 53 + + +
44 54 , , ,
45 55 enq - - -
46 56 ack . . .
47 57 bel / / /
48 60 0 0 0
49 61 1 1 1
50 62 syn 2 2 2
51 63 3 3 3
52 64 pn 4 4 4
53 65 rs 5 5 5
54 66 uc 6 6 6
55 67 eot 7 7 7
56 70 8 8 8
57 71 9 9 9
58 72 : : :
59 73 ; ; ;
60 74 dc4 < < <
61 75 nak = = =
62 76 > > >
63 77 sub ? ? ?
64 100 space @ @ @
65 101 A A A
66 102 � B B B
67 103 � C C C
68 104 � D D D
69 105 � E E E
70 106 � F F F
71 107 � G G G
72 110 � H H H
73 111 � I I I
74 112 [ J J J
75 113 . K K K
76 114 < L L L
77 115 ( M M M
78 116 + N N N
79 117 ! O O O
80 120 & P P P
81 121 � Q Q Q
82 122 � R R R

Seite 15
83 123 � S S S
84 124 � T T T
85 125 � U U U
86 126 � V V V
87 127 � W W W
88 130 � X X X
89 131 � Y Y Y
90 132 ] Z Z Z
91 133 $ [ [ [
92 134 * \ \ \
93 135 ) ] ] ]
94 136 ; ^ ^ ^
95 137 ^ _ _ _
96 140 -- ' ' '
97 141 / a a a
98 142 � b b b
99 143 � c c c
100 144 � d d d
101 145 � e e e
102 146 � f f f
103 147 � g g g
104 150 � h h h
105 151 � i i i
106 152 | j j j
107 153 , k k k
108 154 % l l l
109 155 _ m m m
110 156 > n n n
111 157 ? o o o
112 160 � p p p
113 161 � q q q
114 162 � r r r
115 163 � s s s
116 164 � t t t
117 165 � u u u
118 166 � v v v
119 167 � w w w
120 170 � x x x
121 171 ' y y y
122 172 : z z z
123 173 # { { {
124 174 @ | | |
125 175 ' } } }
126 176 = ~ ~ ~
127 177 " del del Grafik
128 200 � �

Seite 16
129 201 a �
130 202 b �
131 203 c �
132 204 d �
133 205 e �
134 206 f �
135 207 g �
136 210 h �
137 211 i �
138 212 ? �
139 213 ? ?
140 214 �
141 215 � �
142 216 �
143 217 � �
144 220 �
145 221 j oe
146 222 k �
147 223 l �
148 224 m �
149 225 n �
150 226 o �
151 227 p �
152 230 q y
153 231 r �
154 232 a
� �
155 233 o

156 234 � �
157 235 -- Yen
158 236 � Pt
159 237 f
160 240 ? �
161 241 ~ � �
162 242 s � �
163 243 t � �
164 244 u � �
165 245 v � �
166 246 w � a

167 247 x � o

168 250 y ' �
169 251 z ' Grafik
170 252 � ^ Grafik
171 253 � 1/2
172 254 ~ 1/4
173 255 � � �
174 256 � ?

Seite 17
175 257 ?
176 260 Grafik
177 261 � Grafik
178 262 Yen Grafik
179 263 ? Grafik
180 264 f � Grafik
181 265 � � Grafik
182 266 � � Grafik
183 267 � Grafik
184 270 � Grafik
185 271 � Grafik
186 272 Grafik
187 273 | � Grafik
188 274 -- Yen Grafik
189 275 � Grafik
190 276 f Grafik
191 277 = Grafik
192 300 { � Grafik
193 301 A � Grafik
194 302 B � Grafik
195 303 C � Grafik
196 304 D � Grafik
197 305 E � Grafik
198 306 F � Grafik
199 307 G � Grafik
200 310 H � Grafik
201 311 I � Grafik
202 312 � Grafik
203 313 � � Grafik
204 314 � � Grafik
205 315 � � Grafik
206 316 � � Grafik
207 317 � � Grafik
208 320 } � Grafik
209 321 J � Grafik
210 322 K � Grafik
211 323 L � Grafik
212 324 M � Grafik
213 325 N � Grafik
214 326 O � Grafik
215 327 P � Grafik
216 330 Q � Grafik
217 331 R � Grafik
218 332 � Grafik
219 333 � � Grafik
220 334 � � Grafik

Seite 18
221 335 � ? Grafik
222 336 � � Grafik
223 337 y � Grafik
224 340 \ � ?
225 341 � ?
226 342 S � ?
227 343 T ?
228 344 U ?
229 345 V � ?
230 346 W � ?
231 347 X � ?
232 350 Y � ?
233 351 Z � ?
234 352 � ?
235 353 � ? ?
236 354 � ? ?
237 355 � � �
238 356 � Y ?
239 357 � y ?
240 360 0 thorn ?
241 361 1 Thorn �
242 362 2 >=
243 363 3 =<
244 364 4 Haken
245 365 5 Haken
246 366 6 -- �
247 367 7 1/4 ?
248 370 8 1/2 ?
249 371 9 a
� ?
250 372 o
� �
251 373 � ? ?
252 374 � ? n
253 375 � ? 2
254 376 � � ?
255 377 (FF)
B.2 German-ASCII
Falls das Ein- oder Ausgabeger�t einen deutschen 7-Bit-ASCII-Zeichensatz
enth�lt, sind folgende Ersetzungen der amerikanischen Zeichen durch deut-
sche Sonderzeichen �blich:
Nr. US-Zeichen US-ASCII German ASCII
91 linke eckige Klammer [ �
92 Backslash \ �

Seite 19
93 rechte eckige Klammer ] �
123 linke geschweifte Klammer { �
124 senkrechter Strich | �
125 rechte geschweifte Klammer } �
126 Tilde ~ �
Achtung: Der IBM-PC und Ausgabeger�te von Hewlett-Packard verwenden
keinen 7-Bit-ASCII-Zeichensatz, sondern eigene 8-Bit-Zeichens�tze, die die
Sonderzeichen unter Nummern h�her 127 enthalten, siehe vorhergehende
Tabelle.
B.3 ASCII-Steuerzeichen
Die Steuerzeichen der Zeichens�tze dienen der �bermittlung von Befehlen
und Informationen an das empfangende Ger�t und nicht der Ausgabe eines
sicht- oder druckbaren Zeichens. Die Ausgabeger�te kennen in der Regel je-
doch einen Modus (transparent, Monitor, Display Functions), in der die Steu-
erzeichen nicht ausgef�hrt, sondern angezeigt werden. Die meisten Steuer-
zeichen belegen keine eigene Taste auf der Tastatur, sondern werden als Kom-
bination aus der control-Taste und einer Zeichentaste eingegeben. In C/C++
l��t sich jedes Zeichen durch seine oktale Nummer in der Form \123 oder
durch seine hexadezimale Nummer in der Form \x53 eingeben (hier das S).
dezimal C-Konst. ASCII Bedeutung Tasten
0 \x00 nul ASCII-Null control @
1 soh Start of heading control a
2 stx Start of text control b
3 etx End of text control c
4 eot End of transmission control d
5 enq Enquiry control e
6 ack Acknowledge control f
7 \a bel Bell control g
8 \b bs Backspace control h, BS
9 \t ht Horizontal tab control i, TAB
10 \n lf Line feed control j, LF
11 \v vt Vertical tab control k
12 \f ff Form feed control l
13 \r cr Carriage return control m, RETURN
14 so Shift out control n
15 si Shift in control o
16 dle Data link escape control p
17 dc1 Device control 1, xon control q
18 dc2 Device control 2, tape control r
19 dc3 Device control 3, xoff control s
20 dc4 Device control 4, tape control t
21 nak Negative acknowledge control u

Seite 20
22 syn Synchronous idle control v
23 etb End transmission block control w
24 can Cancel control x
25 em End of medium control y
26 sub Substitute control z
27 \x1b esc Escape control [, ESC
28 fs File separator control \
29 gs Group separator control ]
30 rs Record separator control ^
31 us Unit separator control _
127 del Delete DEL, RUBOUT
B.4 Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1)
Die internationale Norm ISO 8859 beschreibt gegenw�rtig zehn Zeichens�t-
ze, die jedes Zeichen durch jeweils ein Byte darstellen. Jeder Zeichensatz
umfa�t also maximal 256 druckbare Zeichen und Steuerzeichen. Der erste
-- Latin-1 genannt -- ist f�r west- und mitteleurop�ische Sprachen -- darun-
ter Deutsch -- vorgesehen. Latin-2 deckt Mittel- und Osteuropa ab, soweit
das lateinische Alphabet verwendet wird. Wer einen polnisch-deutschen Text
schreiben will, braucht Latin 2. Die deutschen Sonderzeichen liegen in La-
tin 1 bis 6 an denselben Stellen. Weiteres siehe in der ISO-Norm und im
RFC 1345 Character Mnemonics and Character Sets vom Juni 1992. Auch
http://wwwwbs.cs.tu-berlin.de/~czyborra/charsets/ hilft weiter.
Die erste H�lfte (0 -- 127) aller Latin-Zeichens�tze stimmt mit US-ASCII
�berein, die zweite mit keinem der anderen Zeichens�tze. Zu jedem Zeichen
geh�rt eine standardisierte verbale Bezeichnung. Einige Zeichen wie das is-
l�ndische Thorn oder das Cent-Zeichen konnten hier mit LaTeX nicht darge-
stellt werden.
dezimal oktal hex Zeichen Bezeichnung
000 000 00 nu Null (nul)
001 001 01 sh Start of heading (soh)
002 002 02 sx Start of text (stx)
003 003 03 ex End of text (etx)
004 004 04 et End of transmission (eot)
005 005 05 eq Enquiry (enq)
006 006 06 ak Acknowledge (ack)
007 007 07 bl Bell (bel)
008 010 08 bs Backspace (bs)
009 011 09 ht Character tabulation (ht)
010 012 0a lf Line feed (lf)
011 013 0b vt Line tabulation (vt)
012 014 0c ff Form feed (ff)
013 015 0d cr Carriage return (cr)
014 016 0e so Shift out (so)

Seite 21
015 017 0f si Shift in (si)
016 020 10 dl Datalink escape (dle)
017 021 11 d1 Device control one (dc1)
018 022 12 d2 Device control two (dc2)
019 023 13 d3 Device control three (dc3)
020 024 14 d4 Device control four (dc4)
021 025 15 nk Negative acknowledge (nak)
022 026 16 sy Synchronous idle (syn)
023 027 17 eb End of transmission block (etb)
024 030 18 cn Cancel (can)
025 031 19 em End of medium (em)
026 032 1a sb Substitute (sub)
027 033 1b ec Escape (esc)
028 034 1c fs File separator (is4)
029 035 1d gs Group separator (is3)
030 036 1e rs Record separator (is2)
031 037 1f us Unit separator (is1)
032 040 20 sp Space
033 041 21 ! Exclamation mark
034 042 22 " Quotation mark
035 043 23 # Number sign
036 044 24 $ Dollar sign
037 045 25 % Percent sign
038 046 26 & Ampersand
039 047 27 ' Apostrophe
040 050 28 ( Left parenthesis
041 051 29 ) Right parenthesis
042 052 2a * Asterisk
043 053 2b + Plus sign
044 054 2c , Comma
045 055 2d - Hyphen-Minus
046 056 2e . Full stop
047 057 2f / Solidus
048 060 30 0 Digit zero
049 061 31 1 Digit one
050 062 32 2 Digit two
051 063 33 3 Digit three
052 064 34 4 Digit four
053 065 35 5 Digit five
054 066 36 6 Digit six
055 067 37 7 Digit seven
056 070 38 8 Digit eight
057 071 39 9 Digit nine
058 072 3a : Colon
059 073 3b ; Semicolon
060 074 3c < Less-than sign
061 075 3d = Equals sign

Seite 22
062 076 3e > Greater-than sign
063 077 3f ? Question mark
064 100 40 @ Commercial at
065 101 41 A Latin capital letter a
066 102 42 B Latin capital letter b
067 103 43 C Latin capital letter c
068 104 44 D Latin capital letter d
069 105 45 E Latin capital letter e
070 106 46 F Latin capital letter f
071 107 47 G Latin capital letter g
072 110 48 H Latin capital letter h
073 111 49 I Latin capital letter i
074 112 4a J Latin capital letter j
075 113 4b K Latin capital letter k
076 114 4c L Latin capital letter l
077 115 4d M Latin capital letter m
078 116 4e N Latin capital letter n
079 117 4f O Latin capital letter o
080 120 50 P Latin capital letter p
081 121 51 Q Latin capital letter q
082 122 52 R Latin capital letter r
083 123 53 S Latin capital letter s
084 124 54 T Latin capital letter t
085 125 55 U Latin capital letter u
086 126 56 V Latin capital letter v
087 127 57 W Latin capital letter w
088 130 58 X Latin capital letter x
089 131 59 Y Latin capital letter y
090 132 5a Z Latin capital letter z
091 133 5b [ Left square bracket
092 134 5c \ Reverse solidus
093 135 5d ] Right square bracket
094 136 5e ^ Circumflex accent
095 137 5f _ Low line
096 140 60 ' Grave accent
097 141 61 a Latin small letter a
098 142 62 b Latin small letter b
099 143 63 c Latin small letter c
100 144 64 d Latin small letter d
101 145 65 e Latin small letter e
102 146 66 f Latin small letter f
103 147 67 g Latin small letter g
104 150 68 h Latin small letter h
105 151 69 i Latin small letter i
106 152 6a j Latin small letter j
107 153 6b k Latin small letter k
108 154 6c l Latin small letter l

Seite 23
109 155 6d m Latin small letter m
110 156 6e n Latin small letter n
111 157 6f o Latin small letter o
112 160 70 p Latin small letter p
113 161 71 q Latin small letter q
114 162 72 r Latin small letter r
115 163 73 s Latin small letter s
116 164 74 t Latin small letter t
117 165 75 u Latin small letter u
118 166 76 v Latin small letter v
119 167 77 w Latin small letter w
120 170 78 x Latin small letter x
121 171 79 y Latin small letter y
122 172 7a z Latin small letter z
123 173 7b { Left curly bracket
124 174 7c | Vertical line
125 175 7d } Right curly bracket
126 176 7e ~ Tilde
127 177 7f dt Delete (del)
128 200 80 pa Padding character (pad)
129 201 81 ho High octet preset (hop)
130 202 82 bh Break permitted here (bph)
131 203 83 nh No break here (nbh)
132 204 84 in Index (ind)
133 205 85 nl Next line (nel)
134 206 86 sa Start of selected area (ssa)
135 207 87 es End of selected area (esa)
136 210 88 hs Character tabulation set (hts)
137 211 89 hj Character tabulation with justification (htj)
138 212 8a vs Line tabulation set (vts)
139 213 8b pd Partial line forward (pld)
140 214 8c pu Partial line backward (plu)
141 215 8d ri Reverse line feed (ri)
142 216 8e s2 Single-shift two (ss2)
143 217 8f s3 Single-shift three (ss3)
144 220 90 dc Device control string (dcs)
145 221 91 p1 Private use one (pu1)
146 222 92 p2 Private use two (pu2)
147 223 93 ts Set transmit state (sts)
148 224 94 cc Cancel character (cch)
149 225 95 mw Message waiting (mw)
150 226 96 sg Start of guarded area (spa)
151 227 97 eg End of guarded area (epa)
152 230 98 ss Start of string (sos)
153 231 99 gc Single graphic character introducer (sgci)
154 232 9a sc Single character introducer (sci)
155 233 9b ci Control sequence introducer (csi)

Seite 24
156 234 9c st String terminator (st)
157 235 9d oc Operating system command (osc)
158 236 9e pm Privacy message (pm)
159 237 9f ac Application program command (apc)
160 240 a0 ns No-break space
161 241 a1 � Inverted exclamation mark
162 242 a2 Cent sign
163 243 a3 � Pound sign
164 244 a4 Currency sign (k�nftig Euro?)
165 245 a5 Yen sign
166 246 a6 Broken bar
167 247 a7 � Section sign
168 250 a8 Diaresis
169 251 a9 � Copyright sign
170 252 aa a Feminine ordinal indicator
171 253 ab ? Left-pointing double angle quotation mark
172 254 ac � Not sign
173 255 ad - Soft hyphen
174 256 ae Registered sign
175 257 af � Overline
176 260 b0 ? Degree sign
177 261 b1 � Plus-minus sign
178 262 b2 2 Superscript two
179 263 b3 3 Superscript three
180 264 b4 ' Acute accent
181 265 b5 ? Micro sign
182 266 b6 � Pilcrow sign
183 267 b7 � Middle dot
184 270 b8 � Cedilla
185 271 b9 1 Superscript one
186 272 ba ? Masculine ordinal indicator
187 273 bb ? Right-pointing double angle quotation mark
188 274 bc 1/4 Vulgar fraction one quarter
189 275 bd 1/2 Vulgar fraction one half
190 276 be 3/4 Vulgar fraction three quarters
191 277 bf � Inverted question mark
192 300 c0 � Latin capital letter a with grave
193 301 c1 � Latin capital letter a with acute
194 302 c2 � Latin capital letter a with circumflex
195 303 c3 � Latin capital letter a with tilde
196 304 c4 � Latin capital letter a with diaresis
197 305 c5 � Latin capital letter a with ring above
198 306 c6 � Latin capital letter ae
199 307 c7 � Latin capital letter c with cedilla
200 310 c8 � Latin capital letter e with grave
201 311 c9 � Latin capital letter e with acute

Seite 25
202 312 ca � Latin capital letter e with circumflex
203 313 cb � Latin capital letter e with diaresis
204 314 cc � Latin capital letter i with grave
205 315 cd � Latin capital letter i with acute
206 316 ce � Latin capital letter i with circumflex
207 317 cf � Latin capital letter i with diaresis
208 320 d0 Latin capital letter eth (Icelandic)
209 321 d1 � Latin capital letter n with tilde
210 322 d2 � Latin capital letter o with grave
211 323 d3 � Latin capital letter o with acute
212 324 d4 � Latin capital letter o with circumflex
213 325 d5 � Latin capital letter o with tilde
214 326 d6 � Latin capital letter o with diaresis
215 327 d7 � Multiplication sign
216 330 d8 � Latin capital letter o with stroke
217 331 d9 � Latin capital letter u with grave
218 332 da � Latin capital letter u with acute
219 333 db � Latin capital letter u with circumflex
220 334 dc � Latin capital letter u with diaresis
221 335 dd � Latin capital letter y with acute
222 336 de Latin capital letter thorn (Icelandic)
223 337 df � Latin small letter sharp s (German)
224 340 e0 � Latin small letter a with grave
225 341 e1 � Latin small letter a with acute
226 342 e2 � Latin small letter a with circumflex
227 343 e3 � Latin small letter a with tilde
228 344 e4 � Latin small letter a with diaresis
229 345 e5 � Latin small letter a with ring above
230 346 e6 � Latin small letter ae
231 347 e7 � Latin small letter c with cedilla
232 350 e8 � Latin small letter e with grave
233 351 e9 � Latin small letter e with acute
234 352 ea � Latin small letter e with circumflex
235 353 eb � Latin small letter e with diaresis
236 354 ec � Latin small letter i with grave
237 355 ed � Latin small letter i with acute
238 356 ee � Latin small letter i with circumflex
239 357 ef � Latin small letter i with diaresis
240 360 f0 Latin small letter eth (Icelandic)
241 361 f1 � Latin small letter n with tilde
242 362 f2 � Latin small letter o with grave
243 363 f3 � Latin small letter o with acute
244 364 f4 � Latin small letter o with circumflex
245 365 f5 � Latin small letter o with tilde
246 366 f6 � Latin small letter o with diaresis
247 367 f7 � Division sign

Seite 26
248 370 f8 � Latin small letter o with stroke
249 371 f9 � Latin small letter u with grave
250 372 fa � Latin small letter u with acute
251 373 fb � Latin small letter u with circumflex
252 374 fc � Latin small letter u with diaresis
253 375 fd � Latin small letter y with acute
254 376 fe Latin small letter thorn (Icelandic)
255 377 ff � Latin small letter y with diaresis
B.5 Latin-2 (ISO 8859-2)
Der Zeichensatz Latin-2 deckt folgende Sprachen ab: Albanisch, Bosnisch,
Deutsch, Englisch, Finnisch, Irisch, Kroatisch, Polnisch, Rum�nisch, Serbisch
(in lateinischer Transskription), Serbokroatisch, Slowakisch, Slowenisch, Sor-
bisch, Tschechisch und Ungarisch. Samisch wird in Latin-9 ber�cksichtigt.
Auf:
http://sizif.mf.uni-lj.si/linux/cee/iso8859-2.html
finden sich Einzelheiten und weitere URLs. Hier nur die Zeichen, die von
Latin-1 abweichen:
dezimal oktal hex Zeichen Bezeichnung
161 241 a1 Latin capital letter a with ogonek
162 242 a2 Breve
163 243 a3 ? Latin capital letter l with stroke
165 245 a5 ? Latin capital letter l with caron
166 246 a6 ? Latin capital letter s with acute
169 251 a9 ? Latin capital letter s with caron
170 252 aa ? Latin capital letter s with cedilla
171 253 ab ? Latin capital letter t with caron
172 254 ac ? Latin capital letter z with acute
174 256 ae ? Latin capital letter z with caron
175 257 af ? Latin capital letter z with dot above
177 261 b1 Latin small letter a with ogonek
178 262 b2 Ogonek (Schw�nzchen)
179 263 b3 ? Latin small letter l with stroke
181 265 b5 Latin small letter l with caron
182 266 b6 Latin small letter s with acute
183 267 b7 Caron
185 271 b9 Latin small letter s with caron
186 272 ba Latin small letter s with cedilla
187 273 bb Latin small letter t with caron
188 274 bc Latin small letter z with acute
189 275 bd Double acute accent
190 276 be Latin small letter z with caron

Seite 27
191 277 bf Latin small letter z with dot above
192 300 c0 Latin capital letter r with acute
195 303 c3 Latin capital letter a with breve
197 305 c5 Latin capital letter l with acute
198 306 c6 Latin capital letter c with acute
200 310 c8 Latin capital letter c with caron
202 312 ca Latin capital letter e with ogonek
204 314 cc Latin capital letter e with caron
207 317 cf Latin capital letter d with caron
208 320 d0 Latin capital letter d with stroke
209 321 d1 Latin capital letter n with acute
210 322 d2 Latin capital letter n with caron
213 325 d5 Latin capital letter o with double acute
216 330 d8 Latin capital letter r with caron
217 331 d9 Latin capital letter u with ring above
219 333 db Latin capital letter u with double acute
222 336 de Latin capital letter t with cedilla
224 340 e0 Latin small letter r with acute
227 343 e3 Latin small letter a with breve
229 345 e5 Latin small letter l with acute
230 346 e6 Latin small letter c with acute
232 350 e8 Latin small letter c with caron
234 352 ea Latin small letter e with ogonek
236 354 ec Latin small letter e with caron
239 357 ef Latin small letter d with caron
240 360 f0 Latin small letter d with stroke
241 361 f1 Latin small letter n with acute
242 362 f2 Latin small letter n with caron
245 365 f5 Latin small letter o with double acute
248 370 f8 Latin small letter r with caron
249 371 f9 Latin small letter u with ring above
251 373 fb Latin small letter u with double acute
254 376 fe Latin small letter t with cedilla
255 377 ff Dot above
B.6 HTML-Entities
HTML-Entities sind eine Ersatzschreibweise f�r Zeichen, die nicht direkt in
HTML-Text eingegeben werden k�nnen. Zu diesen Zeichen geh�ren:
? Sonderzeichen au�erhalb des US-ASCII-Zeichensatzes (Umlaute),
? Zeichen, die eine besondere Bedeutung in HTML haben (&, <),
? mathematische und andere Symbole (�, �).
F�r den Ersatz gibt es zwei M�glichkeiten:
? die dezimale oder hexadezimale Nummer des Zeichens im Zeichensatz,

Seite 28
? eine Umschreibung mit ASCII-Zeichen.
Soweit die Zeichen im Latin-1-Zeichensatz enthalten sind, k�nnen die dort
angegebenen Nummern verwendet werden. Die vollst�ndige Tabelle ent-
nimmt man am einfachsten der HTML-Spezifikation. Hier nur die h�ufigsten
Zeichen:
dezimal hex char ent Zeichen Bezeichnung
&#38; &#x26; &amp; & ampersand
&#60; &#x4c; &lt; < less-than sign
&#62; &#x4e; &gt; > greater-than sign
&#160; &#xa0; &nbsp; non-breaking space
&#161; &#xa1; &iexcl; � inverted exclamation mark
&#163; &#xa3; &pound; � pound sign
&#169; &#xa9; &copy; � copyright sign
&#171; &#xab; &laquo; ? left pointing guillemet
&#173; &#xad; &shy; soft or dicretionary hyphen
&#174; &#xae; &reg; registered sign
&#176; &#xb0; &deg; ? degree sign
&#177; &#xb1; &plusmn; � plus-minus sign
&#178; &#xb2; &sup2; 2 superscript two
&#179; &#xb3; &sup3; 3 superscript three
&#181; &#xb5; &micro; ? micro sign
&#187; &#xbb; &raquo; ? right pointing guillemet
&#189; &#xbd; &frac12; 1/2 fraction one half
&#192; &#xc0; &Agrave; � latin capital letter A with grave
&#193; &#xc1; &Aacute; � latin capital letter A with acute
&#194; &#xc2; &Acirc; � latin capital letter A with circumflex
&#195; &#xc3; &Atilde; � latin capital letter A with tilde
&#196; &#xc4; &Auml; � latin capital letter A with diaresis
&#197; &#xc5; &Aring; � latin capital letter A with ring above
&#198; &#xc6; &AElig; � latin capital ligature AE
&#199; &#xc7; &Ccedil; � latin capital letter C with cedilla
&#209; &#xd1; &Ntilde; � latin capital letter N with tilde
&#216; &#xd8; &Oslash; � latin capital letter O with stroke
&#223; &#xdf; &szlig; � latin small letter sharp s
&#235; &#xeb; &euml; � latin small letter e with diaresis
&#241; &#xf0; &ntilde; � latin small letter n with tilde
B.7 Sondertasten
Computertastaturen weisen im Vergleich zu den Tastaturen herk�mmlicher
Schreibmaschinen einige Tasten zus�tzlich auf -- mit besonderen Bedeutun-
gen. Obwohl die PC-Tastatur (MF-2) weit verbreitet ist, gibt es eine Vielzahl
abweichender Tastaturen. Die Wirkung, die von einer Taste ausgel�st wird,

Seite 29
h�ngt in den meisten F�llen von der Software ab, l�sst sich daher nicht all-
gemein angeben und kann von Programm zu Programm variieren. Typische
Beispiele sind die Funktionstasten, aber auch fast alle anderen Tasten las-
sen sich umprogrammieren. In der folgenden Tabelle werden die wichtigsten
Sondertasten aufgef�hrt:
D�Z Daten�bertragung zeilenweise
ACK Acknowledge
AlphaLock wie Caps Lock
Alt Alt Alternate
AltGr AltGr Alternate graphic(s)
BackTab
BS, Backspace R�cktaste einen Schritt zur�ck
BEL Glocke, ASCII-Nr. 7
Break Untbr Signal SIGINT, Signal Nr. 2
CAN Cancel
Caps Lock Feststelltaste Umschaltung feststellen
CBT Cursor back tab
CE, ClearEntry
CharDel L�sche Zeichen
CharInsert F�ge Zeichen vor Cursor ein
ClearSpace
CR Carriage return, Wagenr�cklauf,
ASCII-Nr. 13
Ctrl Strg Control, Steuerung
CUB Cursor back
CUD Cursor down
CUF Cursor forward
CUU Cursor up
DCH Delete character
DC1 Device control 1, ASCII-Nr. 17
DC2 Device control 2, ASCII-Nr. 18
DC3 Device control 3, ASCII-Nr. 19
DC4 Device control 4, ASCII-Nr. 20
Dead Keys Tod-Tasten, T. f�r diakritische Zeichen,
Akzent-Tasten Akzente ohne Zeichenvorschub
DEL, Delete Entf Zeichen entfernen, l�schen
DL Delete line
DLE Data link enable
Down Pfeil abw�rts Cursor abw�rts
EM End of media
End Ende Cursor zum Seitenende
ENQ Enquiry
Enter Zeilenwechsel Eingabe vollziehen
EOT End of transmission
Esc Escape Escape, Fluchtsymbol, ASCII-Nr. 27
ETB End of transaction block

Seite 30
ETX End of text
ExtChar
F1 F1 Funktionstaste 1 usw.
FF Form feed, Blattvorschub, ASCII-Nr. 12
Funct �hnlich wie Ctrl
Home Pos1 Cursor zum Seitenanfang
HT Horizontal tab
INS, Insert Einfg Zeichen vor Cursor einf�gen
IS1 Information separator 1
IS2 Information separator 2
IS3 Information separator 3
IS4 Information separator 4
Left Pfeil links Cursor nach links
LF Line feed, ASCII-Nr. 10
LineDel L�sche Zeile
LineErase L�sche Zeile ab Cursor
LineFeed wie Down
LineIns F�ge Zeile oberhalb Cursor ein
LocEsc Local Escape
NAK Not acknowledge
NoScroll H�lt Bildschirm an
NumLock Num Number lock key
Page N�chste Seite des Speichers
Page Down Bild abw�rts N�chste Seite des Speichers
PageErase Seite l�schen
Page Up Bild aufw�rts Vorige Seite des Speichers
Pause Pause Pause
PFK Program Function Key
PrevWin Previous window
PrintScreen Druck Hardcopy des Bildschirms
Reset Setzt Terminal zur�ck
Return Zeilenwechsel Zeilenwechsel, Eingabe vollziehen
Right Pfeil rechts Cursor nach rechts
Rubout Zeichen l�schen, wie DEL
ScrollLock Rollen H�lt Bildschirm an
Send Sende Seite zum Computer
Setup Zeigt Konfiguration an
Shift Umschaltung Umschaltung gro�-klein
Space Leertaste ASCII-Nr. 32, Leerschritt
SOH Start of header
SUB Substitute character, ASCII-Nr. 26
SYN Synch idle
SysRq S-Abf System request, System-Anfrage
Tab Tab (Horizontal-)Tabulator
Up Pfeil aufw�rts Cursor nach oben

Seite 31
Daneben finden sich auf den Tastaturen einzelner Hersteller noch Tasten mit
angebissenen �pfeln, fliegenden Fenstern und dergleichen.

Seite 32
C Typografische Ma�e
C.1 Papierformate
In der EDV sind folgende Papierformate gebr�uchlich (Ein Zoll (inch) sind
25,4 mm oder 72 Punkte):
? DIN A3 Blattgr��e 297 mm x 420 mm entsprechend 842 p x 1190 p.
? DIN A4 Blattgr��e 210 mm x 297 mm entsprechend 595 p x 842 p, n�-
herungsweise 8 Zoll x 12 Zoll.
? Briefumschlag DIN lang 110 mm x 220 mm
? Tabellierpapier schmal Blattgr��e einschlie�lich Lochrand 240 mm x
305 mm, ohne Lochrand 210 mm x 305 mm, also ann�hernd DIN A4.
305 mm sind 12 Zoll.
? Tabellierpapier breit Blattgr��e einschlie�lich Lochrand 375 mm x
305 mm.
Bei 10 Zeichen/Zoll fa�t die Zeile 132 Zeichen, bei 12 Zeichen/Zoll 158
Zeichen, bei 15 Zeichen/Zoll 198 Zeichen.
? Executive amerikanisch, Blattgr��e 7.25 Zoll x 10.5 Zoll (184,2 mm x
266,7 mm) entsprechend 540 p x 720 p.
? Ledger amerikanisch, Blattgr��e 17 Zoll x 11 Zoll (431,8 mm x
279,4 mm) entsprechend 1224 p x 792 p, Querformat.
? Legal amerikanisch, Blattgr��e 8.5 Zoll x 14 Zoll (215,9 mm x 355,6 mm)
entsprechend 612 p x 1008 p.
? Letter amerikanisch, Blattgr��e 8.5 Zoll x 11 Zoll (215,9 mm x
279,4 mm) entsprechend 612 p x 792 p, Schreibmaschinenpapier.
? Tabloid amerikanisch, Blattgr��e 11 Zoll x 17 Zoll (279,4 mm x
431,8 mm) entsprechend 792 p x 1224 p.
Es ist zwischen der Blattgr��e, der Gr��e des adressierbaren Bereichs (lo-
gische Seite) und der Gr��e des beschreibbaren Bereichs zu unterscheiden.
N�heres beispielsweise im HP PCL 5 Printer Language Technical Reference
Manual (das leider nicht zum Lieferumfang der HP Laserdrucker geh�rt, f�r
die System-Manager aber �u�erst wichtig ist).
C.2 Schriftgr��en
Bei den Schriftgr��en oder -graden finden sich mehrere Ma�systeme. In Mit-
teleuropa ist traditionell das aus dem Bleisatz stammende Punktsystem nach
Fran�ois Ambroise Didot gebr�uchlich, das die H�he der Schrifttype (nicht
des Buchstabens) angibt. Es geht auf den franz�sischen Fu� zur�ck; ein

Seite 33
Punkt war fr�her 0,376 mm, heute ist er in Angleichung an das metrische
System 0,375 mm. Die wichtigsten Gr��en werden auch mit eigenen Namen
bezeichnet (12 pt = Cicero). Die untere Grenze der Lesbarkeit liegt bei 9 pt,
optimal sind 12 pt.
Auf englische F��e geht das Pica-System zur�ck, in dem 1 Pica gleich
12 Points oder 4,216 mm (1/6 Zoll) ist. Hiervon abgeleitet ist das IBM-Pica-
System, in dem Pica eine Schrift mit 6 Zeilen pro Zoll und 10 Zeichen pro Zoll
ist. Elite bedeutet 12 Zeichen pro Zoll bei gleichem Zeilenabstand.
Auf deutschen Schreibmaschinen war Pica eine Schriftart mit 2,6 mm
Schrittweite (etwa 10 Zeichen pro Zoll) und Perl eine Schriftart mit 2,3 mm
Schrittweite.

Seite 34
D Farben
D.1 RGB-Farbwerte
D.2 X11-Farben
Eine Auswahl der von X11 verwendeten Farben. Die vollst�ndige Liste ist
in /etc/X11/rgb.txt, /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb.txt oder /usr/lib/
x11/rgb.txt zu finden. Mittels showrgb werden die Farben mit ihren Zah-
lenwerten (RGB-Tripletts) aufgelistet. Das Kommando xcolors stellt in ei-
nem gro�en Fenster alle Farben gleichzeitig samt ihren Bezeichnungen dar,
das Kommando xcolorsel in einem kleinen Fenster einen Ausschnitt samt
Hexwerten und Bezeichnungen. Die tats�chliche Farbdarstellung h�ngt vom
Bildschirm bzw. Drucker ab, deshalb sind die Farbmuster nur als Orientie-
rungshilfe zu verstehen.
X11 stellt auch Farben dar, die nicht in dieser Liste genannt sind.
Dar�ber hinaus kann sich ein Benutzer mit einem Farbeditor eigene Far-
ben f�r X11 mischen. Nach dem RGB-Modell arbeiten xcolmix (Debian)
und xcoloredit, zu holen bei http://freebsd.home4u.ch/de/ oder
ftp://export.lcs.mit.edu/R5contrib/. Ein durchschnittlicher Benut-
zer kommt jedoch mit den vorgefertigten Farben aus.
Farbe Colour RGB-Vektor Hex, 8bittig
wei� white 255,255,255 #ffffff
gelb yellow 255,255,0 #ffff00
fuchsienrot magenta1 255,0,255 #ff00ff
cyan cyan1 0,255,255 #00ffff
rot red 255,0,0 #ff0000
maigr�n green 0,255,0 #00ff00
blau blue1 0,0,255 #0000ff
grau grey52 133,133,133 #868686
olivgr�n olive drab 107,142,35 #698e20
purpur purple 160,32,240 #9e20ef
dunkelgr�n green4 0,139,0 #008a00
kastanienbraun maroon 176,48,96 #ae3061
gr�n green 0,255,0 #00ff00
marineblau navy blue 0,0,128 #000086
lachsrot salmon 250,128,114 #f78271
dunkelrosa hot pink 255,105,180 #ff69b6
dunkelorange dark orange 255,140,0 #ff8e00
k�nigsblau royal blue 65,105,225 #4169df
altwei� antique white 250,235,215 #f7ebd7
ocker navajo white 255,222,173 #ffdfae
hellgrau light grey 211,211,211 #cfd3cf

Seite 35
schwarz black 0,0,0 #000000
D.3 HTML-Farben
Eine Auswahl von Farben nach dem RGB-Farbmodell, ihren Bezeichnungen
und ihren Hex-Codes, wie sie in HTML-Seiten verwendet werden. Die ersten
16 Farben k�nnen auf Webseiten �ber ihre englische Bezeichnung angespro-
chen werden; die Hex-Codes sollten immer richtig verstanden werden. Wei-
teres unter http:\\www.htmlhelp.com/cgi-bin/color.cgi oder http:
//www.seifert-web.de/info/bgclick.htm.
Farbe Colour Hex Code
wei� white #ffffff
schwarz black #000000
gelb yellow #ffff00
fuchsienrot magenta, fuchsia #ff00ff
cyan cyan, aqua #00ffff
rot red #ff0000
maigr�n lime #00ff00
blau blue #0000ff
grau gray #808080
olivgr�n olive #808000
purpur purple #800080
dunkelgr�n teal #008080
kastanienbraun maroon #800000
gr�n green #008000
marineblau navy #000080
silbern silver #c0c0c0
lachsrot salmon #fa8072
dunkelrosa hot pink #ff69b4
dunkel orange dark orange #ff8c00
k�nigsblau royal blue #4169e1
ocker navajo white #ffdead

Seite 36
E Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
An Hand einer einfachen Webseite -- verfasst nach der Spezifikation von
HTML 4.0 -- wird die Verwendung von HTML erl�utert. Die Seite ist von
mehreren Programmen getestet und hat keine Fehlermeldungen erzeugt.
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>
Dr.-Ing. Wulf Alex
</TITLE>
<META http-equiv="Content-Type" content=
"text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
<META name="revisit-after" content="20 days">
<META name="description" content=
"Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Wulf Alex">
<META name="keywords" lang="de" content=
"Chemieingenieur,Verfahrenstechnik,Alex">
<META name="keywords" lang="en" content=
"Chemical Engineering,Process Engineering,Alex">
</HEAD>
<BODY bgcolor="#ffffff">
<IMG src="/logociw.gif" alt="LOGO">
<H3>
Institut f&uuml;r Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik
und Mechanik
</H3>
<HR><IMG src="alex.jpg" align="MIDDLE" height="240"
width="175" alt="FOTO"> <STRONG>Wulf Alex</STRONG>
<BR>
<BR>
Geb&auml;ude 30.70, Zimmer 003
<BR>
<BR>
Telefon +49 721 608 2404 (dienstlich)
<BR>
<BR>
Email <A href="mailto:wulf.alex@mvm.uni-karlsruhe.de">
wulf.alex@mvm.uni-karlsruhe.de</A>
<H4>
Arbeitsgebiete
</H4>
<UL>
<LI>

Seite 37
Institutsverwaltung, Werkst&auml;tten,
</LI>
<LI>
EDV, Web-, List- und Postmaster, DBA,
</LI>
<LI>
Partikelmesstechnik.
</LI>
</UL>
<H4>
Ver&ouml;ffentlichungen
</H4>
Siehe <A href="/cgi-bin/wwwbuch.cgi?autor=Alex%2C%20W">
Bibliothek</A>
<H4>
<A href="/~wualex1/">Pers&ouml;nliche Webseite</A>
</H4>
<HR>Zur <A href=
"http://www.ciw.uni-karlsruhe.de/">Fakult&auml;t</A>
<A href="http://www.uni-karlsruhe.de/">Universit&auml;t</A>
<HR>http://www.mvm.uni-karlsruhe.de/mvm/personen/alex.html
<BR>
J&uuml;ngste &Auml;nderung 2001-10-24 <A href=
"mailto:webmaster.mvm@mvm.uni-karlsruhe.de">
webmaster.mvm@mvm.uni-karlsruhe.de</A>
<BR>
<!--#config timefmt="%Y %b %d %T %Z"-->
Requested <!--#echo var="DATE_GMT"-->
by <!--#echo var="REMOTE_ADDR"-->
from <!--#echo var="SERVER_NAME"-->
</BODY>
</HTML>
Die erste Zeile nennt die Document Type Declaration. Sie kann von Testpro-
grammen wie tidy automatisch hinzugef�gt werden. Dann folgt das eigent-
liche HTML-Dokument von <HTML> bis </HTML>. Es gliedert sich in den
Kopf von <HEAD> bis </HEAD> und den Rumpf von <BODY> bis </BODY>.
Im Kopf steht der Titel (keine Sonderzeichen!) von <TITLE> bis </TITLE>,
der auf dem Rahmen des Brauser-Fensters angezeigt wird. Dann folgen Meta-
Informationen f�r Brauser und Suchmaschinen. Die Information �ber den
Content-Type ist obligatorisch, der Rest optional.
Im Rumpf wird zun�chst ein Bild (Logo) im gif-Format eingebunden. F�r
Fotos empfiehlt sich das jpg-Format. Dann folgt eine �berschrift (Headline)
dritter Stufe, die beiden obersten Stufen werden hier nicht verwendet. <HR>
ist eine horizontale Trennlinie (horizontal ruler), <BR> ein Zeilenumbruch
(line break) zus�tzlich zu denen, die der Brauser von sich aus vornimmt.
Die Email-Anschrift ist in Form eines anklickbaren Hyperlinks zwischen

Seite 38
<A> und </A> angegeben. Der �ffnende Tag <A> enth�lt ein Attribut, n�mlich
den URL, der beim Anklicken angesprochen werden soll.
Die Arbeitsgebiete sind in Form einer Auflistung (unordered list) zwischen
<UL> und </UL> dargestellt. Die einzelnen Elemente stehen zwischen <LI>
und </LI>. Es gibt auch Aufz�hlungen (ordered lists, OL).
Der auf die Bibliothek weisende Hyperlink ruft auf dem Webserver ein cgi-
Programm auf, das etwas tut und das Ergebnis dem Webserver zwecks �ber-
tragung zum Brauser mitteilt. Die Information, die der Leser beim Anklicken
dieses Hyperlinks erh�lt, wird also bei Bedarf zusammengestellt, sie ist dyna-
misch. Im vorliegenden Fall stammt sie auf Umwegen aus einer Datenbank.
Gegen Ende werden der URL der vorliegenden Seite, das Datum der j�ngs-
ten �nderung und die Anschrift des zust�ndigen Webmasters angegeben. Das
geh�rt sich so und fehlt oft.
Die letzten drei Zeilen im Rumpf rufen Server Side Includes auf. Das sind
wieder dynamische Informationen, die der Server nach Bedarf einf�gt, jedoch
ohne Hilfe eines anderen Programmes. Nicht unbedingt erforderlich, aber
hier und da n�tzlich.
Dieses Beispiel soll zeigen, dass eine einfache Webseite keine h�heren Pro-
grammierkenntnisse erfordert. Wenn Sie sich dann noch aus dem Netz oder
im Buchhandel eine gute Einf�hrung in HTML besorgen, sind Sie f�r Ihren
Auftritt im WWW ger�stet. Sp�ter sollten Sie sich noch vom W3C die HTML-
Spezifikation holen, zum Nachschlagen.

Seite 39
F Die wichtigsten UNIX-Kommandos
Einzelheiten siehe Online-Referenz-Handbuch. Das wichtigste Kommando
zuerst, die �brigen nach Sachgebiet und dann alphabetisch geordnet:
man man Beschreibung zum Kommando man(1) ausgeben
man -k time man-Seiten zum Stichwort time auflisten
apropos time man-Seiten zum Stichwort time auflisten
Allgemeines
alias Alias in der Shell einrichten
alias r='fc -e -'
at Programm zu einem beliebigen Zeitpunkt starten
at 0815 Jan 24
program
EOF (meist control-d)
bdf, df, du Plattenbelegung ermitteln
df
du .
calendar Terminverwaltung (Reminder Service)
(Datei $HOME/calendar mu� existieren)
calendar
crontab Tabelle f�r cron erzeugen
crontab crontabfile
date Datum und Zeit anzeigen
date
echo, print Argument auf stdout schreiben
echo 'Hallo, wie gehts?'
exit Shell beenden
exit
kill Signal an Prozess senden
kill process_id
kill -s SIGHUP process_id
leave an Feierabend erinnern
leave 2215
lock Terminal sperren
lock
newgrp Benutzergruppe wechseln
newgrp student
nice Priorit�t eines Programmes herabsetzen
nice program
nohup Programm von Sitzung abkoppeln
nohup program &
passwd Passwort �ndern

Seite 40
passwd
yppasswd (in NIS-Clustern)
ps laufende Prozesse anzeigen
ps -ef
script Sitzung mitschreiben
script (beenden mit exit)
set Umgebung anzeigen
set
sh, ksh, bash Shells (Bourne, Korn, Bash)
bash
stty Terminal-Schnittstelle anzeigen
stty
su Usernamen wechseln (substituieren)
su bjalex1
tset, reset Terminal initialisieren
tset vt100
tty Terminalnamen (/dev/tty*) anzeigen
tty
who eingeloggte Benutzer auflisten
who -H
whoami, id meinen Namen anzeigen
id
xargs Argumentliste aufbauen und Kommando ausf�hren
ls | xargs -i -t mv {} subdir/{}
Dateien, Verzeichnisse
cd Arbeitsverzeichnis wechseln
cd
cd /usr/local/bin
chgrp Gruppe einer Datei wechseln
chgrp students file
chmod Zugriffsrechte einel Datei �ndern
chmod 755 file
chown Besitzer einer Datei wechseln
chown aralex1 file
cmp, diff zwei Dateien vergleichen
cmp file1 file2
compress Datei komprimieren
compress file
uncompress file.Z
cp Datei kopieren
cp original kopie
file Dateityp ermitteln
file file
find, whereis Dateien suchen
find . -name file -print

Seite 41
gzip Datei komprimieren (GNU)
gzip file
gunzip file.gz
ln Datei linken
ln file hardlinkname
ln -s file softlinkname
ls Verzeichnisse auflisten
ls -al
ls -l /usr/local
mkdir Verzeichnis anlegen
mkdir newdir
mv Datei verschieben oder umbenennen
mv oldfilename newfilename
od (oktalen) Dump einer Datei ausgeben
od -c file
pwd Arbeitsverzeichnis anzeigen
pwd
rm, rmdir Datei oder leeres Verzeichnis l�schen
rm file
rm -r dir (rekursiv)
rmdir dir
tar Datei-Archiv schreiben oder lesen
tar -cf /dev/st0 ./dir &
touch leere Datei erzeugen, Zeitstempel �ndern
touch file
Kommunikation, Netz
ftp Datei Transfer
ftp ftp.ciw.uni-karlsruhe.de
hostname Hostnamen anzeigen
hostname
irc Netzgeschw�tz
irc (beenden mit /quit)
kermit Datei �bertragen, auch von/zu Nicht-UNIX-Anlagen
kermit (beenden mit exit)
mail,elm, Mail lesen und versenden
mutt mail wulf.alex@mvm.uni-karlsruhe.de < file
elm
mutt
netscape WWW-Browser (einer unter vielen)
netscape &
news Neuigkeiten anzeigen
news -a
nslookup Auskunft �ber Host
nslookup mvmpc100.ciw.uni-kalrsuhe.de
nslookup 129.13.118.100

Seite 42
ping Verbindung pr�fen
ping 129.13.118.100
ssh verschl�sselte Verbindung zu Host im Netz
ssh mvmpc100.ciw.uni-karlsruhe.de
rlogin Dialog mit UNIX-Host im Netz (unverschl�sselt)
rlogin mvmpc100
telnet Dialog mit Host im Netz (unverschl�sselt)
telent mvmpc100
tin, xn Newsreader
rtin
uucp Programmpaket mit UNIX-Netzdiensten
whois Auskunft �ber Netzknoten
whois -h whois.internic.net gatekeeper.dec.com
write, talk Dialog mit eingeloggtem Benutzer
talk wualex1@mvmpc100
Programmieren
ar Gruppe von files archivieren
ar -r archiv.a file1 file2
cb C-Beautifier, Quelle versch�nern
cb prog.c > prog.b
cc C-Compiler mit Linker
cc -o prog prog.c
ci einchecken in das RCS-System
ci mysource.c
co auschecken aus dem RCS-System
co -l mysource.c
lint C-Syntax-Pr�fer
lint prog.c
make Compileraufruf vereinfachen
make (Makefile erforderlich)
sdb, xdb symbolischer Debugger
xdb (einige Dateien erforderlich)
Textverarbeitung
adjust Text formatieren (einfachst)
adjust -j -m60 textfile
awk Listengenerator
awk -f awkscript textfile (awk-Script erforderlich)
cancel Druckauftrag l�schen
cancel lp-4711
cat von stdin lesen, nach stdout schreiben
cat textfile
cat file1 file2 > file.all
cat textfile

Seite 43
cut Spalten aus Tabellen ausw�hlen
cut -f1 tablefile > newfile
ed Zeileneditor, mit diff(1) n�tzlich
ed textfile
emacs Editor, alternativ zum vi(1) (GNU)
emacs textfile
expand Tabs ins Spaces umwandeln
expand textfile > newfile
grep, fgrep Muster in Dateien suchen
grep -i Unix textfile
fgrep UNIX textfile
head, tail Anfang bzw. Ende eines Textfiles anzeigen
head textfile
lp, lpr Datei �ber Spooler ausdrucken
lp -dlp2 textfile
lpr -Plp2 textfile
lpstat, lpq Spoolerstatus anzeigen
lpstat -t
more, less Textfile schirmweise anzeigen
more textfile
ls -l | more
nroff Textformatierer
nroff nrofffile | lp
recode Filter zur Umwandlung von Zeichens�tzen (GNU)
recode --help
recode -l
recode -v ascii-bs:EBCDIC-IBM textfile
sed filternder Editor
sed 's/[A-Z]/[a-z]/g' textfile > newfile
sort Textfile zeilenweise sortieren
sort liste | uniq > newfile
spell Rechtschreibung pr�fen
spell spelling textfile+
tee stdout zugleich in eine Datei schreiben
who | tee whofile
tr Zeichen in Textfile ersetzen
tr -d "\015" < textfile1 > textfile2
uniq sortiertes Textfile nach doppelten Zeilen durchsuchen
sort liste | uniq > newfile
vi Bildschirm-Editor, alternativ zum emacs(1)
vi textfile
view vi(1) nur zum Lesen aufrufen
view textfile
vis Dateien mit Steuersequenzen anzeigen
vis textfile
wc Zeichen, W�rter und Zeilen z�hlen
wc textfile

Seite 44
G Vergleich UNIX -- DOS-Kommandos
Der Vergleich bezieht sich auf Microsoft DOS 5.0 und UNIX V.3. Eine hun-
dertprozentige �bereinstimmung in der Wirkung ist selten. Die Syntax der
Kommandos ist immer verschieden.
Optionen werden in UNIX durch --, in MS-DOS durch / eingeleitet. Die
Verzeichnisse eines vollen Pfadnamens werden in UNIX durch /, in MS-DOS
durch \ getrennt.
In UNIX arbeitet man stets mit einem einzigen File-System; in MS-DOS
hat jeder Datentr�ger (Diskette, Platte) sein eigenes File-System. Die Kom-
mandos zum Behandeln der File-Systeme k�nnen daher keine �quivalente
haben.
UNIX MS-DOS Wirkung
cat, pg type zeigt File auf Bildschirm an
cd cd wechselt Arbeitsverzeichnis
chmod attrib �ndert Fileattribute
clear cls l�scht Bildschirm
cmp comp, fc vergleicht zwei Files
cp copy, xcopy kopiert File
date date zeigt Datum an
date time zeigt Uhrzeit an
exit exit verl��t Kommandointerpreter
grep find sucht String in File
lp print schickt File zum Drucker
lpr print schickt File zum Drucker
ls dir listet Verzeichnis auf
mkdir mkdir legt Verzeichnis an
more more zeigt File bildschirmweise an
mv ren benennt File um
pwd cd zeigt Arbeitsverzeichnis
rm del l�scht File
rmdir rmdir l�scht leeres Verzeichnis
sh command ruft Kommandointerpreter auf
sort sort sortiert File zeilenweise
Wer mit beiden Betriebssystemen arbeitet, m�chte vielleicht auf beiden
Systemen die h�ufigsten Kommandos beider Systeme zur Verf�gung haben,
um nicht st�ndig umdenken zu m�ssen. Unter UNIX ist das mithilfe des
link-Kommandos ln(1) mit geringem Aufwand zu erreichen. Man linkt bei-
spielsweise das MS-DOS-Kommando copy auf das UNIX-Kommando cp(1),
zweckm��ig im selben Verzeichnis: ln /bin/cp /bin/copy. Ein Alias leis-
tet f�r einen einzelnen Benutzer denselben Dienst und l��t sich auch f�r in-
terne Kommandos einrichten.

Seite 45
Diese M�glichkeit gibt es unter MS-DOS nicht. Man kann nur ein Batch-
File mit dem Namen des UNIX-Kommandos schreiben, das das MS-DOS-
Kommando aufruft, beispielsweise cp.bat:
@echo off
c:dos\copy %1 %2 /v
Seit MS-DOS 5.0 lassen sich mittels doskey auch Aliases einrichten. Es gibt
au�erdem von vielen UNIX-Kommandos Ausf�hrungen, die unter MS-DOS
laufen, siehe Abschnitt ?? MKS-Tools und andere. Insbesondere gibt es den
Editor vi(1) unter dem Namen vim und den Archivierer tar(1) auch f�r
DOS.
Umlenkungen (>, <) und Pipes (|) arbeiten unter beiden Betriebssystemen
gleich.

Seite 46
H Besondere UNIX-Kommandos
H.1 vi(1)
Kommando Wirkung
esc schaltet in Kommando-Modus um
h Cursor nach links
j Cursor nach unten
k Cursor nach oben
l Cursor nach rechts
0 Cursor an Zeilenanfang
$ Cursor an Zeilenende
nG Cursor in Zeile Nr. n
G Cursor in letzte Zeile des Textes
n+ Cursor n Zeilen vorw�rts
n- Cursor n Zeilen r�ckw�rts
a schreibe anschlie�end an Cursor
i schreibe vor Cursor
o �ffne neue Zeile unterhalb Cursor
O �ffne neue Zeile oberhalb Cursor
r ersetze das Zeichen auf Cursor
R ersetze Text ab Cursor
x l�sche das Zeichen auf Cursor
dd l�sche Cursorzeile
ndd l�sche n Zeilen ab und samt Cursorzeile
nY �bernimm n Zeilen in Zwischenspeicher
p schreibe Zwischenpuffer unterhalb Cursorzeile
P schreibe Zwischenpuffer oberhalb Cursorzeile
J h�nge n�chste Zeile an laufende an
/abc suche String abc nach Cursor
?abc suche String abc vor Cursor
n wiederhole Stringsuche
u mache letztes Kommando ung�ltig (undo)
% suche Gegenklammer (in Programmen)
:read file lies file ein
:w schreibe Text zur�ck (write, save)
:q verlasse Editor ohne write (quit)
:wq write und quit
Weitere vi-Kommandos im Referenz-Handbuch unter vi(1), in verschiede-
nen Hilfen im Netz oder in dem Buch von Morris I. Bolsky.

Seite 47
H.2 emacs(1)
Der emacs(1) kennt keine Modi, die Kommandos werden durch besondere
Tastenkombinationen erzeugt. control h, t bedeutet: zuerst die Tasten-
kombination control h eintippen, loslassen, dann t eintippen. Die M�chtig-
keit des Emacs zeigt sich daran, da� nicht ein Hilfefenster angeboten wird,
sondern ein ganzes Tutorial.
Kommando Wirkung
emacs filename Aufruf zum Editieren des Files filename
control h, t Tutorial
control h, i Manuals
control x, control s Text speichern
control x, control x Text speichern, Editor verlassen
Weitere emacs-Kommandos im Tutorial, im Referenz-Handbuch unter
emacs(1), in verschiedenen Hilfen im Netz oder in dem Buch von D. Ca-
meron und B. Rosenblatt.
H.3 joe(1)
Der joe(1) kennt keine Modi, die Kommandos werden durch besondere Tas-
tenkombinationen erzeugt. control k, h bedeutet: zuerst die Tastenkom-
bination control k eintippen, loslassen, dann h eintippen.
Kommando Wirkung
joe filename Aufruf zum Editieren des Files filename
control k, h Hilfe anzeigen
control k, x Text speichern, Editor verlassen
control c Editor ohne Speichern verlassen
Weitere joe-Kommandos im Hilfefenster, im Referenz-Handbuch unter
joe(1) oder in verschiedenen Hilfen im Netz.
H.4 Drucken
In der UNIX-Welt gibt es mehrere Systeme aus Druckd�monen und -
kommandos. Man mu� sich beim System-Manager erkundigen (oder expe-
rimentell ermitteln), welches Drucksystem verwendet wird. In ihrer Funktio-
nalit�t �hneln sich die Systeme, in Einzelheiten und der Kommandosyntax
unterscheiden sie sich.
Aufgabe System V BSD LPRng HPDPS
Druckauftrag geben lp lpr lpr pdpr

Seite 48
Druckauftrag l�schen cancel lprm lprm pdrm, pdclean
Status abfragen lpstat lpq lpq pdq
Spoolerd�mon lpsched lp lp (Spooler)
H.5 ftp(1)
Wenn man eine FTP-Verbindung zu einem Computer im Netz unterh�lt, ste-
hen nur ftp-Kommandos f�r die File�bertragung zur Verf�gung, die mit den
UNIX-Kommandos nichts zu tun haben. Die wichtigsten von etwa 70 sind:
Kommando Wirkung
ftp Beginn der FTP-Sitzung
open Verbinden mit angegebener Adresse
user Eingabe Benutzernamen
pwd print working directory, wie UNIX
cd change directory, wie UNIX
lcd change local directory
dir, ls Verzeichnis auflisten
ascii in ASCII-Modus schalten (f�r ASCII-Texte)
binary in bin�ren Modus schalten (f�r alle �brigen Files)
get File vom Host holen
get README |more kurzes Textfile README on-line lesen
put File zum Host schicken
mget multi-get, mehrere Files auf einmal holen
mput multi-put, mehrere Files auf einmal schicken
prompt Abfragen bei mget und mput unterdr�cken
rhelp Kommandos der �bertragung anzeigen
close Verbindung (nicht Sitzung) beenden
bye, quit Sitzung beenden
help lokale Hilfe zu Kommandos anzeigen
? cmd Hilfe zum Kommando cmd anzeigen

Seite 49
I UNIX-Dateisystem
I.1 Zugriffsrechte
? d Verzeichnis (directory),
? l weicher (symbolischer) Link,
? c Character Device File,
? b Block Device File,
? p Named Pipe (FIFO),
? n Network Device File,
? s an vorderster Stelle: Socket,
? - an vorderster Stelle: regul�re Datei, sonst gleichbedeutend mit nicht
gesetztem Recht, Zahlenwert 0,
? r lesen (read), kopieren, bei Verzeichnissen: mit ls(1) auflisten, Zahlen-
wert 4,
? w schreiben (write), �ndern, bei Verzeichnissen Dateien anlegen oder
l�schen, Zahlenwert 2,
? x ausf�hren (execute, was nur bei Programmen sinnvoll ist), bei Ver-
zeichnissen mit cd(1) hinein- oder hindurchgehen (search), Zahlenwert
1,
? S bei den Besitzerrechten: Set-User-ID-Bit gesetzt, Zahlenwert 4, x nicht
gesetzt,
? s bei den Besitzerrechten: Set-User-ID-Bit gesetzt, Zahlenwert 4, x ge-
setzt,
? S bei den Gruppenrechten: Set-Group-ID-Bit gesetzt, Zahlenwert 2, x
nicht gesetzt,
? s bei den Gruppenrechten: Set-Group-ID-Bit gesetzt, Zahlenwert 2, x
gesetzt,
? T Sticky Bit gesetzt, Zahlenwert 1, x nicht gesetzt,
? t Sticky Bit, Zahlenwert 1, und x gesetzt,
I.2 Kennungen
Unter UNIX ist es nicht gebr�uchlich, den Typ eines Files durch ein Anh�ng-
sel (Kennung, Erweiterung, Extension) an seinen Namen zu kennzeichnen,
aber es ist erlaubt. Die L�nge der Kennung ist beliebig, es d�rfen auch zwei
Kennungen angef�gt werden, zum Beispiel .ps.gz. Folgende Kennungen (a =
ASCII-Text, b = bin�res File, ? = wechselnd oder unbekannt) sind verbreitet:

Seite 50
Tabelle I.1: Zugriffsrechte von Dateien und Verzeichnissen, Beispiele
Rechte Rechte Besitzer Gruppe Rest der Welt
000 - - - - - - - - - Rechte �ndern nichts nichts
700 r w x - - - - - - alles nichts nichts
600 r w - - - - - - - lesen + schreiben nichts nichts
500 r - x - - - - - - lesen + ausf�hren nichts nichts
400 r - - - - - - - - lesen nichts nichts
300 - w x - - - - - - schreiben + ausf�hren nichts nichts
200 - w - - - - - - - schreiben nichts nichts
100 - - x - - - - - - ausf�hren nichts nichts
750 r w x r - x - - - alles lesen + ausf�hren nichts
640 r w - - - - - - - lesen + schreiben lesen nichts
755 r w x r - x r - x alles lesen + ausf�hren lesen + ausf�hren
644 r w - r - - r - - lesen + schreiben lesen lesen
664 r w - r w - r - - lesen + schreiben lesen + schreiben lesen
775 r w x r w x r - x alles alles lesen + ausf�hren
777 r w x r w x r w x alles alles alles
1000 - - - - - - - - T nichts nichts nichts, Sticky Bit
2000 - - - - - S - - - nichts nichts, sgid-Bit nichts
4000 - - S - - - - - - nichts, suid-Bit nichts nichts
4600 r w S - - - - - - lesen + schreiben, suid-Bit nichts nichts
4700 r w s - - - - - - alles, suid-Bit nichts nichts
6750 r w s r - x - - - alles, suid-Bit lesen + ausf�hren, sgid-Bit nichts
4555 r - s r - x r - x lesen + ausf�hren, suid-Bit lesen + ausf�hren lesen + ausf�hren
7555 r - s r - s r - t lesen + ausf�hren, suid-Bit lesen + ausf�hren, sgid-Bit lesen + ausf�hren, Sticky Bit
$$$ ? Tempor�res File
10X b Gemini 10X Printer Graphics
a b UNIX-Archiv, mit ar(1) erzeugt
acr b ACR-NEMA Medical Image
adf ? Adapter Description (IBM)
adi b AutoCAD DXF
adn ? Add In Utility (Lotus)
afm ? Adobe Font Metrics (Adobe)
ai ? Adobe Illustrator
ani b Atari ST Graphics Format
ans b ANSI-Grafik
app ? Application (RBase, NeXT)
arc ? Archiv, mit arc oder pkpak komprimiert
arj b Archiv, mit ??? komprimiert
art b First Publisher Clip Art
asc a ASCII-Textfile

Seite 51
asm a Assembler-Quelle
atk b Andrew Toolkit Raster Object
au b Sound (Sun, NeXT)
aux ? TeX Hilfsfile, mit Bez�gen
avi b Microsoft RIFF
avs b Intel DVI
bak a Backup
bas b BASIC-Quelle
bat a Batchfile unter MS-DOS, entsprechend Shellscript
bbl a BIBTeX Literaturverzeichnis
bck ? Backup
bfx b Bitfax
bgi b Borland Graphic Interface
bib ? Bibliographie
bif b Binary Image
bin b bin�res File
bit b TeX Ausgabe des Druckertreibers
bk a Backup (WordPerfect)
bld b BASIC Bload Graphics
bm b X11 Bitmap
bmp b Microsoft Bitmap Graphics (Windows, OS/2)
bnd b Microsoft RIFF
bob b BOB Image
bpx b Lumena Paint
bsc ? Boyan Script
bsv b BASIC Bsave Graphics
btm a Batchfile unter 4DOS
bw b SGI Image File Format
byu b Movie BYU
c a C-Quelle
C a C++-Quelle
c64 b Commodore 64 Image
cab ? Microsoft Cabinet
cal b CAL Raster
cap a Capture-File (Telix)
cat a Catalogue, Verzeichnis
cbl a COBOL-Quelle
cc a C++-Quelle
cco b Btx-Grafik
cdf ? Comma delimited format
cdi b Philips CD-I IFF
cdr b Corel Draw Vektorgrafik
cdx ? Compound Index (FoxPro)
cel b Lumena CEL
cfg ? Konfigurations-File
cgm b Computer Graphics Metafile (Harvard Graphics, Lotus)
chk ? von chkdsk erzeugtes File (MS-DOS)

Seite 52
chm b compilierte HTML-Datei
cht b Harvard Graphics
clp ? Clipboard (Windows), Clip Art, GRASP
cmd a Command, Skript, Batchfile unter OS/2
cmi b Intel DVI
cmu b CMU Window Manager Bitmap
cnc a CNC-Programme
cnf ? Konfigurations-File
cob a COBOL-Quelle
cod ? Codeliste
com b Kommando (MS-DOS), ausf�hrbares Programm
cpi ? Code Page Information (MS-DOS)
cpp a C++-Quelle
cpt ? Compact Pro (Kompressor Macintosh)
crd ? Cardfile
crf ? Cross Reference
csv a Comma Separated Values
ctx b Signaturfile (PGP)
cube b Cubicomp Picturemaker Image
cue ? Cuecard (Volltext-DB, Windows)
cur b Microsoft Windows Cursor Image
cut b Dr. Halo Bitmap
cvf b Compressed Volume
cxx a C++-Quelle
dat a Daten
db b Datenbank (Paradox)
dbf ? Datenbank (dBase)
dcf ? Driver Configuration file
dcs b Quark Desktop Color Separation EPS
dct ? Dictionary
dcx b Fax-File
dd ? Disk Doubler
ddif ? DEC DDIF
def ? Definitionen, Defaultwerte
dem b Demonstration
des ? Description
dhp b Dr. Halo PIC
dib b Microsoft Windows Bitmap, OS/2 Bitmap
dic ? Dictionary
dif ? Lotus Data Interchange Format
dir a Directory, Verzeichnis
dll b Dynamically Linked Library (OS/2, Windows)
doc a Dokument, Text (MS Word)
dok a Dokument, Text
dpx b Cineon DPX
drs b Driver Resource (WordPerfect)
drv b Device Driver

Seite 53
drw b Drawing
dta a Daten
dv a Desqview Scriptfile
dvi b Metafile von TeX, ger�teunabh�ngig
dvr b Device Driver
dxb b Drawing Interchange Binary (AutoCAD)
dxf b Data Exchange Format (AutoCAD)
ega b EGA-Grafik
eidi b Electric Image EIDI
el a Emacs Lisp
elc b Emacs Lisp compiled
emf ? Enhanced Metafile Format
eml a Electronic Mail
enc b encoded
eps b Adobe Encapsulated Postscript
epsi b Encapsulated Postscript Preview
err a Error, Fehlerprotokoll
etx ? Setext
exe b executable, ausf�hrbares Programm (MS-DOS)
f a FORTRAN-Quelle
fax b G3 Fax
fbc b Family Tree Maker Backup for DOS
fbk b Family Tree Maker Backup for Windows
fd ? Font Description
fif ? Fractal Image Format
fits b Flexible Image Transport System
fli b EmTeX Fontlibrary
fnt b Font
fop b Freedom of Press Graphics
for a FORTRAN-Quelle
fpx b Flash Pics Raster Image
fs b Usenix Face Saver
ftm b Family Tree Maker for DOS
ftw b Family Tree Maker for Windows
fxs b Fax (Winfax)
g3 b G3 Fax
gem ? GEM Meta
gfb b Gifblast compressed GIF image
gif b CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format
glo a TeX Glossar
go b GraphOn Graphics
goes b NOAA Satellite Data
grib b Gridded Binary (WMO)
gz b mit GNU gzip(1) komprimiert
h a Header-File , include-File
hex b Hexdump
hdf ? Hierarchical Data Format

Seite 54
hips b Human Information Processing Laboratory
hpp a Header-File C++
hqx b Macintosh BinHex encoded
hta ? HTML-Anwendung
htm a Hypertext-Markup-Language (DOS-Welt)
html a Hypertext-Markup-Language (UNIX-Welt)
i a C-Quelle nach Pr�prozessor-Durchlauf
iax b Image Access Executive
icc b Kodak ICC Printer
ico b Microsoft Windows Icon Image
icr b NCSA Telnet Interactive Color Raster Graphic
idx a Index
iff b Sun Interchange File Format
ilbm b Amiga Interleaved Bitmap
img b Image, GEM Paint, Rastergrafik/Bitmap
inf a Information, Installationsskript
ini ? Konfigurationsfile (Initialisierung)
jar ? Java Archiv
jfi b JPEG File Interchange Format
jif b JPEG Interchange Format
jpeg b Joint Photographic Experts Group Compressed
jpg b Joint Photographic Experts Group Compressed
js a Javascript
jse b Javascript kodiert
l a lex(1)-Quelle
lan b Erdas
lib b Library, Bibliothek
lj b HP Laserjet Graphics
lof a TeX Bildverzeichnis (list of figures)
log a Protokollfile, TeX Meldungen w�hrend der �bersetzung
lot a TeX Tabellenverzeichnis (list of tables)
lst a Liste
ltm b EOSAT's Landsat Thematic Mapper Data
lzh b Archiv, mit lha komprimiert
m4 a m4(1)-Pr�prozessor
mac b Macintosh Paint
map b Map-File (Quick C)
mak a Makefile
mdb ? Microsoft Data Base (Access)
mdf ? Menu Definition
mgr b MGR Bitmap
mid b Midi Sound
mif b Maker Interchange Format (FrameMaker)
miff b Magick Image File Format
mod b MODULA-Quelle, Amiga-Modul (Sound)
mpeg b Motion Pictures Expert Group (Filme)
mpnt b Apple Macintosh MacPaint

Seite 55
msp b Microsoft Windows Paint
mtv b MTV Raytracer
neo b Atari NeoChrome Image
nff ? Neutral File Format
nitf b National Image Transmission
o b Objekt-Code
obj b Objekt-Code
old ? Kopie eines Files vor �berschreiben
omf a Open Source Metadata Framework
ovl b Overlay
ovr b Overlay, Overview
p a PASCAL-Quelle
pak b Archiv, mit pkpak komprimiert
pax b Portable Archive Exchange
pbm b Portable Bitmap
pcd b Kodak Photo Compact Disc
pcl a HP Printer Control Language
pct b Macintosh PICT
pcx b Paintbrush, Rastergrafik
pdf b Adobe Portable Document Format
pds b NASA Planetary Image, PDS/VICAR
pi1 b Atari Degas
pic b Lotus/Pixar/Radiance Picture, Softimage Image
pics b Apple Macintosh PICS
pict b Apple Macintosh QuickDraw
pif b Program Information
pit b PackIt (Kompressor Macintosh)
pix b Inset PIX, Lumena Paint, Alias Image
pj b HP PaintJet Graphics
pk b Packed Format Font
png b Portable Network Graphics
pnm b PBM Portable Any Map
pov b Persistance of Vision
pps ? Power Point Slide Show
ppt ? Power Point
prn a Druckerfile
prt b Parallel Ray Trace
ps b Postscript
psf b Permanent Swap
ptr b OS/2 PTR File
ptx b Printronix Graphics
qdv b Random Dot QDV
qfx b Fax-File (Quicklink)
qrt b QRT Ray Tracer
qtm b QuickTime
r a Rational-FORTRAN-Quelle
ras b SUN/CALS Raster Grafik

Seite 56
rdi b Microsoft RIFF
reg ? MS Windows Registry
rff b Dore Raster File Format
rgb b SGI RGB Image
riff b Letraset Image
rix b Softworks Paint Tool Colorix
rla b Wavefront Run Length Encoded Version A Raster Image
rlb b Wavefront Run Length Encoded Version B Raster Image
rle b Utah Run Length Encoded Image
rm b Real Media
rpm ? Red Hat Package Manager
rtf ? Rich Text Format
s a Assembler-Quelle
scan b Thunderscan Image
scr b Screensaver, SUN/CALS Raster Grafik
sdf ? Space Delimited File
sea ? Self Extracting Archive (Macintosh)
sgi b SGI Image File Format
sh a Bourne-Shell-Script
shar a Bourne-Shell-Archiv
shr a Shell-Archiv
shtml a Server Parsed HTML Document
sir b Solitaire
sit b Macintosh StuffIt Archive
six b DEC LN03+ Sixel
sld b AutoCAD Slide
spc b Atari Compressed Spectrum
spl ? Future Splash Player
spot b SPOT Satellite Image
spu b Atari Compressed Spectrum
src a Program Source Code
stf ? Structured File
swf ? Shockwave Flash
swt ? Shockwave Template
sys b Treiber unter MS-DOS
tar b tar(1)-Archiv
tdf ? Trace/Typeface Definition
tdi b TDI Image
tex a TeX- oder LaTeX-Quelltext
tfm b TeX-Font-Metrics
tga b Truevision TARGA Image
tgz b .tar.gz, tar-Archiv, GNUzip komprimiert
tif b Tag Image File Format (Scanner)
tiff b Tag Image File Format (Scanner)
tmp ? tempor�res File
toc a Hilfsfile von TeX (table of contents)
tpu b Turbo Pascal Unit

Seite 57
ttf b TrueType Font
txt a Textfile, lesbar
tz b tar.Z, tar-Archiv, compress(1)-komprimiert
uil b Motif UIL Icon
uu a uuencoded File, ASCII, aber nicht lesbar
uud a uuencoded File, ASCII, aber nicht lesbar
uue a uuencoded File, ASCII, aber nicht lesbar
vbe b kodiertes Visual-Basic-Skript
vbs a Visual-Basic-skript
vcf b Visiting Card File
vdi b Digital Research GEM VDI
vi b Jovian Logic Video Capture
viff b Khoros Visualization Image
voc b Creative Labs Sound
vort b VORT Raytracer Image
wav b Microsoft Windows Sound (RIFF)
web a WEB-Quelle
wfx b Fax-File (Winfax)
wma b Windows Media Audio
wmf b Windows Metafile Format
wpg a WordPerfect Graphics Metafile
wps a Microsoft Works Textfile
wri a Windows Textfile
wsh ? MS Windows Scripting Host Skript
x b SuperDisk Self-extracting Archive
xbm b X11 Bitmap
xim b X11 Xim Toolkit
xls ? MS-Excel-Datei
xos b Xaos Tools Image
xpm b X11 Pixmap
xv b Khoros Visualization Image
xwd b X11 Dump Image
y a yacc(1)-Quelle
ybm b Face File
yuv b Abekas YUV
Z b mit compress(1) (UNIX) komprimiert
z b mit GNU gzip komprimiert (veraltet, besser gz)
zinc b Zinc Interface Library Icon
zip b mit pkzip komprimiert
zoo b mit zoo komprimiert
Weitere Sammlungen von File-Kennungen finden sich im Netz unter:
http://www.extsearch.com/
http://www.stack.com/
http://filext.com/
http://www.namext.net/
http://home.t-online.de/home/her-herrmann/Prgkenn.html

Seite 58
Postscript- oder PDF-Files bestehen zwar aus ASCII-Zeichen und lassen
sich auch editieren, sofern man die Sprache kennt, d�rfen aber nur im bi-
n�ren Modus von FTP �bertragen werden, um keine Zeichen zu ver�ndern.

Seite 59
J UNIX-Systemaufrufe
Systemaufrufe werden vom Anwendungsprogramm wie eigene oder fremde
Funktionen angesehen. Ihrem Ursprung nach sind es auch C-Funktionen.
Sie sind jedoch nicht Bestandteil einer Funktionsbibliothek, sondern geh�ren
zum Betriebssystem und sind nicht durch andere Funktionen erweiterbar.
Die Systemaufrufe -- als Bestandteil des Betriebssystems -- sind f�r alle
Programmiersprachen dieselben, w�hrend die Funktionsbibliotheken zur je-
weiligen Programmiersprache geh�ren. Folgende Systemaufrufe sind unter
UNIX verf�gbar:
access pr�ft Zugriff auf File
acct startet und stoppt Prozess Accounting
alarm setzt Weckeruhr f�r Prozess
atexit Funktion f�r Programmende
brk �ndert Speicherzuweisung
chdir wechselt Arbeitsverzeichnis
chmod �ndert Zugriffsrechte eines Files
chown �ndert Besitzer eines Files
chroot �ndert Root-Verzeichnis
close schlie�t einen File-Deskriptor
creat �ffnet File, ordnet Deskriptor zu
dup dupliziert File-Deskriptor
errno Fehlervariable der Systemaufrufe
exec f�hrt ein Programm aus
exit beendet einen Prozess
fcntl Filesteuerung
fork erzeugt einen neuen Prozess
fsctl liest Information aus File-System
fsync schreibt File aus Arbeitsspeicher auf Platte
getaccess ermittelt Zugriffsrechte
getacl ermittelt Zugriffsrechte
getcontext ermittelt Kontext eines Prozesses
getdirentries ermittelt Verzeichnis-Eintr�ge
getgroups ermittelt Gruppenrechte eines Prozesses
gethostname ermittelt Namen des Systems
getitimer setzt oder liest Intervall-Uhr
getpid liest Prozess-ID
gettimeofday ermittelt Zeit
getuid liest User-ID des aufrufenden Prozesses
ioctl I/O-Steuerung
kill schickt Signal an einen Prozess
link linkt ein File
lockf setzt Semaphore und Record-Sperren
lseek bewegt Schreiblesezeiger in einem File

Seite 60
mkdir erzeugt Verzeichnis
mknod erzeugt File
mount h�ngt File-System in File-Hierarchie ein
msgctl Interprozess-Kommunikation
nice �ndert die Priorit�t eines Prozesses
open �ffnet File zum Lesen oder Schreiben
pause suspendiert Prozess bis zum Empfang eines Signals
pipe erzeugt eine Pipe
prealloc reserviert Arbeitsspeicher
profil ermittelt Zeiten bei der Ausf�hrung eines Programmes
read liest aus einem File
readlink liest symbolisches Link
rename �ndert Filenamen
rmdir l�scht Verzeichnis
rtprio �ndert Echtzeit-Priorit�t
semctl Semaphore
setgrp setzt Gruppen-Zugriffsrechte eines Prozesses
setuid setzt User-ID eines Prozesses
signal legt fest, was auf ein Signal hin zu tun ist
stat liest die Inode eines Files
statfs liest Werte des File-Systems
symlink erzeugt symbolischen Link
sync schreibt Puffer auf Platte
szsconf ermittelt Systemwerte
time ermittelt die Systemzeit
times ermittelt Zeitverbrauch eines Prozesses
truncate schneidet File ab
umask setzt oder ermittelt Filezugriffsmaske
umount entfernt Filesystem aus File-Hierarchie
unlink l�scht File
ustat liest Werte des File-Systems
utime setzt Zeitstempel eines Files
wait wartet auf Ende eines Kindprozesses
write schreibt in ein File
Die Aufz�hlung kann durch weitere Systemaufrufe des jeweiligen Lieferan-
ten des Betriebssystems (z. B. Hewlett-Packard) erg�nzt werden. Diese er-
leichtern das Programmieren, verschlechtern aber die Portabilit�t. Zu den
meisten Systemaufrufen mit get... gibt es ein Gegenst�ck set..., das in
einigen F�llen dem Superuser vorbehalten ist.

Seite 61
K UNIX-Signale
Die Default-Reaktion eines Prozesses auf die meisten Signale ist seine Been-
digung; sie k�nnen aber abgefangen und umdefiniert werden. Die Signale 09,
24 und 26 k�nnen nicht abgefangen werden. Die Bezeichnungen sind nicht
ganz einheitlich. Weiteres unter signal(2), signal(5) oder signal(7).
Name Nr. Bedeutung
SIGHUP 01 hangup
SIGINT 02 interrupt (meist Break-Taste)
SIGQUIT 03 quit
SIGILL 04 illegal instruction
SIGTRAP 05 trace trap
SIGABRT 06 software generated abort
SIGIOT 06 software generated signal
SIGEMT 07 software generated signal
SIGFPE 08 floating point exception
SIGKILL 09 kill (sofortiger Selbstmord)
SIGBUS 10 bus error
SIGSEGV 11 segmentation violation
SIGSYS 12 bad argument to system call
SIGPIPE 13 write on a pipe with no one to read it
SIGALRM 14 alarm clock
SIGTERM 15 software termination (bitte Schluss machen)
SIGUSR1 16 user defined signal 1
SIGSTKFLT 16 stack fault on coprocessor
SIGUSR2 17 user defined signal 2
SIGCHLD 18 death of a child
SIGCLD 18 = SIGCHLD
SIGPWR 19 power fail
SIGINFO 19 = SIGPWR
SIGVTALRM 20 virtual timer alarm
SIGPROF 21 profiling timer alarm
SIGIO 22 asynchronous I/O signal
SIGPOLL 22 = SIGIO
SIGWINDOW 23 window change or mouse signal
SIGSTOP 24 stop
SIGTSTP 25 stop signal generated from keyboard
SIGCONT 26 continue after stop
SIGTTIN 27 background read attempt from control terminal
SIGTTOU 28 background write attempt from control terminal
SIGURG 29 urgent data arrived on an I/O channel
SIGLOST 30 NFS file lock lost
SIGXCPU 30 CPU time limit exceeded

Seite 62
SIGXFSZ 31 file size limit exceeded
Die Nr. 0 wird nicht f�r ein Signal verwendet. Wird sie dem Shell-Kommando
trap �bergeben, so ist damit das Ende der Shell (exit) gemeint.

Seite 63
L Videomodi des Linux-Kerns
Die dem VGA-Treiber im Linux-Kern bekannten Vidomodi werden durch
Nummern bezeichnet, die sich aus den Nummern der VESA-Videomodi durch
Addition von 0x200 (hexadezimal) ergeben. Mit der Angabe vga=791 in
der GRUB-Konfigurationsdatei wird beispielsweise erreicht, dass der Kern
den VGA-Treiber mit einer Aufl�sung von 1024 x 768 bei 16 Bit Farbtiefe
(65536 Farben) startet.
Tabelle L.1: Einige Videomodi des Linux-Kerns
Modus, hex. Modus, dez. Aufl�sung (Pixel) Farbtiefe (Bits)
0x0300 768 640 x 400 8
0x0301 769 640 x 480 8
0x0303 771 800 x 600 8
0x0305 773 1024 x 768 8
0x0307 775 1280 x 1024 8
0x030E 782 320 x 200 16
0x030F 783 320 x 200 24
0x0310 784 640 x 480 15
0x0311 785 640 x 480 16
0x0312 786 640 x 480 24
0x0313 787 800 x 600 15
0x0314 788 800 x 600 16
0x0315 789 800 x 600 24
0x0316 790 1024 x 768 15
0x0317 791 1024 x 768 16
0x0318 792 1024 x 768 24
0x0319 793 1280 x 1024 15
0x031A 794 1280 x 1024 16
0x031B 795 1280 x 1024 24
0x031C 796 1600 x 1200 8
0x031D 797 1600 x 1200 15
0x031E 798 1600 x 1200 16
0x031F 799 1600 x 1200 24
0x0330 816 320 x 200 8
0x0331 817 320 x 400 8
0x0332 818 320 x 400 16
0x0333 819 320 x 400 24
0x0334 820 320 x 240 8
0x0335 821 320 x 240 16
0x0336 822 320 x 240 24
0x033D 829 640 x 400 16
Fortsetzung

Seite 64
Tabelle L.1: (Fortsetzung)
Modus, hex. Modus, dez. Aufl�sung (Pixel) Farbtiefe (Bits)
0x033E 830 640 x 400 24
0x0345 837 1600 x 1200 8
0x0346 838 1600 x 1200 16
0x0347 839 1400 x 1050 8
0x0348 840 1400 x 1050 16
0x0352 850 2048 x 1536 24

Seite 65
M C-Lexikon
M.1 Schl�sselw�rter
In C/C++ d�rfen Schl�sselw�rter keinesfalls als Namen verwendet werden.
Laut ANSI verwendet C folgende Schl�sselw�rter (Wortsymbole, keywords):
? Deklaratoren
-- auto, Default-Speicherklasse (kann weggelassen werden)
-- char, Zeichentyp
-- const, Typattribut (neu in ANSI-C)
-- double, Typ Gleitkommazahl doppelter Genauigkeit
-- enum, Aufz�hlungstyp
-- extern, Speicherklasse
-- float, Typ Gleitkommazahl einfacher Genauigkeit
-- int, Typ Ganzzahl einfacher L�nge
-- long, Typ Ganzzahl doppelter L�nge
-- register, Speicherklasse Registervariable
-- short, Typ Ganzzahl halber L�nge
-- signed, Typzusatz zu Ganzzahl oder Zeichen
-- static, Speicherklasse
-- struct, Strukturtyp
-- typedef, Definition eines benutzereigenen Typs
-- union, Typ Union
-- unsigned, Typzusatz zu Ganzzahl oder Zeichen
-- void, leerer Typ
-- volatile, Typattribut (neu in ANSI-C)
? Schleifen und Bedingungen (Kontrollanweisungen)
-- break, Verlassen einer Schleife
-- case, Fall einer Auswahl (switch)
-- continue, R�cksprung vor eine Schleife
-- default, Default-Fall einer Auswahl (switch)
-- do, Beginn einer do-Schleife
-- else, Alternative einer Verzweigung
-- for, Beginn einer for-Schleife

Seite 66
-- goto, unbedingter Sprung
-- if, Bedingung oder Beginn einer Verzweigung
-- switch, Beginn einer Auswahl
-- while, Beginn einer while-Schleife
? Sonstige
-- return, R�cksprung in die aufrufende Einheit
-- sizeof, Bytebedarf eines Typs oder einer Variablen
In C++ kommen laut Bjarne Stroustrup hinzu:
? catch, Ausnahmebehandlung
? class, Klassendeklaration
? delete, L�schen eines Objektes
? friend, Deklaration einer Funktion
? inline, inline-Funktion
? new, Erzeugen eines Objektes
? operator, �berladen von Operatoren
? private, Deklaration von Klassenmitgliedern
? protected, Deklaration von Klassenmitgliedern
? public, Deklaration von Klassenmitgliedern
? template, Deklaration eines Templates (Klasse)
? this, Pointer auf Objekt
? throw, Ausnahmebehandlung
? try, Ausnahmebehandlung
? virtual, Deklaration
Dar�ber hinaus verwenden einige Compiler weitere Schl�sselw�rter:
? asm, Assembler-Aufruf innerhalb einer C- oder C++-Quelle
? bool, logischer oder boolescher Typ
? cdecl, Aufruf einer Funktion nach C-Konventionen
? const_cast, cast-Operator f�r const-Werte
? dynamic_cast, cast-Operator
? entry, (war in K&R-C f�r k�nftigen Gebrauch vorgesehen)
? explicit, Konstruktor-Vereinbarung
? export, Vereinbarung bei Klassen-Templates
? false, boolesche Konstante
? far, Typzusatz unter MS-DOS

Seite 67
? fortran, Aufruf einer Funktion nach FORTRAN-Konventionen
? huge, Typzusatz unter MS-DOS
? mutable, Typattribut
? namespace, Vereinbarung des Geltungsbereiches von Namen
? near, Typzusatz unter MS-DOS
? pascal, Aufruf einer Funktion nach PASCAL-Konventionen
? reinterpret_cast, cast-Operator
? static_cast, cast-Operator
? true, boolesche Konstante
? typeid, Operator zum Ermitteln des Typs
? typename, Alternative zum Schl�sselwort class
? using, Deklaration in Verbindung mit namespace
? wchar_t, Typ (wide character literal)
M.2 Operatoren
Die Operatoren von C/C++ sind im folgenden ihrem Vorrang nach geordnet,
h�chster Rang (Bindungskraft) zuoberst. Alle Operatoren eines Abschnitts
haben gleichen Rang. l bzw. r bedeutet von links bzw. rechts her assoziativ. Ein
un�rer Operator verlangt einen Operanden, ein bin�rer zwei und ein tern�rer
drei.
Operator A - Bedeutung
:: r un�r Bezugsrahmen, global
:: l bin�r Bezugsrahmen, Klasse
:: l bin�r Bezugsrahmen, Namensraum
( ) l un�r Klammerung, Funktion
[ ] l un�r Index
-> l bin�r Auswahl
. l bin�r Auswahl
++ r un�r Postfix Inkrement
-- r un�r Postfix Dekrement
typeid un�r Typabfrage
const_cast bin�r Typumwandlung
dynamic_cast bin�r Typumwandlung
reinterpret_cast bin�r Typumwandlung
static_cast bin�r Typumwandlung
sizeof r un�r Gr��enabfrage
++ r un�r Pr�fix Inkrement
-- r un�r Pr�fix Dekrement
~ r un�r bitweise Negation

Seite 68
! r un�r logische Negation
- r un�r negatives Vorzeichen
+ r un�r positives Vorzeichen
* r un�r Dereferenzierung
& r un�r Referenzierung
( ) r bin�r cast-Operator
new r un�r dynamische Speicherbelegung
delete r un�r dynamische Speicherfreigabe
->* l bin�r Auswahl
.* l bin�r Auswahl
* l bin�r Multiplikation
/ l bin�r Division
% l bin�r Modulus (Divisionsrest)
+ l bin�r Addition
- l bin�r Subtraktion
<< l bin�r bitweises Shiften links
>> l bin�r bitweises Shiften rechts
< l bin�r kleiner als
<= l bin�r kleiner gleich
> l bin�r gr��er als
>= l bin�r gr��er gleich
== l bin�r Gleichheit
!= l bin�r Ungleichheit
& l bin�r bitweises Und
^ l bin�r bitweises exklusives Oder
| l bin�r bitweises Oder
&& l bin�r logisches Und
|| l bin�r logisches Oder
?: l tern�r bedingte Bewertung
= r bin�r Zuweisung
+=, -=, *=, /= r bin�r zusammengesetzte
%=, >>=, <<=, Zuweisung
&=, |=, ^=
throw un�r Ausnahmebehandlung
, l Komma-Operator
M.3 Standardfunktionen
Folgende Standardfunktionen oder -makros sind gebr�uchlich:
? Pufferbehandlung
-- memchr, sucht Zeichen im Puffer
-- memcmp, vergleicht Zeichen mit Pufferinhalt
-- memcpy, kopiert Zeichen in Puffern
-- memset, setzt Puffer auf bestimmtes Zeichen

Seite 69
? Zeichenbehandlung
-- isalnum, pr�ft Zeichen, ob alphanumerisch
-- isalpha, pr�ft Zeichen, ob Buchstabe
-- iscntrl, pr�ft Zeichen, ob Kontrollzeichen
-- isdigit, pr�ft Zeichen, ob Ziffer
-- isgraph, pr�ft Zeichen, ob sichtbar
-- islower, pr�ft Zeichen, ob Kleinbuchstabe
-- isprint, pr�ft Zeichen, ob druckbar
-- ispunct, pr�ft Zeichen, ob Satzzeichen
-- isspace, pr�ft Zeichen, ob Whitespace
-- isupper, pr�ft Zeichen. ob Gro�buchstabe
-- isxdigit, pr�ft Zeichen, ob hexadezimale Ziffer
-- tolower, wandelt Gro�buchstaben in Kleinbuchstaben um
-- toupper, wandelt Kleinbuchstaben in Gro�buchstaben um
? Datenumwandlung
-- atof, wandelt String in double-Wert um
-- atoi, wandelt String in int-Wert um
-- atol, wandelt String in long-Wert um
-- strtod, wandelt String in double-Wert um
-- strtol, wandelt String in long-Wert um
-- strtoul, wandelt String in unsigned long-Wert um
? Filebehandlung
-- remove, l�scht File
-- rename, �ndert Namen eines Files
? Ein- und Ausgabe
-- clearerr, l�scht Fehlermeldung eines Filepointers
-- fclose, schlie�t Filepointer
-- fflush, leert Puffer eines Filepointers
-- fgetc, liest Zeichen von Filepointer
-- fgetpos, ermittelt Stand des Lesezeigers
-- fgets, liest String von Filepointer
-- fopen, �ffnet Filepointer
-- fprintf, schreibt formatiert nach Filepointer
-- fputc, schreibt Zeichen nach Filepointer

Seite 70
-- fputs, schreibt String nach Filepointer
-- fread, liest Bytes von Filepointer
-- freopen, ersetzt ge�ffneten Filepointer
-- fscanf, liest formatiert von Filepointer
-- fseek, setzt Lesezeiger auf bestimmte Stelle
-- fsetpos, setzt Lesezeiger auf bestimmte Stelle
-- ftell, ermittelt Stellung des Lesezeigers
-- fwrite, schreibt Bytes nach Filepointer
-- getc, liest Zeichen von Filepointer
-- getchar, liest Zeichen von stdin
-- gets, liest String von Filepointer
-- printf, schreibt formatiert nach stdout
-- putc, schreibt Zeichen nach Filepointer
-- putchar, schreibt Zeichen nach stdout
-- puts, schreibt String nach Filepointer
-- rewind, setzt Lesezeiger auf Fileanfang
-- scanf, liest formatiert von stdin
-- setbuf, ordnet einem Filepointer einen Puffer zu
-- setvbuf, ordnet einem Filepointer einen Puffer zu
-- sprintf, schreibt formatiert in einen String
-- sscanf, liest formatiert aus einem String
-- tempnam, erzeugt einen tempor�ren Filenamen
-- tmpfile, erzeugt ein tempor�res File
-- ungetc, schreibt letztes gelesenes Zeichen zur�ck
-- vfprintf, schreibt formatiert aus einer Argumentenliste
-- vprintf, schreibt formatiert aus einer Argumentenliste
-- vsprintf, schreibt formatiert aus einer Argumentenlsite
? Mathematik
-- acos, arcus cosinus
-- asin, arcus sinus
-- atan, arcus tangens
-- atan2, arcus tangens, erweiterter Bereich
-- ceil, kleinste Ganzzahl
-- cos, cosinus
-- cosh, cosinus hyperbolicus

Seite 71
-- exp, Exponentialfunktion
-- fabs, Absolutwert, Betrag
-- floor, gr��te Ganzzahl
-- fmod, Divisionsrest
-- frexp, teilt Gleitkommazahl auf
-- ldexp, teilt Gleitkommazahl auf
-- log, Logarithmus naturalis
-- log10, dekadischer Logarithmus
-- modf, teilt Gleitkommazahl auf
-- pow, allgemeine Potenz
-- sin, sinus
-- sinh, sinus hyperbolicus
-- sqrt, positive Quadratwurzel
-- tan, tangens
-- tanh, tangens hyperbolicus
? Speicherzuweisung
-- calloc, allokiert Speicher f�r Array
-- free, gibt allokierten Speicher frei
-- malloc, allokiert Speicher
-- realloc, �ndert Gr��e des allokierten Speichers
? Prozesssteuerung
-- abort, erzeugt SIGABRT-Signal
-- atexit, Funktionsaufruf bei Programmende
-- exit, Programmende
-- raise, sendet Signal
-- signal, legt Antwort auf Siganl fest
-- system, �bergibt Argument an Kommandointerpreter
? Suchen und Sortieren
-- bsearch, bin�re Suche
-- qsort, Quicksort
? Stringbehandlung
-- strcat, verkettet Strings
-- strchr, sucht Zeichen in String
-- strcmp, vergleicht Strings

Seite 72
-- strcpy, kopiert String
-- strcspn, sucht Teilstring
-- strerror, verweist auf Fehlermeldung
-- strlen, ermittelt Stringl�nge
-- strncat, verkettet n Zeichen von Strings
-- strncmp, vergleicht n Zeichen von Strings
-- strncpy, kopiert n Zeichen eines Strings
-- strpbrk, sucht Zeichen in String
-- strrchr, sucht Zeichen in String
-- strspn, ermittelt L�nge eines Teilstrings
-- strstr, sucht Zeichen in String
Dies sind alle Funktionen des ANSI-Vorschlags. Die meisten Compiler bieten
dar�berhinaus eine Vielzahl weiterer Funktionen, die das Programmieren er-
leichtern, aber die Portabilit�t verschlechtern.
M.4 printf(3), scanf(3)
printf(3) und scanf(3) sind die beiden Standardfunktionen zum Ein- und
Ausgeben von Daten. Wichtiger Unterschied: printf(3) erwartet Variable,
scanf(3) Pointer. Die Formatbezeichner stimmen weitgehend �berein:
Bezeichner Typ Beispiel Bedeutung
%c char a Zeichen
%s char * Karlsruhe String
%d int -1234 dezimale Ganzzahl mit Vorzeichen
%i int -1234 dezimale Ganzzahl mit Vorzeichen
%u unsigned 1234 dezimale Ganzzahl ohne Vorzeichen
%ld long 1234 dezimal Ganzzahl doppelter L�nge
%f double 12.34 Gleitkommazahl mit Vorzeichen
%e double 1.234 E 1 Gleitkommazahl, Exponentialform
%g double 12.34 kurze Darstellung von %e oder %f
%o unsigned octal 2322 oktale Ganzzahl ohne Vorzeichen
%x unsigned hex 4d2 hexadezimale Ganzzahl o. Vorzeichen
%p void * 68ff32e4 Pointer
%% - % Prozentzeichen
Weiteres im Referenz-Handbuch unter printf(3) oder scanf(3). L�n-
ge, B�ndigkeit, Unterdr�ckung f�hrender Nullen, Vorzeichenangabe k�nnen
festgelegt werden.

Seite 73
M.5 Include-Dateien
Die Standard-Include-Dateien enthalten in lesbarer Form Definitionen von
Konstanten und Typen, Deklarationen von Funktionen und Makrodefinitio-
nen. Sie werden von Systemaufrufen und Bibliotheksfunktionen ben�tigt.
Bei der Beschreibung jeder Funktion im Referenz-Handbuch ist angegeben,
welche Include-Dateien jeweils eingebunden werden m�ssen. Gebr�uchliche
Include-Dateien sind:
? ctype.h, Definition von Zeichenklassen (conv(3))
? curses.h, Bildschirmsteuerung (curses(3))
? errno.h, Fehlermeldungen des Systems (errno(2))
? fcntl.h, Steuerung des Dateizugriffs (fcntl(2), open(2))
? malloc.h, Speicherallokierung (malloc(3))
? math.h, mathematische Funktionen (log(3), sqrt(3), floor(3))
? memory.h, Speicherfunktionen (memory(3))
? search.h, Suchfunktionen (bsearch(3))
? signal.h, Signalbehandlung (signal(2))
? stdio.h, Ein- und Ausgabe (printf(3), scanf(3), fopen(3))
? string.h, Stringbehandlung (string(3))
? time.h, Zeitfunktionen (ctime(3))
? varargs.h, Argumentenliste variabler L�nge (vprintf(3))
? sys/ioctl.h, Ein- und Ausgabe (ioctl(2))
? sys/stat.h, Zugriffsrechte (chmod(2), mkdir(2), stat(2))
? sys/types.h , verschiedene Deklarationen (chmod(2), getut(3))
Auch diese Liste ist vom Compiler und damit von der Hardware abh�ngig. So
findet man die include-Datei dos.h nicht auf UNIX-Anlagen, sondern nur bei
Compilern unter MS-DOS f�r PCs.
M.6 Pr�prozessor-Anweisungen
Der erste Schritt beim Compilieren ist die Bearbeitung des Quelltextes durch
den Pr�prozessor. Dieser entfernt den Kommentar und f�hrt Ersetzungen
und Einf�gungen gem�� der folgenden Anweisungen (directives) aus:
? #define buchst�bliche Ersetzung einer symbolischen Konstanten oder ei-
nes Makros. Ist kein Ersatz angegeben, wird nur der Name als definiert
angesehen (f�r #ifdef). H�ufig.
? #undefine l�scht die Definition eines Namens.
? #error f�hrt zu einer Fehlermeldung des Pr�prozessors.
? #include zieht die angegebene Datei herein. H�ufig.

Seite 74
? #if, #else, #elif, #endif falls Bedingung zutrifft, werden die nachfolgen-
den Pr�prozessor-Anweisungen ausgef�hrt.
? #ifdef, #ifndef falls der angegebene Name definiert bzw. nicht definiert
ist, werden die nachfolgenden Pr�prozessor-Anweisungen ausgef�hrt.
? #line f�hrt bei Fehlermeldungen zu einem Sprung auf die angegebenen
Zeilennummer.
? #pragma veranla�t den Pr�prozessor zu einer systemabh�ngigen Hand-
lung.

Seite 75
N Slang im Netz
Diese Sammlung von im Netz vorkommenden Slang-Abk�rzungen ist ein
Auszug aus der Abklex-Liste:
http://www.ciw.uni-karlsruhe.de/abklex.html
mit rund 9000 Abk�rzungen aus Informatik und Telekommunikation.
2L8 Too Late
AAMOF As A Matter Of Fact
AFAIAA As Far As I Am Aware
AFAIC As Far As I am Concerned
AFAIK As Far As I Know
AFAIKT As Far As I Know Today
AFAIR As Far As I Remember
AFJ April Fool's Joke
AFK Away From Keyboard
AIMB As I Mentioned Before
AISI As I See It
AIUI As I Understand It
AKA Also Known As
AMBW All My Best Wishes
ANFSCD And Now For Something Completely Different
APOL Alternate Person On Line
ASAP As Soon As Possible
ATFSM Ask The Friendly System Manager
ATM At The Moment
ATST At The Same Time
ATT At This Time
AWA A While Ago
AWB A While Back
AWGTHTGTTAAre We Going To Have To Go Through This Again?
AWHFY Are We Having Fun Yet?
AYOR At Your Own Risc
AYST Are You Still There?
B4 Before
B4N Bye For Now
BAK Back At Keyboard
BBL Be Back Later
BBR Burnt Beyond Recognition
BCNU Be Seeing You
BFBI Brute Force and Bloody Ignorance
BFI Brute Force and Ignorance
BFMI Brute Force and Massive Ignorance

Seite 76
BFN Bye For Now
BG Big Grin
BHOF Bald Headed Old Fart
BION Believe It Or Not
BITD Back In The Day
BM Byte Me
BNF Big Name Fan
BNFSCD But Now For Something Completely Different
BOF Birds Of a Feather
BOFS Birds Of a Feather Session
BOT Back On Topic
BRB Be Right Back
BSF But Seriously Folks
BTA But Then Again
BTAIM Be That As It May
BTC Biting The Carpet
BTDT Been There Done That
BTHOM Beats The Hell Outta Me
BTIC But Then, I'am Crazy
BTK Back To Keyboard
BTSOOM Beats The Shit Out Of Me
BTW By The Way
BYKT But You Knew That
CMH Cross My Heart
CMIIW Correct Me If I'm Wrong
CU See You
CU2 See You, Too
CUL See You Later
CYA Cover Your Ass
CYL See You Later
D+C Duck + Cover
DAU D�mmster Anzunehmender User
DHRVVF Ducking, Hiding and Running Very Very Fast
DILLIGAS Do I Look Like I Give A Shit
DIY Do It Yourself
DLTM Don't Lie To Me
DSH Desparately Seeking Help
DUCWIC Do You See Waht I See
DWIM Do What I Mean
DWISNWID Do What I Say Not What I Do
DYHWIH Do You Hear What I Hear
E2EG Ear To Ear Grin
EG Evil Grin
EMFBI Excuse Me For Butting In
EOD End Of Discussion
ESOSL Endless Snorts Of Stupid Laughter
ETOL Evil Twin On Line

Seite 77
F2F Face to Face
FA For Auction
FAFWOA For A Friend Without Access
FB Fine Business
FCFS First Come First Served
FHS For Heaven's Sake
FIAWOL Fandom Is A Way Of Life
FISH First In, Still Here
FITB Fill In The Blank
FITNR Fixed In The Next Release
FOAF Friend Of A Friend
FTASB Faster Than A Speeding Bullet
FTL Faster Than Light
FUBAR Fouled Up Beyond All Repair/Recognition
FUBB Fouled Up Beyond Belief
FUD (spreading) Fear, Uncertainty, and Disinformation
FWIW For What It's Worth
FYA For Your Amusement
GA Go Ahead
GAFIA Get Away From It All
GAL Get A Life
GDR Grinning, Ducking and Running
GDRVVF Grinning, Ducking and Running Very, Very Fast
GFC Going for Coffee
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage/Gospel Out
GIWIST Gee I Wish I'd Said That
GOK God Only Knows
GR+D Grinning, Running + Ducking
HAK Hugs And Kisses
HAND Have A Nice Day
HGZH Hoffe Geholfen Zu Haben
HHOK Ha Ha Only Kidding
HHOS Ha Ha Only Serious
HSIK How Should I Know
HTH Hope This/That Helps
IAC In Any Case
IAE In Any Event
IANAL I Am Not A Lawyer
IBC Inadequate But Cute
IBTD I Beg To Differ
IC I See
IC In Characters
ICOCBW I Could, Of Course, Be Wrong
ICQ I Seek You
IDC I Don't Care
IDST I Didn't Say That
IDTS I Don't Think So

Seite 78
IIRC If I Remember Correctly
IITYWYBMAD If I Tell You Will You Buy Me Another Drink?
IIWM If It Were Me/Mine
ILLAB Ich Liege Lachend Am Boden, vgl. ROTFL
IMAO In My Arrogant Opinion
IMCO In My Considered Opinion
IME In My Experience
IMHO In My Humble Opinion
IMI I Mean It
IMNSCO In My Not So Considered Opinion
IMNSHO In My Not So Humble Opinion
IMO In My Opinion
IMOBO In My Own Biased Opinion
INPO In No Particular Order
IOW In Other Words
IRAS I Really Am Sorry
IRL In Real Life
ISBT It's Strange But True
ISTM It Seems To Me
ISTR I Seem To Remember
IUTY It's Up To You
IWBNI It Would Be Nice If
IYSWIM If You See What I Mean
ISWYM I See What You Mean
JAM Just A Minute
JAUA Just Another Useless Answer
JIC Just In Case
JJ Just Joking
JSNM Just Stark Naked Magic
KIBO Knowledge In, Bullshit Out
KWIM Know What I Mean?
LLP Live Long and Prosper
LLTA Lots and Lots of Thundering Applause
LMAO Laughing My Ass Off
LOL Laughing Out Loud
LOL Lots Of Luck
LTNS Long Time No See
MDA Merci d'avance
MHOTY My Hat's Off To You
MNRE Manual Not Read Error
MOTAS Member Of The Appropriate Sex
MTFBWY May The Force Be With You
MUSEN Meinem Unmassgeblichen Sprachempfinden Nach
MYOB Mind Your Own Business
NBD No Big Deal
NCNCNC No Coffee, No Chocolate, No Computer
NFI No Frigging Idea

Seite 79
NFW No Fucking Way
NIMBY Not In My Backyard
NLA Not Long Ago
NLMB Nolifemuddinbastard
NN Nightmare Networker
NRN No Reply Necessary
NSO Nonvirtual Significant Other
NTTAWWT Not That There's Anything Wrong With That
OAO Over And Out
OATUS On A Totally Unrelated Subject
OAUS On An Unrelated Subject
OBTW Oh, By The Way
OBO Or Best Offer
OFAB Old Fart At Play
OIC Oh, I See
ONNA Oh No, Not Again
ONNTA Oh No, Not This Again
OOC Out Of Characters
OOP Out Of Print
OOTB Out Of The Box
OOTC Obligatory On-Topic Comment
OT Off Topic
OTL Out To Lunch
OTOH On The Other Hand
OTTH On The Third Hand
PDQ Pretty Darned Quick
PEBKAC Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair
PFM Pure Fantastic Magic
PITA Pine In The Ass
PMETC Pardon Me, etc.
PMFJIB Pardon Me For Jumping In But
POV Point Of View
PTO Please Turn Over
RAEBNC Read And Enjoyed, But No Comment
RL Real Life
ROFBTC Rolling On the Floor Biting The Carpet
ROFL Rolling On the Floor Laughing
ROFLASTC Rolling On the Floor Laughing And Scaring The Cat
ROFLMAO Rolling On The Floor Laughing My Ass Off
ROTFL Rolling On The Floor Laughing
RSN Real Soon Now
RTFAQ Read The FAQ
RTFB Read The Funny Binary
RTFF Read The Fantastic FAQ
RTFM Read The Fine/Fantastic/Funny ... Manual
RTFS Read The Funny Source
RTM Read The Manual

Seite 80
RTWFQ Read The Whole Fantastic Question
RUOK Are You Ok
RYS Read Your Screen
SCNR Sorry, Could Not Resist
SEP Somebody Else's Problem
SFMJI Sorry For My Jumping In
SIASL Stranger In A Strange Land
SIMCA Sitting In My Chair Amused
SITD Still In The Dark
SNAFU Situation Normal All Fed/Fucked Up
TABYAS Thinking All But You Are Stupid
TAFN That's All For Now
TANJ There Ain't No Justice
TANSTAAFL There Ain't No Such Things As A Free Lunch
TARFU Things Are Really Fouled Up
TBH To Be Honest
TFTT Thanks For The Thought
TGAL Think Globally, Act Locally
TGIF Thank God It's Friday
THWLAIAS The Hour Was Late, And I Am Senile
TIA Thanks In Advance
TIC Tongue In Cheek
TINAR This Is Not A Recommendation/Review
TINWIS That Is Not What I Said
TMTOWTDI There's More Than One Way To Do It
TNX Thanks
TOJ Tears Of Joy
TPTB The Powers That Be
TRDMC Tears Running Down My Cheeks
TSOHF Total Sense Of Humour Failure
TTBOMK To The Best Of My Knowledge
TTFN Ta Ta For Now
TTT That's The Truth
TTYL Type/Talk To You Later
TWIU That's What I Understand/Understood
TYCLO Turn Your Caps Lock Off
TYVM Thank You Very Much
UDP Usenet Death Penalty
UL Urban Legend
UTSL Use The Source, Luke
VBG Very Big Grin
VL Virtual Life
WAB What Another Bill
WAMKSAM Why Are My Kids Staring At Me?
WDYMBT What Do You Mean By That
WDYS What Did You Say
WHAK With Hugs And Kisses

Seite 81
WIBNI Would It Be Nice If
WIMRE Wenn Ich Mich Recht Erinnere
WMRS Write Me Real Soon
WOMBAT Waste Of Money, Brains, And Time
WRT With Regard/Respect To
WT Without Thinking
WTB Wanted To Buy
WTH What The Heck/Hell
WTT Wanted To Trade
WTTM Without Thinking Too Much
WTTF Want To Test First
WWG Wieder Was Gelernt
WYS Whatever You Say
YKWIS You Know What I'm Saying
YMMV Your Mileage May Vary
YTTT You Telling The Truth

Seite 82
O Spezielle Sprachen
O.1 Hayes-Modem-Kommandos
Die Firma Hayes stellt Modems her und hat f�r diese einen Satz von Kom-
mandos geschaffen, der sich weltweit durchgesetzt hat. Die meisten Modems
verstehen eine �bermenge des Standard-Befehlssatzes von Hayes. Da die-
se Kommandos (mit einer Ausnahme) mit at (= attention please) beginnen,
werden sie auch als at-Kommandos bezeichnet. Es d�rfen Gro�- oder Klein-
buchstaben verwendet werden, jedoch nicht gemischt.
ata Answer Command
atb0 Select CCITT Communication Standard
atb1 Select USA/Canada Communication Standard
atc Carrier Control Selection
atd Dial Command
ate Command State Character Echo Selection
atf On-line State Character Echo Selection
ath Hook Command Options
ati Internal Memory Tests
atl Speaker Volume Level Selection
atm Speaker On/Off Selection
atn Negotiation of Handshake Options
ato On-line Command
atp Select Pulse Dialing Method
atq Result Code Display Options
atsn=r Write to S-Register n
atsn? Read from S-Register n
att Select Tone Dialing Method
atv Result Code Format Options
atw Negotiation Progress Message Selection
atx Call Progress Options
aty Long Space Disconnect Options
atz Soft Reset
at&b V.32 Auto Retrain Options
at&c Data Carrier Detect Options
at&d Data Terminal Ready Options
at&f Recall Factory Profile
at&g Guard Tone Selection
at&j Jack Type Selection
at&k Local Flow Control Options
at&l Line Type Selection
at&o PAD Channel Selection
at&q Communications Mode Options
at&r RTS/CTS Options

Seite 83
at&s Data Set Ready Options
at&t Test Options
at&u Trellis Coding Options
at&v View Configuration Profiles
at&w Write Active Profile to Memory
at&x Synchronous Transmit Clock Source
at&y Select Stored Profile for Hard Reset
at&z Store Telephone Number
Mehrere Kommandos d�rfen zu einer Zeile vereinigt werden, wobei der at-
Vorspann nur einmal zu Beginn erforderlich ist. Mit RETURN wird das Kom-
mando beendet und die Ausf�hrung veranla�t. Um im transparenten Modus
(das hei�t w�hrend des �bertragens) in den Befehlsmodus zu schalten, ohne
die Verbindung abzubrechen, ist das Kommando +++ gefolgt von einer Pause
von mindestens 1 sec zu geben. Eine f�r Deutschland verwendbare Startse-
quenz lautet:
ATZ
AT S7=45 S0=0 V1 X3
ATDP 0721,38340
Die erste Zeile sorgt f�r ein Reset, dann wird das Register S7 auf 45 Sekunden
gesetzt. Falls das Modem innerhalb dieser Zeit nach dem W�hlvorgang kei-
ne Antwort bekommt, legt es wieder auf. Der Wert 0 im Register S0 bewirkt,
da� das Modem ankommende Anrufe nicht beantwortet, also nur f�r abge-
hende Verbindungen eingerichtet ist. Das Kommando V1 teilt dem Modem
mit, Statusmeldungen (result codes) in Wortform, nicht als Zahlen auszuge-
ben. X3 schlie�lich legt ein bestimmtes Antwortverhalten des Modems fest.
Die letzte Zeile veranla�t die Wahl der Nummer 0721-Pause-60451 im hier-
zulande gebr�uchlichen Pulsw�hlverfahren. Geht alles gut, pfeift ein Modem
des Rechenzentrums der Universit�t Karlsruhe zur�ck.

Seite 84
P ISO 3166 L�ndercodes
Bei den Namen von Computern im Internet ist es au�erhalb der USA �b-
lich, als letzten Teil den L�ndercode nach ISO 3166 anzugeben. Dies ist nicht
zwingend, es gibt Bezeichnungen, die eine Organisation angeben und daher
nicht von ISO 3166 erfa�t werden. Die vollst�ndige Tabelle findet sich unter
ftp://ftp.ripe.net/iso3166-countrycodes.
Land A 2 A 3 Nummer
ALBANIA AL ALB 008
ALGERIA DZ DZA 012
ANDORRA AD AND 020
ARGENTINA AR ARG 032
AUSTRALIA AU AUS 036
AUSTRIA AT AUT 040
BAVARIA, FREE STATE OF FB FBA 999
BAHAMAS BS BHS 044
BELARUS BY BLR 112
BELGIUM BE BEL 056
BOLIVIA BO BOL 068
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOWINA BA BIH 070
BRAZIL BR BRA 076
BULGARIA BG BGR 100
CANADA CA CAN 124
CHILE CL CHL 152
CHINA CN CHN 156
CHRISTMAS ISLAND CX CXR 162
COCOS ISLANDS CC CCK 166
COLOMBIA CO COL 170
CROATIA HR HRV 191
CYPRUS CY CYP 196
CZECH REPUBLIC CZ CZE 203
DENMARK DK DNK 208
ECUADOR EC ECU 218
EGYPT EG EGY 818
ESTONIA EE EST 233
FAROE ISLANDS FO FRO 234
FINLAND FI FIN 246
FRANCE FR FRA 250
GEORGIA GE GEO 268
GERMANY DE DEU 276
GIBRALTAR GI GIB 292
GREECE GR GRC 300
GREENLAND GL GRL 304

Seite 85
HONG KONG HK HKG 344
HUNGARY HU HUN 348
ICELAND IS ISL 352
INDIA IN IND 356
INDONESIA ID IDN 360
IRELAND IE IRL 372
ISRAEL IL ISR 376
ITALY IT ITA 380
JAPAN JP JPN 392
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF KR KOR 410
LATVIA LV LVA 428
LEBANON LB LBN 422
LIECHTENSTEIN LI LIE 438
LITHUANIA LT LTU 440
LUXEMBOURG LU LUX 442
MACEDONIA, REPUBLIC OF MK MKD 807
MALAYSIA MY MYS 458
MALTA MT MLT 470
MEXICO MX MEX 484
MONACO MC MCO 492
MOROCCO MA MAR 504
NETHERLANDS NL NLD 528
NEW ZEALAND NZ NZL 554
NIUE NU NIU 570
NORWAY NO NOR 578
PAKISTAN PK PAK 586
PERU PE PER 604
POLAND PL POL 616
PORTUGAL PT PRT 620
QATAR QA QAT 634
ROMANIA RO ROM 642
RUSSIAN FEDERATION RU RUS 643
SAN MARINO SM SMR 674
SAUDI ARABIA SA SAU 682
SINGAPORE SG SGP 702
SLOVAKIA SK SVK 703
SLOVENIA SI SVN 705
SOUTH AFRICA ZA ZAF 710
SPAIN ES ESP 724
SRI LANKA LK LKA 144
SWEDEN SE SWE 752
SWITZERLAND CH CHE 756
TAIWAN TW TWN 158
TONGA TO TON 776
TRINIDAD + TOBAGO TT TTO 780
TUNISIA TN TUN 788
TURKEY TR TUR 792

Seite 86
UKRAINE UA UKR 804
UNITED KINGDOM GB GBR 826
UNITED STATES US USA 840
URUGUAY UY URY 858
VATICAN VA VAT 336
VENEZUELA VE VEN 862
YUGOSLAVIA YU YUG 891

Seite 87
Q Requests For Comment (RFCs)
Das Internet wird nicht durch Normen, sondern durch RFCs (Request For
Comments) beschrieben, gegenw�rtig etwa 4000 an der Zahl (Okt. 2004).
Wird ein RFC durch einen neueren abgel�st, bekommt dieser auch eine neue,
h�here Nummer. Es gibt also keine Versionen oder Ausgaben wie bei den DIN-
Normen. Die BCPs und FYIs behalten ihre Nummer, auch wenn dahinter
ein neuer RFC steht. Sucht man eine Information, besorgt man sich einen
aktuellen Index der RFCs und startet in den Titeln, bei der h�chsten Num-
mer beginnend, eine Stichwortsuche. Einige RFCs sind zugleich FYIs (For
Your Information) mit eigener Z�hlung. Diese enthalten einf�hrende Infor-
mationen. Andere RFCs haben den Rang von offiziellen Internet-Protokoll-
Standards mit zus�tzlicher, eigener Numerierung, siehe RFC 2900 Internet
Official Protocol Standards vom August 2001, wobei ein Standard mehrere
RFCs umfassen kann. Schlie�lich sind einige RFCs zugleich BCPs (Best Cur-
rent Practice), siehe RFC 1818, oder RTRs (RARE Technical Report). Eine
vollst�ndige Sammlung findet sich auf ftp.nic.de/pub/rfc/. Die Dateien
mit den �bersichten sind:
? Request For Comments: rfc-index.txt, 600 kbyte,
? For Your Information: fyi-index.txt, 10 kbyte,
? Internet Standard: std-index.txt, 10 kbyte,
? Best Current Practice: bcp-index.txt, 20 kbyte.
�hnlich auch bei www.rfc-editor.org/. Zusammenfassungen (Abstracts)
der Entw�rfe (Internet Drafts) zu kommenden RFCs finden sich bei
www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. Genie�en Sie RFCs, die an einem ersten
April erschienen sind, mit Vorsicht. Hier folgt eine Auswahl von RFCs, nach
der Nummer sortiert.
Q.1 Ausgew�hlte RFCs, ohne FYIs
0001 Host Software (1969)
0681 Network Unix (1975)
0783 The TFTP Protocol (1981)
0814 Name, Addresses, Ports, and Routes (1982)
0821 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (1982)
0894 A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Ethernet
Networks (1984)
0902 ARPA-Internet Protocol policy (1984)
0959 File Transfer Protocol (1985)
1000 The Request For Comments Reference Guide (1987)
1034 Domain names -- concepts and facilities (1987)
1036 Standard for Interchange of USENET Messages (1987)

Seite 88
1087 Ethics and the Internet (1989)
1094 NFS: Network File System Protocol Specification (1989)
1118 Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet (1989)
1122 Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Layers (1989)
1123 Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support (1989)
1173 Responsibilities of Host and Network Managers (1991)
1180 TCP/IP Tutorial (1991)
1208 Glossary of Networking Terms (1991)
1211 Problems with the Maintenance of Large Mailing Lists (1991)
1281 Guidelines for the secure operations of the Internet (1991)
1295 User bill of rights for entries and listing in the public directory (1992)
1296 Internet Growth (1981 -- 1991) (1992)
1310 Internet standards process (1992)
1327 Mapping between X.400(1988)/ISO 10021 and RFC 822 (1992)
1331 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) (1992)
1336 Who's who in the Internet (1992)
1340 Assigned Numbers (1992)
1345 Character Mnemonics and Character Sets (1992)
1361 Simple Network Time Protocol (1992)
1378 PPP AppleTalk Control Protocol (1992)
1432 Recent Internet books (1993)
1436 Internet Gopher Protocol (1993)
1441 SMTP Introduction to version 2 of the Internet-standard
Network Management Framework (1993)
1459 Internet Relay Chat Protocol (1993)
1460 Post Office Protocol - Version 3 (1993)
1466 Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space (1993)
1475 TP/IX: The Next Internet (1993)
1501 OS/2 User Group (1993)
1506 A Tutorial on Gatewaying between X.400 and Internet Mail (1993)
1510 The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (1993)
1511 Common Authentication Technology Overview (1993)
1591 Domain Name System Structure and Delegation (1994)
1601 Charter of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) (1994)
1602 The Internet Standards Process (1994)
1603 IETF Working Group Guidelines and Procedures (1994)
1607 A VIEW FROM THE 21ST CENTURY (1994)
1610 Internet Official Protocol Standards (1994)
1618 PPP over ISDN (1994)
1661 The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) (1994)
1684 Introduction to White Pages Services based on X.500 (1994)
1690 Introducing the Internet Engineering and Planning Group
(IEPG) (1994)
1700 ASSIGNED NUMBERS (1994)
1704 On Internet Authentication (1994)
1738 Uniform Resource Locators (URL) (1994)
1750 Randomness Recommendations for Security (1994)

Seite 89
1752 The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol (1995)
1775 To Be On the Internet (1995)
1789 INETPhone: Telephone Services and Servers on Internet (1995)
1808 Relative Uniform Resource Locators (1995)
1818 Best Current Practices (1995)
1825 Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol (1995)
1835 Architecture of the WHOIS++ service (1995)
1847 Security Multiparts for MIME: Multipart/Signed and
Multipart/Encrypted (1995)
1871 Addendum to RFC 1602 -- Variance Procedure (1995)
1881 IPv6 Address Allocation Management (1995)
1882 The 12-Days of Technology Before Christmas (1995)
1883 Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6), Specification (1995)
1898 CyberCash Credit Card Protocol Version 0.8. (1996)
1912 Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors (1996)
1913 Architecture of the Whois++ Index Service (1996)
1918 Address Allocation for Private Internets (1996)
1924 A Compact Representation of IPv6 Addresses (1996)
1925 The Twelve Networking Truths (1996)
1928 SOCKS Protocol Version 5. (1996)
1935 What is the Internet, Anyway? (1996)
1938 A One-Time Password System (1996)
1939 Post Office Protocol - Version 3. (1996)
1945 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0. (1996)
1952 GZIP file format specification version 4.3. (1996)
1955 New Scheme for Internet Routing and Addressing (ENCAPS)
for IPNG (1996)
1957 Some Observations on Implementations of the Post Office Protocol
(POP3) (1996)
1958 Architectural Principles of the Internet (1996)
1963 PPP Serial Data Transport Protocol (SDTP) (1996)
1968 The PPP Encryption Control Protocol (ECP) (1996)
1972 A Method for the Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
Networks (1996)
1984 IAB and IESG Statement on Cryptographic Technology and the
Internet (1996)
1991 PGP Message Exchange Formats (1996)
2014 IRTF Research Group Guidelines and Procedures (1996)
2015 MIME Security with Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) (1996)
2026 The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3. (1996)
2030 Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4 for IPv4, IPv6 and
OSI (1996)
2045 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of
Internet Message Bodies (1996)
2046 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media
Types (1996)
2047 MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message

Seite 90
Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text (1996)
2048 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) Part Four:
Registration Procedures (1996)
2049 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Five:
Conformance Criteria and Examples (1996)
2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1. (1997)
2070 Internationalization of the Hypertext Markup Language (1997)
2083 PNG (Portable Network Graphics) Specification (1997)
2084 Considerations for Web Transaction Security (1997)
2100 The Naming of Hosts (1997)
2109 HTTP State Management Mechanism (1997)
2110 MIME E-mail Encapsulation of Aggregate Documents, such as HTML
(MHTML) (1997)
2111 Content-ID and Message-ID Uniform Resource Locators (1997)
2112 The MIME Multipart/Related Content-type (1997)
2133 Basic Socket Interface Extensions for IPv6 (1997)
2134 Articles of Incorporation of Internet Society (1997)
2135 Internet Society By-Laws (1997)
2145 Use and Interpretation of HTTP Version Numbers (1997)
2146 U.S. Government Internet Domain Names (1997)
2147 TCP and UDP over IPv6 Jumbograms (1997)
2153 PPP Vendor Extensions (1997)
2167 Referral Whois (RWhois) Protocol V1.5. (1997)
2168 Resolution of Uniform Resource Identifiers using the Domain Name
System (1997)
2180 IMAP4 Multi-Accessed Mailbox Practice (1997)
2182 Selection and Operation of Secondary DNS Servers (1997)
2185 Routing Aspects of IPv6 Transition (1997)
2186 Internet Cache Protocol (ICP), version 2 (1997)
2187 Application of Internet Cache Protocol (ICP) (1997)
2192 IMAP URL Scheme (1997)
2202 Test Cases for HMAC-MD5 and HMAC-SHA-1 (1997)
2212 Specification of Guaranteed Quality of Service (1997)
2222 Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) (1997)
2223 Instructions to RFC Authors (1997)
2228 FTP Security Extensions (1997)
2231 MIME Parameter Value and Encoded Word Extensions:
Character Sets, Languages, and Continuations (1997)
2237 Japanese Character Encoding for Internet Messages (1997)
2245 Anonymous SASL Mechanism (1997)
2323 IETF Identification and Security Guidelines (1998)
2418 IETF Working Group Guidelines and Procedures (1998)
2437 RSA Cryptography Specification Version 2.0 (1998)
2440 OpenPGP Message Format (1998)
2444 The One-Time-Password SASL Mechanism (1998)
2464 Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet Networks (1998)
2468 I Remember IANA (1998)

Seite 91
2482 Language Tagging in Unicode Plain Text (1999)
2499 Request for Comments Summary (1999)
2500 INTERNET OFFICIAL PROTOCOL STANDARDS (1999)
2505 Anti-Spam Recommendations for SMTP MTAs (1999)
2518 HTTP Extensions for Distributed Authoring (1999)
2542 Terminology and Goals for Internet Fax (1999)
2555 30 Years of RFCs (1999)
2577 FTP Security Considerations (1999)
2588 IP Multicast and Firewalls (1999)
2611 URN Namespace Definition Mechanisms (1999)
2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP/1.1 (1999)
2626 The Internet and the Millenium Problem (1999)
2628 Simple Cryptographic Program Interface (1999)
2637 Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (1999)
2639 Internet Printing Protocol/Implementer's Guide (1999)
2640 Internationalizationof the File Transfer Protocol (1999)
2646 The Text/Plain Parameter (1999)
2647 Benchmarking Terminology for Firewall Performance (1999)
2651 The Architecture of the Common Indexing Protocol (1999)
2659 Security Extensions For HTML (1999)
2663 IP Network Address Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations
(1999)
2675 IPv6 Jumbograms (1999)
2683 IMAP4 Implementation Recommendations (1999)
2685 Virtual Private Networks Identifier (1999)
2691 A Memorandum of Understanding for an ICANN Protocol Support
Organization (1999)
2718 Guidelines for new URL Schemes (1999)
2756 Hyper Text Caching Protocol (2000)
2761 Terminology for ATM Benchmarking (2000)
2766 Network Address Translation -- Protocol Translation (2000)
2773 Encryption using KEA and SKIPJACK (2000)
2775 Internet Transparency (2000)
2822 Internet Message Format (2001)
2828 Internet Security Glossary (2000)
2839 Internet Kermit Service (2000)
2860 Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Technical Work
of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (2000)
2874 DNS Extensions to Support IPv6 Address Aggregation and
Renumbering (2000)
2875 Diffie-Hellman Proof-of-Possession Algorithms (2000)
2888 Secure Remote Access with L2TP (2000)
2901 Guide to Administrative Procedures of the Internet
Infrastructure (2000)
2910 Internet Printing Protocol/1.1 (2000)
2913 MIME Content Types in Media Feature Expressions (2000)
2924 Accounting Attributes and Record Formats (2000)

Seite 92
2929 Domain Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations (2000)
2938 Identifying Composite Media Features (2000)
2960 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (2000)
2965 HTTP State Management Mechanism (2000)
2969 Wide Area Directory Deployment (2000)
2977 Mobile IP Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
Reqirements (2000)
2979 Behavior of and Requirements for Internet Firewalls (2000)
2990 Next Steps for the IP QoS Architecture (2000)
3001 A URN Namespace of Object Identifiers (2000)
3002 Overview of 2000 IAB Wireless Internetworking Workshop (2000)
3003 The audio/mpeg Media Type (2000)
3010 NFS Version 4 Protocol (2000)
3013 Recommended Internet Service Provider Security Services
and Procedures (2000)
3028 Sieve: A Mail Filtering Language (2001)
3031 Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture (2001)
3036 LDP Specification (2001)
3076 Canonical XML Version 1.0 (2001)
3072 Structured Data Exchange Format (SDXF) (2001)
3093 Firewall Enhancement Protocol (FEP) (2001)
3106 ECML v1.1: Field Specifications for E-Commerce (2001)
3125 Electronic Signature Policies (2001)
3143 Known HTTP Proxy/Caching Problems (2001)
3377 LDAP (v3) Technical Specification (2002)
3383 IANA Considerations for the LDAP (2002)
Q.2 1.-April-RFCs
Ohne Gew�hr daf�r, ob sie ernst gemeint sind oder nicht.
0112 User/Server Site Protocol: Network host questionaire responses (1971)
0499 Harvard's Network RJE (1973)
0748 Telnet randomly-lose option (1978)
0777 Internet Control Message Protocol (1981)
0779 Telnet send-location option (1981)
0852 ARPANET short blocking feature (1983)
0893 Trailer encapsulations (1984)
0894 Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over Ethernet networks
(1984)
0895 Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over experimental
Ethernet networks (1984)
1147 FYI on a Network Management Tool Catalog
0898 Gateway special interest group meeting notes (1984)
0904 Exterior Gateway Protocol formal specification (1984)
0905 ISO Transport Protocol specification ISO DP 8073 (1984)
0940 Toward an Internet standard scheme for subnetting (1985)

Seite 93
0941 Addendum to the network service definition covering network
layer addressing (1985)
0943 Assigned numbers (1985)
0944 Official ARPA-Internet protocols (1985)
0982 Guidelines for the specification of the structure of the
Domain Specific Part (DSP) of the ISO standard
NSAP adress (1986)
0983 ISO transport arrives on top of the TCP (1986)
0995 End System to Intermediate System Routing Exchange Protocol
for use in conjunction with ISO 8473 (1986)
0999 Requests For Comments summary notes: 900 - 999 (1987)
1004 Distributed=protocol authentication scheme (1987)
1050 RPC: Remote Procedure Call Protocol specification (1988)
1052 IAB recommendations for the development of Internet
network management standards (1988)
1053 Telnet X.3 PAD option (1988)
1095 Common Management Information Services and Protocol
over TCP/IP (1989)
1097 Telnet subliminal-message option (1989)
1100 IAB official protocol standards (1989)
1101 DNS encoding of network names and other types (1989)
1147 FYI on a Network Management Tool Catalog: Tools for
Monitoring and Debugging TCP/IP Internets and
Interconnected Devices (1990)
1149 Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams on avian carriers (1990)
1151 Version 2 of the Reliable Data Protocol (RDP) (1990)
1152 Workshop report: Internet research steering group workshop
on very-high-speed networks (1990)
1153 Digest message format (1990)
1154 Encoding header field for internet messages (1990)
1200 IAB official protocol standards (1991)
1214 OSI internet management: Management Information Base (1991)
1216 Gigabit network economics and paradigm shifts (1991)
1217 Memo from the Consortium for Slow Commotion Research (1991)
1218 Naming scheme for c=US (1991)
1219 On the assignment of subnet numbers (1991)
1220 Point-to-Point Protocol extensions for bridging (1991)
1221 Host access protocol (HAP) specification: Version 2 (1991)
1313 Today's Programming for KRFC AM 1313 Internet Talk Radio (1992)
1437 The Extension of MIME Content-Types to a New Medium (1993)
1438 IETF Statements of Boredom (SOBs) (1993)
1605 SONET to Sonnet Translation (1994)
1606 A Historical Perspective On The Usage Of IP Version 9 (1994)
1607 A View from the 21st Century (1994)
1776 The Address is the Message (1995)
1924 A Compact Representaion of IPv6 Adresses (1996)
1925 The Twelve Networking Truths (1996)

Seite 94
1926 An Experimental Encapsulation of IP Datagrams on Top of ATM (1996)
1927 Suggested Additional MIME Types for Associating Documents (1996)
2100 The Naming of Hosts (1997)
2321 RITA -- The Reliable Internetwork Troubleshooting Agent (1998)
2322 Management of IP numbers by peg-dhcp (1998)
2323 IETF Identification and Security Guidelines (1998)
2324 Hypertext Coffee Pot Control Protocol HTCPCP/1.0 (1998)
2325 Definitons of Managed Objects for Drip-Type Heated Beverage
Hardware Devices Using SMIv2 (1998)
2549 IP Over Avian Carriers with Quality of Service (1999)
2550 Y10K and Beyond (1999)
2551 The Roman Standards Process -- Revision III (1999)
2795 The Infinite Monkey Protocol Suite (2000)
3091 Pi Digit Generation Protocol (2001)
3092 Etymology of Foo (2001)
3093 Firewall Enhancement Protocol (FEP) (2001)
3251 Electricity over IP (2002)
3252 Binary Lexical Octet Ad-hoc Transport (2002)
Q.3 Alle FYIs
0001 FYI on FYI: Introduction to the FYI notes (1990) (RFC1150)
0002 FYI on a Network Management Tool Catalog: Tools for monitoring
and debugging TCP/IP internets and interconnected
devices (1993) (RFC1470)
0003 FYI on Where to Start: A bibliography of internetworking
information (1991) (RFC1175)
0004 FYI on Questions and Answers - Answers to Commonly asked New
Internet User Questions (1999) (RFC2664)
0005 Choosing a name for your computer (1991) (RFC1178)
0006 FYI on the X Window System (1991) (RFC1198)
0007 FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to commonly asked
experienced Internet user questions (1991) (RFC1207)
0008 Site Security Handbook (1997) (RFC2196)
0009 Who's Who in the Internet: Biographies of IAB, IESG and
IRSG Members (1992) (RFC1336)
0010 There is Gold in them thar Networks! or Searching for Treasure
in all the Wrong Places (1993) (RFC1402)
0011 X.500 Implementations Catalog-96 (1997) (RFC2116)
0012 Building a Network Information Services Infrastructure
(1992) (RFC1302)
0013 Executive Introduction to Directory Services Using the
X.500 Protocol (1992) (RFC1308)
0014 Technical Overview of Directory Services Using the
X.500 Protocol (1992) (RFC1309)
0015 Privacy and Accuracy Issues in Network Information Center
Databases (1992) (RFC1355)

Seite 95
0016 Connecting to the Internet -- What Connecting Institutions
Should Anticipate (1992) (RFC1359)
0017 The Tao of IETF - A Guide for New Attendees of the Internet
Engineering Task Force (2001) (RFC3160)
0018 Internet Users' Glossary (1996) (RFC1983)
0019 FYI on Introducing the Internet -- A Short Bibliography of
Introductory Internetworking Readings (1993) (RFC1463)
0020 FYI on What is the Internet (1993) (RFC1462)
0021 A Survey of Advanced Usages of X.500 (1993) (RFC1491)
0022 Frequently Asked Questions for Schools (1996) (RFC1941)
0023 Guide to Network Resource Tool (1994) (RFC1580)
0024 How to Use Anonymous FTP (1994) (RFC1635)
0025 A Status Report on Networked Information Retrieval:
Tools and Groups (1994) (RFC1689)
0026 K-12 Internetworking Guidelines (1994) (RFC1709)
0027 Tools for DNS debugging (1994) (RFC1713)
0028 Netiquette Guidelines (1995) (RFC1855)
0029 Catalogue of Network Training Materials (1996) (RFC2007)
0030 A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP Tools and Utilities (1997) (RFC2151)
0031 Humanities and Arts: Sharing Center Stage on the Internet
(1997) (RFC2150)
0032 Hobbes' Internet Timeline (1997) (RFC2235)
0033 Some Testing Tools for TCP Implementors (1998) (RFC2398)
0034 Users' Security Handbook (1999) (RFC2504)
0035 DON'T SPEW. A Set of Guidelines for Mass Unsolicited Mailings and
Postings (spam*) (1999) (RFC2635)
0036 Internet Security Glossary (2000) (RFC2828)
0037 Guide to Administrative Procedures of the Internet Infrastructure
(2000) (RFC2901)
0038 How to Advertise Responsibly Using E-Mail and Newsgroups (2001) (RFC3098)
Q.4 Alle BCPs
0001 Best Current Practices (1995) (RFC1818)
0002 Addendum to RFC 1602 -- Variance Procedure (1995) (RFC1871)
0003 Variance for The PPP Connection Control Protocol and The PPP
Encryption Control Protocol (1996) (RFC1915)
0004 An Appeal to the Internet Community to Return Unused
IP Networks (Prefixes) to the IANA (1996) (RFC1917)
0005 Address Allocation for Private Internets (1996) (RFC1918)
0006 Guidelines for creation, selection, and registration of an
Autonomous System (AS) (1996) (RFC1930)
0007 Implications of Various Address Allocation Policies for
Internet Routing (1996) (RFC2008)
0008 IRTF Research Group Guidelines and Procedures (1996) (RFC2014)
0009 The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3 (1996) (RFC2026)
0010 IAB and IESG Selection, Confirmation, and Recall Process:

Seite 96
Operation of the Nominating and Recall Committees
(2000) (RFC2727)
0011 The Organizations Involved in the IETF Standards Process
(1996) (RFC2028)
0012 Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines (1996) (RFC2050)
0013 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) Part Four:
Registration Procedures (1996) (RFC2048)
0014 Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels
(1997) (RFC2119)
0015 Deployment of the Internet White Pages Service (1997) (RFC2148)
0016 Selection and Operation of Secondary DNS Servers (1997) (RFC2182)
0017 Use of DNS Aliases for Network Services (1997) (RFC2219)
0018 IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages (1998) (RFC2277)
0019 IANA Charset Registration Procedures (2000) (RFC2978)
0020 Classless IN-ADDR.ARPA delegation (1998) (RFC2317)
0021 Expectations for Computer Security Incident Response (1998)
(RFC2350)
0022 Guide for Internet Standards Writers (1998) (RFC2360)
0023 Administratively Scoped IP Multicast (1998) (RFC2365)
0024 RSVP over ATM Implementation Guidelines (1998) (RFC2379)
0025 IETF Working Group Guidelines and Procedures (1998) (RFC2418)
0026 Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs
(1998) (RFC2434)
0027 Advancement of MIB specifications on the IETF Standards Track
(1998) (RFC2438)
0028 Enhancing TCP Over Satellite Channels using Standard Mechanisms
(1999) (RFC2488)
0029 Procedure for Defining New DHCP Options (1999) (RFC2489)
0030 Anti-Spam Recommendations for SMTP MTAs (1999) (RFC2505)
0031 Media Feature Tag Registration Procedure (1999) (RFC2506)
0032 Reserved Top Level DNS Names (1999) (RFC2606)
0033 URN Namespace Definition Mechanisms (1999) (RFC2611)
0034 Changing the Default for Directed Broadcasts in Routers
(1999) (RFC2644)
0035 Registration Procedures for URL Scheme Names (1999) (RFC2717)
0036 Guidelines for Writers of RTP Payload Format Specifications
(1999) (RFC2736)
0037 IANA Allocation Guidelines For Values In the Internet Protocol
and Related Headers (2000) (RFC2780)
0038 Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks
which employ IP Source Address Spoofing (2000) (RFC2827)
0039 Charter of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) (2000) (RFC2850)
0040 Root Name Server Operational Requirements (2000) (RFC2870)
0041 Congestion Control Principles (2000) (RFC2914)
0042 Domain Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations (2000) (RFC2929)
0043 Procedures and IANA Guidelines for Definition of New DHCP Options
and Message Types (2000) (RFC2939)

Seite 97
0044 Use of HTTP State Management (2000) (RFC2964)
0045 IETF Discussion List Charter (2000) (RFC3005)
0046 Recommended Internet Service Provider Security Services
and Procedures (2000) (RFC3013)
0047 Tags for the Identification of Languages (2001) (RFC3066)
0048 End-to-end Performance Implications of Slow Links (2001) (RFC3150)
0049 Delegation of IP6.ARPA (2001) (RFC3152)
0050 End-to-end Performance Implications of Links with Errors
(2001) (RFC3155)
0051 IANA Guidelines for IPv4 Multicast Address Assignments (2001)
(RFC3171)
0052 Management Guidelines & Operational Requirements for the Address
and Routing Parameter Area Domain (arpa) (2001) (RFC3172)
0053 GLOP Addressing in 233/8 (2001) (RFC3180)
0054 IETF Guidelines for Conduct () (RFC3184)
0055 Guidelines for Evidence Collection and Archiving () (RFC3227)
0056 On the use of HTTP as a Substrate () (RFC3205)
0057 IANA Considerations for IPv4 Internet Group Management
Protocol (IGMP) () (RFC3228)
0058 Defining the IETF () (RFC3233)
0059 A Transient Prefix for Identifying Profiles under
Development () (RFC3349)
0060 Inappropriate TCP Resets Considered Harmful () (RFC3360)
0061 Strong Security Requirements for Internet Engineering
Task Force Standard Protocols () (RFC3365)
0062 Advice to link designers on link Automatic Repeat reQuest
(ARQ) () (RFC3366)
0063 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Telephones (SIP-T):
Context and Architectures () (RFC3372)
0064 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Considerations
for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
(LDAP) () (RFC3383)
0065 Dynamic Delegation Discovery System (DDS) Part Five:
URLARPA Assignment Procedures (2002) (RFC3405)
0066 Uniform Resource Names (URN) Namespace Definition
Mechanisms (2002) (RFC3406)
0067 Change Process for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
(2002) (RFC3427)
0068 Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) IANA Considerations Update
(2002) (RFC3438)
0069 TCP Performance Implications of Network Path Asymmetrie
(2002) (RFC3449)
0070 Guidelines for the Use of XML within IETF Protocols
(2003) (RFC3470)
0071 TCP over Second (2.5G) and Third (3G) Generation Wireless
Networks (2003) (RFC3481)
0072 Guidelines for Writing RFC Text on Security Considerations

Seite 98
(2003) (RFC3552)
0073 An IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol Parameters
(2003) (RFC3553)
0074 Coexistence between Version 1, Version 2, and Version 3 of the
Internet-standard Network Management Framework
(2003) (RFC3584)
0075 Session Inititation Protocol (SIP). Basic Call Flow Examples
(2003) (RFC3665)
0076 Session Inittiation Protocol (SIP). Public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN) Call Flows. (2003) (RFC3666)
0077 IETF ISOC Boardof Trustee Appointment Procedures
(2003) (RFC3677)
0078 IETF Rights in Contributions (2004) (RFC3667)
0079 Intellectual Property Rights in IETF Technology
(2004) (RFC3668)
0080 Delegation of E.F.F.3.IP6.ARPA. (2004) (RFC3681)
0081 The IETF XML Registry. (2004) (RFC3688)
0082 Assigning Experimental and Testing Numbers Considered Useful
(2004) (RFC3692)
0083 A Practice for Revoking Posting Rights to IETF Mailing Lists
(2004) (RFC3683)
0084 Ingress Filtering for Multihomed Networks
(2004) (RFC3704) 0085
Best Current Practices for Third Party Call Control (3pcc)
in the Session Inititation Protocol (SIP)
(2004) (RFC3725)
0086 Determining Strength for Public Keys Used for Exchanging
Symmetric Keys. (2004) (RFC3766)
0087 Use of Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Metric as a second
MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE) Metric
(2004) (RFC3785)
0088 IANA Considerations for the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
(2004) (RFC3818)
0089 Advice for Internet Subnetwork Designers
(2004) (RFC3819)

Seite 99
R Internet-Protokolle
Ein Protokoll ist ein Satz von Regeln zur Verst�ndigung zwischen zwei Com-
putern oder Peripherieger�ten. Hier die wichtigsten im Internet verwendeten
Protokolle:
3DESE PPP Triple-DES Encryption Protocol (RFC 2420)
ACAP Application Configuration Access Protocol (RFC 2244)
AgentX Agent Extensibility Protocol (RFC 2257)
ARP Address Resolution Protocol (RFC 826)
ATMP Ascend Tunnel Management Protocol )RFC 2107)
BAP PPP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (RFC 2125)
BACP PPP Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (RFC 2125)
BGP Border Gateway Protocol (RFC 1771)
BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol (RFC 951, 1542)
CCP PPP Compression Control Protocol (RFC 1962)
CHAP PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (RFC 1994)
CMOT Common Management Information Protocol over TCP (RFC 1095)
DCAP Data Link Switching Client Access Protocol (RFC 2114)
DESE-bis PPP DES Encryption Protocol (RFC 2419)
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (RFC 2131)
DLSw Data Link Switching Protocol (RFC 1795)
DSP A Dictionary Server Protocol (RFC 2229)
EAP PPP Extensible Authenication Protocol (RFC 2284)
EARP Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol (RFC 826)
Echo Echo Protocol (RFC 862)
ECP PPP Encryption Control Protocol (RFC 1968)
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol (RFC 827, 904)
ESRO Efficient Short Remote Operations Protocol (RFC 2188)
FANP Flow Attribute Notification Protocol (RFC 2129)
Finger Finger User Information Protocol (RFC 1288)
FOOBAR FTP Operation Over Big Address Records Protocol (RFC 1639)
FTP File Transfer Protocol (RFC 959, 2228)
GKMP Group Key Management Protocol Specification (RFC 2093)
Gopher Internet gopher Protocol (RFC 1436)
HTCPC Hypertext Coffee Pot Control Protocol (RFC 2324)
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol (RFC 2068)
IARP Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (RFC 2390)
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol (RFC 792, 950)
ICMPv6 Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 (RFC 1885)
ICP Internet Cache Protocol (RFC 2186)
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol (RFC 2236)
IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol (RFC 2060)
IMPP Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol (RFC 2779)

Seite 100
IOTP Internet Open Trading Protocol (RFC 2935)
IP Internet Protocol (RFC 791)
IPng Recommendation for the IP next generation Protocol (RFC 1752)
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 (RFC 1883)
IRC Internet Relay Chat Protocol (RFC 1459)
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (RFC 2251)
LFAP Lightweight Flow Admission Protocol (RFC 2124)
MAPOS Multiple Access Protocol over SONET (RFC 2171)
MP PPP Multilink Protocol (RFC 1990)
MPPC Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression Protocol (RFC 2118)
NBFCP NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol (RFC 2097)
NFS Network File System Protocol (RFC 1094 und 1813)
NHRP NBMA Next Hop Resolution Protocol (RFC 2332)
NNTP Network News Transport Protocol (RFC 977)
NTP Network Time Protocol (RFC 1305)
OFTP ODETTE File Transfer Protocol (RFC 2204)
PIM-SM Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (RFC 2362)
POP Post Office Protocol (RFC 1939)
PPP Point to Point Protocol (RFC 1661, 2153)
RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RFC 903)
RIP Routing Information Protocol (RFC 1723)
RPC Remote Procedure Call Protocol (RFC 1057, 1831 und 2339)
RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol (RFC 2205)
RTP Transport Protocol for Realtime Applications (RFC 1889)
RTSP Real Time Streaming Protocol (RFC 2326)
RWhois Referral Whois Protocol (RFC 2167)
SCSP Server Cache Synchronization Protocol (RFC 2334)
SDP Session Description Protocol (RFC 2327)
SDTP PPP Serial Data Transport Protocol (RFC 1963)
SLP Service Location Protocol (RFC 2165)
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (RFC 821)
SNACP PPP SNA Control Protocol (RFC 2043)
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (RFC 1157)
SNQP Simple Nomenclator Query Protocol (RFC 2259)
SNTP Simple Network Time Protocol (RFC 2030)
SOCKS SOCKS Protocol (RFC 1928)
TCP Transmission Control Protocol (RFC 793)
Telnet Telnet Protocol (RFC 854)
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol (RFC 783 und 1350)
TIP Transaction Internet Protocol (RFC 2371)
UDP User Datagram Protocol (RFC 768)
VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (RFC 2338)
XNSCP PPP XNS IDP Control Protocol (RFC 1764)
Siehe auch RFC 2700: Internet Official Protocol Standards vom August 2000.

Seite 101
S Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
In vielen Newsgruppen tauchen immer wieder dieselben Fragen auf. Irgend-
wann erbarmt sich ein Leser und sammelt sie samt den zugeh�rigen Antwor-
ten unter der �berschrift Frequently Asked Questions, abgek�rzt FAQ. Diese
FAQs (man beachte: der Plural eines Plurals) sind eine wertvolle Informati-
onsquelle. Die Spektren der Themen und der Qualit�t sind so breit wie das
Netz. Innerhalb der Netnews enthalten die FAQs naturgem�� nur Text, man-
che werden jedoch parallel dazu im WWW angeboten und k�nnen dort Grafik
verwenden. Sie sind zu finden:
? in der jeweiligen Newsgruppe,
? in der Newsgruppe news.answers bzw. de.answers,
? auf http://www.cs.ruu.nl/cgi-bin/faqwais (Universit�t Utrecht)
? auf http://www.faqs.org/,
? auf rtfm.mit.edu in den Verzeichnissen /pub/usenet-by-group/ bzw.
/pub/usenet-by-hierarchie/.
Um einen �berblick zu gewinnen, hole man sich per FTP vom MIT die Datei
Index-byname.gz. Nachfolgend sind einige FAQs aufgef�hrt, aber bei weitem
nicht alle:
? Unix - Frequently Asked Questions, in comp.unix.questions. Siebentei-
lig, von Ted Timar, seit 1989, daher ausgereift.
? Unix Programming FAQ, in comp.unix.programmer.
? Unix-FAQ/Shell, in comp.unix.shell. Von Ted Timar.
? Linux META-FAQ, in comp.os.linux.announce.
? NetBSD, FreeBSD, and OpenBSD FAQ, gemeinsames zehnteiliges FAQ-
Dokument in
-- comp.unix.bsd.netbsd.announce,
-- comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.announce und
-- comp.unix.openbsd.announce.
? vi Editor FAQ, in comp.editors und comp.unix.questions. Zweiteilig.
? comp.lang.perl* FAQ, in comp.lang.perl.announce. F�nfteilig.
? The X Toolkit Intrinsics FAQ, in comp.windows.x.
? Catalog of compilers, interpreters, and other language tools, in
comp.compilers und comp.lang.misc. F�nfteilig.
? Comp.software.eng FAQ, in comp.software.eng.
? FAQ List (zur Sprache C), in comp.lang.c.

Seite 102
? C++ FAQ, in comp.lang.c++. Achtteilig.
? Available C++ libraries FAQ, in comp.lang.c++. Sechsteilig.
? Comp.lang.objective-c FAQ, in comp.lang.objective-c. Dreiteilig.
? TCP/IP Resources List, in comp.protocols.tcp-ip.
? TCP/IP Applications FAQ, in comp.protocols.tcp-ip.
? FAQ: Internet-Zug�nge in Deutschland, in de.etc.lists.
? Netiquette f�r de.*. in de.newusers.questions.
? Anonymous FTP Sitelist, in comp.archives. Dreiundzwanzigteilig.
? World Wide Web FAQ, Introduction, in comp.infosystems.www. Von Tho-
mas Boutell.
? comp.graphics.algorithms FAQ, in comp.graphics.algorithms.
? comp.text FAQ, in comp.text.
? TeX, LaTeX, Dante e. V. FAQ, in de.comp.text.tex. Elfteilig.
? alt.comp.virus FAQ, in comp.virus. Dreiteilig.
Nat�rlich gibt es auch FAQs zu Themen au�erhalb der Informatik, bei-
spielsweise de.rec.fahrrad FAQ, sechsteilig und monatlich in der Newsgruppe
de.rec.fahrrad zu finden.

Seite 103
T Abk�rzungen aus Informatik und Telekommunikation
Gehen wir von 30 Zeichen aus, aus denen Abk�rzungen gebildet werden, und
nehmen wir eine gr��te L�nge von 5 Zeichen an, so lassen sich 25.137.930
verschiedene Abk�rzungen bilden (Kombinationen mit Wiederholung und Be-
r�cksichtigung der Reihenfolge). Es folgt eine Auswahl von rund 13000 Ab-
k�rzungen aus den Bereichen Informatik und Telekommunikation. Die Ab-
k�rzungen werden hier durchgehend gro� geschrieben, Akzente, Bindestriche
und dergleichen wurden weggelassen. Einige Abk�rzungen sind gesch�tzte
Namen; diese sind nicht gekennzeichnet. Die Liste beschreibt nur den Ge-
brauch, sie legt nicht eine Definition fest.
16CIF 16 times Common Intermediate Format (Picture Format)
16QAM 16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
1GL 1st Generation Language (Maschinencode)
1TR6 (ISDN-Protokoll D-Kanal, national)
2GL 2nd Generation Language (Assembler)
2L8 Too Late (Slang)
2MS Strukturierte Monopolleitung 2 Mbit/s
3GIO 3rd Generation I/O (Bus, Interface)
3GL 3rd Generation Language (C/C++, Fortran, Cobol)
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Program
3LH 3rd Level Hierarchy
3PCC 3rd Party Call Control
4CIF 4 times Common Intermediate Format (Picture Format)
4GL 4th Generation Language (SQL, Labview, ABAP)
4LH 4th Level Hierarchy
5GL 5th Generation Language
64QAM 64-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
6GL 6th Generation Language
7E1 (Zeichenformat: 7 Bits/Zeichen, parity even, 1 Stopbit)
8N1 (Zeichenformat: 8 Bits/Zeichen, no parity bit, 1 Stopbit)
10GE 10 GBit/s Ethernet
A Advanced, American, Amplitude, Application, Architecture, Area, Association
A2DP Advanced Audio Distribution Profile
AA Access Authorization
AA Aiming Algorithm
AA Anti-Aliasing
AA Arbitrary Access
AA Assistant Administrator
AA Audits + Assessments
AA Auto Answer
AAA Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (system)

Seite 104
AAAA Aussuchen -- Auspacken -- Anpassen -- Anwenden
AAAAAA Association for the Abolition of Abused Abbreviations and Asinine Acronyms
AAAI American Association of Artificial Intelligence
AAB All-to-All Broadcast
AAC Advanced Audio Coder/Coding
AAC Apple Assistance Center
AACD Academic Administrative Computing Services
AACE Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education
AACR Anglo-American Cataloging Rules
AACS Advanced/Automated Access Content/Control System
AACS Ann Arbor Computer Society
AACS Asynchronous Address Communication System
AACS Automated Analog Circuit Synthesis
AAD Address Adder
AADP Administrative Automatic Data Processing
AAE Allgemeine Anschalt-Erlaubnis
AAE Automatische Anrufeinrichtung
AAFID Autonomous Agent For Intrusion Detection
AAIC Accounting Authority Identification Code
AAL Absolute Assembly Language
AAL Asynchronous Transfer Mode Adaption Layer
AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
AALPDU AAL Protocol Data Unit
AAM Automatic Acoustic Management
AAMOF As A Matter Of Fact (Slang)
AAN Associated Account Number
AAP Advanced Adaptive Protocol
AAP Applications Access Point
AAP Association of American Publishers
AAPI Audio Applications Programming Interface
AAR Anfangsadressregister
AARP AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
AAS All-to-All Scatter
AAS Arithmetic Assignment Statement
AASP ASCII Asynchronous Support Package
AAT Average Access Time
AATIS Arbeitskreis Amateurfunk und Telekommunikation in der Schule
AATP Authorized Academic Training Program
AAUI Apple Attachment Unit Interface
AAVD Automatic Alternate Voice Data
AB Anrufbeantworter
AB Ausser Betrieb
ABAP Advanced Business Application Programming (SAP)
ABB ASEA Brown Boveri (Schweiz)
ABC American Broadcasting Company
ABC Applications of Broadband Communication
ABC Atanasoff-Berry-Computer

Seite 105
ABC Automatic Brightness Control
ABCD Add, Browse, Change, Delete
ABCS Advanced Business Communications via Satellite
ABD Automatic Baudrate Detection
ABEND Abnormal End
ABF Adobe Binary Screen Font
ABI Application Binary Interface
ABIC Access Bus Industry Group
ABIOS Advanced Basic Input Output System
ABIST Automatic Built-In Self Test
ABK Arbeitskreis Bildkommunikation
ABLE Adaptive Battery Life Extender
ABLE Agent Building and Learning Environment
ABM Anything But Microsoft
ABM Asynchronous Balanced Mode
ABN Australian Bibliographic Network
ABNF Augmented Backus-Naur Form
ABNS Application Based Network Services
ABR Automated Beacon Removal
ABR Available Bit Rate
ABRD Automatic Baud Rate Detection
ABRS Automated Book Request System
ABS Address Book Synchronization
ABS Authorized Bearer Services (Exceptions)
ABS Automatic Backup Shutdown
ABT Abort
ABT ATM Block Transfer
ABTDT ATM Block Transfer Delayed Transmission
ABTIT ATM Block Transfer Immediate Transmission
ABTS ASCII Block Terminal Services
AC Access/Automatic Control
AC Access Concentrator
AC Accumulator
AC Advisory Committee
AC Alternating Current
AC Analogue Computer
AC Arc Consistency
AC Audio Code/Codec/Coding
AC Authority Center
AC Auto Check
ACA Application Control Architecture (DEC)
ACAP Application Configuration Access Protocol
ACAP Automated Content Access Protocol
ACAS Application Control Architecture Services
ACATS Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Systems
ACC Abnormal Condition Control
ACC Access

Seite 106
ACC Accumulator
ACC Adaptive Cruise Control
ACC Area Communication Controller
ACCMAIL Accessing the Internet via Email
ACCU Association of C and C++ Users
ACD Automated/Automatic Call Director/Distributor/Distribution
ACDF Access Control Decision Function
ACDG Automatic Call Distribution Group
ACDI Asynchronous Communication Device Interface
ACDP Australian Committee on Data Processing
ACE A Compact Evaluated Nuclear Data File
ACE Access Control Encryption/Entry
ACE Adaptive Communication Environment
ACE Additional Core Enhancements
ACE Adobe Certified Expert
ACE Advanced Computing Environment (SCO)
ACE Adverse Channel Enhancement
ACE ASCII Compatible Encoding
ACE Automatic Calling Equipment
ACELP Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction
ACF Access Control Field
ACF Admission Confirmation
ACF Advanced Communication Function
ACF Attribute Configuration File
ACFC Address and Control Field Compression
ACFM Alternating Current Frequency Modulation
ACH Automeated Clearing House
ACI Access Control Information
ACI Adjacent Channel Interference
ACI Advanced Chip Interconnection
ACI Advanced Computing Initiative
ACI American Computer Innovators
ACI Application Communication Interface
ACIA Access Control Inner Area
ACIA Asynchronous Communication Interface Adapter
ACIAS Automated Calibration Internal Analysis System
ACID Add, Change, Inquire, Delete
ACID Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases
ACID Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability
ACIS American Committee for Interoperable Systems
ACK Acknowledge/Acknowledgement
ACK Amsterdam Compiler Kit
ACL Access Control List
ACL Account Classification
ACL Advanced Computing Laboratory
ACL Agent Communication Language
ACL Application Connectivity Link

Seite 107
ACL Asynchronous Connectionless Link
ACLS Accounting Class Packet Services
ACLU American Civil Liberties Union, USA
ACM Association for Computing Machinery, USA
ACM Audio Compression Manager
ACME Assembling Configuration Management Environments
ACMS Application Control Management System
ACONET Akademisches Computer-Netz, �sterrreich
ACOPS Automatic CPU Overheat Prevention System
ACOS Additional Call Offering Service
ACP Analog Copy Protection
ACP Ancillary Control Program
ACP Automatic Channel Programming
ACP Auxiliary Control Process
ACP Average CPU Power
ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
ACPICA Advanced Configuration and Power Management Interface Component Architecture
ACR Advanced Communication Riser
ACR Allowed Cell Rate
ACR Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio
ACRG Access Code Restriction Group
ACROSS Automated Cargo Release and Operations Service System
ACS Access Control Server/Set/System
ACS Account Control System
ACS Advanced Communication/Computer System
ACS Aldus Color File
ACS Anti Curl System
ACS Asynchronous Communication Server
ACSA Access Control Specific Area
ACSE Association Control Service Element/Entity
ACSK Adaptive Code Shift Keying
ACSNET Australian Computer Science Network
ACSR Automatic Customer Station Rearrangement
ACSS Audio Cascading Style Sheet
ACT Advanced Communication for Training
ACT Applied Computerized Telephony (HP)
ACTA America's Carriers Telecommunication Association
ACTI Advanced Computational Technology Initiative
ACTL Access Customer Terminal Location
ACTLU Active Logical Unit
ACTPU Active Physical Unit
ACTS Advanced Communications Technologies and Services
ACTS Advanced Communications Technology Satellite
ACTS Automated Computer Time Service (NIST)
ACTT Advanced Communication and Timekeeping Technology
ACTU Active User
ACTV Advanced Compatible Television

Seite 108
ACU Access Control Unit
ACU Acknowledgement Signal Unit
ACU Automatic Calling Unit
ACVC Ada Compiler Validation Capacity
ACWT Analog Call Waiting
A/D Analog/Digital
AD Active Directory
AD Administrative Domain
AD Assignment Date
ADA Adobe Developers Association
ADA Applied Decision Analysis
ADA Automatic Data Acquisition
ADABAS Adaptable Database System
ADAIC Ada Information Clearinghouse
ADAM Automatischer Datenmessplatz
ADAM Art, Design, Architecture + Media Information Gateway
ADAT Alesis Digital Audio Tape
ADB Apple Desktop Bus
ADB Authentication Database
ADC Adaptive Data Compression
ADC Add with Carry
ADC Analogue to Digital Converter
ADC Apple Developer Connection
ADC Apple Display Connector
ADC Application Development Classes
ADCCP Advanced Data Communication Control Procedure/Protocol
ADD Adapter Device Driver
ADD Architecture Design Document
ADD Automatic Document Detection
ADDMD Administration Directory Management Domain
ADDX Assoziation Deutschsprachiger DXer
ADE Advanced Document Engineering
ADE Application Development Environment
ADEOS Advanced Earth Observation Satellite, Japan
ADEPA Agence Nationale pour le Developpement de la Production Automatisee
ADF Adaptor Description File
ADF Address Distribution Facility
ADF Arbeitskreis Digitale Fotografie
ADF Automatic Direction Finder/Finding
ADF Automatic Document Feed/Feeder
ADF Automatically Defined Function
ADFS Acorn/Advanced Disc File/Filing System
ADI Agence de l'Informatique
ADI Autodesk Device Interface
ADIOS Automated Download and Installation of Operating Systems
ADISS Analytical Data Interchange + Storage Standards
ADL Above Detection Limit

Seite 109
ADL Address Data Latch
ADL Adventure Definition Language
ADLAT Adaptive Lattice Filter
ADLC Adaptive Lossless Data Compression
ADLC Asynchronous Data Link Control
ADM Add/Drop-Multiplexer
ADM Aggregate Data Manager
ADM Application Development Modul
ADM Arrow Diagram Method
ADM Asynchronous Disconnected Mode
ADM Automatic Drive Maintenance
ADMACS Apple Document Management And Control System
ADMD Administrative/Administration Management Domain (X.400)
ADO ActiveX Data Object
ADP Administrative/Automatic Data Processing
ADP AOLserver Dynamic Pages
ADP Automatic Data Processing
ADPCM Adaptive Delta/Differential Pulse Code Modulation/Modulator
ADR Address
ADR Advanced Digital Recording
ADRC Adaptive Dynamic Range Coding
ADRD Automatic Data Rate Detection
ADRES Automatic Dynamic Range Expansion System
ADS Active Directory Service
ADS Aktiver Diagnose-Stecker
ADS Alternate Data Stream
ADS Application Development Solutions/System
ADS AutoCAD Development System
ADS Automated Data Service
ADS Automatic Distribution System
ADSC Address Status Changed
ADSC Adobe Document Structuring Conventions
ADSI Active/Advanced Directory Service Interface
ADSI Analog Display Services Interface
ADSL Asymmetric(al) Digital Subscriber Line/Loop
ADSM Adstar Distributed Storage Manager (IBM)
ADSP AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol
ADSR Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release
ADT Abrechnungsdatentr�ger
ADT Abstrakter Datentyp
ADT Advanced DRAM Technology
ADT Application Data Type
ADTV Advanced Definition Television
ADU Automatic Dialing Unit
ADVISE Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight, and Semantic Enhancement
ADX Automatic Data Exchange
ADXVERZ Amtliches Verzeichnis der DATEX-Teilnehmer

Seite 110
AE Above or Equal
AE Application Entity
AEB Analogue Expansion Bus
AEC Architectural and Engineering Construction
AEC Ars Electronica Center
AEC Availability Environment Classification
AECG Advanced Embedded Codes Gateway
AED Abfrageeinrichtung f�r Datenverkehr
AEEC Airlines Engineering Electronics Committee
AEG Allgemeine Electricit�ts-Gesellschaft
AEH Advanced Encapsulated Hypertext
AEI Additional Equipment Interface
AEIOUS Advanced Enhanced Interface for Open Universal Systems
AEM Acoustic Emission Monitoring
AEM Asynchronous Event Mechanism
AEM Automatic Emulation Management
AEMS Automated Energy Management System
AEN Acknowledgment Error Notification
AEP AppleTalk Echo Protocol
AEP Application Environment Profile (Posix)
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AES Application Environment Specification/Services
AET Abstract Window Toolkit
AET Advanced Educational Technology
AET Application Entity Title
AF Alternative/Audio Frequency
AF Anzunehmender Fehler
AF Auxiliary Carry Flag
AFA Accelerated File Access
AFA Association des Fournisseurs d'Acces et de Services Internet
AFAIAA As Far As I Am Aware (Slang)
AFAIC As Far As I am Concerned (Slang)
AFAIK As Far As I Know (Slang)
AFAIKT As Far As I Know Today (Slang)
AFAIR As Far As I Remember (Slang)
AFB Adobe Font Binary
AFC Antiferro-magnetically Coupled (media)
AFC Automatic Font Change
AFC Automatic Frequency Control
AFCCU Advanced Function Common Control Unit
AFD Automatic File Distribution
AFDM Advanced Fluid Dynamics Model
AFDW Active Framework for Data Warehousing
AFE Analog Front End
AFF Adaptive Feed Forward
AFFS Amiga Fast File System
AFH Adaptive Frequency Hopping

Seite 111
AFI Authority and Format Identifier
AFII Association for Font Information Interchange
AFIN Association Fran�aise des Informaticiens
AFIPS American Federation of Information Processing Societies
AFIRM Automated Fingerprint Image Reporting and Match
AFIS Automated Fingerprint Identification System
AFJ April Fool's Joke (Slang)
AFK Away From Keyboard (Slang)
AFM Adobe Font Manager/Metrics
AFM Audio Frequency Modulation
AFN American Forces Network
AFNIC Association Francaise pour le Nommage Internet en Cooperation
AFNOR Association Fran�aise de Normalisation
AFOD Angebot f�r Online-Dienste
AFP Advanced Flexible Processor
AFP Advanced Function Presentation/Printing
AFP AppleTalk Filing Protocol
AFR Alternate Frame Rendering
AFR Annualized Failure Rate
AFR Arndt-Ford-Roper Two-pole Fit
AFS Advanced Freephone Service
AFS Alex/Andrew/Advanced File System
AFSK Audio Frequency Shift Keyer/Keying (Modulation)
AFT Adapter Fault Tolerance
AFTEL Association Francaise de la Telematique Multimedia
AFTN Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network
AFTP Anonymous FTP (Internet)
AFU alt.folklore.urban
AFUG Amateurfunkgesetz
AFUL Association francophone des utilisateurs de Linux et des logiciels libres
AFUU Association Fran�aise des Utilisateurs d'UNIX
AFUUSO Association Fran�aise des Utilisateurs d'UNIX et des Systemes Ouverts
AFUV Amateurfunkverordnung
AG Alternating Gradient
AGA Advanced Graphics Adapter/Architecture
AGAF Arbeitsgemeinschaft Amateurfunkfernsehen
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AGCH Access Grant Channel
AGCS Advanced Graphic Chip Set
AGCW Arbeitsgemeinschaft CW
AGDX Arbeitsgemeinschaft DX e. V., Erlangen
AGE Automatische Geb�hrenerfassung
AGFMB Arbeitsgemeinschaft Freier Mailboxen
AGFPL Aladdin Ghostscript Free Public License
AGL Adobe Glyph List
AGNES Automatisches GPS-Netz Schweiz
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port

Seite 112
AGP Advanced Graphics Package (HP)
AGPL Affero General Public License (GNU)
AGRAS Antiglare Antireflective Antistatic
AGU Address Generation Unit
AGUI Advanced Graphical User Interface
AGV Automatic Guided Vehicle
AH Authentication Header
AHB Advanced High Performance Bus
AHC Advanced High Speed CMOS
AHCI Advanced Host Controller Interface
AHDL Altera Hardware Description Language
AHRA Audio Home Recording Act
AHREF Anchor Hypertext Reference
AI Adobe Illustrator
AI Analogue Input
AI Artificial Intelligence
AI Active Interface
AIA Application Integrated Architecture (DEC)
AIC AIX Windows Interface Composer
AID Alarm Identification on Demand
AIDA Attention, Interest, Desire, Action
AIDS Activity Information Data System
AIDS Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System
AIDS Automatic Installation and Diagnostic Service
AIFF Adobe/Audio Interchange File Format
AII Active Input Interface
AII Attachement Individual Identifier
AIIM Association for Information and Image Management
AIK Angewandte Informatik Karlsruhe e. V.
AIM Advanced Informatics
AIM AOL Instant Messenger
AIM Automatic Interface Management in Medicine
AIM Apple, Intel, Motorola
AIMB As I Mentioned Before (Slang)
AIML Artificial Intelligence Markup Language
AIMM AGP In-line Memory Module
AIMS Advanced Information Management System
AIMS Apple Internet Mail Server
AIN Advanced Intelligent Network
AIN Auto Insert Notification
AIO All In One
AIO Annual Inspection + Overhaul
AIOD Automatic Identification of Outward Dialing
AIP Adaptive Internet Protocol
AIP Application Infrastructure Provider
AIP Archive Information Package
AIPS Astronomical Image Processing System

Seite 113
AIR Architecture Implementation Review
AIR Automated Image and Restore
AIS Account Information Security (Program)
AIS Administrative/Affiliate Information System
AIS Alarm Indication Signal/System
AIS Application Integration Services
AIS Artificial Immune System
AIS Audit Information System (SAP)
AIS Automated Identification/Information System
AIS Autonomous Intelligent System
AISB Association of Imaging Service Bureaus
AISI As I See It (Slang)
AISP Association of Information Systems Professionals
AIT Advanced Information Technology
AIT Advanced Intelligent Tape
AIUI As I Understand It (Slang)
AIW APPN Implementor's Workshop
AIX Advanced Interactive Executive (IBM)
AJAX Asynchronous Javascript And XML
AJC Anti-Jitter Circuit
AKA Also Known As (Slang)
AKF Autokorrelationsfunktion
AKI Arbeitskreis Informatik
AKL Agent Kernel Language
AKS Arbeitskreis Schule (in der GUUG)
AKSIS Arbeitskreis Schutz von Infrastrukturen
AL Application Layer
AL Arbitrated Loop
AL Assembly Language
AL Aussagenlogik
ALA American Library Association
ALAT Advanced Load Address Table
ALB Adaptive Load Balancing
ALC Arithmetic and Logic Circuit
ALC Automatic Level Control
ALDC Advanced Lossless Data Compression
ALE Address Latch Enable
ALE Address Lifetime Expectancy
ALE Application Link Enabling
ALE Application Linking and Embedding
ALEC Alternative Local Exchange Carrier
ALEX A Lexical Programming Language
ALEX Advertising Link Exchange
ALEX Altlasten-Expertensystem
ALEX Automatic Login Executor
ALEX Automated/Automatic Labour Exchange
ALF Accurate positioning by Low Frequency

Seite 114
ALG Application Level Gateway
ALGOL Algorithmic Language
ALI American Law Institute
ALI Automatic Link Intelligence
ALIBI Adaptive Location of Internetworked Bases of Inforamtion
ALICE Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity
ALINK Active Link
ALIS Automatic Link Setup
ALIWEB Archie Like Indexing in the Web
ALM Application Loadable Modul
ALN Asynchronous Learning Network
ALOE Apple Library for Object Embedding
ALOS Auto LISP Object System
ALP Assembly Language Preprocessor
ALP Automatic Language Processing
ALPM Aggressive Link Power Management
ALRU Automatic Line Record Update
ALS Advanced Low Power Schottky
ALSA Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
ALT Alternate
ALT Anti Leech Tracker
ALU Arithmetic Logic/Logical Unit
ALWR Arbeitskreis der Leiter Wissenschaftlicher Rechenzentren
AM Amplitudenmodulation
AM Anschlussmodul
AM Anwendungsmodul
AM Application Maintainer (Debian)
AMA Active Member Addressing (Bluetooth)
AMA Automatic Message Accounting
AMANDDA Automated Messaging and Directory Assistance
AMASS Archival Management And Storage System
AMB Advanced Memory Buffer
AMBA Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture
AMBW All My Best Wishes (Slang)
AMC Arbitration and Mediation Center
AMD Active Matrix Display
AMD Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., USA
AMDD Agile Modelling Driven Development
AMDS Amplitude Modulation Data System
AME Advanced Metal Evaporated
AMF All Media Floppy
AMH Automated Materials Handling
AMI Alternate/Alternative Mark Inversion
AMI American Microsystems Inc.
AMI Application Messaging Interface
AML ACPI Machine Language
AML Acronym Master List

Seite 115
AMLCD Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display
AMMA Advanced Memory Management Architecture
AMO Administration and Maintenance Order
AMP Advanced Metal Powder
AMP Asymmetric/Asynchronous Multi Processing
AMP Audio MPEG Player
AMPL A Mathematical Programming Language
AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service/System
AMR Adaptive Mesh Refinement
AMR Adaptive Multi Rate (Audio Codec)
AMR Anisotropic Magnetoresistance
AMR Audio Modem Riser
AMRA Ants-based Mobile Routing Architecture
AMRIS Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol Utilizing Increasing ID-Numbers
AMRR Adaptive Multi Rate Retry
AMS American Mathematical Society
AMS Andrew Message System
AMT Apple Media Toolkit
AMTEC Ausstellung f�r Amateurfunktechnik, Elektronik, Computer
AMTOR Amateur Microcomputer Teleprinting Over Radio
AMVER Atlantic/Automatic Merchant Vessel (Emergency) Reporting System
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System
AN Access Network
AN Accession/Associated Number
ANAC Automatic Number Announcement Circuit
ANARC Association of North American Radio Clubs
ANDF Architecture Neutral Distribution Format
ANF Additional Network Feature
ANFSCD And Now For Something Completely Different (Slang)
ANI Automatic Number Identification (Telefon)
ANIS Analoger Anschluss an einer ISDN-Vermittlungsstelle
ANL Argonne National Laboratory, USA
ANL Automatic Noise Limiter
ANN Artificial Neural Network
ANR Advanced/Automatic Network Routing
ANRS Automatic Noise Reduction System
ANS Access Network System
ANS Advanced Networking Services (Intel)
ANS American National Standard
ANSA Advances Network Systems Architecture
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ANTC Advanced Networking Test Center
ANTIOPE Aquisition Numerique et Televisualisition d'Images Organisees en Page d'Ecriture
ANW International Academic Networking Workshop
AO Analogue Output
AOC Abnormal Operating Condition
AOC ADSL Overhead Control

Seite 116
AOC Advice Of Charge
AOCE Apple Open Collaboration Environment
AOD Advanced Optical Disc
AOD Audio On Demand
AODBS Aspect Oriented Database System
AODI Always On Dynamic ISDN
AODV Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector
AOE Application Operating Environment (AT&T)
AOE ATA over Ethernet
AOI Active Output Interface
AOL America Online, Inc.
AOM Annual Operating + Maintenance (cost)
AOP Aspect Oriented Programming
AOR Atlantic Ocean Region
AOS Add Or Subtract
AOS Advanced Operating System
AOSD Aspect Oriented Software Development
AOSE Agent Oriented Software Engineering
AOSS AirStation One-touch Secure System
AOT Absolutely Off Topic (News)
AOT Ahead Of Time (compilation)
AOT Application Object Template/Tree
AOW Asia and Oceania Workshop (OSI)
AP Access Point
AP Adjunct/Application Processor
AP Application/Adjunct Process/Processor/Program
AP Automatic Pagination
APA All Points Addressable
APA Adaptive Packet Assembly
APA All Points Addressable
APA Arithmetic Processing Accelerator
APA Amateur Press Association
APAA Aggressive Packet Adaptive Assembly
APAR Authorized Program Analysis Report (IBM)
APAREN Address Parity Enable
APART Automated Packet Recognition/Translation
APB Advanced Peripheral Bus
APC Application Protocol
APC Association for Progressive Communications
APC Arbeitsplatzcomputer
APC Airborne Public Correspondence
APC Automated Production Protocol
APCUG Association of PC Users Groups
APD Areal Power Density
APDA Apple Programmers and Developers Association
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit
APE Abgesetzte Periphere Einheit

Seite 117
APE Adaptable Persistence Engine
APEX Advanced Packet Exchange
APEX Application Exchange
APF Active Port Forwarding
APG Automated Password Generator
API Application Program/Programming Interface
APIA Application Program Interface Association
APIC Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
APIM ATM Interface Port Module
APIPA Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing
APL A Programming Language
APL Application Program Library
APM Advanced Power Management
APN Access Point Name
APN Actual Private Network
APNIC Asia Pacific Network Information Centre
APO Advanced Planner and Optimizer (SAP)
APOL Alternate Person On Line (Slang)
APOP Authenticated Post Office Protocol
APP Application Portability Profile
APP Automatic Page Positioning
APPC Advanced Program to Program Communication/Converter (IBM)
APPI Advanced Peer-to-Peer Internetworking
APPN Advanced Peer-to-Peer Network/Networking (IBM)
APR Access Point Roaming
APR Acoustic Pulse Recognition
APR Apache Portable Runtime (layer, library)
APRIL Active/Passive Radio Interference Lock
APRIL Adaptive Photonic Reflection by Inverted Light
APRIL Advanced Power Recycling by Integrated Logic
APRIL Adverse Psychiatric Reactions Information Link
APRIL Association for Promotion and Research in Linux
APRIL Association pour la Promotion et la Recherche en Informatique libre
APRP Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing
APRS Automatic Position Report/Reporting System
APS Active Pixel Sensor
APS Advanced Planning and Scheduling
APS Advanced Printing/Production/Photo System
APS Array Processing System
APS Asynchronous Protocol Specification
APS Automatic Position Select
APS Asynchronous Protocol Specification
APS Auto Pilot System
APS Assembly Programming System
APSE Ada Programming/Project Support Environment
APSL Apple Public Source License
APSN Atlantic Packet Satellite Network

Seite 118
APT Address Pass Through
APT Adobe Postscript Point
APT Advanced Package Tool
APT Advanced Parallel Technology
APT Almost Plain Text
APT Application Program Title
APT Automatically Programmed Tools
APU Attached Processing Unit
AQL A Query Language
AQL Acceptable Quality Level
AR Access Router
AR Artificial/Augmented Reality
AR Aspect Ratio
AR Augmented Reality
ARA Apple/AppleTalk Remote Access
ARAG Antireflective Antiglare
ARAP Apple Remote Access Protocol
ARAS Antireflective Antistatic
ARB Adaptive Rate Based
ARB Architectural/Architecture Review Board
ARC Acceptable Risk Calculator
ARC Acoustic Resonance Control
ARC Advanced RISC Computing
ARCA Advanced RISC Computing Architecture
ARCNET Attached Resource Computer/Computing Network
ARD Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Rundfunkanstalten Deutschlands
ARD Apple Remote Desktop
ARDF Amateur Radio Direction Finding
ARES Annuaire Recherche Enseignement Superieur
ARF Abuse Reporting Format
ARI Autofahrer Rundfunk Information
ARIN American Registry for Internet Numbers
ARIS Architecture of Integrated Information Systems
ARJ Admission Reject
ARL Adjusted Ring Length
ARL Association of Research Liberaries, USA
ARL Authority Revocation List
ARLL Advanced Run Length Limited
ARM Account Resource Management
ARM Acorn/Advanced RISC Machine
ARM Advanced RISC Machine
ARM Annotated Reference Manual
ARM Application Response Measurment
ARM Arpanet Reference Model
ARM Asynchronous Response Mode
ARMA Association of Records Managers and Administrators, USA
ARMM Automated Retroactive Minimal Moderation

Seite 119
ARMS Architecture for Reliable Managed Storage
ARNE Automated Remote Network Evaluation
ARNS AppleTalk Remote Network Server
AROM Associative Read Only Memory
ARP Address Resolution Protocol (Internet)
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA
ARPA Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
ARPL Adjust Requested Privilege Level
ARPU Average Revenue Per Unit/User
ARQ Admission Request
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
ARR Annual Return Rate
ARR Automatic Repeat/Retransmission Request
ARRL American Radio Relay League
ARS Activity Reporting System
ARS Adaptive Rate System
ARS Address Retrieval System
ARS Atomic Resolution Storage
ARS Automatic Route Selection
ARSB Automated Repair Service Bureau
ART Adaptive Reasoning Technology
ART Another Ray Tracer
ART Autorite de Regulation des Telecommunications
ARTA Apple Real Time Architecture
ARTIC A Real-Time Interface Coprocessor (IBM)
ARTOB Amateur Radio Translator on Balloon
ARTS Asynchronous Remote Takeover Server
ARTT Asynchronous Remote Takeover Terminal
ARU Audio Response Unit
AS Abstract Syntax
AS Anschlusssatz
AS Application System (IBM)
AS Authentication Server/Service
AS Autonomous System
AS3AP ANSI SQL Standard Scalable and Portable
ASA American Standards Association
ASA Advanced SCSI Architecture
ASA Adaptive Security Algorithm
ASAI Adjunct Switch Application Interface
ASAM Arbeitskreis zur Standardisierung von Automatisierungs- und Messsystemen
ASAP As Soon As Possible (Slang)
ASAP Automatic Switching And Processing
ASB Advanced System Buffering/Bus
ASB Alarm-Signal-Bearbeitung
ASC Accredited Standards Committee (ANSI)
ASC Auditor Security Collection
ASC Authorized Service/Support Center

Seite 120
ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (IBM)
ASCI Accelerated/Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASCIIZ ASCII String, Zero Terminated
ASCOM Asynchronous Communication Control Program
ASD Adaptive Software Development
ASD Application Structure Database
ASD Automatic Skip Driver
ASDF Another System Definition Facility
ASDF Association of Synchronous Data Formats
ASDF Average Squared Difference Function
ASE Advanced Server Environment
ASE Amplified Spontaneous Emission
ASEA Allm�nna Svenska Electricitets-Aktiebolag, Schweden
ASF Active Movie Streaming Format
ASF Active/Advanced Streaming Format
ASF Apache Software Foundation
ASF Aspect Source Flag
ASI Adapter Support Interface (IBM)
ASI Alarm-Signal-Initialisierung
ASI Application Specific Instruction
ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASIN Amazon Standard Identification Number
ASIO Audio Stream Input Output
ASIP Application Specific Instruction Set Processor
ASIS Ada Semantic Interface Specification
ASIS American Society for Industrial Security
ASIS American Society for Information Science
ASIT Advanced Security and Identification Technology
ASK Akademische Software Kooperation, Karlsruhe
ASK Amplitude Shift Keying
ASL ACPI (Control Method) Source Language
ASL Adaptive Speed Levelling
ASL Architectural Space Laboratory, Z�rich
ASLM Apple Shared Library Manager
ASLR Address Space Layout Randomization
ASM Abstract State Machine
ASM Any Source Multicast
ASM Application Specific Memory
ASM Automated Storage Management
ASMP Asymmetric Multi Processing
ASN Abstract Syntax Notation
ASN Access Stack Node
ASN Autonomous System Number
ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation One (ISO, CCITT)
ASO Active Sideband Optimum
ASO Address Supporting Organization

Seite 121
ASO Automated Systems Operation
ASP Active Server Page/Pages
ASP Advanced Signal Processor
ASP Advanced Simple Profile
ASP Allegiance Site License Program
ASP AppleTalk Session Protocol
ASP Application Service Provider
ASP Association of Shareware Professionals
ASP Attached Support Processor
ASP Authorized Service Provider/Providing
ASPEC Adaptive Spectral Perceptual Entropy Encoding
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
ASPM Active State Power Management
ASPS Advanced Signal Processing System
ASQ Automated Software Quality
ASR Ada Software Repository
ASR Address Space Register
ASR Automatic Send Receive
ASR Automatic Speech Recognition
ASR Automatic System Recovery
ASRO Asociata de Standardizare din Romania
ASS Aural Style Sheet
AST Anwendungsschnittstelle
ASTA Anti Spam Technical Alliance
ASTAB Asychronous Status Board
ASTRA Association Tunesienne des Radio Amateurs
ASU Asynchron/Synchron-Umsetzer
ASUG America's SAP Users' Group
ASV Advanced Super View
AT Atomic Time
AT Advanced/Assistive Technology
AT Attention (Hayes)
AT Attenuator
ATA Analog Telefon/Terminal Adapter
ATA AT (Bus) Attachment (Interface)
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment
ATAPI AT Attachment Packet Interface
ATB All Trunks Busy
ATC Adaptive Transform Coding
ATC Address Translation Cache
ATC Advanced Transfer Cache
ATC ATM Transfer Capability
ATCA Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture
ATCP AppleTalk Control Protocol
ATDM Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexing
ATDMA Advanced/Asynchronous Time Division Multiple Access
ATDP Attention Dial Pulse (Hayes)

Seite 122
ATDT Attention Dial Tone (Hayes)
ATE Automated/Automatic Test/Testing Equipment
ATF Automatic Track Finding/Following
ATF Asynchronous Transfer
ATFSM Ask The Friendly System Manager (Slang)
ATH Abbreviated Trouble History
ATH Attention Hangup (Hayes)
ATIM Ad-hoc Traffic Indication Map/Message
ATIP Absolute Time In Pregroove
ATIS A Tools Integration Standard
ATIS Automatic Terminal Information Service
ATIS Automatic Transmitter Identification System
ATK Andrew Toolkit
ATKIS Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches Informationssystem
ATL Active Template Library
ATL Automatic Tape Library
ATLAS Abreviated Test Language for All Systems
ATM Adobe Type/Typeface Manager
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATM At The Moment (Slang)
ATM Automated/Automatic Teller Machine
ATMARP ATM Address Resolution Protocol
ATM-CC ATM Crossconnect
ATMP Ascend Tunnel Management Protocol
ATN Aeronautical Telecommunications Network
ATO Assemble/Assembly To Order
ATOM Advanced Terminal for Operation and Maintenance
ATP Acceptance Test Procedure
ATP AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
ATP Adaptive Tolerant Protocol
ATPS AppleTalk Printing Services
ATR Answer To Reset
ATR Attribute
ATR Automatic Terminal Recognition
ATRAC Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding
ATRC Adaptive Technology Resource Center, U. of Toronto
ATS Administrative Terminal System
ATS Advanced Training Solution
ATS Apple Terminal Services
ATS Author Title Subject
ATS Automatic Transfer Switch
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee
ATST At The Same Time (Slang)
AT&T American Telephone and Telegraph
ATT Attenuator
ATT At This Time (Slang)
ATTC Advanced Television Test Center, USA

Seite 123
ATV Advanced/Amateur Television
ATX Advanced Technology Extended
AU Administrative/Arithmetic/Access Unit
AUA Architecture Unifiee d'Applications
AUC Authentication/Authority Centre
AUDIT Automated/Automatic Data Input Terminal
AUE Andrew User Environment
AUFS Another Union Files System
AUG Apollo/Arcnet User Group
AUGE Apple User Group Europe
AUI Archiver User Interface
AUI Attached/Attachment Unit/Universal Interface (Ethernet)
AUIS Andrew User Interface System
AUP Acceptable/Appropriate Use Policy (Internet)
AUTEX Automatische Telex- und Teletexauskunft der DBP
AUX Auxiliary
AUX Apple UNIX
AV Antivirus
AV audio-visuell, Audio-Video
AV Authenticity Verification
AVA Audio Visual Authoring (IBM)
AVA Anruf-Variante
AVA Attribute Value Assertion
AVC Access Vector Cache
AVC Advanced Video Coding
AVC Audio Visual Connection
AVC Automatic Volume Control
AVC Audio Visual Connection (IBM)
AVCD Audio Visual Computer Display
AVCHD Advanced Video Codec High Definition
AVD Alternate Voice or Data
AVERT Antivirus Emergency Response Team (NAI)
AVERZTXTTX Amtliches Telex- und Teletexverzeichnis der DBP
AVG Average
AVI Audio Video/Visual Interleave/Interleaved (Microsoft)
AVI Audiovisuelle Integration
AVI Advanced Visual Interface
AVIA Architecture for Virtual Interfaces for Applications
AVK Application Verification Kit
AVK Audio-Video Kernel
AVL Adelson-Velskij, Landis (-Baum)
AVN Adobe Virtual Network
AVON Amtliches Verzeichnis der Ortsnetze
AVP Attribute Value Pair
AVR Automatic Voice Recognition
AVRCP Audio Video Remote Control Profile
AVS Advanced Visual System

Seite 124
AVS Altersverifikationssystem
AVS Application Visualization System (IBM)
AVSM Audio-Visual Storage Manager
AVSP Advanced Video Signal Processor
AVSS Audio-Video Subsystem Software
AVVID Architecture for Voice, Video and Integrated Data (Cisco)
AWA A While Ago (Slang)
AWADO Automatischer Wechselschalter in der Anschlussdose
AWB A While Back (Slang)
AWC Association of Women in Computing
AWCG Add With Carry (random number) Generator
AWD Automatische W�hleinrichtung f�r Datenverbindungen
AWE Address Windowing Extensions
AWE Advanced Workstation Environment
AWF Ausbildung, Weiterbildung, Fortbildung
AWG American Wire Gauge
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
AWGTHTGTTAAre We Going To Have To Go Through This Again? (Slang)
AWHFY Are We Having Fun Yet? (Slang)
AWL Anweisungsliste (DIN 19 239)
AWL Auswahl-Logik
AWL Auto Whitelist
AWS Administrative Workstation
AWS Advanced Workstations and Systems (group) (IBM)
AWS Amazon Web Services
AWS Apple Workgroup Server
AWS Anrufweiterschaltung
AWS Anwendungssoftware
AWT Abstract/Advanced Window/Windowing Toolkit
AWU Auto Wake Up
AX Automatic Transmission
AXE Applications Execution Environment
AXTLK Alien Crosstalk
AXU Application Specific Execution Unit
AYOR At Your Own Risc (Slang)
AYST Are You Still There? (Slang)
AZ Azimut
AZB Anzeige-Befehl
B Basic, Binary, Bit, Block, British, Bus, Business, Byte
B Backward
B Bandwidth
B2B Business To Business
B2C Business To Consumer
B2E Business To Employee
B2P Business To Private

Seite 125
B4 Before (Slang)
B4N Bye For Now (Slang)
BA Busankoppler
BAC Balanced Asynchronous Class
BAC Basic Access Control
BACP Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol
BAD Broken As Designed
BAG Buchh�ndlerische Abrechnungsgesellschaft
BAI Basic Rate Interface
BAK Back At Keyboard (Slang)
BAK Backup
BAK Binary Adaption Kit (Microsoft)
BAKT Basisanschlusskonzentrator
BAL Basic Assembly Language
BALUN Balanced Unbalanced (transformator)
BAM Berkeley Abstract Machine
BAM Block Availability Map
BAM Boyan Action Module
BAM Bundesanstalt f�r Materialpr�fung, Berlin
BAN Body Area Network
BAP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol
BAPI Biometric Application Program Interface
BAPI Business Application Programming Interface
BAPT Bundesamt Post und Telekommunikation, Mainz
BARRNET Bay Area Regional Research Network
BARTS Bell Atlantic Regional Timesharing
BAS Bild-Austast-Synchron(-Signal)
BAS Bitrate Allocation Signal
BAS Btx Anwendungsschnittstelle
BASH Bourne Again Shell
BASIC Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BASIS Battelle Automated Search Information System
BASM Built-In Assembler
BAT Baby AT Board
BAT Block Address Translation
BATC Block Address Translation Cache
BATV Bounce Address Tag Validation
BAZ Belegauswertung von Zahlungsvorg�ngen
BB Bandwidth Broker
BB Base Band
BB beschr�nkt balanciert (Baum)
BBAE Breitband-Anschluss-Einheit (DSL-Splitter)
BBAN Basic Bank Account Number
BBC British Broadcasting Corporation
BBCI Berlin Brain/Bregen Computer Interface
BBK Basic/Business Bookkeeping
BBK Be Back Ok? (Slang)

Seite 126
BBK Berkom Berliner Kommunikationssystem
BBK Berliner Bibliothekswissenschaftliches Kolloquium
BBK Birkbeck University of London
BBK Breitbandkabel (auch BK)
BBK Broadcast Block
BBK Buchf�hrung, Bilanzierung, Kostenrechnung
BBL Be Back Later (Slang)
BBN Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. (Internet)
BBNS Broadband Network Services
BBR Backbone Ring
BBR Burnt Beyond Recognition (Slang)
BBRA Bad Block Relocation Area
BBS Band-Betriebssystem
BBS BIOS Boot Select/Specification
BBS Bulletin Board System
BC Begin Chain
BC Business Class
BCA Burst Cutting Area
BCAM Basic Communication Access Method
BCC Blind Carbon Copy
BCC Block Check/Checking Character
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCD Barcode Decal
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
BCE Bell Canada Enterprises
BCF Bandwidth Change Confirmation
BCFSK Binary Coded Frequency Shift Keying
BCH Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (-Code)
BCI Batibus Club International
BCI Broadcast Interference
BCL Base Class Libraries
BCL Batch Command Language
BCL Broadcast Listener
BCM Bachelor of Computer and Mathematical Sciences
BCM Back Channel Message
BCM Basic Call/Connection Management/Manager
BCM Basic Computing Module
BCM Basic Control Monitor
BCM Battery/Bound Control Module
BCM Binary Coded Matrix
BCM Bit Clock Model
BCM Bit Compression Multiplexer
BCM Block Coded Modualtion
BCM Broadcast Manager (IBM)
BCM Bus Converter Module
BCN Beacon
BCNF Boyce Codd Normal Form

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BCNU Be Seeing You (Slang)
BCP Best Current Practice
BCP Binary/Byte/Bridging Control Protocol
BCP Bridging Control Protocol
BCP Bulk Copy Program
BCPL Basic Computer/Combined Programming Language
BCR Byte Count Register
BCS Bar Code Sorter
BCS BASF Computer Services
BCS Black Check Sequence
BCS Boeing Computer Services
BCS British Computer Society
BCTS Backup Courier Time Server
BD Blu-ray Disc
BDA BIOS Data Area
BDA Broadcast Driver Architecture
BDC Backup Domain Controller
BDD Business Desktop Deployment
BDE Betriebsdatenerfassung
BDE BitLocker Drive Encryption
BDE Borland Database Engine
BDF Binary Distribution Format
BDF Bitmap Description/Display Format
BDF Bitmap Distribution Format (Adobe)
BDK Beans Development Kit
BDLC Burroughs Data Link Control
BDLS Bidirectional Loop Switching
BDO Bidrectional Overwrite
BDOS Basic Disk Operating System
BDP Bandwidth Delay Product
BDPP Biometric Device Protection Profile
BDR Beowulf Design Rules
BDR Bus Device Request
BDSC Britisch Document Supply Center
BDSG Bundesdatenschutzgesetz
BDSL Broadband Digital Subscriber Line
BDU Brain Dead User (Slang)
BE Below or Equal
BE Beschaltungseinheit
BE Burst Error
BEB Binary Exponential Backoff
BECN Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
BEDO Burst Extended Data Out (DRAM)
BEE Bertelsmann Electronic Edition
BEEP Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol
BEER Binary Error Exchange Rate
BEL Bell (ASCII-Zeichen Nr. 7)

Seite 128
BELLCORE Bell Communications Research, Inc.
BELUG Bellevue Linux Users Group
BEM Boundary Element Method
BEN Best�tigungsnummer
BEP Bertelsmann Electronic Publishing
BER Basic Encoding Rules
BER Bit/Block Error Rate
BERKOM Berliner Kommunikationssystem
BERT Bit Error Rate Test/Tester
BESYS Bell Operating System
BETC Between Chain
BEV Boot Entry Vector
BF Bad Flag
BF Boundary Function
B/F Background/Foreground
BFBI Brute Force and Bloody Ignorance (Slang)
BFDI Bundesbeauftragter f�r Datenschutz und Informationsfreiheit
BFF Binary File Format
BFI Brute Force and Ignorance (Slang)
BFMI Brute Force and Massive Ignorance (Slang)
BFN British Forces Network
BFN Bye For Now (Slang)
BFO Beat Frequency Oscillator
BFS Be File System (BeOS)
BFS Big File Scanner
BFS Bitfile Server
BFS (Unixware) Boot File System
BFS Breadth First Search
BFT Binary File Transfer
BFTP Batch/Background File Transfer Protocol
BFU Betriebsf�hrungsumsetzer
BFU Brain Free User (Slang)
BFV Betriebs-F�hrungs-Vorfeldrechner
BG Background
BG Big Grin (Slang)
BG Black Generation
BGA Ball Grid Array
BGE Branch if Greater or Equal
BGI Borland's Graphics Interface
BGM Background Menu
BGMP Border Gateway Multicast Protocol
BGP Border Gateway Protocol (Internet)
BGT Branch if Greater Than
BH Bottom Half
BH Branch and Hang
BHCA Busy Hour Call Attempts
BHI Branch if Higher

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BHIS Branch if Higher or Same
BHLI Broadband High Level Information
BHMD Binocular Helmet Mounted Display
BHO Browser Helper Object
BHOF Bald Headed Old Fart (Slang)
BHP Bayerische Hacker-Post
BHT Branch History Table
BI Binary Input
BI Breidbart Index
BI Broadcast Invite
BI Business Intelligence
BIA Bump In the API
BIB Bus Interface Board
BIBOP Big Bag Of Pages
BIC Bank Identifier Code
BICI Broadband Inter Carrier Interface
BICS Beratungsstelle f�r informationstechnische Bildung und Computereinsatz in Schulen, Berlin
BICS Binnenvaart Informatie en Communicatie Systeem
BIDI Bidirectional
BIDS Broadband Internet Delivery System
BIFET Bipolar Field Effect Transistor
BIFF Binary Interchange File Format
BIFS Binary Format For Scenes
BIGFON Breitbandiges Integriertes Glasfaser-Fernmelde-Ortsnetz
BILLI Buried Implanted Layer for Lateral Isolation
BIM Begin of Information Marker
BIMOS Bipolar Metal Oxide Semiconductor
BIN Bachelor of Information Networking
BINAC Binary Automatic Computer
BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain
BINHEX Binary Hexadecimal
BION Believe It Or Not (Slang)
BIOS Basic Input Output System
BIP Basic Imaging Profile
BIP Bit-Interleaved Parity
BIPM Bipartite Matching Code
BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
BIPS Billions Instructions Per Second
BIS Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem
BIS Business Information System
BISDN Broadband/Breitband-ISDN
BIST Built-In Self Test
BISYNC Binary Synchronous Communication Protocol (IBM)
BIT Base Item Type
BIT Basic Interconnection Test
BIT Basic Interface Telephone
BIT Because It's Time (network)

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BIT Binary Digit
BIT Bipolar Integrated Technology
BIT Board of Information Technology
BIT Broadband Information Technology
BIT Broadband Internet Terminal
BIT Built-In Testing
BIT Business and Information Technology
BIT Business Internet Trends
BIT Bytecode Instrumenting Tool
BITD Back In The Day (Slang)
BITKOM Bundesverband Informationswirtschaft, Telekommunikation und Neue Medien
BITNET Because It's Time Network (ein NJE-Netz)
BITNIC Bitnet Network Information Center
BITS Background Intelligent Transfer Service
BITV Verordnung zur Schaffung barrierefreier Informationstechnik nach dem Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz
BIU Basic Information Unit
BIU Bus Interface Unit
BIW Business Intelligence Warehouse
BIX Byte Information Exchange (ein BBS)
BJ Backjumping
BJC Bubblejet Color
BJOERN Balanced Job Execution on Remote Network
BK Break In
BK Breitbandkabel (auch BBK)
BK B�rokommunikation
BKH Bekennender Konsolen-/Kommandozeilen-Heini (Slang)
BKL Big Kernel Lock
BKS Bundesverband Kabel + Satellit
BKZ Bereichskennzahl (Datex, Btx)
BL Backlit
BL Betriebslenkung
BL Bit Line
BLACS Basic Linear Algebra Communication Routines
BLADE Basic Linear Algebra for Distributed Environments
BLAM Binary Logarithmic Arbitration Method
BLAS Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines
BLAST Bell Labs Layered Space Time
BLAST Blocked Asynchronous Transmission (Protocol)
BLC Beam Landing Correction
BLE Branch if Less or Equal
BLER Block Error Rate
BLERA Block Error Rate After Recording
BLERB Block Error Rate Before Recording
BLERT Block Error Rate Test
BLI Business Logic Integration
BLK Betriebs-Lenkungs-Konzentrator
BLK Block

Seite 131
BLLI Broadband Low Level Information
BLM Bayerische Landeszentrale f�r Neue Medien, M�nchen
BLMC Buried Logic Macrocell
BLOB Binary Large Object
BLOC Brutto Lines Of Code
BLOG (short for:) Weblog, World Wide Web Logbook
BLOS Branch if Lower or Same
BLR Beacon-Less Routing
BM Backmarking
BM Bitonic Merge (Graph, Netz)
BM Burst Mode
BM Byte Me (Slang)
BMC Block Multiplex Channel
BMI Branch if Minus
BMIC Bus Master Interface Controller (Intel)
BMJ Backmarking with Backjumping
BMP Basic Mapping Support
BMP Basic Multilingual Plane (Unicode)
BMP Batch Message Processing (Program)
BMP Bitmap
BMPP Bulk Mail Preferences Protocol
BMPT Bundesministerium f�r Post- und Telekommunikation
BMS Broadcast Message Server
BMUG Berkeley MacIntosh Users Group
BNA Bundesnetzagentur
BNC Baby N Connector
BNC Bayonet Neill Concelman
BNC Bayonet Nut Coupling
BNC Brain Not Connected (Slang)
BNE Branch if Not Equal
BNEP Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol
BNF Backus-Naur Form
BNF Big Name Fan (Slang)
BNFSCD But Now For Something Completely Different (Slang)
BNI Before Next Interaction
BNK Betriebsf�hrungs-Netzknoten
BNPF Begin Negative Positive Finish
BNS Backbone Network Service
BNS Broadband Network Services
BNU Basic Network/Networking Utilities (uucp)
BO Back Orifice
BO Binary Output
BO Bit Oxide (Garbage)
BOA Basic Object Adapter
BOART Bus Oriented Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
BOB Box Of Bits
BOB Break-Out Box

Seite 132
BOC Basic Operator Console
BOC Bell Operating Company
BOD Bandwidth/Book On Demand
BOF Begin Of File
BOF Birds Of a Feather (Slang)
BOF Board of Fellows
BOFH Bastard Operator From Hell
BOFS Birds Of a Feather Session (Slang)
BOG BIND Operations Guide
BOI Balkan/Baltic Olympiad in Informatics
BOINC Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing
BOM Basic Online Memory
BOM Begin Of Message/Media
BOM Bill Of Materials
BOM Business Object Model
BOM Byte Order Mark
BON Business Object Notation
BOND Bandwidth On Demand
BONT Broadband Optical Network Termination
BOOM Binocular Omni-Oriented/Orientation Monitor
BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol (Internet)
BOP Begin Of Page/Partition
BOP Bit Oriented Protocol
BOPS Billion Operations Per Second
BOR Basic Output Report
BORE Broken Once Running Everywhere
BORQU Borland Quattro
BOS Basic Operating System
BOS Basic OverSeer (Server)
BOS Beh�rden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben
BOS Bottom Of Stack
BOSS Bharat Operating System Solutions
BOSS Business Office Servicing System
BOT Back On Topic (Slang)
BOT Begin Of Tape/Table/Transaction
BP Bandpass
BP Base Pointer
BP Breakpoint
BPB BIOS Parameter Block
BPD Bank-Parameter-Datei
BPD Border Protection Device
BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit
BPEL Business Process Execution Language
BPF Band Pass Filter
BPF Berkeley Packet Filter
BPF Breakpoint Function
BPH Break Permitted Here

Seite 133
BPI bits per inch
BPJM Bundespr�fstelle f�r jugendgef�hrdende Medien
BPL Bedienplatz
BPL Branch if Plus
BPL Broadband Over Powerline
BPL Bugs Per Line
BPM Bundespostministerium
BPM Business Performance Management
BPM Business Process Management/Modelling
BPO Business Process Outsourcing
BPP Basic Printing Profile
BPP Binary Packing Problem
BPP Bits Per Pixel
BPP Bounded error, Probabilistic, Polynomial time
BPR Business Process Reengineering
BPS bits/bytes per second
BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying
BPU Branch Prediction Unit
BQP Bounded error, Quantum, Polynomial time
BQS Berkeley Quality Software
BR Bad Register
BR Bit Rate
BRAM Broadcast Recognizing Access Method
BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server
BRB Be Right Back (Slang)
BRD Blu-ray Disc
BRE Basic Regular Expression
BREAD Browse, Read, Edit, Add, Delete
BREP Boundary Representation
BRGC Binary Reflected Gray Code
BRI Basic Rate Interface (ISDN)
BRI Brain Response Interface
BRIM Bridge Router Interface Module
BRJ Bandwidth Change Reject
BRL Ballistics Research Laboratory
BRQ Bandwidth Change Request
BRS Bibliographic Retrieval System
BRS Big Red Switch (IBM PC)
BRS Break Request Signal
BRS Business Recovery Services (IBM)
BS Backspace
BS Base Station
BS Betriebssystem
BS Bitonic Sort (Graph)
BS Broadcast Satellite
BSA Bitstrom-Anschluss
BSA Business Software Alliance

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BSAM Basic Sequential Access Method
BSB Blockate State Block
BSC Base Station Controller
BSC Binary Synchronous Communications
BSC Bisynchronous/Binary Synchronous Communication (IBM)
BSC Boyan Script
BSCW Basic Support for Cooperative Work
BSD Basic Standard Definiton
BSD Berkeley Software/Source/System Design/Distribution
BSDL Boundary Scan Description Language
BSF Bit Scan Forward
BSF But Seriously Folks (Slang)
BSI British Standards Institute
BSI Bundesamt f�r Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik
BSM Basic Storage Module
BSM Bracket State Manager
BSMTP Batch Simple Message Transfer Protocol
BSOD Blue Screen Of Death
BSP Binary Space Partition/Partitioning
BSP Bug Squashing Party
BSP Bulk Synchronous Parallel (Processing)
BSP Byte Stream Protocol
BSR Betriebssystem f�r Reelle Speicher
BSR Bit Scan Reverse
BSR Board of Standards Review (ANSI)
BSRAM Burst Static Random Access Memory
BSS Base Station Subsystem
BSS Basic Service Set (WLAN)
BSS Blank Storage Space
BSS Blind Source Separation
BSS Block Started by Symbol
BSS Block Storage Segment
BSS Broadband Switching System
BSS Business Support System
BSSID Basic Service Set Identifier
BST Binary Search Tree
BSU Basic Striping Unit
BSV Betriebssystem f�r Virtuelle Adressierung
BSY Busy
BSYNC Binary Synchronous Communications (Protocol)
BT Bit Test
BT Bluetooth
BT British Telecom/Telecommunications
BT Burst Tolerance
BTA But Then Again (Slang)
BTAC Branch Target Address Cache
BTAIM Be That As It May (Slang)

Seite 135
BTAM Basic Telecommunication Access Method (IBM)
BTB Branch Target Buffer
BTC Bit Test and Complement
BTC Biting The Carpet (Slang)
BTC Broadband Transfer Capability
BTDT Been There Done That (Slang)
BTHOM Beats The Hell Outta Me (Slang)
BTI British Telecom International
BTI Business Type Identifier
BTIC But Then, I'am Crazy (Slang)
BTK Back To Keyboard (Slang)
BTL Bell Telephone Laboratories
BTLB Block TLB
BTMA Busy Tone Multiple Access
BTO Built To Order
BTOA Binary To ASCII
BTP Banana Tree Protocol
BTP Batch Transfer Program
BTP Business Transaction Protocol
BTR Bit Test and Reset
BTRFS B-Tree File System
BTS Base Transceiver Station/System
BTS Bit Test and Set
BTS Bug Tracking System
BTSOOM Beats The Shit Out Of Me (Slang)
BTU Basic Transmission Unit
BTW By The Way (Slang)
BTX Balanced Technology Extended
BTX Bildschirmtext
BU Branch Unit
BUAF Big Ugly ASCII Font
BUAG Big Ugly ASCII Graphic
BUBL Bulletin Board for Libraries
BUCS Budgeting and Computing System
BUF Buffer
BUMS Broadband Unified Messaging System
BUP Backup (file)
BUP Buffer Underrun Protection
BUS Bild und Schrift
BUS Binary Utility System
BUS Broadcast and Unknown Server
BUUG Belgian UNIX Users Group
BVB Bundesverband Informations- und Kommunikationssysteme
BVD Boot Volume Descriptor
BVDM Bundesverband Druck und Medien
BVDW Bundesverband Digitale Wirtschaft
BVH Base Video Handler

Seite 136
BVIT Bundesverband Informationstechnologien, Bonn
BVSE Bundesverband f�r Sekund�rrohstoffe und Entsorgung
BVSI Bundesverband der Selbst�ndigen in der Informatik
BVV Bundesverband Audiovisuelle Medien
BW Bandwidth
BWA Broadband Wireless Access
BWF Broadcast Wave Format
BWIN Breitband Wissenschafts-Netz
BWM Block Write Mode
BWQ Buzz Word Quotient
BWSN Baden-W�rttembergisches Schulnetz
BWT Broadband Wireless Technology
BWT Burrows Wheeler Transformation
BYKT But You Knew That (Slang)
BYP Bypass
BZ Betriebszentrale
BZR Befehlz�hlregister
BZT Bundesamt f�r Zulassungen in der Telekommunikation
BZV Bargeldloser/Belegorientierter Zahlungsverkehr
BZV Befristeter Z�hlervergleich
BZVD Beratungszentrum f�r Videokonferenzdienste, Dresden
C Cable, Communication, Computer, Conference, Control
C2C Consumer To Consumer
C2CC Car To Car Communication
C2D Character To Decimal
C3I Command, Control, Communication, Intelligence
C4 Command, Control, Communication + Computers
CA Cable
CA Call Agent
CA Cellular Automaton
CA Certification Authority
CA Collision Avoidance
CA Common Applications
CA Computer Animation
CA Computer Associates
CA Conditional Access
CAA Computer Aided Assembling/Anthropometrics/Animation
CAAD Computer Aided Architectural Design
CAB Cabinet (Microsoft)
CAB Compressed Application Binary
CAB Computer Aided Breakfast
CAC Carrier/Channel Access Code
CAC Computer Aided Consulting/Computing/Creativity/Christmas/Crime
CAC Connection Admission Control
CACLS Change Line Access Control Lists

Seite 137
CACM Communications of the ACM
CAD Class Association Diagram
CAD Computer Aided Design/Detection
CAD Computer Aided Dinner
CADAM Computer Aided Design And Manufacturing
CADAPSO Canadian Assosciation of Data Processing Organizations
CADD Computer Aided Design and Drafting
CADD Computer Aided Drug Design
CADE Client/Server Application Development Environment
CADE Computer Aided Data Entry
CADEP Computer Aided Design of Electronic Products
CADIC Computer Aided Design of Integrated Circuits
CADIS Computer Aided Design Interactive System (Siemens)
CADMAT Computer Aided Design, Manufacturing and Testing
CADMOS Computerorientiertes Administrations- und Organisationssystem
CADOS Computer Aided Design of Systems
CAE Client Application Enabler
CAE Common Applications Environment
CAE Computer Aided/Assisted Education
CAE Computer Aided Engineering
CAEN Chemically Assembled Electronic Nanocomputer
CAEX Computer Aided Exploration
CAF Computer Aided Fishing
CAF Computer and Academic Freedom
CAFE Conditional Access For Europe
CAFM Computer Aided Facilities Management
CAG Chassis Air Guide
CAG Column Adress Generator
CAH Computer Aided Holidays/Homework/Hausaufgaben
CAHN Cellular Assisted Heterogeneous Networking
CAI Common Air Interface
CAI Computer Aided Industry
CAI Computer Aided Inspiration
CAI Computer Aided/Assisted Instruction
CAIN Controlled Access by Individual Number
CAIR Comprehensive Assessment Information Rule
CAIRN Collaborative Advanced Interagency Research Network
CAIRS Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System
CAIS Common APSE Interface Set
CAIT Computer Aided Inspection and Testing
CAK Computer-Anwendungen Karlsruhe
CAL Client Access License
CAL Common Assembly Language
CAL Computer Aided Life/Learning/Lunch
CAL Computer Animation Language
CAL Conversational Algebraic Language
CALAS Computer Aided Laboratory Automation System

Seite 138
CALC Customer Access Line Charge
CALEA Communications Assistance for/to Law Enforcement Act
CALIES Computer Aided Locomotion by Implanted Electrical Stimulation
CALL Computer Aided/Assisted Language Learning
CALLE Control Application Link Layer Engineering
CALM Collected Algorithms for Learning Machines
CALS Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support
CALTECH California Institute of Technology
CAM Central Address Memory
CAM Common/Communication Access Method
CAM Computer Aided Machining/Manufacturing
CAM Concentrator/Conditional Access Module
CAM Conditional Access Module
CAM Content Addressable/Addressed Memory
CAMAC Computer Automated Measurement And Control
CAMD Computer Aided Molecular Design
CAMEL Computer Assisted Education Language
CAML Categorial Abstract Machine Language
CAMP Compiler for Automatic Machine Programming
CAMP Computer Assisted Movie Production
CAN Campus/Communications/Complete Area Network
CAN Cancel
CAN Cancel Line
CAN Car Area Network
CAN Community Alert Network
CAN Content Addressable Network
CAN Controller Area Network
CAN Customer Access Network
CANAL Catalog with Natural Language Access
CANS Computer Assisted Network System
CANUNET Canadian University Computer Network
CAO Computer Aided Administration and Organization
CAO Computer Aided Optimization
CAP Calendar Access Protocol
CAP Carrierless Amplitude Modulation/Phase Modulation
CAP Central Arbitration Point
CAP Columbia AppleTalk Package
CAP Common Alerting Protocol
CAP Communication Application Platform
CAP Competitive Access Provider
CAP Computer Aided Planning/Production/Publishing
CAP Computer Application Profile
CAP Computing for Analysis Project
CAP Content Access Point
CAP Continuous Audit Program
CAP CTM Access Profile
CAPD Computer To Assist Persons with Disabilities

Seite 139
CAPE Computer Aided Pattern Engineering
CAPE Concurrent Art-to-Product Environment
CAPI Common ISDN Application Programming Interface
CAPI Communication Application Program Interface
CAPP Carrierless Amplitude Phase
CAPP Computer Aided Printing and Publishing
CAPP Computer Aided Process/Production Planning
CAPP Computer Applications Program
CAPP Computer Assisted Payment Processing
CAPPC Computer Aided Production Planning and Control
CAPPP Computer Aided Process and Production Planning
CAPS Capitals (Gro�buchstaben)
CAPS Cassette Programming System
CAPS Computer Assisted Problem Solving
CAPSC Computer Aided Production Scheduling and Control
CAPTAIN Character and Pattern Telephon Access Information Network
CAPTCHA Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart
CAQ Computer Aided Quality Assurance/Control
CAR Committed Access Rate
CAR Computer Assisted Radiology
CAR Channel Address Register
CAR Compressed Audio Recording
CAR Computer Aided Retrieval
CARA Computer Aided Radio Amateur
CARAM Content Addressable Random Access Memory
CARD Cluster Aware Remote Disk
CARDIS Cargo Data Interchange System
CARE Computer Aided Reliability Estimation
CARE Computer Aided Reverse Engineering
CARL Chemisches Aufweiten von Resist-Linien (Siemens)
CARL Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries
CARLOS Cancer Registry Lower Saxony
CARO Computer Anti-Virus Research Organization
CARP Caching RSS Parser
CARP Common Address Redundancy Protocol
CARS Computer Aided Risc Simulation
CARS Computer Aided Routing System
CARS Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
CART Computer Assisted Radar Tomography
CAS Collision Avoidance System
CAS Column Address Select/Strobe
CAS Communicating Applications Specification
CAS Computer Aided Selling/Service/Styling
CAS Computer Algebra System
CAS Conditional/Control/Communication Access System
CASC Coalition for Academic Supercomputer Centers
CASD Computer Aided System Design

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CASE Common Applications Service Element
CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering
CASE Computer Aided System Evaluation
CASL Common Algebraic Specification Language
CASL Crosstalk Application Scripting Language
CASS Computer Assisted Search Service
CASS Computer Assisted Surveillance System
CASSIS Classified And Search Support Information System
CAST Center for Applied Security Technology, Darmstadt
CAST Center for Applied Special Technology
CAST Competence Center for Applied Security Technology
CAST Computer Aided Software Testing
CAT Category
CAT Character Assignment Table
CAT Chordal Axis Transformation
CAT Common Allocation Table
CAT Common Authentication Technology
CAT Computer Adaptive Test
CAT Computer Aided Teaching/Testing/Telecommunication/Translation/Transscription
CAT Computerized Axial Tomography
CAT Concatenate
CAT Conditionally Accepted Tag
CATIA Computer Graphic Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application
CATNIP Common Architecture for Next Generation Internet Protocol
CATP Computer Aided Technical Publishing
CATS Computer Aided/Assisted Teaching/Tracking/Training System
CATS Computer Aided Telephony Services
CATS Computer Automated Test System
CATT China Academy of Telecommunication Technology
CATV Cable Television
CATV Common/Community Antenna Television
CAU Command and Arithmetic Unit
CAU Control/Controlled/Concentrator Access Unit
CAUCE Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email
CAV Computer Aided Verification
CAV Constant Angular Velocity
CAVE Cave/Computer Automatic Virtual Environment
CAVE Computer Aided Vision Engineering
CAW Channel Address Word
CB Call Back
CB Cell Broadcast
CB Citizens' Band
CBA Compare and Branch Anyway
CBA Computational Biology Activity
CBA Computer Based Assessment/Automation
CBA Computer Battery Analyzer
CBA Current Buffer/Byte Address

Seite 141
CBAC Context Based Access Control
CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
CBC Cipher Block Chaining
CBCR Channel Byte Count Register
CBDS Connectionless Broadband Data Service
CBDTPA Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act
CBE Cell Broadband Engine
CBEFF Common Biometric Exchange Format Framework
CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers' Association
CBGA Ceramic Ball Grid Array
CBI Charles Babbage Insitute
CBI Computer Based Instruction/Instrumentation
CBI Crossbar Interface
CBIP Compressed Binaries IBM PC
CBIP Current Book In Progress
CBIR Content Based Image Retrieval
CBIRS Content Based Image Retrieval System
CBJ Conflict-directed Backjumping
CBL Communication By Light
CBL Computer Based Learning
CBMS Computer Based Mail System
CBN Community Based Network
CBO Coupling Between Object Classes
CBQ Class Based Queuing
CBR CAS before RAS
CBR Constant/Continuous Bit Rate
CBR Content Based Retrieval
CBS Crossbar Switch
CBT Computer Based Training
CBT Core Based Tree
CBW Convert Byte to Word
CBX Computer-controlled/Computerized Branch Exchange
CC Cable Connector
CC Call/Communication Center
CC Carbon Copy
CC Chain/Channel Command
CC Classification Code
CC Cluster/Communications Controller
CC Common Criteria (for IT Security Evaluation)
CC Condition Command/Code
CC Congestion Control
CC Connected Client
CC Country Code
CC Coupled Channel
CC Creative Commons
CC Crossconnect
CC Cursor Control

Seite 142
CC Cyclic Check
CCA Clear Channel Assessment
CCA Copy Control Association
CCB Change Control Board
CCB Channel Command/Control Block
CCB Cyclic Check Byte
CCBS Completion of Call to Busy Subscriber
CCC Ceramic Chip Carrier
CCC Change and Configuration Control
CCC Chaos Computer Club, Hamburg
CCC Computer Chess Competition
CCC Conference Control Channel
CCC Credit Card Calling
CCCB Command, Control, Communications in Buildings
CCCH Common Control Channel
CCD Charge Coupled Device
CCD Class Communication Diagram
CCE Configuration Control Element
CCF Central Computing Facility
CCF Chain Command Flag
CCF Common Channel Framework
CCFCC Computer Coordinated Family Communcation and Cooperation
CCFL Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp
CCFT Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube
CCI Common Client Interface
CCI Copy Control Information
CCIA Computer + Communications Industry Association
CCID Call Correlation Identifier
CCID Computers, Communications, Information Dissemination
CCID Corporate Customer Inforamtion Database
CCIE Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert
CCIR Comite Consultatif International des Radiocommunications
CCIRN Committee for Intercontinental Research Networks
CCIS Command and Control Information System
CCIS Common Channel Interoffice Signaling
CCITT Comite Consultatif International de Telegraphie et de Telephonie
CCK Centre de Calcul El Khawarizmi, Tunis
CCK Communication Commission of Kenya
CCK Complementary Code Keying
CCK Computerclub Kamen
CCL Closed Conference Loop
CCL Commerce Control List
CCL Common Command Language
CCL Connection/Cursor Control Language
CCL Corel Contractual Licensing
CCL Creative Commons License
CCLC Carrier Common Line Charge

Seite 143
CCLF Cold Cathode Fluorescence Light
CCM Color Management System
CCM Computer Controlled Manufacturing
CCM CORBA Component Mode/Model
CCM Counter with CBC-Mac
CCN Cluster Controller
CCN Cordless Communication Network
CCNA Cisco Certified Network Associate
CCNG Computer Communications Networks Group
CCNP Cisco Certified Network Professional
CCNR Completion of Call on No Reply
CCNUMA Cache Coherent NUMA
CCP CAN Calibration Protocol
CCP Certified Computing Professional
CCP Compression Control Protocol
CCP Concurrent Constraint Programming
CCP Console/Communications Command/Control Processor/Program
CCPP Composite Capability Preference Profile
CCR Center for Communications Research
CCR Command and Control Research
CCR Commitment, Concurrency, Recovery (OSI)
CCR Current Cell Rate
CCRN Coordinating Council on Research Networks
CCS CAPI Connection Service
CCS Closely Coupled System
CCS Colour Calibration System
CCS Common Channel Signalling
CCS Common Command Set (SCSI)
CCS Common Communication Services/Support
CCS Computing Classification System
CCS Continuos Composite Servo
CCS Cryptographic Checksum
CCSA Checkpoint Certified Security Administrator
CCSA Common Control Switching Arrangement
CCSB The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies, Karlsruhe
CCSD Cellular Circuit-Switched Data
CCSE Checkpoint Certified Security Engineer
CCSID Coded Character Set Identifier (IBM)
CCSIS Community College Student Information System
CCSP Contextually Communicating Sequential Process
CCSS7 Common Channel Signalling System No. 7
CCSY Cooperative Computing System Program
CCT Computerized Communication Terminal
CCTLD Country Code Top Level Domain
CCTV Closed Circuit Television
CCU Central Communication/Control Unit
CCU Communications Control Unit

Seite 144
CCU Customer Control Unit
CCUT Computer Center at the University of Tokyo
CCVP Cisco Certified Voice Professional
CCVR Centre de Calcul Vectoriel pour la Recherche
CCW Channel Command Word
CCW Coherent Continuous Wave
CCW Continuous Composite Write (Once Disc)
CCX Cisco Compatible Extension
CD Call Deflection
CD Carrier Detect
CD Chained Data
CD Change Direction/Directory
CD Collision Detection
CD Colour Display
CD Committee Document (ISO)
CD Compact Disk
CD Control Data
CD-R Compact Disk Recordable
CD-RW Compact Disk Re-Writable
CDA Clinical Document Architecture
CDA Communications Decency Act
CDA Compact Disk Audio (track)
CDA Compound Document Architecture (DEC)
CDAS Control and Data Acquisition System
CDATA Character Data
CDB Consolidated Database
CDBT Compact Disk Based Training
CDC Certificate Distribution Center
CDC Connected Device Configuration
CDC Control Data Corporation (USA)
CDC Cult of the Dead Cow
CDD Custom Debian Distribution
CDDA Compact Disc Digital Audio
CDDB Compact Disc Data Base
CDDI Copper Distributed Data Interface
CDDL Common Development and Distribution License (Sun)
CDE Common Desktop Environment
CDE Compact Disc Erasable
CDE Complex Data Entry
CDE Cooperative Development Environment
CDEV Control Panel Device
CDF Channel Definition File/Format
CDF Comma Delimited Format
CDF Common Data File/Format
CDF Compound Document Framework
CDF Context Dependent File
CDF Cyberspace Description Format

Seite 145
CDFS Compact Disc File System
CDG Compact Disc Graphical
CDI Compact Disc Interactive
CDI Context Dependent Interchangeability
CDIA Certified Document Imaging Architect
CDIF Case Data Interchange Format
CDISC Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium
CDL Computer Design Language
CDM Code Division Multiplex
CDM Compressed Data Mode
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDMF Commercial Data Masking Facility
CDN Content Delivery Network
CDNC Chinese Domain Name Consortium
CDO Collaboration Data Object
CDOS Concurrent Disk Operating System
CDP Certificate in Data Processing
CDP Cisco Discovery Protocol
CDP Conditional Diphase (Encoding)
CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data
CDR Call Detail Record/Recording
CDR Common Data Representation
CDR Compact Disk Recordable
CDR Corel Draw Format
CDRA Character Data Representation Architecture
CDRAM Cached Dynamic Random Access Memory
CDRDX Compact Disk Read Only Memory Data Exchange Standard
CDRFS Compact Disc Recordable File System
CDRL Contract Data Requirements List
CDROM Compact Disk Read Only Memory
CDROMXA CD-ROM Extended Architecture
CDS Cactus Data Shield
CDS Cell Directory Service (OSF, DCE)
CDS Class Data Sharing
CDS Cross Domain Solution
CDS Current Directory Structure
CDSA Common Data Security Architecture (Initiative)
CDSL Consumer Digital Subscriber Line
CDSL Context Dependent Symbolic Link
CDT Center for Democracy and Technology (USA)
CDTV Commodore Dynamic Total Vision
CDTV Compact Disk Television
CDU Central Data Unit
CDU Classification Decimale Universelle
CDU Code Distribution Unit
CDU Computers Down Under
CDU Configuration Data Unit

Seite 146
CDU Connectix Desktop Utilities
CDU Control Data Unit
CDV Compact Disk Video
CDV Cell Delay Variation
CDVT Cell Delay Variation Tolerance
CDWO Compact Disk Write Once
CE Cache/Chip/Convert Enable
CE Clear Entry
CE Collision Elimination
CE Conformite Europeenne (Konformit�tskennzeichen)
CE Consumer Electronics
CE Customer Edge (device)
CEASA Cellular Emergency Alert Service Association
CEATA Consumer Electronics Advanced Technology Attachment
CEB Comite Electrotechnique Belge
CEB Conditional End Bracket
CEBIT Centrum f�r B�ro, Information und Telekommunikation
CEBUS Consumer Electronics Bus
CEC Certified E-Commerce Consultant
CECC Electronic Components Committee
CECMG Central Europe Computer Measurement Group
CECP Country Extended Code Page
CEDEX Courrier d'entreprise distribution exceptionelle
CEFIC EDIFACT-Subset Chemical Industry
CEG Continuous Edge Graphics
CEI Conducted Electromagnetic Interference
CEIP Customer Experience Improvement Program
CEK Content Encryption Key
CELP Card Edge Low Profile
CELP Code Excited Linear Prediction
CELT Corpus of Electronic Texts
CEM Common Evaluation Methodology
CEM Computational Electromagnetics
CEMEC Committee of European Associations of Manufacturers of Electronic Components
CEMM Compaq Expanded Memory Manager
CEMS Constituent Electronic Mail System
CEN Comite Europeen de Normalisation
CENELEC Comite Europeen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
CENTR Council of European National Top level domain Registries
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CEOI Central European Olympiad in Informatics
CEOP Conditional End Of Page
CEP Connection End Point
CEPEC Committee of European Associations of Manufacturers of Passive Electronic Components
CEPIS Council of European Professional Informatics Societies
CEPT Conference Europeenne des Administrations des Postes et des Telecommunications
CER Canonical Encoding Rules

Seite 147
CER Cell Error Ratio
CERA Climate and Environmental Data Retrieval and Archive
CERF California Education and Research Federation (network)
CERN Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire
CERT Computer Emergency Response Team
CES Circuit Emulation Service
CES Coast Earth Station
CES Consumer Electronics Show
CESC Component Encoding Stream Construction
CESG Communications Electronics Security Group (UK)
CESH Competence Center Electronic Shopping
CEST Central European Summer Time
CESU Compatibility Encoding Scheme for UTF (Unicode)
CET Central European Time
CEV Commission on Electronic Voting
CF Call Forwarding
CF Compact Flash (Card)
CF Compact Framework
CFB Call Forwarding Busy
CFB Cipher Feedback
CFB Configurable Function Block
CFD Call For Discussion (Usenet)
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
CFDP Coherent File Distribution Protocol (Internet)
CFDPCLN Coherent File Distribution Protocol Client
CFDPTKT Coherent File Distribution Protocol Ticket
CFE Common Firmware Environment
CFE Connected Family Environment
CFG Configuration
CFH COBOL File Handler
CFI Canonical Format Indicator
CFL Context Free Language
CFM Clock From Master
CFM Code Fragment Manager
CFM Common Functional Model
CFM Configuration Management
CFML Cold Fusion Markup Language
CFNR Call Forward/Forwarding on No Reply/Response
CFOR Conversational FORTRAN
CFP Call For Proposal
CFP Computer, Freedom and Privacy
CFP Content/Contention Free Period
CFR Computerized Facial Recognition
CFR Controlled Ferro Resonant (-USV)
CFRI California Federation of Research Internets
CFS Caching/Central/Common/Cryptographic File System
CFS Completely Fair Scheduler

Seite 148
CFT Chirp Fourier Transform
CFT Cray Fortran Compiler
CFTT Computer Forensics Tool Testing
CFU Call Forwarding Unconditional
CFV Call For Votes (Usenet)
CG Computer Graphics
CG Control Gate
CG Core Gateway
CG Cyclic Group
CGA Color Graphics Adapter (PC)
CGAL Computational Geometry Algorithm Library
CGATS Committee for Graphic Arts Technologies Standards
CGE (Linux) Carrier Grade Edition
CGE Common Graphics Environment
CGE Compagnie General d'Electricite
CGI Common Gateway Interface
CGI Common/Composite/Computer Graphics Interface
CGI Computer Generated Image/Imagery
CGL Carrier Grade Linux
CGM Computer Graphics Metafile
CGMIF Computer Graphics Metafile Interchange Format
CGMS Copy Generation Management System
CGPP Computer Grahics: Principles and Practise (by Fowley)
CGS Common Graphics System
CGS Computer Graphics Society
CGS Continuous Grain Silicon
CGS International Computer Graphics Society
CGU Computer Graphics Unit
CGW Customer/Campus Gateway
CH Cyclic Header
CHAOS Cheap Array of Obsolete Systems
CHAP Cryptographic/Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CHARM Character Mode
CHAT Conversational Hypertext Access Technology
CHCK Channel Check
CHCP Change Code Page
CHDD Certified Help Desk Director
CHDD Cockpit Head Down Display
CHE Channel Hot Electron
CHI Computer Human Interaction/Interface
CHIC Constraint Handling in Industry and Commerce
CHIL Computers in the Human Interaction Loop
CHIL Current Hogging Injection Logic
CHILD Computer Having Intelligent Learning and Development
CHILL CCITT High Level Language
CHIPS Clearinghouse Interbank Payments System
CHKPT Checkpoint

Seite 149
CHL Current Hogging Logic
CHM Cooperative Hypermedia
CHOP Channel Operator
CHPC Center for High Performance Computing
CHR Character
CHR Constraint Handling Rules
CHRP Common Hardware Reference Platform
CHS Cylinders, Heads, Sectors
CHTML Compact/Compressed Hypertext Markup Language
CHV Card Holder Value
CI Call Intrusion
CI Coded Information
CI Command Interpreter
CI Common/Component/Computer Interface
CI Communications Integrator
CI Computational Intelligence
CI Computer Interconnect/Interface
CI Congestion Indicator
CI Continuous Integration
CI Control and Indication
CIA Computer Interface Adapter
CIA CAN In Automation
CIA Current Instruction Address
CIAC Computer Incident Advisory Capability
CIAM Computerized Integrated and Automatic Manufacturing
CIAO Component-Integrated ACE ORB
CIB Computer Integrated Building/Bureaucracy
CIC Carrier Identification Code
CIC Certified IT Consultant
CIC Committee on Institutional Cooperation
CIC Coordination and Information Center (CSNet)
CIC Computing Information Center
CIC Computing, Information + Communications
CICA Center of Innovative Computer Applications
CICS Customer Information Control System (IBM)
CID Charge Injection Device
CID Conference Identifier
CID Configuration, Installation, Distribution
CID Customer Identifier
CIDAS Conversational Interactive Digital Analog Simulator
CIDIF Centre International pour le Developpement de l'Inforoute en Francais
CIDP Computer Industry Development Potential
CIDR Classless Inter/Internet Domain Routing
CIE Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (Farbmodell)
CIELAB Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage LAB (Farbmodell)
CIEXYZ Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ (Farbmodell)
CIEDS Computer Integrated Electron Design Series

Seite 150
CIF Cell in Frames
CIF Computer Integrated Facilities
CIF Common Intermediate Format
CIF Customer Information Feed
CIFS Common Insecurity Fail Scrutiny
CIFS Common Internet File System (Protocol)
CIIN Corporate Integrated Information Network
CIIR Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, Mass.
CIK Crypto-Ignition Key
CIL Common Intermediate Language
CIL Computer Inoperative Limits
CIL Computerintegrierte Logistik
CIM Common Information Model
CIM CompuServe Information Manager
CIM Computer Input Microfilm
CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing
CIM Custom Install Manager
CINT Call Interception
CIO Central Imagery Office
CIO Chief Information Officer
CIOCS Communication Input/Output Control System (IBM)
CIOS Communication Institute for Online Scholarship
CIP Catalogue Interoperability Protocol
CIP Catalogue/Cataloguing In Publication/Publishing
CIP Classical IP
CIP Command Interface Port
CIP Common Indexing Protocol
CIP Common ISDN Access Profile
CIP Compatible Independent Peripherals
CIP Computer Aided Intuition Guided Programming
CIP Computer-Investitionsprogramm des Bundes und der L�nder
CIP Concert Internet Plus
CIP Constraint Imperative Programming
CIPA Children's Internet Protection Act
CIPE Cryptographic Internet Protocol Encapsulation
CIPP Contexts, Input, Processes + Products
CIPR Commission on Intellectual Property Rights
CIPS Canadian Information Processing Society
CIPSO Commercial/Common Internet Protocol Security Option
CIR Classless Interdomain Routing
CIR Committed Information/Interface Rate
CIRC Circular Reference
CIRC Cross Interleaved Reed Solomon Code
CIRSC Cross Interleave Solomon Code
CIS CALEA Implementation Section
CIS Card Information Structure
CIS Cascade Inline Scripting

Seite 151
CIS CASE Integration Services
CIS Center for Internet Security
CIS Client Information Server/System
CIS Compact Image Sensor
CIS Computer Information System
CIS CompuServe Information Service
CIS Computational and Information Sciences
CIS Contact Image Sensor
CIS Computerized Information Service
CIS Customer Information System
CISAC Confederation Internationale des Societes d'Auteurs et Compositeurs
CISAM C-Index Sequential Access Method
CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer/Code
CISE Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate
CISKA Campus Informationssystem der Universit�t Karlsruhe
CISPR Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques
CIT California Institute of Technology
CIT Communications Improvement Team
CIT Company Integrated Telephony
CIT Computer Integrated Telephone/Telephony
CITAB Computer Instruction and Training Assistance for the Blind
CITED Copyright In Transmitted Electronic Documents
CITIS Contractor Integrated Technical Information Service
CITSF Commission Internationale de Telegraphie Sans Fil
CIVR Computer and Interactive Voice Response
CIW Certified Internet Webmaster
CIX Central/Commercial Internet Exchange
CIX Compulink Information Exchange
CIX Commercial Internet Exchange (Association)
CJKV Chinese - Japanese - Korean - Vietnamese
CJLI Command Job Language Interpreter
CK Clock
CKD Count Key Data
CKE Clock Enable
CKSM Checksum
CL Closed Loop
CL Computational Linguistics
CL Connectionless Service
CL Control Language
CL Current License
CL Cycle Length
CLAA Carry Look Ahead Adder
CLAG Carry Look Ahead Generator
CLAMS Common Los Alamos Mathematical Software
CLAR Channel Local Address Register
CLASP Computer Language for Aeronautics and Space Programming
CLASS Client Access to Systems and Services

Seite 152
CLASS Custom Local Area Signalling Service
CLB Component Load Balancing
CLC Capacity Limiting Constituents
CLC Clear Carry Flag
CLC Computing Learning Center
CLCC Closed Loop Congestion Control
CLCS Current Logic Current Switching
CLD Clear Direction Flag
CLDATA Cutter Location Data
CLDC Connected Limited Device Configuration
CLDR Common Locale Data Repository
CLE Certified Linux Engineer/Expert
CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carrier
CLEF European Commercial Licensed Evaluation Facilities
CLEO Classified Energy Online (database)
CLF Common Log (File) Format
CLH Command Line History
CLI Call Level Interface
CLI Calling Line Identification
CLI Clear Interrupt (flag)
CLI Client Library Interface
CLI Command Line Interface/Interpreter
CLI Common Language Infrastructure/Interface/Interpreter
CLIB C Library
CLIC Chemnitzer Linux Cluster
CLICS Computer Linked Information for Container Shipping
CLID Calling Line Identification
CLIP Calling Line Identification Presentation
CLIR Calling/Connected Line Identification Restriction
CLIST Command List
CLK Clock
CLL Corel License for Learning
CLLM Consolidated Link Layer Management
CLMP Connectionless-Mode Network Protocol
CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol (OSI)
CLNS Connectionless Mode Network Service
CLO Class Option (LaTeX)
CLOB Character Large Object
CLOE Common LISP Operating Environment
CLOO Reverse Object Oriented Logical Channel
CLOS Common LISP Object System
CLOWN Cluster Of Working Nodes
CLP Cell Loss Payload/Priority
CLP Clipboard
CLP Constraint Logic Programming
CLPPCRE Common Lisp Portable Perl Compatible Regular Expressions
CLR Cell Loss Ratio

Seite 153
CLR Clear
CLR Common Language Runtime
CLR Computer Language Research
CLRTC Clear Real Time Clock
CLS Clear Screen
CLS Common Language Support
CLS Connectionless Server
CLSID Class Identifier
CLT Communcations Line Terminal
CLT Computer Language Translator
CLTD Clock and Tones Distribution
CLTP Connectionless Transport Protocol (OSI)
CLTS Clear Task Switch Flag
CLTS Connectionless Transport Service
CLTV Constant Linear Time Velocity
CLU Central Logic Unit
CLUF Contrat de Licence Utilisateur Final
CLUI Command Line User Interface
CLUT Colour Look-up Table
CLV Ceiling Limit Value
CLV Constant Linear Velocity
CLW Certified Linux Wizard
CM Central Memory
CM Communications Manager (IBM)
CM Compilation Manager
CM Configuration Management
CM Connection Machine
CM Control Mark
CM Corrective Maintenance
CMA Concert Multi-thread Architecture
CMAK Connection Manager Administration Kit
CMAN Cluster Manager
CMAR Control Memory Address Register
CMB Common Management Bus
CMC Common Mail/Messaging Call
CMC Communication Management Configuration
CMC Complement Carry Flag
CMC Computer Mediated Communication
CMC Construction Maintenance Center
CMD Circuit Mode Data
CMD Command
CMDF C Memo Distribution Facility
CMDS Computer Misuse Detection System
CME Center for Media Education
CME Common Malware Enumeration
CME Core Managed Environment
CMF Command File

Seite 154
CMF Creative Music Format
CMGR Campus/Connection Manager
CMH Cross My Heart (Slang)
CMIIW Correct Me If I'm Wrong (Slang)
CMIP Common Management Information Protocol (OSI)
CMIS Common Management Information Services/System
CML Chemical/Commodore Markup Language
CML Conceptual Modelling Language
CML Concurrent Metalanguage
CML Configuration Menu Language
CML Context Modelling Language
CML Current Mode Logic
CMM Capability Maturity Model
CMM Color Management Module
CMM Computerized Measurement Machine
CMMI Capability Maturity Model Integrated
CMML Continuous Media Markup Language
CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management Software
CMMU Cache Memory Management Unit
CMOL CMIP Over LLC
CMOS Coats-Mellon Operational Specification
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CMOT Common Management Information Protocol over TCP/IP
CMOV Conditional Move (and Compare Instructions)
CMP Cellular/Chip-integrated Multi-Processing
CMP Configuration Management Plan
CMPS Compare Word String
CMPT CAPI Message Control Protocol
CMR Cell Misinsertion Rate
CMR Corporate Message Recovery
CMS Call Management Server
CMS Code/Color/Connection/Content Management System
CMS Compiler Monitor System
CMS Content Management System
CMS Conversational Monitor System (IBM)
CMS Cryptographic Message Syntax
CMT Cellular Mobile Telephone
CMT Chip Multi Threading
CMT Configuration Management Tool
CMT Connection Management
CMTP CAPI Message Transport Protocol
CMTS Cable Modem Termination System
CMU Carnegie-Mellon-University, Pittsburgh, USA
CMVC Configuration Management and Version Control (IBM)
CMW Compartment Mode Workstation
CMX Communication Method SINIX (Siemens)
CMY cyan, magenta, yellow (Farbmodell)

Seite 155
CMYK cyan, magenta, yellow, key/black (Farbmodell)
CN Comfort Noise
CN Corporate Network
CNA Certified NetWare/Network Administrator
CNA Customer Name and Address
CNAME Canonical Name (Record)
CNAPS Co-Processing Node Architecture for Parallel Systems
CNASI Centre for Networked Access to Scholarly Information (Australien)
CNB Collective Notebook
CNC Complete Network Centre
CNC Computerized Numerical Control
CND Calling Number Delivery
CND Caldera Network Desktop
CNE Certified NetWare Engineer/Expert (Novell)
CNET Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications, Paris
CNF Chomsky Normal Form
CNF Configuration
CNG Calling (tone)
CNG Comfort Noise Generation
CNG Complete No-Good
CNI Centre National d'Informatique
CNI Certified NetWare Instructor (Novell)
CNI Coalition for Networked Information
CNI Communications Network International
CNID Calling Number Identification
CNIDR Clearinghouse for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval
CNIL Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertes
CNIP Calling Name Identification Presentation
CNIR Calling/Connected Name Identification Restriction
CNL C Numerical Library
CNM Customer Network Management
CNMA Communications Network for Manufacturing Application
CNN Cable News Network
CNN Composite Network Node
CNNIC China Network Imformation Center
CNP Corporate Network Provider
CNR Carrier to Noise Ratio
CNR Communications and Networking Riser
CNR Composite Noise Ratio
CNRI Corporation for National Research Initiatives
CNRP Common Name Resolution Protocol
CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (Frankreich)
CNS Color Naming System
CNS Communications Network System
CNSS Core Nodal Switching Subsystem (Internet)
CNT Carbon Nano Tube
CNT Central Networking Testbed

Seite 156
CNX Certified NetWare/Network Expert
CO Call Offer
CO Central Office
CO Chief Operator
CO Command Output
CO Communication Outlet
CO Convert Out
CO Crystal Oscillator
COA Care Of Address
COA Certificate Of Authenticity
COA Compound Online Analytical Processing Architecture
COAM Customer Owned And Maintained
COARA Communication of Oita Amateur Research Association
COAST Card On A Stick
COAST Computer Operations, Audit and Security Technology
COB Chip On Board
COBOL Common Business Oriented Language
COC Coded Optical Character
COCOT Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
COD Capacity On Demand
COD Code (list)
CODASYL Committee/Conference on Data System Languages
CODE Client Server Open Development Environment
CODEC Coder/Decoder
CODEC Compression/Decompression
CODINE Computing in Distributed Networked Environments
CODIT Code Division Testbed
COE Central Office Equipment
COE Common Operating Environment
COEDS Common Event Database System
COEM Commercial Original Equipment Manufacturer
COFDM Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex
COFF Common Object File Format
COGO Coordinate Geometry (Language)
COIN Console Interrupt Request
COINS Computer Output Information System
COL Caldera Open Linux
COL Collision
COL Computer Oriented Language
COLA comp.os.linux.announce (Newsgroup)
COLD Computer Output to Laser Disc
COLL Collision
COLP Connected Line Identification Presentation
COLR Connected Line Identification Restriction
COLT Communications Line Terminator
COLT Computer Oriented Language Translator
COLT Control Language Translator

Seite 157
COM Command
COM commercial; Internet-Domain: Firmen in USA
COM Common/Component Object Model
COM Communication
COM Component Object Model
COM Computer Output Microfilm
COM Continuation Of Message
COMAL Common Algorithmic Language
COMDEX Computer Dealers' Exposition
COMET Cornell Macintosh Terminal Emulator
COMHED Common Header
COMINT Communications Intelligence
COMM Communications
COMMS Customer Oriented Manaufacturing Management System
COMP Compare
COMPACT Computer Planning and Control Technique
COMPSAC International Computer Software and Applications Conference
COMSAT Communications Satellite Corporation
COMSEC Communications Security
COMSL Communications System Simulation Language
COMSOAL Computer Method of Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines
COMTRAN Commercial Translator (IBM)
CON Console
COND Condition
CONF Conference, Configuration
CONP Connected Name Identification Presentation
CONP Connection Oriented Network Protocol
CONS Connection Oriented Network Service
CONTU Commission On New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works
COO Chief Operating Officer
COOL Control Oriented Language
COP Constrained Optimization Problem
COP CPU Overheating Protection
COPA Child Online Protection Act
COPE Communications Opportunity, Promotion and Enhancement (Act)
COPE Computer Performance Evaluation
COPICS Communications Oriented Production Information and Control System
COPS Common Open Policy Service
COPS Computer Oracle and Password System
COR Common Object Runtime
CORAL Computer Online Real-Time Applications Language
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CORE Common Runtime Environment
CORE Council of Registrars (Internet)
CORNET Corporate ISDN Network Protocol
COS Card/Cray Operating System
COS Class of Service

Seite 158
COS Compatible Operation System
COS Complementary Switching
COS Corporation for Open Systems (OSI)
COS Custom Order Specification
COSE Combined Office Standard Environment
COSE Common Open Software/Systems Environment
COSINE Cooperation for OSI Networking in Europe
COSMIC Computer Software Management and Information Center (NASA)
COSMOS Complementary Symmetric Metal Oxide Semiconductor
COSMOS Computer Oriented System for Management Order Synthesis
COSMOS Computer System for Mainframe Operations
COSN Consortium for School Networking
COSO Charge One Site Only
COSPAS Cosmicheskaya Sistyema Poiska Avariynich Sudov
COSS Common Object Services Specification
COSY Conferencing System
COT Customer Owned Tooling
COTK Control Track
COTS Coin Operated Telephone System
COTS Commercial Off The Shelf (software)
COTS Commodity Off The Shelf (Cluster)
COTS Connection Oriented Transport Service
COVE Code Verification
COW Copy On Write
COW Cluster Of Workstations
CP Call Pay
CP Card Punch
CP Central/Communications/Customized Processor
CP Check/Control Point
CP Choke Packet
CP Circuit Package
CP Code Page
CP Complete Partitioning
CP Computer Professional
CP Conducting Polymer
CP Contention Procedure
CP Continuous Path
CP Constraint Programming
CP Control Program
CP Copy Protected
CPA Certified Public Accountant
CPA Closest Point of Approach
CPA Code Parasite Autopropageable
CPA Cost Per Action
CPA Critical Path Analysis
CPAN Comprehensive Perl Archive Network
CPBX Computerized Private Branch Exchange

Seite 159
CPC Card Programmable Calculator (IBM)
CPC Computer Process Control
CPC Constant Point Calculation
CPC Cost Per Click
CPCS Check Processing Control System
CPCS Common Part Convergence Sublayer
CPD Constructive Page Description
CPE Central Processing Element
CPE Computer Performance Evaluation
CPE Customer Provided/Premises Equipment
CPFR Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment
CPFSK Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying
CPG Central Pattern Generator
CPG Clock Pulse Generator
CPG COSINE Policy Group
CPI characters per inch
CPI Clocks Per Instruction
CPI Code Page Information
CPI Common Part Indication
CPI Common Programming Interface (IBM)
CPI Cost Performamce Index
CPIC Common Programming Interface for Communications (IBM)
CPIM Common Presence and Instant Messaging
CPL Call Processing Language (Telecom)
CPL Characters Per Line (cpl)
CPL Combined Programming Language
CPL Common Public License
CPL Control Panel Library (Microsoft)
CPL Current Privilege Level
CPL Cyberathlete Professional League
CPLD CMOS Programmable Logic Device
CPLD Complex Programmable Logic Device
CP/M Control Programm for Microcomputers (DEC)
CPM Control Programm for Microcomputers (DEC)
CPM Colliding Pulse Mode
CPM Computer Program Protection Manager
CPM Corporate Performance Management
CPM Critical Path Method
CPM Cryptography Provider Manager
CPN Conditional Pathname
CPN Customer Premises Network
CPO Certified Project Officer
CPO Chief Privacy Officer
CPP Corporate Preview Program
CPPM Computer Protection Program Manager
CPPM Content Protection for Prerecorded Media
CPPS Critical Path Planning and Scheduling

Seite 160
CPRM Content Protection for Recordable Media
CPS Certification Practice Statement
CPS Constraint Parameter Set
CPS Continuation Passing Style
CPS Critical Path Scheduling
CPS cycles/characters per second
CPSA Consumer Product Safety Act
CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission
CPSI Configurable Post Script Interpreter
CPSR Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
CPST Control Point Spanning Tree
CPT Command Pass Thru
CPT Common Point of Trust
CPT COSINE Project Management Team
CPT Critical Path Technique
CPTWG Copyright Protection Technical Working Group
CPU Central Processing Unit
CPV Cold Process Verification
CPW Commercial Processing Workload
CQL Channel Queue Limit
CQM Class Queue Management
CQP Corpus Query Processor
CR Cambridge Ring
CR Carriage Return
CR Core (Network) Router
CR Cray Research, Inc.
C/R Command Response
CRAM Card Random Access Memory
CRAM Challenge Response Authentication Mechanism
CRAM Cyberspatial Reality Advancement Movement
CRC Class, Responsibility, Collaboration/Collaborators
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRCG Fraunhofer Center for Research in Computer Graphics
CRCW Concurrent Read, Concurrent Write (PRAM)
CRD Color Rendering Dictionary
CRD Creation Revision Deletion (request)
CREN Corporation/Computer Research Education/Educational Network, USA
CREW Compact for Responsive Electronic Writing
CREW Concurrent Read, Exclusive Write (PRAM)
CRF Cable Retransmission Facility
CRF Cross Reference File
CRI Colour Reproduction Indices
CRIM Centre de Recherche Informatique de Montreal
CRIMM Continuity RIMM
CRISP Complex Reduced Instruction Set Processor
CRL Certificate Revocation List
CRL Compile-time Reconfigurable Logic

Seite 161
CR/LF Carriage Return/Line Feed
CRM Communications + Records Management
CRM Customer Relationship Management
CROM Control Read Only Memory
CRPC Center for Research on Parallel Computation
CRR Change Request Reply
CRS Cell Relay Service
CRS Computer Reservation System
CRSAB Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CRT Chinese Remainder Theorem
CRTC Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
CRTC Cathode Ray Tube Controller
CRTM Core Root of Trusted Module
CRU Comite Reseau des Universites
CRU Computer Resource Unit
CRU Customer Replaceable Unit
CRUD Create, Read, Update, and Delete
CRV Code Rule Violation
CS Cable/Card/Chip Select
CS Call Sign
CS Card Service
CS Chip Select
CS Circuit Switching
CS Clear Screen
CS Clear to Send
CS Client/Server
CS Code Segment
CS Coding Scheme
CS Communications Satellite/System
CS Computer Science
CS Continuous Servo
CS Convergence Sublayer
CS Correspondence System
CS-ACELP Conjugate Structure Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction
CS1 Capability Set 1
CS80 Command Set 80 (Hewlett-Packard)
CSA Calendaring and Scheduling API
CSA Call Path Service Architecture
CSA Communications Streaming Architecture
CSA Comprehensive System Accounting
CSA Conseil Superieur de l'Audiovisuel
CSA Cyber Security Agency, EU
CSAR Channel System Address Register
CSB Channel Status Byte
CSC Center for Scientific Computing
CSC COSPAS-SARSAT-Council

Seite 162
CSCR Consortium for Slow Commotion Research
CSCW Computer Supported Cooperative/Collaborative Work
CSD Circuit Switched Data
CSD Cold Shutdown
CSD Computer Services Department
CSD Corrective Service Disk/Diskette (IBM)
CSDC Code Segment Descriptor Cache
CSDGM Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata
CSDN Circuit Switched Data/Digital Network
CSDS Circuit Switched Data Service
CSE Certified System Engineer
CSE Customer Support Engineer
CSE Common Subexpression Elimination
CSEA Cyber Security Enhancement Act
CSF Compagnie Sans Fil
CSF Content Sealed Format
CSFI Communication Subsystem For Interconnection
CSG Constructive Solid Geometry
CSG Consulting Services Group
CSI Code Sequence Identification
CSI Command Sequence Introducer
CSI Common Synchronous/System Interface
CSI Computer Security Institute, San Francisco, USA
CSIC Computer System Interface Circuit
CSIC Customer Specific Integrated Circuit
CSID Called Subscriber Identifier/Identification
CSID Calling Station Identifier
CSIP Compressed Sources IBM PC
CSIP Corporate Stable Image Platform
CSIRT Computer Security Incident Response Team
CSL Computation Structures Language
CSL Computer/Context Sensitive Language
CSLIP Compressed Serial Line Interface Protocol
CSM Compatibility Support Module
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
CSMA/CE Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Elimination
CSMP Continuous System Modelling Program
CSMS Customer Support Management System
CSN Card Select Number
CSN Circuit Switched Network
CSN Customer Service Number
CSNET Computer and Science Network, USA
CSO Central Services Organization
CSP Certified Systems Professional
CSP Chip Scale/Size Packaging
CSP Commercial Service Provider

Seite 163
CSP Commercial Subroutine Package
CSP Communicating Sequential Process/Processes
CSP CompuCom Speed Protocol
CSP Constraint Satisfaction Problem
CSP Cross System Product
CSP Cryptographic Service Provider
CSPDN Circuit Switched Public Data Network
CSPDU Convergence Sublayer Protocol Data Unit
CSPLA Conseil superieur de la Propriete Litteraire et Artistique
CSPP Computer Systems Policy Project
CSPWG Computer Security Policy Working Group
CSR Cell Switch Router
CSR Control and Status Register Management
CSR Customer Service Record
CSRAM Custom Static Random Access Memory
CSRC Computer Security Resource Center
CSRF Cross Site Request Forgery
CSRG (Austin) Common Standards Revision Group
CSRG Computer Systems Research Group (Berkeley)
CSS Cascaded/Cascading Style Sheet
CSS Centralized Structure Store
CSS Chirp Spread Spectrum
CSS Client-Server-System
CSS Code Storage Segment
CSS Coded Switch Set
CSS Computer Scheduling System
CSS Computer Subsystem
CSS Content Scrambling System
CSS Continuous System Simulator
CSS Core System Software
CSS Critical Systems Support
CSS Cross Site Scripting
CSSD Cloneproof Schwartz Sequential Dropping
CSSL Continuous System Simulation Language
CSSM Client Server Systems Management
CSSM Computer Security Site Manager
CSSO Computer System Security Officer
CSSP Cascading Style Sheet Positioning
CSSSP Common Sparse Spectral Spatial Pattern
CSTA Computer Supported Telephony Application
CSTAC Computer Systems Technical Advisory Committee
CSTB Computer Science + Technology Board
CSTR Computing Science Technical Report
CSTS Computer Supported Telecommunication/Telephony Standard
CSU Channel Service/Switching Unit
CSU Control and Service Unit
CSV Certified Server Validation

Seite 164
CSV Circuit Switched Voice
CSV Client SMTP Verification
CSV Comma Separated Values/Variables
CSW Channel Status Word
CSZ Clark, Shenker, Zhang (algorithm)
CT Call Transfer
CT Chipcard Terminal
CT Clock Time
CT Computer Technik/Telephony/Tomography
CT Controller
CT Cordless Telephone
CT Cut Through
CTAN Comprehensive TeX Archive Network
CTB Cipher Type Byte
CTB Communication Toolbox (Apple)
CTB Computer Based Training
CTC Channel To Channel
CTC Cornell Theory Center
CTC Counter Timer Chip
CTCP Client To Client Protocol
CTCPEC Canadian Trusted Computer Product Evaluation Criteria
CTCSS Continuous Tone Coded/Controlled Squelch System
CTD Cell Transfer Delay
CTDB Clustered Trivial Data Base
CTDB Compact Terrain Data Base
CTEA Copyright Term Extension Act
CTES Cell Technology Evaluation System
CTF Common Trace Facility
CTF Contrast Transfer Function
CTI Computational Testbed for Industry
CTI Computer Telephony Integration
CTIA Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association
CTL Complementary Transistor Logic
CTL Complex Text Layout
CTL Corel Transactional Licensing
CTL CTSS Command Language Controller
CTM Clock and Tone Module
CTM Cordless Terminal Mobility
CTN Corporate Telecommunication Network
CTO Chief Technical/Technology Officer/Offices
CTOS Cassette Tape Operating System
CTOS Corporate Telecommunications and Office Systems
CTP Community Technology Preview
CTP Composite Theoretical Performance
CTP Computer To Plate
CTP Cordless Telephony Profile
CTPA Coax to Twisted Pair Adapter

Seite 165
CTR Cable Throw Replacement
CTR Center for Telecommunications Research, Columbia U.
CTR Common Technical Regulations
CTR Computing Tabulating Recording (Corporation)
CTR Counter
CTR Current Transfer Ratio
CTRCO Calculating Tabulating Recording Corporation
CTRL Control
CTS Clear To Send
CTS Common Transport Semantics
CTS Common Type System
CTS Computer Telephony Solution
CTS (EC) Conformance Testing Services
CTS Courier Time Server
CTS Customer Telephone System
CTSS Compatible/Cray Time-Sharing System
CTY Console Teletype
CU Control Unit
CU Customer Use
CU See You (Slang)
CU2 See You, Too (Slang)
CUA Common User Access (IBM)
CUA Commonly Used Acronym
CUA Computer Users Association
CUB Cursor Backward
CUCN Communication Controller Node
CUD Cursor Down
CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture
CUE Custom Updates and Extras
CUF Cursor Forward
CUG Closed/Closet User Group
CUI Captive/Common/Consistent User Interface
CUI Character/Character-oriented User Interface
CUL See You Later (Slang)
CUNY City University of New York
CUOD Central Unit on Demand
CUP Communications User Program
CUP Competitive Upgrade
CUP Cursor Position
CUPID Completely Universal Processor Input/Output Design
CUPS Common UNIX Printing System
CURL Cambridge University Robot Language
CUSI Configurable Unified Search Index
CUSIP Committee for Uniform Security Identification Procedures, USA
CUSP Customer Programming Language
CUSSNET Computer Use in Social Sciences Network
CUT Control Unit Terminal

Seite 166
CUTE Clarkston University Terminal Emulator
CUU Computerunterst�tzter Unterricht
CUU Cursor Up
CVD ClamAV Virus Database
CVD Compact Video Disk
CVE Collaborative Virtual Environment
CVE Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures
CVF Compressed VFAT
CVF Compressed Volume File
CVGA Color Video Graphics Array
CVIA Computer Virus Industry Association
CVN Credit Card Validation Number
CVP Collaborative Virtual Prototyping
CVS Computer Vision Syndrome
CVS Concurrent Versions System
CVSD Continuous Variable Slope Delta (Modulation)
CVT Convert
CVT Coordinated Video Timings (VESA)
CVW CodeView for Windows (Microsoft)
CVW Collaborative Virtual Workspace (License)
CW Call Waiting
CW Continuous Wave
CW Control Word
CWA Competitive Web Analysis
CWI Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica, Amsterdam
CWIS Campus/Community Wide Information Service/System (Internet)
CWP Communication Word Processor
CWS Congestion Window Setting
CXFS SGI Clustered Extended File System
CXI Common X Interface
CXML Commerce Extensible Markup Language
CYA Cover Your Ass (Slang)
CYK Cocke-Younger-Kasami (-Algorithmus)
CYL Cylinder
CYL See You Later (Slang)
CYMK Cyan Yellow Magenta Key/Black (Farbmodell)
D Daemon, Data, Deutsch, Digital, Direct, Document, Double
D Datenleitung
D2C Digital To Character
D2PC Dynamic Two Phase Commitment
D2T2 Dye Diffusion Thermal Transfer (Drucker)
D64S ISDN-Festverbindung 64 kbit/s
DA Destination Address
DA Digital/Analog, D/A
DA Direct Access

Seite 167
DA Destination Address
DAA Data Access Arrangement
DAA Decimal Adjust for Addition
DAA Detect and Avoid Algorithm
DAA Digest Access Authentication
DAA Dynamic Adaptive Acknowledgment
DAB Daten-Autobahn
DAB Digital Audio Broadcast/Broadcasting
DAB Direct Access Buffer
DAC Data Acquisition and Control
DAC Daily Administrative Check
DAC Design Automation Conference
DAC Device Access Code
DAC Digital-Analog-Converter
DAC Digital Audio Copy
DAC Discretionary Access Control
DAC Distributed Academic Computing
DAC Dual Attached/Attachment Component/Concentrator
DACD Directory Access Control Domain
DACK DMA Acknowledge
DACL Discretionary Access Control List (Microsoft)
DACS Data Acquisition Control System
DACS Data and Analysis Center for Software, DoD, USA
DACS Digital Access and Cross-connect System
DACT Data Compression Technology
DACTLU Deactivate Logical Unit
DAD Desktop Application Director
DAD Duplicate Address Detection
DAE Datenaufnahmeeinheit
DAE Differential-algebraic Equation
DAE Digital Audio Extraction
DAF Destination Address Field
DAF Deutsche-Arbeitsfront-Empf�nger
DAG Directed Acyclic Graph
DAG Direktrufnetzabschlussger�t
DAGM Deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft f�r Mustererkennung
DAI Distributed Artificial Intelligence
DAK Diagnose-Kanal
DAKfCBNF Deutscher Arbeitskreis f�r CB- und Notfunk
DAKS Dateikatalogsystem
DAL Data Access Language/Layer
DAL Dedicated Access Line
DAL Disk Access Lockout
DAM Data Acquisition and Monitoring
DAM Debian Account Manager
DAM Digital Asset Management
DAM Digital Audio Monitor

Seite 168
DAM Direct Access Method
DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access
DAML DARPA/Distributed Agent Markup Language
DAML Digital Archives Markup Language
DAMPS Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service
DAN Domestic/Desk Area Network
DANCC Domestic Area Network Coordination Centre
DANTE Delivery of Advanced Network Technology to Europe
DANZKO Datennetzkoordinator
DAO Data Access Object
DAO Disk At Once
DAP Data Access Protocol (DEC)
DAP Data Archiving Process
DAP Developer Assistance Program
DAP Directory Access Protocol
DAP Division Advisory Panel (NSF)
DAP Document Application Profile
DAP Dynamic Application Partitioning
DAPC Data Acquisition and Process Control
DAPI Desktop Application Programming Interface
DAPIE Developers' Application Programming Interface Extensions
DAR Datenausgabe-Register
DAR Digital Audio Radio
DAR Display Aspect Ratio
DAR Dynamic Adaptive Routing
DARC Data Radio Channel
DARC Deutscher Amateur-Radio Club
DARI Database Application Remote Interface (IBM)
DARMS Digital Alternate Realization of Musical Symbols
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA
DART Dexterous Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed
DART Digital Audio Reconstruction Technology
DAS Data Acquisition Subsystem/System
DAS Datenausgabe-Steuerung
DAS Decimal Adjust for Subtraction
DAS Digital Analysis System
DAS Direct Attached Storage
DAS Dual Attached/Attachment Station (FDDI)
DASAT Daten�bertragung via Satellit
DASD Direct Access Storage Device
DASH Digital Audio Stationary Head
DASL DAV Search and Locate
DASP Data Administration Strategic Plan
DASP Data Analysis Statistics and Probability
DASP Deliver Automated Solutions Process
DASP Drive active -- Slave present
DASP Dynamic Adaptive Speculative Preprocessor

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DASS Direct Access Secondary Storage
DASS Ditributed Authentication Security Service
DAST Datenaustausch-Steuerung
DAT Digital Audio Tape
DAT Disk Array Technology
DATACOM Data Communications
DATC Drake Authorized Testing Center (Novell)
DATEL Data Telecommunication
DATEV Datenverarbeitungsorganisation der steuerberatenden Berufe
DATEX-J Data Exchange for Jedermann
DATEX-L Data Exchange by Lines (leitungsvermittelt)
DATEX-M Data Exchange Multi-Megabit
DATEX-P Data Exchange in Packages (paketvermittelt)
DATV Digital Amateur Television
DAU Digitaler Alarmumsetzer
DAU Digital Announcement Unit
DAU D�mmster Anzunehmender User (Slang)
DAU Dynamische Adress-Umsetzung
DAV Data Available
DAV Digital Audio Video
DAV Distributed Authoring and Versioning
DAVACS DoE Automated Visitor Access Control System
DAVIC Digital Audio Video Council
DAVID Digital Audio Video Interactive Decoder
DAWG Directed Acyclic Word Graph
DB Data Base/Buffer
DB Device Bay
DB Dynamic Backtracking
DBA Database Access/Agent/Administrator
DBB Detect Before Break
DBBS Database Baby Sitter (DBA)
DBBS Dynamic Bass Boost System
DBC Data Bus Controller
DBC Device Bay Controller
DBCES Dynamic Bandwidth Utilization in 64 kBit/s Time Slot Trunking over ATM Using Circuit Emulation Services
DBCS Delivery Bar Code Sorter
DBCS Double-Byte Character Set
DBE Data Base Engine
DBFS Data Base File System
DBH Data Base Handler
DBI Data Base Interface (Class)
DBIC Dezibel Isometric Circular
DBLP Digital Bibliography + Library Project
DBM Data Base Manager
DBM Dezibel per Milliwatt
DBML Data Base Markup Language
DBMS Data Base Management System

Seite 170
DBP Deutsche Bundespost
DBPSK Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying
DBQ Data Base Query
DBQ Data/Document Based Question
DBR Deterministic Bit Rate
DBR DOS Boot Record
DBS Data Base Server/System
DBS Debian Build System
DBS Demand Based Switching
DBS Deutscher Bildungsserver
DBS Direct Broadcast/Broadcasting Satellite/System
DBT Dynamic Backtracking
DBV Deutsches B�cherverzeichnis
DBV Digital Broadcast Video
DBWR Database Writer
DBX Debugger for UNIX
DC Data Collection/Communication/Compression/Control
DC Design Change
DC Device Context (Microsoft)
DC Device/Domain Control
DC Direct Connect/Current
DC Distributed Computing
DC Distribution Center
DC Domain Controller
DC Dublin Core (Metadata Element Set)
DC Duck + Cover (Slang)
DCA Data Center Administration
DCA Defense Communications Agency, USA
DCA Digital Computer Association
DCA Distributed Communications Architecture
DCA Document Content Architecture
DCAF Distributed Console Access Facility (IBM)
DCAM Data Communication Access Method
DCAM Digital Camera
DCAM Direct Chip Attach Module
DCB Data/Device Control Block
DCB Disk Coprocessor Board (Novell)
DCC Data Communication Channel
DCC Data Country Code
DCC Debian Core Consortium
DCC DCC Common Core (Alliance)
DCC Department Computer Coordinator
DCC Differential Chain Code
DCC Digital Command Control
DCC Digital Compact Cassette
DCC Digital Content Creation
DCC Direct Cable/Client Connection

Seite 171
DCC Direct Client to Client
DCC Display Combination Code
DCC Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse
DCCA Distributed Component Computing Architecture
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel
DCCP Data Communications Control Procedure
DCCP Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
DCCP Digital Computer Control Panel
DCCP Display Control Computer Program
DCCP Dublin Core Community Profile
DCCP Dynamic Content Caching Protocol
DCCS Distributed Capability Computing System
DCD Data Carrier Detect
DCE Data Circuit/Communication Equipment
DCE Data Circuit-Termination Equipment
DCE Data Collection Engine
DCE Digital Communications Experiment
DCE Distributed Computing Environment (OSF)
DCF Data Communication Facility (IBM)
DCF Data Compression Facility
DCF Data Count Field
DCF Design rule for Camera File systems
DCF Disengage Confirmation
DCF Distributed Coordination Function
DCF Document Composition Facility
DCF Driver Configuration File
DCFL Deterministic Context Free Language
DCFL Direct Coupled FET Logic
DCI Digital Cinema Initiatives
DCI Display Control Interface
DCL Data Center Linux
DCL Data Control Language (SQL)
DCL DEC Command Language
DCL Declaration
DCL Device Clear
DCL Digital Command Language (DEC)
DCL Disc Change Line
DCLZ Data Compression Lempel Ziv
DCM Data Communication Method/Multiplexer
DCM Digital Content Management
DCM Distributed Computing Model
DCM Dual chip Module
DCME Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment
DCMI Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
DCML Dynamic Configuration Markup Language
DCNA Data Communications Network Architecture
DCOM Data Communication processor

Seite 172
DCOM Distributed Component Object Model
DCOP Desktop Communications Protocol (KDE)
DCP Data Collecting Platform
DCP Device Control Protocol
DCP Digital Cinema Package
DCS Data Collection/Control System
DCS Defined Context Set
DCS Desktop Colour Separation
DCS Diagnostic Communication System
DCS Digital Cellular (Telecommunication) System
DCS Distributed Computing/Control System
DCS Dynamic Channel Selection
DCSP Dynamic Constraint Satisfaction Problem
DCT Database Configuration Tool
DCT Digital Cellular Telephone
DCT Digital Core Technology
DCT Discrete Cosine Transform/Transformation
DCTL Direct Coupled Transistor Logic
DCTP Developmental Certification Test Plan
DCU Data Cache Unit
DCV Destination Coded Vehicle
DD Data Definition/Deliverable
DD Debian Developer
DD Digital Data/Display
DD Double Density
DDA Deutsche Daten-Autobahn
DDA Digital Differential Analyzer
DDA Distributed Data Access
DDA Distributed Database Architecture
DDA Document Description Architecture
DDA Domain Defined Attribute
DDA DRAM Development Alliance
DDB Device Dependent Bitmap
DDB Device Descriptor Block
DDB Dynamic Delayed Broadcasting
DDBAC Data Design HBCI Banking Apllication Components
DDBMS Distributed Data Base Management System
DDC Dewey Decimal Classification
DDC Digital/Display Data Channel
DDC Direct Digital Control
DDC Distributed Data Coupling
DDC Dual Die Chip
DDC Dynamic Data Center
DDC1 Display Data Channel One
DDCMP Digital Data Communication Message Protocol (DEC)
DDCS Distributed Database Connection Services (IBM)
DDD Direct Distance Dialing

Seite 173
DDDB Display Device Data Block
DDE Direct Data Entry
DDE Distributed Debugging Environment
DDE Dynamic Data Exchange
DDEML Dynamic Data Exchange Manager Library (Microsoft)
DDES Double Data Encryption Standard
DDF Dynamic Data Formatting
DDFA Data Communications and Terminal Controller Device File Access
DDH Distributed Document Handling
DDI Device Driver Interface
DDI Digital Document Interchange
DDI Direct Dial/Dialling In
DDIF Digital Document Interchange Format
DDK Device Driver Kit (Microsoft)
DDK Driver Development Kit
DDL Data Definition/Description Language
DDL Display/Document Description Language
DDM Distributed Data Manager/Management
DDN Defense Data Network, USA
DDNS Dynamic Domain Name System
DDOS Distributed Denial Of Service
DDP Datagram Delivery Protocol
DDP Debian Documentation Project
DDP Distributed Data Processing
DDR Double Data Rate
DDR Dynamic Document Review
DDS Data Description Specification
DDS Data Distribution Service
DDS Dataphone Digital Service (AT&T)
DDS Delegation Discovery System
DDS Design Data Sheet
DDS DFN Directory Services
DDS Digital/Distributed Data Service/Storage
DDS Digital Direct Synthesis
DDS Direct Digital Service/Synthesis
DDS Direkte digitale (Frequenz-)Synthese
DDS Disk Definition Structure
DDS Distributed Database Services
DDT Dynamic Debugging Tool
DDTA Digital Distributed Transaction Architecture
DDV Datendirektverbindung
DDV DES DES Verfahren
DDV Dialog Data Validation
DDVT Dynamic Dispatch Virtual Tables
DDX Digital Data Exchange
DDXP Digital Data Exchange, Packet-switching Network
DE Datenentst�rung

Seite 174
DE Debugging Extensions
DE Device End
DE Discard Eligible
DE Document Engineering
DE Double Ended
DEA Data Encryption Algorithm
DEA Deterministischer Endlicher Automat
DEA Disposable Email Address
DEARN Deutsches EARN
DEBI Direct Memory Access Extended Bus Interface
DEC Decrement
DEC Device Clear
DEC Digital Equipment Corporation
DECNET Digital Equipment Corporation Networking (protocol)
DECT Digital European Cordless Telecommunication
DECUS DEC Users Society
DED Darkness Emitting Diode
DEE Datenendeinheit/-einrichtung (= DTE)
DEF Data Exchange Format
DEF Default
DEF Destination Element Field
DEF Desktop Functional Equivalent
DEFOMA Debian Font Manager
DEG Datenendger�t
DEISA Distributed European Infrastructure for Supercomputing Applications
DEK Data Encryption Key
DEK Dateneingabekanal
DEL Decode Encode Language
DEL Delete
DELTA Developing European Learning Through Technology Advance
DELUG Deutsche LINUX User Group
DEM Digital Elevation Model
DEMA Decoupled Multiuser Acquisition
DEMA Differential Electromagnetic Analysis
DEMTS Digital and Electronic Maps Transfer Standard
DEN Directory/Document Enabled Networking/Networks
DENIC Deutsches Network Information Center
DEOS Distributed External Object Store
DEP Data Execution Prevention/Protection
DEPP Distributed Enhanced Programming Policy
DER Dateneingaberegister
DER Distinguished Encoding Rules
DES Data Encryption Standard
DES Data Entry Sheet
DES Dateneingabesteuerung
DES Dynamic Energy Saver
DESY Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg

Seite 175
DET Device Execute Trigger
DEV Development
DEV Device
DEV Device Exclusion Vector
DEVO Datenerfassungsverordnung
DF Data/Destination Field/Form
DF Default
DF Device/Double Flag
DFA Deterministic Finite Automaton
DFB Distributed Feedback (-Laser)
DFBI Depth First Begin Index
DFC Data Flow Control
DFCE Defense Control Element
DFD Datenanwendung f�r Dritte
DFD Datenflussdiagramm, Data Flow Diagram
DFD Deutsches Fernerkundungs-Datenzentrum
DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder
DFEI Depth First End Index
DFG Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
DFKI Deutsches Forschungszentrum f�r K�nstliche Intelligenz, Kaiserslautern und Saarbr�cken
DFM Design For Manufacturability
DFN Deutsches Forschungsnetz e. V.
DFP Decimal Floating Point
DFP Digital Flat Panel (Port)
DFR Double Frequency Recording
DFS Deniable File System
DFS Depth First Search
DFS Distributed File Service/System
DFS Dynamic Frequency Selection
DFSA Direct File System Access
DFSG Debian Free Software Guidelines
DFSMS Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem
DFT Design For Testability
DFT Diagnostic Function Test
DFT Discrete Fourier Transform/Transformation
DFT Distributed Function Terminal
DFT Drive Fitness Test
DFU Data File Utility
DFU Device Firmware Update
DFUE Datenfern�bertragung
DFV Datenfernverarbeitung
DFZ Default-free Zone
DG Data Group
DG Datagram
DGA Direct Graphics Access/Architecture
DGC Distributed Garbage Collection
DGI Deutsche Grid-Inititative

Seite 176
DGIF Delta GIF
DGIS Direct Graphics Interface Standard
DGL Device-independent Graphics Library (HP)
DGN Deutsche Gesellschaft f�r Netzdienste
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
DGS Dynamische Geometrie-Software
DGT Direction Generale des Telecommunications
DH Diffie-Hellman (Key Exchange)
DH Digital Home
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (Internet)
DHDTV Digital High Definition Television
DHIS Dynamic Host Information System
DHL Dynamic Head Loading
DHRVVF Ducking, Hiding and Running Very Very Fast (Slang)
DHS Department of Homeland/Hopeless Security, USA
DHSD Duplex High Speed Data
DHT Distributed Hash Table
DHTML Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language
DI Data In
DI Decoder Identification
DI Destination Index
DIA Defence Intelligence Agency
DIA Deutsche Informatik Akademie
DIA Display Industry Association
DIA Document Interchange Architecture (IBM)
DIAC Dedicated Inquiry Access Code
DIAD Delivery Information Acquisition Device
DIAS Digital Information Archiving System
DIB Data Information Base
DIB Device Independent Bitmap
DIB Directory Information Base
DIB Dual Independent Bus
DIBOL DEC Business Oriented Language
DICOM Digital Image/Imagery/Imaging (and) Communication/Communications
DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
DID Digital Image Design
DID Digital Information Display
DID Direct Inward Dialling
DIDAC Digital Data Acquisition + Control
DIDL Digital Item Declaration Language
DIDS Defense Integrated Data System
DIDS Distributed Intrusion Detection System
DIF Data/Directory Interchange Format
DIFS Distributed/DCF Inter Frame Space
DIG Digital Imposition Geometry
DIGI Deutsche Interessengemeinschaft Internet e. V.
DII Dynamic Invocation Interface

Seite 177
DIIP Direct Interrupt Identification Port
DIL Dual In Line
DILA Direct-Drive Image Light Amplifier (D-ILA)
DILLIGAS Do I Look Like I Give A Shit (Slang)
DIM Data Interpretation Module
DIMDI Deutsches Institut f�r Medizinische Information und Dokumentation
DIME Direct Internet Message Encapsulation
DIMM Dual Inline Memory Module
DIN Deutsche Initiative f�r Netzwerkinformation
DIN Deutsches Institut f�r Normung, Berlin
DIN Do It Now (Slang)
DINI Deutsche Inititative f�r Netzwerkinformation
DIO Data Input and Output
DIP Dialup Internet Protocol
DIP Digital/Document Image Processing
DIP Dissemination Information Package
DIP Dual Inline Package/Pin
DIPS Dual Domain In Plane Switching
DIR Directory
DIRC Digital Inter Relay Communication
DIS Data Item Specification
DIS Digital Immune System (Symantec)
DIS Directory/Distributed Information System
DIS Distributed Interactive Simulation
DIS Draft International Standard (ISO)
DIS Dynamic Impedance Stabilization
DISA Data Interchange Standards Association
DISA Defense Information Systems Agency, USA
DISA Direct Inward System Access
DISC Disconnect (frame)
DISCO Digital Secure Communication (Bosch/Ascom)
DISCSI Differential SCSI
DISEQC Digital Satellite Equipment Control
DISN Defense Information Systems Network
DISOSS Distributed Office Support System (IBM)
DISP Directory Information Shadow Protocol
DISP Displacement
DIST Digital Image Scaling Technology
DIT Depth of Inheritance Tree
DIT Directory Information Tree
DITO Dit Is Totale Onzin (Slang)
DITO DoD IPv6 Transition Office
DITR Deutsches Informationszentrum f�r Technische Regeln
DIU Data Interface Unit
DIV Data In Virtual (Facility)
DIV Digitale Vermittlungsstelle
DIV Divide

Seite 178
DIVA Digitales Videoarchiv, Karlsruhe
DIVE Direct Interface Video Extension
DIVO Digitale Vermittlungsstelle Ortsnetz
DIVX Digital Video Express
DIW D-Inside Wire
DIWSCSI Differential Wide SCSI (16 Bit)
DIX Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, Xerox (Ethernet)
DIY Do It Yourself (Slang)
DJDE Dynamic Job Descriptor Entry
DJM Distributed Job Manager
DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN und VDE
DKE Deutscher Kleinempf�nger (Goebbelsharfe)
DKG Digitales Kartenger�t
DKI Device Kernel Interface
DKIM Domain Keys Identified Mail
DKMS Dynamic Kernel Module Support (Linux)
DKOM Direct Kernel Object Manipulation
DKRZ Deutsches Klima-Rechenzentrum, Hamburg
DKUUG Danish UNIX Users' Group
DKZ Datenkonzentrator
DL Download
DL/1 Data Manipulation Language 1 (IBM)
DLB Dynamic Load Balancing
DLC Data Link Control (IBM)
DLC Digital Learning Center (Kodak)
DLC Digital Loop Carrier
DLC Distributed Loop Carrier
DLC Down Line Control
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
DLCX Data Link Control Exchange
DLD Detailed Level Design
DLE Data Link Escape
DLF Deutschlandfunk
DLGI Dienstleistungsgesellschaft f�r Informatik
DLHP Deutsches Linux HowTo Projekt
DLI Digital Libraries Initiative
DLL Data Link Layer
DLL Delay/Digitally Locked Loop
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DLLP Data Link Layer Protocol
DLM Distributed LAN Monitoring
DLM Distributed Lock Manager
DLM Dynamic Link Module
DLNA Digital Living Network Alliance
DLO Document-Like Object
DLOC Delta Lines Of Code
DLP Data Load Partition

Seite 179
DLP Digital Light Processing
DLPI Data Link Provider Interface
DLR Dependent LU Requester
DLR Design Layout Record
DLR DOS LAN Requester
DLS Data Link Switching
DLS Dependent LU Server
DLS Distributed Load Sharing
DLS Downloadable Sounds
DLSG Deutsche Lehrsoftware Gemeinschaft
DLSW Data Link Switching
DLT Digital Linear Tape
DLTM Don't Lie To Me (Slang)
DM Data Mark/Mining/Mode
DM Delta Modulation
DM Dense Mode
DM Device Management/Mapper
DM Dialogue Management (System)
DM Direct Manipulation (of text)
DM Disconnect/Disconnected Mode
DM Distributed Memory/Monitor
DMA Direct Memory Access/Addressing
DMA Document Management Alliance
DMAC Direct Memory Access Controller
DMAN Differential Manchester (Coding)
DMAPI Data Management Application Program Interface
DMB Digital Multimedia Broadcast/Broadcasting
DMB Domain Master Browser
DMC Digital Media Center
DMC Direct Memory Controller
DMC Distributed Management Chain
DMCA Digital Millenium Copyright Act
DMD Device Manager Driver
DMD Digital Micromirror Device
DMD Direct Manipulation Device
DMD Directory Management Domain
DME Digitaler Meldeempf�nger
DME Direct Memory Execution
DME Distance Measuring Equipment
DME Distributed Management Environment (OSF)
DMF Direct Manual Focus
DMF Distribution Media Format
DMG Distress Message Generator
DMI Data Management and Interoperability
DMI Data Memory Interface
DMI Database Management Interface
DMI Definition of Management Information

Seite 180
DMI Design Manufacturing Interface
DMI Desktop Management Interface
DMI Deutsche Mittelstandsinformatik
DMI Digital Media Infrastructure
DMI Digital Multiplexed Interface
DMI Digital Music Initiative
DMI Diploma in Medical Informatics
DMI Dipole Mode Index
DMI Direct Manipulation Interface
DMI Distributed Management Interface
DMI Distributed Medical Intelligence
DMI Dynamic Method Invocation
DML Data Manipulation Language
DML Dialog Markup Language
DML Distributed Mode Loudspeaker
DMLT Distributed Multi Link Trunking
DMM Digital Multimeter
DMMP Distributed Memory, Message Processing
DMMS Dynamic Memory Management System
DMMV Deutscher Multimedia Verband
DMO Directory Management Organization
DMOS Double-diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
DMOZ Directory Mozilla
DMP Designated Mailers Protocol
DMP Dot Matrix Printer
DMPC Distributed Memory Parallel Computer
DMPM Digital Monitor Power Management
DMPP Distributed Memory Parallel Processor
DMQS Display Mode Query and Set (IBM)
DMR Dual Modular Redundancy
DMS Data/Design/Desktop/Document Management Software/System
DMS Deadline Monotonic Scheduling
DMS Digital Management Solutions
DMSD Digital Multi-Standard Decoding
DMSDK Digital Media Software Development Kit
DMSP Distributed Mail System Protocol
DMSS Distributed Mass Storage System
DMSV Distributed Memory, Shared Variables
DMT Discrete Monitor Timing (VESA)
DMT Discrete Multitone (Modulation)
DMTF Desktop/Distributed Management Task Force
DMU Digital Mock-up
DMUP Debian Machine Use Policies
DMUX Demultiplexer
DMY Day Month Year (Datumsangabe)
DMZ De-Militarised Zone (Firewall)
DN Distinguished Name

Seite 181
DN Down
DNA Digital Network Architecture (DEC)
DNA Direct Note Access
DNA Distributed Network Architecture
DNA Document Enabled Network
DNB Deutsche Nationalbibliographie
DNC Direct/Distributed Numerical Control
DNCP Decnet Phase IV Control Protocol
DNCRI Division of Networking and Communications Research and Infrastructure (NSF)
DND Do Not Disturb
DNDO Do Not Disturb Override
DNE Deterministic Network Enhancer (VPN)
DNF Disjunktive Normalform
DNG Datennetzabschlussger�t
DNG Digital Negative
DNHR Dynamic Non-Hierarchical Routing
DNI Desktop Network Interface
DNI Direct Neural Interface
DNIC Data Network Identification Code
DNIE Digital Natural Image Engine
DNIS Dialed Number Identification Service
DNKZ Datennetz-Kontrollzentrum (DBP)
DNL Dynamic Noise Limiter
DNLC Directory Name Lookup Cache
DNM Datennetzabschlussmodul
DNMS Datennetz-Management-Software
DNPG Digital Networks Product Group
DNRC Domain Name Rights Coalition
DNS Direct Numerical Simulation
DNS Domain Name Server/Service/Scheme/System (Internet)
DNSB Daten-Netz-Signalisierung Typ B
DNSBL DNS Based Blacklist
DNSO Domain Name Supporting Organization
DNSSEC Domain Name System with Security Extensions
DNUG Deutsche Notes User Group
DO Data Out, Distributed Object
DOA Dead On Arrival
DOAG Deutsche Oracle-Anwender-Gruppe
DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals
DOAR Directory of Open Access Repositories
DOC Distributed Object Computing
DOCP DAE Optimal Control Problem
DOCS Designation of Other Coding System
DOCSIS Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
DOCSV Data Over Circuit Switched Voice
DOCT Distributed Object Computation Testbed
DOD Department of Defence (Defense), USA

Seite 182
DOD Digital Optical Disc
DOD Dollars On Demand
DOD Drink Or Die
DOD Drop On Demand
DODCI Department Of Defense Computer Institute
DOE Department Of Energy, USA
DOE Distributed Objects Environment/Everywhere
DOI Digital Object Identifier
DOI Domain Of Interpretation
DOIP Dial Other Internet Providers
DOK Distrikts- und Ortsverbands-Kenner (des DARC)
DOL Direct Object Linking
DOLAP Desktop OLAP
DOM Document Object Model/Modul
DOM Document Output Management
DOMF Distributed Object Management Facility (Sun)
DOORS Distributed Object Oriented Reliable Service
DOP Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol
DOQ Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle
DOR Digital Optical Recording
DOS Denial Of Service
DOS Disk Operating System
DOS Distributed Operating System
DOSEM DOS Emulator/Emulation
DOSS Dedicated Office Systems and Services
DOT Document Template
DOT Documents to Think with (GMD)
DOV Data Over Voice
DOVE Digital Orbiting Voice Encoder
DOW Day Of Week
DOW Direct Overwrite
DP Data Processing
DP Dial Pulse
DP Digital Person/Persona/Photography
DP Distributed Printing/Processor
DP Dot Pitch
DP Draft Proposed Standard (ISO)
DPA Demand Protocol Architecture
DPA Differential Power Analysis
DPA Document Printing Application/Architecture
DPAM Demand Priority Access Method
DPAR Data Parallel Abstraction
DPAREN Data Parity Enable (IBM)
DPB Drive Parameter Block
DPBO Downstream Power Back Off
DPC Deferred Procedure Call
DPC Direct Program Control

Seite 183
DPC Display Controller
DPCM Differential Puls Code Modulation
DPCT Data Processing Control Transmittal Card
DPD Dead Peer Detection
DPD Deep Power Down (modus)
DPDA Deterministic Push Down Automaton
DPDS Data Processing Distributed Systems
DPF Discrete Packet Format
DPG Dedicated Packet Group
DPI Deep Packet Inspection
DPI Distributed Protocol Interface
DPI dots per inch
DPL Debian Project Leader
DPL Descriptor Privilege Level
DPL Distributed Program Link
DPM Digital Panel Meter
DPM Display Power Management
DPMA Data Processing Management Association, USA
DPMA Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt, M�nchen
DPMI DOS Protected Mode Interface (Microsoft)
DPMS Digital/Display Power Management Signaling/Software/Support
DPMS Display Power Management Signaling (Standard) (VESA)
DPMS DOS Protected Mode Service
DPO Dial Pulse Originating
DPO Data Phase Optimization
DPOF Digital/Direct Print Order Format
DPP Demand Priority Protocol
DPR Distributed Pasword Recovery
DPR Dynamic Physical Rendering
DPS Digital Print System
DPS Display Postscript
DPS Document Processing System
DPSI Direction, Planification et Strategie Informatique
DPSI Dots Per Square Inch
DPSI Dual Power Servo Interface
DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying
DPT Data Processing Terminal
DPT Drive Parameter Table
DPU Data Parallel Unit
DQCB Distributed Queue Control Bus
DQDB Distributed Queue Double/Dual Bus
DQF Driver Qualification File
DQL Data/Database/DataEase Query Language
DQL DAML Query Language
DQL DICOM Query Label
DQL Domain Qualifier List/Lists
DQO Data Quality Objective

Seite 184
DQPSK Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
DR Data Received
DR Designated Router
DR Digital Research
DR Direct or Reverse
DR Disaster Recovery
DR Document Request
DR Dynamic Reconfiguration
DRA Deutsches Rundfunk-Archiv
DRAM Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRAW Direct Read After Write
DRB DRAM Row Boundary
DRBD Distributed Replicated Block Device
DRC Dynamic Range Compression
DRCMF Digital Reality Creation Multi Function (Sony)
DRCS Dynamically Redefinable Character Set
DRDA Distributed Relational Database Architecture (IBM)
DRDA Distributed Remote Database Access
DRDRAM Direct Rambus Dynamic RAM
DRDW Direct Read During Write
DRE Direct Recording Electronic (Device)
DRE Distributed Real-time and Embedded (systems)
DRI Declarative Referential Integrity
DRI Defense Research Internet
DRI Digital Research Incorporated
DRI Direct Rendering Infrastructure
DRI Dynamic Range Increase
DRL Dynamically Reconfigurable Logic
DRM Digital Radio Mondiale (Modulation)
DRM Digital Restrictions/Rights Management
DRM Direct Rendering Manager
DRM Distributed Resource Management
DRM Dual Retention Mechanism
DRMS Data Record Management System
DRO Data Request Output
DRO Destructive Read Out
DRP DEC's Routing Protocol
DRP Disaster Recovery Plan
DRP Distributed Reservation Protocol
DRQ Disengage Request
DRQ DMA Request
DRR Dynamic Rate Repartitioning
DRS Data Relay Satellite
DRS Document Registration System
DRS Domino Runtime Services
DRS Driver Resource
DRS Druckstation

Seite 185
DRTS Data Relay + Tracking System
DRTS Distributed Revision Tracking System
DRV Drive (Laufwerk)
DRY Don't Repeat Yourself
DS Data Segment/Send/Server/Strobe
DS Differentiated Service
DS Digit Select
DS Directory Services
DS Distributed Services (OSF)
DS Distribution Service (Cable TV)
DS Distribution System (WLAN)
DS Double Sided
DS Drive Select
DS02 ISDN-Festverbindung 128 kbit/s
DS3 Digital Signal Level 3
DSA Data Service Adapter
DSA Data/Digital Signature/Standard/Storage Architecture/Algorithm
DSA Debian Security Advisory
DSA Digital Signature Algorithm
DSA Directory System Agent (X.500)
DSAB Distributed Systems Architecture Board
DSAF Destination Subarea Address Field
DSAP Data Self Auditing Program
DSAP Destination Service Access Point
DSAS Data Sharing Architecture System
DSB Datenschutzbeauftragter
DSB Double Side Band
DSC Digital Selective Call/Calling
DSC Direct Satellite Communications
DSC Direct Space Control
DSC Document Structuring Comments/Conventions (Postscript)
DSCH Downlink Shared Channel
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point
DSCS Defense Satellite Communications System, USA
DSD Direct Stream Digital
DSDC Data Segment Descriptor Cache
DSDC Dual Socket Direct Connect
DSDD Double Sided Double Density (Floppy)
DSDT Data Set Definition Table
DSDT Differentiated System Description Table
DSE Data Storage Equipment
DSE Data Switching Exchange
DSE Distributed System Environment
DSE DSA Specific Entry
DSEA Display Station Emulation Adapter
DSECT Data/Dummy Control Section
DSEE Domain Software Engineering Environment (HP)

Seite 186
DSG Digital Signal Generator
DSH Desparately Seeking Help (Slang)
DSH Dotnet Scripting Host
DSHD Double Sided High Density (Floppy)
DSI Detailed Spectrum Investigation
DSI Digital Sspeech Interpolation
DSI Dynamic Systems Initiative (Microsoft)
DSIG Digital Signature
DSIMM Dual RAS SIMM
DSIS Distributed Support Information Standard
DSK Datenschutzkommission
DSL Damn Small Linux
DSL Dialogue Scripting Language (OSF)
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSL Dynamic Simulation Language
DSLAC DSL Access Concentrator
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DSLB Digital Subscriber Line Board
DSM Daten-Signal-Multiplexsystem
DSM Demand Side Management
DSM Distributed Shared Memory
DSM Domain Specific Modelling
DSMA Digital Sense Multiple Access
DSMIT Distributed SMIT (IBM)
DSML Directory Services Markup Language
DSMLT Distributed Split Multi Link Trunking
DSMX Digitaler Signalmultiplexer
DSN Data Source Name
DSN Deep Space Network
DSN Defense Switched Network
DSN Delivery Status Notification
DSN Digital Switching Network
DSN Distributed Sensor Networks
DSO Digital Sampling Oscilloscope
DSO Dynamic Shared Object
DSOM Distributed System Object Model
DSOM Distributed Systems Operations and Management
DSP Delivery Service Partner
DSP Digital Signal/Sound Processing/Processor
DSP Directory Synchronization/System Protocol
DSP Display Support/Systems Protocol
DSP Domain Specific Part
DSPL Datensichtplatz
DSPT Display Station Pass Thru
DSPU Downstream Physical Unit
DSQ Digital Squelch
DSQ Double Square (Coding)

Seite 187
DSQD Double Sided Quad Density (Floppy)
DSR Data Set Ready
DSR Device Status Register/Report
DSR Digitales Satelliten-Radio
DSR Document Search and Retrieval
DSR Dynamic Source Routing
DSRC Dedicated Short Range Communication
DSRI Deutsche Stiftung f�r Recht und Informatik
DSS Data Security Standard
DSS Data Storage Segment/Server
DSS Decision Support System
DSS Digital Satellite System
DSS Digital Signature Standard/System
DSS Digital Spread Spectrum
DSS Digital Subscriber Signalling
DSS Digitized Sky Survey
DSS Direct Station Selector
DSS Directory and Security Services
DSS Distributed Security Service
DSS1 Digital Signalling System No. 1
DSSA Domain Specific Software Architecture
DSSI Digital Standard Systems Interconnect (DEC)
DSSI Digital Storage Systems Interconnect
DSSS Direct Sequence/Sequencing Spread Spectrum
DSSSL Document Style Semantics and Specification Language
DST Datenstation
DST Daylight Saving Time
DST Depleted Substrate Transistor
DST Direct Stream Transfer
DST Dispersive Signal Technology
DSTN Double Super Twisted Nematic Field Effective Material
DSU Data/Digital Service/Switching Unit
DSUWG Data Systems Users' Working Group
DSVD Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data
DSW Data/Device Status Word
DSX Digital Signals Cross-Connect
DT Data Track/Translation/Transmission/Transmit/Type
DT Date + Time
DT Deep Trench (bipolar junction transistor)
DT Definition Term
DT Delay Time
DT Desktop
DT Deutsche Telekom
DT Diagnostic Test
DT Dial Tone
DT Digital/Direct Television
DT Digital Termination

Seite 188
DT Directional Transmission
DT Display Terminal
DT Distributed (graphical user interface) Toolkit
DT Double Tagging
DT Downtime
DTA Datentr�ger-Austausch
DTA Diagnosetestablauf
DTA Direct Tape Access
DTA Disk Tranfer Area
DTAB Demountable Tape Automated Bonding
DTAG Deutsche Telekom AG
DTC Data Communications and Terminal Controller
DTC Desktop Communication/Conferencing
DTC Distributed TCP Caching
DTC Distributed Transaction Coordinator
DTCP Digital Transmission Content/Copy Protection
DTD Document Type Definition
DTDS Disaster Tolerant Disk System
DTE Data Terminal/Terminating Equipment
DTE Dumb Terminal Emulator
DTF Digital Tape Format (Sony)
DTF Distributed Test Facility
DTFS Desktop File System
DTIM Delivery Traffic Indication Map/Message
DTK Deception Toolkit
DTK Desired Track
DTK Developer Transition Kit
DTL Designated Transit List
DTL Dialogue Tag Language
DTL Diode Transistor Logic
DTLA Dynamic Transmit Level Adjustment
DTLB Dual Translation Lookaside Buffer
DTLS Datagram Transport Layer Security
DTLS Descriptive Top Level Specification
DTLS Distributed Teaching, Learning, and Services
DTM Deterministic Turing Machine
DTM Digital Terrain Mapping
DTMF Data/Dual Tone Multiple Frequency
DTMF Desktop Management Task Force
DTML Document Template Markup Language
DTN Data Transmission Network
DTN Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network/Networking
DTN Digital Telephone Network
DTN Duplex, Tray, Network (printer)
DTN Dutch Telecom Netherlands
DTOS Distributed Trusted Operating System
DTP Desktop Publishing

Seite 189
DTP Distributed Transaction Process/Processing
DTPS Dialer Token Pairs
DTR Data Terminal Ready
DTR Data Transfer Rate
DTR Dedicated Token Ring
DTR Digital Trunk
DTS Decode Time Stamp
DTS Digital Termination/Transceiving System
DTS Digital Theatre Sound/System
DTS Direct To SOM
DTS Distributed Time Server/Service
DTS Distributed Traffic Shaping (Cisco)
DTSS Dartmouth Time Sharing System
DTSS Digital Time Synchronization Service
DTTB Digital Terrestrial TV Broadcasting
DTV Desktop Video
DTV Digital Television
DTVC Desktop Video Conferencing
DTX Discontinuous Transmission
DU Disk Usage
DUA Directory User Agent (X.500)
DUAT Direct User Access Terminal
DUCWIC Do You See What I See (Slang)
DUe Daten�bertragung
DUeE Daten�bertragungseinheit/-einrichtung
DUG Discretionary User Group
DUKATH Drahtlose Universit�t Karlsruhe (TH)
DUL Dial-up User List
DUN Dial-up Networking (Profile)
DUNCE Dial-up Network Connection Enhancement
DUNDI Distributed Universal Number Discovery
DUNDIS Direction of United Nations Databases and Information Systems
DUS Daten�bertragungssystem
DUST Daten�bertragungssteuerung
DUST Datenumsetzerstelle
DUT Device Under Test
DUV Data Under Voice
DV Datenverarbeitung
DV Delivery Verification (certificate)
DV Digital Video
DV Distance Vector
DVA Datenverarbeitungsanlage
DVA Distance Vector Algorithm
DVB Digital Video Broadcast/Broadcasting
DVBH Digital Video Broadcast/Broadcasting Handheld
DVBT Digital Video Broadcast/Broadcasting Terrestrial
DVC Desktop Video Conferencing

Seite 190
DVC Digital Vibrance Control
DVC Digital Video Camera/Cassette
DVCR Digital Video Cassette Recording
DVCS Distributed Version Control System
DVD Dackel Vom Dienst
DVD Deutsche Vereinigung f�r Datenschutz
DVD Digital Versatile/Video Disc
DVD-R Digital Versatile Disk Read Only Memory
DVD-RW Digital Versatile Disk Re-Writable
DVD-RAM Digital Versatile Disk Random Access Memory
DVE Digital Video Effects
D-VHS Data VHS
DVI Deutsches Video Institut
DVI Device Independent
DVI Digital Video/Visual Interactive/Interface/Interleaved
DVL Digital Video Link
DVM Digital Voltmeter
DVMRP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
DVO Dynamic Variable Ordering (Heuristic)
DVOF Digital Video Over Fibre
DVR Digital Video/Voice Recorder
DVST Datenvermittlungsstelle
DVV Datenverarbeitungsverantwortlicher
DW Data Warehouse/Warehousing
DW Dual Watch
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer/Multiplexing
DWF Drawing Web Format
DWG Drawing (AutoCAD)
DWIM Do What I Mean (Slang)
DWISNWID Do What I Say Not What I Do (Slang)
DWM Diskless Workstation Management
DWMT Discrete Wavelet Multi Tone
DWN Debian Weekly News
DWS Digitaler Wahlstift
DWT Directory Watch
DWT Discrete Wavelet Transform/Transformation
DWTT Distribution Wide Tracker Tool
DX Directory Exchange
DX Weitverkehr, Distance (Funk)
DXA Directory Exchange Agent
DXB Digital Extended Broadcasting
DXB Drawing Exchange Binary
DXC Data Exchange Control
DXC Digital Cross Connect
DXF Data/Drawing Exchange/Interchange File/Format
DXF Data Transfer File
DXG Datexnetzabschlussger�t

Seite 191
DXI Data Exchange Interface
DYHWIH Do You Hear What I Hear (Slang)
DYMO Dynamic MANET On-Demand (Routing)
DYNSLT Dynamic Select
DYNSRC Dynamic Source
DZUG Deutsche Zope Users Group
E Electronic, End, Enhanced, European, Extended
E2EG Ear To Ear Grin (Slang)
E2U E.164 To URI
EA Effective Address
EA Eingabe/Ausgabe, E/A
EA Emulsion Aggregation
EA Extended Address/Attribute
EA External Address
EAC Election Assistance Commission, USA
EAC European Activities Committee
EAC Exact Audio Copy
EAC Extended Access Control
EACEM European Association of Consumer Electronics Manufacturers
EAD Encoded Archival Description (Format)
EAD Ethernet-Anschlussdose
EAI Enterprise Application Integration
EAIM European Alliance for Information Management
EAL Evaluation Assurance Level
EAM Electronic Accounting Machinery
EAN European Advanced Networking (Protocol)
EAN European Article Number
EAN Extragalactic Area Network
EANCOM EDIFACT-Subset Konsumwirtschaft
EANTC European Advanced Networking Test Center
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
EAPOE Extensible Authentication Protocol Over Ethernet
EAPOL Extensible Authentication Protocol Over LAN
EAPS Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching
EAR Eavesdrop And Register
EAR Elektro-Altger�te Register
EAR Enterprise Archive
EAR External Access Register
EARBA Enhanced Adaptive Rate Based Algorithm
EARN European Academic Research Network
EAROM Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EARS Electronic Access to Reference Services
EARS Electronic Authoring and Routing System
EARS Explicit Archive and Retrieval System
EAS Electronic Authorization System

Seite 192
EAS Enterprise Agreement Subscription
EAS Extended Area Service
EASA European Academic Software Award
EASC Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (Russia et al.)
EASKT Einzelanschluss-Konzentrator
EATA Enhanced AT Bus Attachment
EAWR Eingabeauswahlknotenregister
EAX Environmental Audio Extensions
EAZ Endger�teauswahlziffer (ISDN)
EBASIC Extended BASIC
EBC EFI Byte Code
EBC EISA Bus Controller
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (IBM)
EBCOT Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation
EBCT Electron Beam Computed Tomography
EBD Emergency Boot Disk
EBI Equivalent/Extended Background Input/Investigation
EBL Electronic Bearing Line
EBM Electronic Bearing Marker
EBNF Erweiterte (Extended) Backus-Naur-Form
EBONE European Backbone
EBP Electronic Bill Presentmet
EBP Elektronisches Briefpapier
EBP Extended Base Pointer
EBPNN Error Back Propagation Neural Network
EBPP Electric Bill Presentment and Payment
EBR Excessive Burst Rate
EBR Extended Boot Record
EBS Event Based Sampling
EBT Electronic Benefits Transfer
EBTF European Banking Technology Fair
EBU European Broadcasting Union
EBV Elektronische Bildverarbeitung
EBX Electronic Book Exchange
EBXM Electronic Business XML
EC Echo Cancellation
EC Educational Computer
EC Electronic Cash/Commerce
EC End Chain
EC Error Control
EC European Community
EC Evolutionary Computing
EC Exchange Carrier
EC Executive Commitee
ECA Event, Condition, Action
ECAD Electronic Computer Aided Design
ECAL Enjoy Computing And Learn

Seite 193
ECAS Exchange Card Architecture Specification
ECAT Electronic Card Assembly and Test
ECB Electronic Code Book
ECB Event Control Block
ECBS European Committee for Banking Standards
ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem/Cryptography
ECC Enter Cable Change
ECC Error Check/Correction Circuit/Code
ECC Error Checking and Correcting
ECCC Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity
ECCN Export Control Classification Number
ECCOS Electronic Card Catalog + Ordering System
ECD Enhanced Colour Display
ECD Enhanced Compact Disc
ECDH Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman
ECDL European Computer Driving License
ECDLP Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem
ECDSA Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
ECDT Embedded Controller Boot Resources (Description) Table
ECEF Earth-centered Earth-fixed
ECF Enhanced Connectivity Facility
ECG Electronic Content Guide
ECHO European Community Host Organisation
ECI Europ�isches Computer Informationszentrum, Bonn
ECI External Call Interface
ECIN Electronic Commerce Info Net
ECIS European Committee for Interoperable Systems
ECL Emitter Coupled Logic
ECL Execution Control List
ECLF Extended Log File Format
ECM Electronic Control Module
ECM Enhanced Coprocessor Mount
ECM Enterprise Content Management
ECM Entity Connection/Coordination Management
ECM Error Correcting/Correction Mode
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association
ECN Electronic Communications Network
ECN Explicit Congestion Notification
ECNE Enterprise Certified NetWare Engineer (Novell)
ECO Electron Coupled Oscillator, Electronic Commerce Forum
ECODU European Control Data Users Group
ECOM Electronic Commerce
ECOM Electronic Computer Originated Mail
ECOM Emergency/Exterior Communications
ECOMA European Computer Measurement Association
ECOOP European Conference on Object Oriented Programming
ECP Enhanced/Extended Capabilities Port (Microsoft)

Seite 194
ECP Excessive Cross-Posting
ECPA Electronic Communications Privacy Act
ECR Efficient Consumer Response
ECRC European Computer Industry Research Centre
ECRIT Emergency Context Resolution with Internet Technologies
ECS Embedded Computing System
ECS Encryption Control Signal
ECS Enhanced Chip Set
ECS European Common Standard
ECS European Communications Satellite
ECSD Enhanced Circuit Switched Data
ECSI European Custom Systems Integration
ECSS Exalted Carrier Single Sideband
ECTF Enterprise Computer Telephony Forum
ECTL Electronic Communal Temporal Lobe
ECU EISA Configuration Utility
ED Edge Device
ED End Delimiter
ED Erase Display
ED2K EDonkey2000
EDA Electronic Design Automation
EDA Embedded Document Architecture
EDA Event Driven Architecture
EDA Explorative Datenanalyse
EDAB Extended Digital Audio Broadcasting
EDAC Error Detection And Correction
EDAP Extraordinary Data Availability and Protection
EDB Embedded Data Base
EDC Electronic Digital Computer
EDC Enhanced Data Correction
EDC Error Detection and Correction
EDC Error Detection Code
EDCA Enhanced Distributed Channel Access
EDCF Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function
EDD Enhanced Disk Drive
EDDC Extended Distance Data Cable
EDE Encrypt Decrypt Encrypt
EDF Earliest Deadline First
EDFA Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
EDG Electronic/Email Discussion Groups
EDG Environmental Data Gathering
EDG Environmental Database Gateway
EDG EOS Data Gateway
EDG European Data Grid
EDGAR Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
EDGE Explicit Data Graph Execution

Seite 195
EDI Electronic Data/Document Interchange
EDIBDB EDIFACT-Subset Baum�rkte
EDID Extended Display Identification Data
EDIFACT Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN, DIN)
EDIFICE EDIFACT-Subset Elektroindustrie
EDIFURN EDIFACT-Subset M�belindustrie
EDIOFFICE EDIFACT-Subset B�robedarf
EDITEX EDIFACT-Subset Textilindustrie
EDL Edit Decision List
EDL Encapsulator/Enterprise Definition/Description Language
EDLC Ethernet Data Link Control
EDM Engineering Data Management
EDMS Electronic Document Management System
EDMS Enterprise Desktop Management Services
EDO Enhanced/Extended Data Out/Output (DRAM)
EDOC Electronic Document
EDOC Enterprise Distributed Object Computing
EDP Electronic Data Processing
EDP Enhanced Dot Pitch
EDPM Electronic Data Processing Machine
EDPS Electronic/Enhanced Data Processing System
EDR Enhanced Data Rate
EDR External Developer Relaease
EDRAM Enhanced Dynamic Random Access Memory
EDS Electronic DIP Switch
EDS Elektronisches Datenvermittlungssystem
EDS Experimental Distributed System
EDSAC Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator
EDSI Enhanced Small Device Interface
EDSL Ethernet Digital Subscriber Line
EDSRA Earth Data System Reference Application
EDSS European Digital Subscriber System
EDTV Enhanced/Extended Definition Television
EDU educational; Internet-Domain: Universit�ten in USA
EDV Elektronische/Experimentelle Daten-Verarbeitung
EDVA Erbium doped Fiber Amplifier
EDVAC Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
EE Electronic/Extended Edition
EE Endeinrichtung
EEC Extended Error Correction
EEDID Enhanced Extended Display Identification Data
EEE Energy Efficient Ethernet
EEEPROM Emulated Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EEFL External Electrode Fluorescent Lamp
EEHLLAPI Entry Emulator HLLAPI
EEHO Either End Hop Off
EEL Epsilon Extension Language

Seite 196
EEM Extended Memory Management
EEMA European Electronic Messaging Association
EEMAC Electrical + Electronic Manufacturers of Canada
EEMS Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification/Support
EEP Equal Error Protection
EEPAL Electrically Erasable Programmable Array Logic
EEPI Electronic Entertainment Policy Inititative
EEPLD Electrically Erasable Programmable Logic Device
EEPROM Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EES Escrowed Encryption Standard
EESA Enterprise Extensions SMART Accessed
EF Externer Fehler
EFA Extended File Attribute
EFAC Extended File Access Control
EFCI Explicit Forward Congestion Identification
EFF Electronic Frontier Foundation
EFI Electromechanical Frequency Interference
EFI Electronics For Imaging
EFI Extensible Firmware Interface
EFIP European Federation of Interconnection and Packaging
EFISC Enhanced Fast Instruction Set Computer
EFL Emitter Follower Logic
EFLA Extended Four Letter Acronym
EFM Eight-by/to-Fourteen Modulation
EFR Enhanced Full Rate
EFRC Enhanced Full Rate CODEC
EFS Electronic Filing System
EFS Enhanced/Encrypted/Encrypting/Enterprise/Episode/Extent File System
EFS Extended File (Name) Server
EFT Electronic Funds Transfer
EFT Euro File Transfer
EFTP Easy File Transfer Protocol
EFTS Electronic Funds Transfer System
EFUe Emissionsdaten-Fern�bertragung
EG Evil Grin (Slang)
EG Exterior Gateway
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adaptor/Array
EGC (Inmarsat) Enhanced Group Call
EGD Entropy Gathering Daemon
EGEE Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe
EGG Gesetz zum Elektronischen Gesch�ftsverkehr
EGK Elektronische Gesundheitskarte (eGK)
EGL Embedded-Systems Graphics Library
EGL Enterprise Generation Language
EGN Einzelgeb�hrennachweis
EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol (Internet)

Seite 197
EGPCS Environment, GET, POST, Cookies, Server
EGPE Extended Generalized Programming Environment
EGPRS Enhanced General Packet Radio Service
EGW Edge Gateway
EHCI Enhanced Host Controller Interface
EHF Extremely High Frequency
EHKP Einheitliches h�heres Kommunikationsprotokoll
EHLLAPI Emulator High Level Language Application Programming Interface
EHR Electronic Health Record
EHS European Home System
EHSA European Home Systems Association
EIA Electronic Industries Alliance, USA
EIAJ Electronics Industry Association of Japan
EIB European Installation Bus
EIBA European Installation Bus Association
EIBIEM Enhanced Interactive Business Integrating Environment Manager
EICAR European Institute for Computer Anti-Virus Research
EICTA European Information, Communications + Consumer Electronics Industry Technology Association
EID Electronic Identity
EID Electronic Information Display
EIDE Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
EIDP Electronic Information Developers Program
EIES Electronic Information Interchange System
EIES European Information Exchange Service for the Communication between Harbour Areas
EIFS Extended Inter Frame Space
EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
EIM Electronic Image Management
EIMS Eudora Internet Mail Server
EIN European Informatics Network
EIP Enterprise Informational Portal
EIP Extended Instruction Pointer
EIP Extended IP (Internet)
EIR Equipment Identity Register
EIRP Effective/Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power
EIS Electronic/Employee/Emergency Information Services/System
EIS Enterprise/Executive/Expert Information System
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EISS Europ�isches Institut f�r Systemsicherheit
EIST Enhanced Intel Speedstep Technology
EIT Event Information Table
EITI European Interconnect Technology Initiative
EITO European Information Technology Observatory
EIUF European ISDN User Forum
EIV Encryption Initialization Vector
EJB Enterprise Java Beans
EJO Electronic Journal Online
EK Editor Kit

Seite 198
EK Event Kernel
EKT Envelope-Kanal-Teiler
EKTS Electronic Key Telephone Service/Sets
EL Electroluminiscent (Display)
EL Elevation
EL Embedded Linux
EL Erase Line
ELAN Educational/Elementary Language
ELAN Emulated Local Area Network
ELANC Enhanced Local Area Network Controller
ELC Embedded Linking and Control
ELC Embedded Linux Consortium
ELD Electroluminescent Display
ELD Electronic License Distribution
ELEC Embedded Linux Expo + Conference
ELEC Enterprise Local Exchange Carrier
ELENA Elektronischer Einkommensnachweis
ELF Executable and Linkable/Linking Format
ELF Extremely Low Frequency
ELFEXT Equal Level Far End Crosstalk
ELFF Extended Log File Format
ELGA Elektronische lebenslange Gesundheitsakte
ELKS Embeddable Linux Kernel Subset
ELM Electronic Mail (system)
ELOD Erasable Laser Optical Disk
ELOS Electro Optical Synergy
ELOS Embedded Lightweight Operating System
ELP Education License Program
ELS Entry Level System
ELSA Enhanced Linux System Accounting
ELSPA European Leisure Software Publishers Assosciation
ELSTER Elektronische Steuer-Erkl�rung
ELT Emergency Locator Transmitter
ELV Electronic/Extra Low Voltage
ELV Elektronisches Lastschriftvefahren
ELWIS Elektronisches Wasserstrassen-Informationssystem f�r die Binnenschifffahrt
EM Electronic Mail
EM End of Medium
EM End-host Multicast
EM Expanded Memory
EMA Electronic Mail Association
EMA Enterprise Management Architecture (DEC)
EMAC European Market Awareness and Education Committee
EMACS Editing Macros (GNU)
EMACS Escape-Meta-Alt-Control-Shift (Slang)
EMAIL Electronic Mail
EMAS Edinburgh Multi-Access System

Seite 199
EMB Enhanced Master Burst
EMB Extended Memory Block
EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMC Electronic Mail Connection
EMC Extended Math Coprocessor
EMCC Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company
EME Earth - Moon - Earth (Connection)
EME Electromagnetic Environment
EMEA Europe, Middle East, and Africa
EMEA European Medicinal Evaluation Agency, London
EMF Electromagnetic Field/Force
EMF Enhanced Meta File
EMFBI Excuse Me For Butting In (Slang)
EMFIS Emerging Markets Financial Services
EMHS Electronic Message Handling Systems
EMI Electric & Musical Industries
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
EMI External Memory Interface
EML European Media Lab, Heidelberg
EMM Enterprise Mail Manager
EMM Expanded Memory Manager
EMP Electromagnetic Pulse
EMP Excessive Multi-Posting/Multiple Posting
EMPA Eidgen�ssische Materialpr�fungs- und Forschungsanstalt
EMR Electromagnetic Radiation
EMR Electronic Mail Registration
EMR Enhanced Metafile Record
EMS Electronic Mail System
EMS Electronic/Enhanced Message Service
EMS Energy Management System
EMS Enhanced Messaging Service
EMS Expanded Memory Specification
EMSAPI Extended Messaging Services Application Programming Interface
EMSEC Emanations Security
EMSEC Embedded Security (group), UCLA
EMT Embedded Management Tool
EMUG European MAP Users Group
EMV Elektromagnetische Vertr�glichkeit
EMVG Gesetz �ber die elektromagnetische Vertr�glichkeit von Ger�ten
EMVU Elektromagnetische Vetr�glichkeit zur Umwelt
EMX Enterprise Mail Exchange
EN End Node
EN European Norm
ENA Electronic Networking Association
ENCMM Ethernet Network Control + Management Module
ENDEC Encoder/Decoder
ENDF Evaluated Nuclear Data File

Seite 200
ENDS Ends Segment
ENFIA Exchange Network Facilities For Interstate Access
ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
ENISA European Network and Information Security Agency
ENITH European Network for Information Technology in Human Services
ENL European Network Laboratories
ENP Ethernet Node Processor
ENQ Enquiry
ENS Enterprise Network System/Services/Switch
ENSS European Navigation Satellite System
ENSS Exterior Nodal Switching Subsystem (Internet)
ENUM (T)Elephone Number Mapping
EO Electro Optical
EO Europe Online
EOA End Of Address
EOB End Of Block
EOC Embedded Operations Channel
EOC End Of Character/Conversion/Cycle
EOD End Of Data
EOD End Of Discussion (Slang)
EOF ECC On the Fly
EOF End Of Field/File/Flame
EOF Enterprise Objects Framework
EOI End Of Image/Interrupt
EOI End Or Identify
EOJ End Of Job
EOL End Of Life/Line/List
EOL Europa Online
EOM End Of Message/Meckerei
EOM Erasable Optical Memory
EON Enhanced (Information Concerning) Other Networks
EOP End Of Page/Partition
EOR End Of Record
EOR Exclusive Or (auch: XOR)
EOS Educational Online Sources
EOS Electro Optical System (Canon)
EOS End Of String
EOS Error Correction Code On SIMM
EOSAT Earth Observation Satellite
EOSDIS Earth Observing System Data and Information System (NASA)
EOT Embedded Open Type
EOT End of Tape/Transaction/Transmission/Table/Text
EOTC European Organization for Testing and Certification
EOU Ease Of Use
EOU End Of User
EOUG European Oracle Users Group
EPA Environmental Protection Agency, USA

Seite 201
EPA Europ�isches Patentamt, M�nchen
EPA Execution Path Analysis
EPAC Enhanced Perceptual Audio Coding
EPC Electronic Product Code
EPEAT Electronics Product Environmental Assessment Tool
EPG Electronic Program Guide
EPI Enhanced Parallel Interface
EPI Execute Programmer Immediately (Slang)
EPI External Presentation Interface
EPIC Electronic Privacy Information Center, USA
EPIC Explicitly Parallel Instruction (Set) Computing
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
EPL Effective Prvilege Level
EPL Ethernet Powerlink
EPLD Electronic/Erasable Programmable Logic Device
EPM Enterprise Process Management
EPMAP Electronic Publishing Mapping Project
EPO Emergency Power Off
EPO Entry Point Obscuring
EPOE Enhanced Power Over Ethernet
EPP Enhanced Parallel Port
EPP Ethernet Packet Processor
EPPT European Printer Performance Test
EPRCA Enhanced Proportional Rate Control Algorithm
EPRML Enhanced Partial Response Maximum Likelihood
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EPS Electronic Publishing System
EPS Encapsulated Postscript
EPS Enterprise Parallel Server (HP)
EPSCS Enhanced Private Switched Communications Service
EPSF Encapsulated Postscript File Format
EPSI Encapsulated Postscript Interchange Format
EPSMA European Power Supply Manufacturers Association
EPSR Ethernet Protection Switching Ring
EPSS Experimental Packet Switching Service
EPU Energy Processing Unit
EQ Equalizer
ER Entity Relationship
ER Explicit Rate
ER Externer Rechner
ERA Elementarer/Eingeschr�nkter Regul�rer Ausdruck
ERA Extended Registry Attribute
ERAS Electronic Routing and Approval System
ERBIS Einheitliches Rechnerunterst�tztes Betriebsf�hrungssystem
ERC European Radiocommunication Committee
ERC European Research Council
ERC Explicit Route Control

Seite 202
ERC External Relations Committee
ERCIM European Research Consortium for Informatics and Applied Mathematics
ERD Emergency Repair Disc
ERD Entity Relationship Diagram
ERE Extended Regular Expression
ERESC European Register of Stolen Computers
EREW Exclusive Read, Exclusive Write (PRAM)
ERG European Regulators Group
ERI Emergency Recovery Information
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center, USA
ERL Echo Return Loss
ERLL Enhanced Run Length Limited
ERM EMC and Radio Matters
ERM Entity/Enterprise Relationship Model
ERMA Electronic Recording Method, Accounting (General Electric)
ERMES European Messaging System
ERMES European Radio Message Service/System
ERN Explicit Route Number
ERO European Radiocommunications Office
EROM Erasable Read Only Memory
ERP Effective Radiated Power
ERP Endpoint Routing Protocol
ERP Enterprise Resource Planning
ERR Error
ERS Evidence Record Syntax
ERU Emergency Recovery Unit/Utility
ES Elektronische Signatur
ES Elementary Stream
ES Endsystem, End System
ES Enhanced Security
ES Expanded Store
ES Extra Segment
ESA Enterprise System Architecture
ESA European Space Agency
ESATA External Serial ATA
ESB Einseitenband, Single Side Band
ESB Enterprise Service Bus
ESC Electronic Support Center/Centre
ESC Escape
ESC European Support Center (Novell)
ESCD Extended Setup/System Configuration Data
ESC/I Epson Standard Code for Image Readers
ESC/P Epson Printer Language
ESCM Extended Services Communications Manager
ESCON Enterprise Systems Connection (Architecture) (IBM)
ESD Electronic Software Distribution
ESD Electronic System Design

Seite 203
ESD Electrostatic Discharge
ESD Emergency Shutdown Device
ESD Emergency Startup Disk
ESD Entry Systems Division
ESDA Electronic System Design Automation
ESDC Extra Segment Descriptor Cache
ESDI Enhanced Small/System Device Interface
ESDP Enhanced Service Discovery Profile
ESDRAM Enhanced Synchronous Dynamic RAM
ESE Ethernet Switching Engine
ESE Expert System Environment
ESE Extensible Storage Engine
ESF Eureka Software Factory
ESF Extended Superframe Format
ESG Earth System Grid
ESH End System Hello PDU
ESHG Elektrische Systemtechnik f�r Heim und Geb�ude
ESI Electrostatic Interference
ESI End System Identifier
ESI Enhanced Serial Interface
ESI European Software Institute
ESI External Systems Interface
ESIG European SMDS Interest Group
ESIS End System to Intermediate System Protocol (OSI)
ESM Enterprise Security Manager
ESM Ethernet Switching Module
ESMR Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio
ESMS European Satellite Multimedia Services
ESMTP Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (Internet)
ESN Electronic Serial Number
ESOC European Space Operation Centre
ESOSL Endless Snorts Of Stupid Laughter (Slang)
ESP Early Support Program
ESP Electronic Shock/Skip Protection
ESP Encapsulating Security Payload
ESP Enhanced Serial Port
ESP Enhanced Service Provider
ESP Enterprise System Platform
ESP Eudora Sharing Protocol
ESP Extended Stack Pointer
ESPRIT European Strategic Programme for Research in Information Technology
ESR Equivalent Series Resistance
ESR Event Service Routine
ESRO Efficient Short Remote Operations
ESS Electronic Switching System
ESS Enterprise Storage Server (IBM)
ESS Environmental Stress Screening

Seite 204
ESS Extended Service Set
ESSID Extended Service Set Identifier
ESTSC Energy Science + Technology Software Center
ESU Electrostatic Unit
ESU Europ�ische Standard�berweisung (eBanking)
ESUG European Smalltalk Users Group
ESV Elektronikschrottverordnung
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival
ETACS Extended Total Access Communication System
ETANN Electrically Trainable Analog Neural Network (Intel)
ETB End of Transmission Block
ETC Electronic Toll Collection
ETC Enhanced Throughput Cellular (modem protocol)
ETD Estimated Time of Departure
ETDD Electrical Time Division Demultiplexer/Demultiplexing
ETDM Electrical Time Division Multiplexer/Multiplexing
ETE Entry to Exit
ETF Enriched Text Format
ETFTP Enhanced Trivial File Transfer Protocol
ETI Extended Terminal Interface
ETIN Elektronische Transfer-Identifikations-Nummer
ETL Extract, Transform, Load
ETM Exchange Telephone Manager
ETN Electronic Tandem Network
ETNS European Telephony Numbering Space
ETOL Evil Twin On Line (Slang)
ETOM Electron Trapping Optical Memory
ETOX EPROM Tunnel Oxide
ETR Early Token Release
ETRN Extended Turn (command)
ETS EIB Tool Software
ETS Electronic Tracking System
ETS European Telecommunication Standard
ETSA European Telecommunication Services Association
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
ETX End of Text
EU Elektronische Unterschrift
EU Execution Unit
EUC End User Computing
EUC Enhanced/Extended UNIX Code
EUCIP European Certification of IT Professionals
EUD Extended U-shape Cell Device
EUDC End User Defined Character
EUI End User Interface
EUI Extended Unique Identifier
EULA End User License Agreement
EUNET European UNIX Network

Seite 205
EURID European Reguistry of Internet Domain Names
EUROPEN Dachverband europ�ischer UNIX-Anwendervereinigungen
EUSES End Users Shaping Effective Software
EUUG Extragalactic/European Unix User Group
EUV Extreme Ultra Violet (Lithography)
EV Etagenverteiler
EV European Videotelephony
EV Extended Validation
EVA Eingabe, Verarbeitung, Ausgabe
EVA Elektronische Fahrplan- und Verkehrsauskunft
EVA Elektronischer Verkehrslotse f�r Autofahrer
EVA Elektronisches Volltext-Archiv, Karlsruhe
EVA Empfangs- und Verteilanlage
EVA Enhanced Video Adapter
EVAS EDV-gest�tztes Vereins-Administrations-System
EVD Enhanced Versatile Disc
EVE European Video Telephony
EVE Exklusiver Verzeichnis-Eintrag (Datex-J)
EVGA Extended Video Graphics Array/Adapter
EVL Electronic Visualization Laboratory, Chicago
EVM Embedded Virtual Machine
EVMS Enterprise Volume Management System
EVN Einzelverbindungsnachweis
EVO Elektro-Schrott-Verordnung
EVP Enhanced Virus Protection
EVR Enhanced Video Renderer
EVS Event Service (OSF)
EVU Elektrizit�ts-/Energieversorgungsunternehmen
EWOS European Workshop on Open Systems (OSI)
EWS Employee Written Software (IBM)
EWSD Elektronisches W�hlsystem, digital
EWSM Elektronisches W�hlsystem f�r MANs
EWSP Elektronisches W�hlsystem f�r Paketvermittlung
EWTS Enterprise Web Training System
EXAPT Extended Subset of APT
EXCA Exchangeable Card Architecture
EXCH Exchange
EXFCB Extended File Control Block
EXIF Exchangeable Image File Format
EXM Enterprise Messaging Exchange
EXP Exponent
EXT External
EXTRN External Reference
EXUG European X User Group
EZV Elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr

Seite 206
F Federation, Fernmelde-, Field, File, Francais, Funk
F!FF Forum Informatiker f�r Frieden und gesellschaftliche Verantwortung
F2F Face to Face (Slang)
FA Fernmeldeamt
FA For Auction (Slang)
FA Front End Application
FA Full Adder, Fermeldeamt, Fernamt
FAB (Chip) Fabrication Plant
FABS Fast Access Btree Structure
FAC Fast Access Channel
FAC File Access Code
FAC Final Assembly Code
FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel
FACL Full Access Control List
FACS Fibronics Advanced Cabling System
FACS Firmware ACPI Control Structure
FACT Federation Automatic Coding Technologies
FADA File Access Data Unit
FADC Fast/Flash Analog to Digital Converter
FADT Fixed ACPI Description Table
FAE Field Apllications Engineer
FAF File Attribute File
FAFWOA For A Friend Without Access (Slang)
FAG Fernmeldeanlagengesetz
FAI Fournisseurs d'Acces Internet
FAI Fully Automatic Installation
FAID Flash Authority Identification Data
FAL File Access Listener
FAM File Alteration Monitor
FAMOS Floating Gate Avalanche MOS
FAN Family Area Network
FAP File Access Protocol
FAPI Family Application Program Interface
FAPL Format and Protocol Language
FAQ Frequently Asked Questions (Netnews)
FAQ Fragen, Antworten, Quellen der Erleuchtung (Netnews)
FAQ Foire Aux Questions (Netnews)
FAQL FAQ List
FAR False Acceptance Rate
FARE Film Automatic Retouching and Enhancement
FARNET Federation of American Research Networks
FAS Fahrassistenzsystem
FAS Frame Alignment Signal
FASC Future of the Amateur Service Committee
FASIC Function- and Algorithm-Specific Integrated Circuit
FAST Fast Access Stationary Tape Guide Transport
FAT File Allocation Table

Seite 207
FAXT Far End Crosstalk
FAXTAM Fax and Telephone Answering Machine
FB Fiber Backbone
FB Fine Business (Slang)
FB Fully Buffered
FBAS Farb-Bild-Austast-Synchronsignal (RGB-Signal)
FBD Fully Buffered DIMM
FBE Free Buffer Enquiry (Arcnet)
FBIS Foreign Broadcast Information Service
FBLINU Forum f�r blinde und sehbehinderte Internetnutzer
FBO Frame Buffer Object
FBPP Federal Biometric Protection Profile
FBRM Fractional Bit Rate Modulation
FBS Fernbedienungs- und Steuerungssystem
FC Federal Criteria
FC Fibre Channel
FC File Catalogue
FC Flip Chip
FC Flow Control
FC Forward Checking
FC Frame Control
FCA Fibre Channel Association
FC-AL Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop
FCB File Control Block
FCB Future Communications Bus
FCC Federal Communications Commission, USA
FCC File Carbon Copy
FCCH Frequency Correction Channel
FCCSET Federal Coordination Committee on Science, Engineering and Technology
FCD Final Committee Draft
FCD Floating Car Data
FCD Foundation for Communication for the Disabled
FCFS First Come First Served
FCI flux changes per inch
FCIA Fibre Channel Industry Association
FCIF Full Common Intermediate Format
FCL FORTRAN Command Language
FCLC Fibre Channel Loop Community
FCP Fibre Channel Protocol
FCPGA Flip Chip Pin Grid Array
FCRAM Fast Cycle (Dynamic) Random Access Memory
FCS Fibre Channel Standard
FCS First Customer Shipment
FCS Frame Check Sequence
FCSI Fiber Channel Systems Initiative
FCT Fast CMOS Technology
FCT Firewall Configuration Tool

Seite 208
FCVC Flow Controlled Virtual Channel
FD Finite Domain
FD Floppy Disk
FD Full Duplex
FDB Fluid Dynamic Bearing
FDC Final Committee Draft
FDC Floppy Disk Controller
FDCC Formal Definitions of Cultural Conventions
FDD Feature Driven Development
FDD Floppy Disk Drive
FDDI Fiber Digital/Distributed Data Interface
FDDI TP-PMDFDDI Twisted Pair Physical Layer Medium Dependent
FDDI/UTP FDDI Unshielded Twisted Pair
FDDT FDDI Full Duplex Technology
FDE Full Disc Encryption
FDE Full Duplex Ethernet
FDES Full Duplex EtherSwitch
FDF Forms Data Format
FDFDDI Full Duplex FDDI
FDFS File Descriptor File System
FDI Flash Data Integrator
FDISK Fixed Disk
FDL Factory Data Link
FDL File Definition Language
FDL (GNU) Free Documentation License
FDM Flight Dynamic Model
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexer/Multiplexing
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple/Multiplex Access
FDOCA Formatted Data Object Content Architecture
FDP Form Description Program
FDR Frame Drop Rate
FDSE Full Duplex Switched Ethernet
FDSL Fixed Directory Subscriber List
FDSL Flexible Digital Subscriber Line
FDT Formal Description Technique
FDX Full Duplex (transmission)
FE Finite Elemente
FE Focus Error
FE Format Effektor
FE Frame/Framing Error
FEA Fast Ethernet Alliance
FEA Fractal Element Antenna
FEAL Fast Data Encipherment Algorithm
FEBE Far End Block Error
FEC Fast EtherChannel (Cisco)
FEC Floating Electrode Capacitor Cell
FEC Forward Equivalence Class

Seite 209
FEC Forward Error Correction
FEC Front End Clipping
FECN Forward Explicit Congestion Notification
FED Fachverband Elektronik Design e. V.
FED Field Emission Device/Display
FEDIS Finite Element Data Interchange Specification
FEM Finite-Elemente-Methode
FEP Firewall Enhancement Protocol
FEP Front End Processor
FEPIM Fast Ethernet Port Interface Module
FER Frame Erasure Rate
FERAM Ferroelectric Random Access Memory
FERF Far End Receive Failure
FEST Finite Element Simulation Technique
FEST Framework for European Telemedicine
FET Feldeffekt-Transistor
FEXT Far End Crosstalk
FF Fieldbus Foundation
FF First Fail (Principle)
FF Flipflop
FF Form Feed
FFA Free For All
FFAPI File Format API
FFDT FDDI Full Duplex Technology (DEC)
FFGF File Framework Generator and Formatter
FFI Foreign Function Interface
FFII F�rderverein f�r eine Freie Informationelle Infrastruktur
FFM File-on-File Mounting File System
FFOL FDDI Follow-On LAN
FFR For Future Release
FFS Fast/Flash File System
FFS Flexibles Fertigungssystem
FFS For Free Server
FFSN Fast Flux Service Network
FFT Fast Fourier Transform/Transformation
FFT Full Frame Transfer
FFTP Fast Food Transfer Protocol (Mampfnet)
FG Feature Group
FG Foreground
FG Frame Ground
FGA Feature Group A
FGB Feature Group B
FGC First Global Commerce
FGD Feature Group D
FGDC Federal Geographic Data Committee
FGF Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk
FGS Fair Group Scheduling

Seite 210
FGV Fernmeldegeb�hrenvorschriften
FH Frame Handler
FHS Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
FHS For Heaven's Sake (Slang)
FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
FI Feature Interaction
FI Form Interpreter
FI Full Interchangeability
FIAWOL Fandom Is A Way Of Life (Slang)
FICON Fiber Connectivity
FID File/Format/Frequency Identifier/Identification
FIF Fachinformation in Fachhochschulen
FIF Fractal Image Format
FIFF Forum InformatikerInnen f�r den Frieden e. V.
FIFO First In, First Out (Speicher)
FILO First In, Last Out (Speicher)
FIMS Forms Integration Management Standard
FINCEN Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
FINTS Financial Transaction Services
FIP File Processor Buffering
FIPR Foundation of Information Policy Research, UK
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard, USA
FIQ Fast Interrupt Request
FIR Fast Infrared Communication
FIR Finite Impulse Response
FIR Full Intra Request
FIRP Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (NIST)
FIRST Fraunhofer-Institut f�r Rechnerarchitektur und Softwaretechnik, Berlin
FIRST Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams
FIS Financial Information System
FISA Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
FISH First In, Still Here (Slang)
FISMA Federal Information Security Management Act, USA
FIT Fachauschuss f�r Information und Telekommunikation
FIT Failures In Time
FIT Fingerprint Identification Technology
FIT Fraunhofer-Institut f�r Angewandte Informationstechnik, Sankt Augustin
FITB Fill In The Blank (Slang)
FITL Fiber In The Loop
FITNR Fixed In The Next Release (Slang)
FITS Flexible Image Transport System
FITUG F�rderverein Informatik und Gesellschaft e. V.
FIX Federal Information/Internet Exchange
FIZ Fachinformationszentrum
FK Family Key
FKTG Fernseh- und Kinotechnische Gesellschaft
FL Fiber Link

Seite 211
FLA Full Look Ahead
FLAC Free Lossless Audio Codec
FLAIM Flexible and Adaptable Information Manager
FLAME Flexible Application Program Interface for Module-based Environments
FLASK Flux Advanced Security Kernel
FLBGA Fine Line Ball Grid Array
FLC Ferro-electric Liquid Crystal
FLC First Level Cache
FLI Font Library
FLIC FORTRAN Language for Industrial Control
FLIT Flexowriter Interrogation Tape
FLL Frequency Locked Loop
FLN Family Life Network
FLN Fuzzy Lattice Neurocomputing
FLOF Full Level One Feature
FLOP Floating Point Operation
FLOPS Floating Point Operations per Second
FLOSS Free/Libre Open Source Software
FLP Fast Link Pulse
FLT Fertigungsleittechnik
FLUVIS Fluid Dynamics Visualization in a Virtual Windtunnel
FM Facility/Fault/Function Management
FM Frequenzmodulation, Frequency Modulation
FMA Fault Management
FMA Fused Multiply-Add
FMAC Floating Point Multiply Accumulate
FMC Fan Monitor Connector
FMC Flexible Manufacturing Cell
FMC Flight Management Computer
FMCW Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave
FMD Fluorescence Multilayer Disk
FMD Funkmessdienst
FME Funkmeldeempf�nger
FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
FMH Function Management Header
FMI Fixed Mobile Integration
FML Forms Markup Language
FMP Flow Management Protocol
FMP Functional Multiprocessor/-processing
FMS Facility/File/Forms Management System
FMS Fernmeldesystem
FMS Fieldbus Message Specification
FMS Flexible Manufacturing System
FMS Funkmeldesystem
FMV Full Motion Video
FN Fiber Node
FNA File Name/Attribute Augmentation Facility

Seite 212
FNA Formerly Known As (Slang)
FNA Functional Needs Analysis
FNA Functional Network Architecture
FNC Federal Networking Council, USA
FNL Fortran Numerical Library
FO Fernmeldeordnung
FO Fiber Optics
FOAF Friend Of A Friend (Slang)
FOC Fiber Optic Cable
FOC Free Of Charge
FOC Full Operational Capability
FOD Fax On Demand
FOD Foreign Object Damage
FOF Factor Out Failure
FOIA Freedom Of Information Act, USA
FOIP Fax Over Internet Protocol
FOIRL Fiber Optic Inter Repeater Link
FOL First-Order Logic
FOLDOC Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing
FOLED Flexible Organic Light Emitting Display
FOMA Freedom Of Multimedia Access
FOMAU Fiber Optic Medium Attachment Unit
FOOBAR FTP Operation Over Big Address Records
FORTRAN Formula Translator
FORTWIHR Forschungsverbund f�r technisch-wissenschaftliches Hochleistungsrechnen
FOSDEM Free and Open Source Developers' European Meeting
FOSI Formatting Output Specification Instance
FOSS Free and Open Source Software
FOSSIL Fido-Opus-Seadog Standard Interface Layer
FOV Field Of View
FP Fabri-Perrot (-Laser)
FP False Positive
FP Fiber Passive
FP Fixed Part
FP Floating Point
FPAD Field Programmable Address Decoder
FPAL Field Programmable Array Logic
FPD Flat Panel Display
FPDP Front Panel Data Port
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array
FPIC Field Programmable Interconnect Circuit
FPK Fast Packet Keying
FPLA Field Programmable Logic Array
FPLD Field Programmable Logic Device
FPLMTS Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System
FPLS Field Programmable Logic Sequencer
FPM Fast Packet Multiplexing

Seite 213
FPM Fast Page Mode (DRAM)
FPML Field Programmable Macro Logic
FPO For Placement Only (image)
FPODA Fixed Assignment PODA
FPP Fast Parallel Port
FPP Fixed Path Control
FPP Floating Point Processor
FPP Fraud Prevention Pool
FPP Full Packaged Product
FPS Fast Packet Switching
FPS First Person Shooter
FPS For Pay Server
FPS Frames per Second
FPT Force/Forced Perfect Termination
FPU File Preparation Unit
FPU Floating Point Unit
FPX Flash Pix (Format)
FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name (Internet)
FQHN Fully Qualified Host Name (Internet)
FR Frame Relay
FRAD Frame Relay Access Device
FRAD Frame Relay Assembler/Disassembler
FRAM Ferroelectric/Ferromagnetic Random Access Memory
FRAP Frame Relay Access Protocol
FRC Full Rate Channel
FRC Functional Redundancy Checking
FRCA Fast Response Cache Accelerator
FRDS Failure Resistant Disk System
FRE Full Regular Expression
FREQNPAV Frequenznutzungsplanaufstellungsverordnung
FREQNPAVBVFrequenznutzungsplanaufstellungsverordnungsbeauftragtenversammlung
FRF Frame Relay Forum
FRICC Federal Research Internet Coordinating Committee
FRISK Fri Programvare I Skolen (Norway)
FRMR Frame Reject (frame)
FRPI flux reversals per inch
FRR False Rejection Rate
FRS Family Radio Service
FRS Frame Relay Service
FRTS Future Request To Send
FRU Field Replaceable Unit
FS Field/File Separator
FS File System
FS Finite State
FS Font Server
FS Frame Status
FS Full Screen

Seite 214
FSA Finite State Automaton
FSAA Full-Scene Anti-Aliasing
FSAG Free Software Association Germany, Frankfurt (M)
FSAN Full Services Access Network
FSB Front Side Bus
FSB Functional System Block
FSC Fujitsu Siemens Computers
FSCSI Fast SCSI
FSD File System Driver
FSE Freisprecheinrichtung
FSF Free Software Foundation
FSFE Free Software Foundation Europe
FSFO Failsave Failover
FSG Free Standards Group
FSK Frequency Shift Keying (Modulation)
FSL Full Shallow Learning
FSM Finite State Machine
FSM Free Space Map
FSM Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle Multimedia (Diensteanbieter)
FSMO Flexible Single Master Operation
FSN File System Navigator
FSN Full Service Network
FSP File Service Protocol (Internet)
FSS Fixed Satellite Services
FST Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle Telefonmehrwertdienste
FSTP Fast Spanning Tree Protocol
FSU Free Software Union
FT Fast Track
FT Fault Tolerant
FT Free Term
FT Funkentelegraphie
FTA Final Type Approval
FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management (OSI)
FTASB Faster Than A Speeding Bullet (Slang)
FTB Front To Back Algorithm
FTBS Failed To Build from Source
FTC Fax Transfer Centre
FTC Federal Trade Commission, USA
FTDS Failure Tolerant Disk System
FTEG Gesetz �ber Funkanlagen und Telekommunikationsendeinrichtungen
FTL Faster Than Light (Slang)
FTLS Formal Top Level Specification
FTP File Transfer Protocol (Internet)
FTP Foiled Twisted Pair
FTPI Flux Transitions Per Inch
FTPS File Transfer Protocol over TLS/SSL (Internet)
FTR Failed To Return

Seite 215
FTR Fast Token Ring
FTR Fast Transient Response
FTR Feature Test Release
FTR File Typing Rules
FTR For This Reason (Slang)
FTR Forget The Rest (Slang)
FTR Frame Transfer Repring
FTR Full Test/Text Retrieval
FTRT Faster Than Real Time (Slang)
FTS Fahrerlose Transportsysteme
FTS Fidonet Transport Standard
FTS File Transfer Service
FTTB Fiber To The Basement/Building
FTTC Fiber To The Curb
FTTG Fiber To The Galaxy
FTTH Fiber To The Home
FTTL Fiber To The Loop
FTTN Fiber To The Neighbourhood
FTZ Fernmeldetechnisches Zentralamt
FTZ Forschungs- und Technologie-Zentrum der DBP Telekom
FU Functional Unit
FUA Flow Update Acknowledge
FUA Follow Up Amplifier
FUBAHR Fouled Up Beyond All Hope of Recognition (Slang)
FUBAR Fouled Up Beyond All Repair/Recognition (Slang)
FUBB Fouled Up Beyond Belief (Slang)
FUBS Fido Used Book Squad
FUD Fear, Uncertainty, and Disinformation/Doubt (Slang)
FUD Flussdiagramm (DIN 66 001)
FUE Forschung und Entwicklung
FUG Functional Unification Grammar
FUI Fake User Interface
FUI File Update Information
FUL Forschung und Lehre
FUNET Finnish University and Research Network
FUNI Frame based/Relay User Network Interface
FUP Funktionsplan (DIN 40 719)
FURA F�reningen Ume� Radioamat�rer
FUSE Filesystem in User Space
FUSSP Final Ultimate Solution of the Spam Problem
FUST Funkstelle
F�V Fernmeldeverkehrs-�berwachungs-Verordnung
FV Festverbindung
FVD Finalized Versatile Disc
FVF Flexible Vertex Format
FVIT Fachverband Informationstechnik im ZVEI
FVT Full Video Translation

Seite 216
FVV Feste virtuelle Verbindung
FW Firewall
FWA Fixed Wireless Access
FWEE Fernwirkendeinrichtung
FWEG Fernwirkendger�t
FWH Firmware Hub
FWI Frequently Wanted Information
FWIW For What It's Worth (Slang)
FWLST Fernwirkleitstelle
FWT Fast Wavelet Transform
FX File Express
FX Foreign Exchange (Service)
FXO Foreign Exchange Office
FXP File Exchange Protocol (RFC 959)
FXS Foreign Exchange Station
FXSR Fast FP/MMX Streaming SIMD Extensions Save/Restore
FXU Fixed Point Unit
FYA For Your Amusement (Slang)
FYEO For Your Eyes Only (Slang)
FYI For Your Information (Internet)
FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik, Karlsruhe
G General, German, Global, Graphic, Ground, Group
G2B Government To Business
G2C Government To Citizen
G2G Government To Government
GA Globus Alliance
GA Go Ahead (Slang)
GAAS Galliumarsenid (GaAs)
GAB Group Audio Bridging
GABELN Group Area Brett Echo Liste Netz
GABI General Application Binary Interface
GABICO Ganz billiger Computer
GAC Global Assembly Cache
GAC Government Advisory Committee
GACP Gateway Access Control Protocol
GAE German Application Environment
GAFIA Get Away From It All (Slang)
GAG Generic Algorithms for GIMP
GAIN German Advanced Integrated Network (IBM)
GAK Government Access to Keys
GAL Gate/Generic Array Logic
GAL Get A Life (Slang)
GALA Geschwindigkeitsabh�ngige Lautst�rkeanhebung
GAMM Gesellschaft f�r Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik
GAMS Generalized Algebraic Modelling System

Seite 217
GAN Global/Galactic Area Network
GAP General/Generic Access Profile
GAP German Academic Publishers
GARP Generic Attribute Registration Protocol
GARP Genetic Algorithm of Rule-Set Production
GARP Group Address Resolution Protocol
GART Graphics Address Remapping Table
GART Graphics Aperture Relocation Table
GAS Gateway Access Server
GAS GNU Assembler
GAT Geek of All Trades (Slang)
GAT Generic Application Template
GAUDI Guideline Authoring and Dissemination
GAVDP Generic Audio Video Distribution Profile
GBB Generic Blackboard System
GBG Geschlossene Benutzergruppe (Btx, Datex-J)
GBIC Gigabit Interface Converter
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
GBJ Graph Based Backjumping
GBN Global Business Network
GC Game Computer
GC Garbage Collection
GC Global Catalogue
GC Grid Computing
GCA Graphic Communications Association, USA
GCAD Geographical Computer Aided Design System
GCC Generic Conference Control
GCC GNU C Compiler (gcc)
GCC GNU Compiler Collection
GCF Gatekeeper Confirmation
GCFA GIAC Certified Forensics Analyst
GCI General Circuit Interface
GCL Golden Common LISP
GCN Global Challenge Network
GCR Gray Component Replacement
GCR Group Coded Recording
GCS Gauss Centre for Supercomputing
GCS Gauss Centre for Supercomputing
GCS Geek of Computer Science (Slang)
GCT Gate Controlled Thyristor
GDA Gesellschaft f�r Digitale Archivierungstechnik
GDA Global Data Area
GDA Global Directory Agent
GDB Genome Database
GDDM Graphics Data Display Manager
GDE Generic Decryption Engine
GDF Geographic Data Format

Seite 218
GDI Graphic Device Interface
GDLM GFS Distributed Lock Manager
GDMO Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects (OSI)
GDN Government Data Network (UK)
GDOI Group Domain Of Interpretation
GDOS Graphics Device Operating System
GDP Generalized Drawing Primitive
GDPDU Grunds�tze zum Datenzugriff und zur Pr�fbarkeit digitaler Unterlagen
GDPS Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex (IBM)
GDR Global Data Router
GDR Grinning, Ducking and Running (Slang)
GDRVVF Grinning, Ducking and Running Very, Very Fast (Slang)
GDS Global Directory Service
GDT Global Descriptor Table
GDT Grand Dictionaire Terminologique
GDTRC Global Descriptor Table Register Cache
GE Geek of Engineering (Slang)
GE General Electric Company
GE Gigabit Ethernet
GE Graphic Escape
GEA Gigabit Ethernet Alliance
GEB G�del, Escher, Bach
GEC Green Electronics Council
GECOS General Electric Comprehensive Operating System
GEDA GNU Electronic Design Automation
GEDIG German EDIF Interest Group
GEGL Generic Graphics Library
GEHR Good European Health Record
GEIS General Electric Information Services
GEM Global Enterprise Management
GEM Globally Executable MHP
GEM Graphics Environment Manager
GEMA Gesellschaft f�r musikalische Auff�hrungsrechte
GEMS Global Enterprise Management of Storage
GEN Global European Network
GENA General Event Notification Architecture
GEO Geostationary Earth Orbit
GEOSAR Geostationary Search And Rescue
GEP Good Engineering Practice
GET Ground Elapsed Time
GEZ Geb�hreneinzugszentrale
GFC General/Generic Flow Control
GFC Going For Coffee (Slang)
GFDL GNU Free Documentation License
GFG Ganz Freches Grinsen (Slang)
GFG Gift From God (Slang)
GFR Guaranteed Frame Rate

Seite 219
GFS Global/Google File System
GFSK Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying
GFY Good For You (Slang)
GFY Go Find Yourself (Slang)
GG Gadu-Gadu
GGF Global Grid Forum
GGI General/Generic Graphical/Graphics Interface
GGP Gateway to Gateway Protocol
GGS G�tegemeinschaft Software e. V., K�ln
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GHC Glasgow Haskell Compiler
GHF Grosshandels-Flatrate
GHN Get Hold Next
GHT Geographic Hash Table
GHU Get Hold Unique
GI Gesellschaft f�r Informatik e. V.
GIAC Global Information Assurance Certification
GIBN Global Interoperability for Broadband Networks
GID Group Identifier/Identification
GIF Graphics Interchange Format
GIFT GNU Image Finding Tool
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage/Gospel Out (Slang)
GII Global Information Infrastructure
GIIS Grid Index Information Service
GILC Global Internet Liberty Campaign
GILS Government Information Locator Service
GILT Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, Translation
GIMP GNU Image Manipulation Program
GIMPS Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search
GIOP General Inter-ORB Protocol
GIP Global Internet Project
GIP GPS/GSM Interworking Profile
GIPS Giga-Instructions Per Second
GIS Geographic Information System
GISC Generic Intelligent System Controller
GIT GNU Interactive Tools
GIWIST Gee I Wish I'd Said That (Slang)
GIX Global Internet Exchange
GK Gatekeeper
GKMP Group Key Management Protocol
GKS Graphical Kernel System
GKV Gesch�ftskundenvertrieb (Telekom)
GL Graphics Language
GLASS Globally Accessible Services
GLDV Gesellschaft f�r Linguistische Datenverarbeitung
GLIN Global Legal Information Network
GLL Geographic Position - Latidtude/Longitude (message)

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GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System
GLP Government License Program
GLT Geb�udeleittechnik
GLU General Logic Unit
GLUE Global User Environment
GLV Global Line Vectorization
GLX OpenGL Extension for the X Window System
GM General MIDI
GMC Global Motion Compensation
GMD Gesellschaft f�r Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung
GMDS Global Managed Data Services
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GME Gesellschaft Mikroelektronik im VDE
GMHS Global Message Handling System
GMII Gigabit Media Independent Interface
GML Generalized/Geographic Markup Language
GMM Gamut Map Model
GMMP Global Memory, Message Passing
GMP GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library
GMPLS Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
GMR Giant Magneto Resistance/Resistive (Head)
GMRP GARP Multicast Registration Protocol
GMS Global Messaging Service (Novell)
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Centre
GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (Modulation)
GMSV Global Memory, Shared Variables
GMT Generic Mapping Tools
GMT Greenwich Mean/Meridian Time
GMX Global Message Exchange
GN Group Ad-hoc Network Point
GNA Globewide Network Academy
GNATS GNATS's A Tracking System
GND Ground
GNF Greibach Normal Form
GNI Gesellschaft f�r Angewandte Neuroinformatik
GNI Grenoble Network Initiative
GNKSA Good Net-Keeping Seal of Approval
GNN Global Network Navigator
GNOME GNU Network Object Model Environment
GNS Global Name Service
GNS Global Name Space
GNS Global Navigation Satellite/System
GNS Global Network Security/Services/Simulation/Solutions
GNS GPS Navigation Systems
GNS Grid Network Service
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GNU GNU's Not UNIX

Seite 221
GO Geek of Other
GOB Group Of Blocks
GOBS Grunds�tze ordnungsgem�sser DV-gest�tzter Buchf�hrungssysteme
GOC General Operators Certificate
GOCC Government Open Code Collaborative
GOD Global Out Dial
GOEP Generic Object Exchange Profile
GOES Geostationary/Geosynchronous Operational/Orbiting Environmental Satellite(s)
GOK God Only Knows (Slang)
GOL Game Of Life
GOMS Goal, Operators, Methods, Selection
GOP Group Of Pictures
GOS Global Overseas Service
GOS Grunds�tze ordnungsgem�sser Speicherbuchf�hrung
GOSIP Government OSI Profile
GOSPL Generalized Open Source Programmable Logic
GOST Gosudarstvennyy Standart (EASC)
GOT Global Offset Table
GOUV Grizzled Old Unix Veteran (Slang)
GOV Government; Internet-Domain: Beh�rden in USA
GP Game Port
GP Gas Plasma
GP General Purpose
GP Green Pages
GPA GNU Privacy Assistant
GPA Ground Plane Antenna
GPC General Purpose Computer
GPF General Protection Fault/Failure
GPFS General Parallel File System (IBM)
GPGPU General Purpose Computation on Graphics Processing Unit
GPI General Purpose Interface
GPI Graphics Programming Interface
GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus
GPIM Gigabit Interface Module
GPL General Public License (GNU)
GPL Graphics Programming Language
GPNV General Purpose Non-Volatile (Area)
GPON Gigabit Passive Optical Network
GPP Generic Packetized Protocol
GPR Global Position Receiver
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPS General Problem Solver
GPS Generalized Processor Sharing
GPS Global Pizza Service
GPS Global Positioning Satellite/System
GPS Graphical Process Statistics
GPSR Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing

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GPSS General Purpose Simulation System
GPT GUID Partition Table
GPU Graphic/Graphical Processing/Processor Unit
GQL Graphical Query Language
GQM Goal, Question, Metric
GQOS Guaranteed Quality Of Service
GRA Group Random Access
GRACCE Grand Challenge Computational Environment
GRAM Globus Resource Allocation Manager
GRASP General Robotics, Automation, Sensing and Perception
GRD Grinning, Running + Ducking (Slang)
GRE Generic Router/Routing Encapsulation (CISCO)
GRE Graphics Engine
GREAT Graphical Environment And Desktop
GREP Global Regular Expression and Print
GRIB Gridded Binary (code, data format)
GRID Global Resource Identifier
GRIO Guaranteed Input Output Bandwidth
GRIS Grid Resource Information Service
GRJ Gatekeeper Reject
GRL Global Revocation List
GRP General Registration Protocol
GRQ Gatekeeper Request
GRS Generic Record Syntax
GRUB Grand Unified Bootloader
GS Geek of Science
GS Gepr�fte Sicherheit (T�V)
GS Global Store
GS Group Separator
GSA Global Mobile Suppliers Association
GSA Global Security Architecture
GSE Graphical Setup Environment
GSF Ghostscript Font
GSFDL GNU Simpler Free Documentation License
GSI Generic Software Interface
GSI Grid Security Infrastructure
GSID Global Server Identifier
GSL GNU Scientific Library
GSL Graphics Subroutine Library
GSLB Global Server Load Balancing
GSM Global Shared Memory
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM Group Speciale Mobile
GSMA Global Scheduling Multiple Access
GSMP General/Generic/Global Switch Management Protocol
GSNW Gateway Services for Netware
GSO Generic Segmentation Offload

Seite 223
GSO Geosynchronous Orbit
GSOC German Space Operations Center
GSR Gigabit Switching Router
GSS Generic Security Services
GSS Group Support System
GSSAPI Generic Security Service Application Program Interface
GST Geb�udesystemtechnik
GST Greedy String Tiling (Algorithm)
GST Greenwich Sidereal Time
GSTN General/Global Switched Telephone Network
GSUG German Smalltalk Users Group
GSX Graphics System Extension
GT Global Teach
GT Globus Toolkit
GT Group Technology
GTE Geometry Transfer Engine
GTF General Timing Formula (VESA)
GTL Gunning Transceiver Logic
GTLD Generic Top Level Domain
GTO Gate Turn Off
GTP Go Text Protocol
GTR Grafikf�higer Taschenrechner
GTS Global Telecommunication System
GTS Global Time Server/Service
GTT Global Title Translation
GTUBE Generic Test for Unsolicited Bulk Email
GU Gabelumschalter
GU Geek Undecided
GUD Grand Unified Debugger
GUI Graphical User Interface
GUID Globally Unique Identifier
GUL Groupe d'Utilisateurs de Linux
GULM Global Universal Lock Manager
GULM Grand Unified Lock Manager
GULP Graph Unification Logic Programming
GUMM Gurus of UNIX Meeting of Minds
GUN Gemeinschaft der UNIX-Anwender Niederrhein
GUP Generic Ultimate Protocol
GURN GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network
GUS Ground Uplink System
GUS Guide to the Use of Standards (OSI)
GUUG German/Galactic Unix User Group
GV Geb�udeverteiler
GV Gestattungsvertrag
GVBD G�tz-von-Berlichingen-D�mon (Internet)
GVH Gesamtverzeichnis deutschsprachiger Hochschulschriften
GVIF Gigabit Video Interface

Seite 224
GVM Grafik, Visualisierung, Mediadienste
GVN Global Value Numbering
GVPN Global Virtual Private Network
GVRP GARP VLAN Registration Protocol
GVT Global Virtual Time
GVU Gesellschaft zur Verfolgung von Urheberrechtsverletzungen
GVU Graphics Visualization and Usability
GVV Gew�hlte virtuelle Verbindung
GW Gateway
GW Gleichwelle
GW Grenzwelle
GWDG Gesellschaft f�r Wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung G�ttingen
GWEN Ground Wave Emergency Network
GWIA Groupwise Internet Agent
GWIN Gigabyte Wissenschafts-Netz, G-WIN
GWL Gateway Link
GWM Generic Window Manager
GYM Google, Yahoo, Microsoft
GZS Gesellschaft f�r Zahlungssysteme
H Hardware, High, Home
H4P High-Performance Parallel Processor Project
HA Halbaddierer
HA Half Adder
HA High Availability/Aperture
HA Home Agent/Appliances
HAAPI Human Authentication Application Program Interface
HAARP High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program/Project
HAB Host Adapter Board
HAC Hierarchical Arc Consistency
HAC High Availability Cluster
HACMP High Availability Cluster Management Protocol
HACMP High Availability Cluster Multi-Processing (IBM)
HACS Hazard Assessment Computer System
HADA High Availability Disk Array
HAK Hugs And Kisses (Slang)
HAL Hard Array Logic
HAL Hardware Abstraction Layer
HAL Heuristically programmed Algorithmic Computer
HAL House Programmed Array Logic
HAM Hypertext Abstract Machine
HAND Have A Nice Day (Slang)
HANFS Highly Available Network File System
HAP Host Access Protocol
HAREC Harmonized Amateur Radio Examination Certificate
HAS Hauptanschluss

Seite 225
HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Package/Priority
HB Home Banking
HBA Host Bus Adapter
HBC Home Banking Computer
HBCDC High Bandwidth Cellular Data Channel
HBCI Home Banking Computer Interface
HBES Home and Building Electronic Systems
HBO Host Byte Order
HBS Home Bus System
HCA Heartbeat Collision Avoidance
HCA Host Channel Adapter
HCCSM High Performance Common Channel Signalling Modul
HCD Host Controller Device/Driver
HCF Halt and Catch Fire (Slang)
HCF Hybrid Distribution Function
HCI Host Controller Interface (USB, Firewire, Bluetooth etc.)
HCI Human Computer Interaction/Interface
HCLP Hierarchical Constraint Logic Programming
HCMOS High Speed CMOS
HCN Hierarchical Cache Network
HCP Hardware Control Protocol
HCP Host Configuration Protocol
HCRP Hardcopy Replacement Profile
HCS Header Check Sequence
HCT Hardware Compatibility Test
HCT Home Communication Terminal
HCVQ Hierarchical Classified Vector Quantization
HD Hard Disk
HD Heavy Duty
HD High Definition/Density
HD Hilfskanal Datenleitung
HDA Head and Disk Assembly
HDA High Definition Audio
HDAP High Definition Audio Performance
HDAP Home Digital Audio Platform
HDB High Density Bipolar (code)
HDB HoneyDanBer (P. Honeyman, D. A. Nowitz, B. E. Redman) (uucp)
HDB3 High Density Bipolar Code of Order 3
HDC Hard Disk Controller
HDC Hash Distributed Caching
HDCD High Definition Compatible Digital
HDCD High Density Compact Disk
HDCP High Bandwidth Digital Content Protection
HDCP High Definition Content Protection
HDD Hard Disk Drive, High Definition Display
HDDVD High Density Digital Versatile Disc
HDF HDSL Dual Framer

Seite 226
HDF Hierarchical Data Format
HDI Head to Disk Interference
HDL Hierarchical Design Language
HDLC High Level Data Link Control (Protocol)
HDM Hardware Device Module
HDMI High Definition Multimedia Interface
HDML Handheld Device Markup Language
HDN Hochgeschwindigkeits-Datennetz
HDOP Horizontal Dilution Of Precison
HDPLD High Density Programmable Logic Device
HDR HDSL Dual Regenerator
HDR Header
HDR High Dynamic Range
HDRI High Dynamic Range Imaging
HDRR High Dynamic Range Rendering
HDS High Definition System
HDSC High Density Signal Carrier
HDSL High Bit/Data Rate/Speed Digital Subscriber Line/Link/Loop
HDT High Definition Telephony
HDTV High Definition Television
HDW Hardware
HDX Half Duplex
HE Head End
HE High Efficiency
HE H�heneinheit (in Racks)
HEA Health/Higher Education Authority
HEAAC High Efficiency Advanced Audio Coder/Coding
HEAT Helpdesk Expert Automation Tool
HEC Header Error Check/Control
HECTOR Heterogeneous Computer Together
HEHO Head End Hop Off
HEL Hardware Emulation Layer
HEM Home, Entertainment, Multimedia
HEMP High-level Entity Management Protocol (Internet)
HEMS High-level Entity Management System (Internet)
HEMT High Electron Mobility Transistor
HEN Home Entertainment Network
HENSA Higher Education National Software Archive
HEO Highly Elliptical Orbit
HEP Heterogenous Element/multi Processor
HEPNET High Energy Physics Network
HERF High Energy Radio Frequency
HERT HERT/Hackers' Emergency Response Team
HES Home Electronic System (Siemens)
HESSLA Hacktivismo Enhanced-Source Software License Agreement
HEX hexadezimal
HF High Frequency/Functionality

Seite 227
HF Hochfrequenz
HFC Hybrid Fiber Coax (Network)
HFD Hauptanschluss f�r Direktwahl/Direktruf
HFD Hot Fix Device
HFEP Host Front End Protocol
HFM High Frequency Mode
HFP Hands Free Profile
HFRG Gesetz �ber den Betrieb von Hochfrequenzger�ten
HFS Hierarchical File System
HFT High Function Terminal
HFT Hochschule f�r Technik, Stuttgart
HGA Head Gimbal Assembly
HGA Hercules Graphics Adapter
HGA High Gain Antenna
HGC Hercules Graphics Card/Controller
HGML Hyper Graphics Markup Language
HGZH Hoffe Geholfen Zu Haben (Slang)
HHI Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, Berlin
HHOK Ha Ha Only Kidding (Slang)
HHOS Ha Ha Only Serious (Slang)
HI Handover Interface
HID Human Interface Device (Profile)
HIDS Host-based/Hybrid Intrusion Detection System
HIFD High Density Floppy Disk
HIFI Hypertext Interface For Information
HIL Hardware In the Loop
HIL Human Interface Link (HP)
HILI High Level Interface
HINFO Host Information (Record)
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, USA
HIPER High Performance European Radio
HIPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HIPS Host Intrusion Prevention System
HIS House Information System
HISA Health Informatics Service Architecture
HISA Healthcare Information System Architecture
HK Host Key
HKSCS Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set
HL Halbleiter
HL Hop Level (Flow Control)
HLCO High Low Close Open
HLDS Hitachi LG Data Storage
HLL High Level Language
HLLAPI HLL Application Program Interface
HLM Heterogeneous LAN Management
HLQ High Level Qualifier
HLR Home Location Register

Seite 228
HLRN H�chstleistungsrechenzentrum Nord
HLRN Norddeutscher Verbund f�r Hoch- und H�chstleistungsrechnen
HLRS H�chstleistungsrechenzentrum Stuttgart
HLRZ Hochleistungsrechenzentrum
HLS Hue, Lightness/Luminance, Saturation (Farbmodell)
HLT Halt
HM Hilfskanal Meldeleitung
HMA High Memory Area
HMA Hub Management Architecture
HMAC (keyed) Hash Message Authentication Code
HMC Hardware Management Console
HMC Her/His Majesty's Computer (Fun)
HMD Head/Helmet Mounted Display
HMI Horizontal Motion Index
HMI Human Machine Interface
HMMP Hypermedia Management Protocol
HMMS Hypermedia Management Scheme
HMOS High Density Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HMOS High Speed Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HMP Heterogeneous Multi-Processing
HMP Host Monitoring Protocol
HMUX Hybrid Multiplexer
HOB Head Of Bus
HOB Hierarchical Operational Binding
HOH HDSL Overhead Bit Handling
HOL Higher Order Logic
HON Health On the Net
HOP Homecast Open Protocol
HOPTE High Order Path Terminating Equipment
HOS Health Online Service
HOW Hand Over Word
HP Hewlett-Packard
HP Hochpass
HP Home Page
HPA Host Protected Area
HPB Half Power Bandwidth
HPC Handheld Personal Computer
HPC Health Professional Card
HPC High Performance Cluster/Computing
HPCA High Performance Computing Act
HPCC High Performance Computing Challenge
HPCC High Performance Computing and Communications
HPCI High Performance Computing Initiative
HPCRC High Performance Computing Research Center
HPCS High Performance Communication Server
HPDPS Hewlett-Packard Distributed Print System
HPDS High Performance Data System

Seite 229
HPET High Precision Event Timer
HPF High Performance FORTRAN
HPFL Hewlett-Packard Fiber Optic Link
HPFS High Performance File System (OS/2)
HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
HPI Host Port Interface
HPIB Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus
HPL Home Product Link
HPLIP Hewlett-Packard Linux Imaging and Printing
HPM Hardware Performance Monitor
HPM Hyper Page Mode
HPOFS High Performance Optical File System
HPPA Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture
HPPI High Performance Parallel Interface
HPPS Hewlett-Packard Payment Scheme
HPQ Hewlett-Packard Compaq
HPR High Performance Routing
HPSB High Performance Serial Bus (FireWire)
HPSC High Performance Scientific Computing
HPSL Hewlett-Packard Support Line
HPSN High Performance Scalable Networking
HPSS High Performance Storage System
HPTC3 High Prformance Technical Computing Competence Center
HQ High Quality
HR High Reflection (Display)
HR High Resolution
HRC Half Rate Channel
HRC Hybrid Ring Control
HRG High Resolution Graphics
HRIS Human Resource Information System
HRM Hopwise Reliable Multicast
HRMS Human Resource Management System
HRN Heterogenes Rechnernetz
HRNG Hardware Random Number Generator
HRRN Highest Response Ratio Next
HRS Hotel Reservation Service
HRT High Resolution Telemetry
HRTF Head Related Transfer Function
HRZ Hochschul-Rechenzentrum
HS High Speed
HS Hilfskanal Steuerleitung
HSB Hue, Saturation, Brightness
HSC High Speed Channel/Connect
HSCC Home-based Server-less Cooperative Caching
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data
HSD High Speed Data
HSDN High Speed Data Network

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HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSDT High Speed Data Transport
HSI Hardware-Software-Interface
HSI Hayes Synchronous Interface
HSI Hue, Saturation, Intensity
HSIK How Should I Know (Slang)
HSIM High Speed Interface Module
HSL Hierarchical Specific Language
HSLAN High Speed Local Area Network
HSLFX Hierarchical Specification Language - Function Extension
HSM Herzschrittmacher
HSM Hierarchical Storage Management/Manager
HSMD High Speed Mobile Data
HSO Hilfe zur Selbsthilfe f�r Online-S�chtige e. V.
HSP Headset Profile
HSP High Speed Peering
HSP High Speed Printer/Processor
HSP High Speed Publishing
HSPA High Speed Packet Access
HSPI High Speed Parallel Interface
HSPS High Speed Peripheral Shelf
HSRP Hot Standby Router Protocol (Cisco)
HSSDC High Speed Serial Data Connection/Connector
HSSG High Speed Study Group
HSSI High Speed Serial Interface
HST High Speed Technology/Telegraphy
HSTR High Speed Token Ring
HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access
HSV Hue, Saturation, Value (Farbmodell)
HSYNC Horizontal Synchronization (signal)
HT High Tension
HT Horizontal Tabulator
HT Hyper Threading
HTA High Temperature Alarm
HTB Hierarchical Token Bucket
HTC High Throughput Cluster
HTCC High Temperature Cofired Ceramic
HTCP Hyper Text Caching Protocol
HTFS High Throughput File System
HTH Hope This/That Helps (Slang)
HTML Hypertext Markup Language
HTMPL Hypertext Markup with Perl Language
HTPC Home Theatre Personal Computer
HTSI Host Transport Service Interface
HTT Hyper-Threading Technology
HTTP Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (Internet)
HTTPS Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol Secure/Security/over TLS/SSL (Internet)

Seite 231
HTX HTML Extensions
HUC Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing
HUD Heads Up Display
HUGO Holland Users Group for OS/2
HV High Voltage
HVC Hue (Farbton), Value (Helligkeit), Chroma (Buntheit)
HVD High Voltage Differential (SCSI)
HVD Holographic Versatile Disc
HVM Hardware Virtual Machine
HVP Horizontal + Vertical Position
HVT Hauptverteiler
HVV Hyperlink Vector Voting
HW Hardware
HWANS Hinweisansage
HWCP Hardware Code Page
HWID Hardware Identifier
HWMP Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol
HWS Ham/Haskell Web Server
HWS Hybrid Wireless Satellite
HYTEA Hypertext Authoring Environment
I Ident, Indicator, Information, Integrated, International, Internet
I18N Internationalization
I2O Intelligent Input/Output
I3 IMA Interoperability Initiative
I4DL Interface, Inheritance, Implementation, Installation Definition Language
IA Identification & Authentication, I&A
IA Information Appliance
IA Intelligent Applications
IA International Alphabet
IA Interworking Implementation Agreement
IAA Intel Application Accelerator
IAAS Institut f�r Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik, Berlin
IAB Individual Address Block
IAB International Academy of Broadcasting
IAB Internet Activities/Architecture Board
IAB Internet Advertising Bureau, UK
IAC In Any Case (Slang)
IAC Inquiry Access Code
IAC Interapplication Communication (Apple)
IACK Information Acknowledgement
IACR International Association for Cryptologic Research
IAD Integrated Access Device
IAD Internet Addiction Disorder
IAE In Any Event (Slang)
IAE ISDN Anschalteinheit/Anschlusseinheit

Seite 232
IAEL International Association of Entertainment Lawyers
IAFA Internet Anonymous FTP Archive
IAG Industry Advisory Group (Novell)
IAHC Internet International Ad Hoc Committee
IAI Internet Applications Integration
IAL Intel Architecture Labs
IAL International Algebraic Language (ALGOL)
IAM Institute of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Bern
IAMCE ISDN Access Module Control Element
IAMT Intel Advanced Management Technology
IAN Integrated Access Node
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
IANAL I Am Not A Lawyer (Slang)
IAOG International Administrative Management Domains Operators Group
IAP Internet Access Policy/Provider
IAP ISDN Access Internetworking Profile
IAR Institut f�r Automation und Robotik
IARP International Amateur Radio Permission
IARP Inverse Address Resolution Protocol
IARU International Amateur Radio Union
IAS Information Access System
IASG Internet Addiction Support Group
IASNET Institute for Automated Systems Network
IASS Internet Alphaserver System Software
IAT Import Address Table
IATE Inter Active Terminology for Europe
IAUG International AIX Users Group
IAX Inter-Asterisk Exchange Protocol
IB In Betrieb
IB Intelligent Backtracking
IBA Independent Broadcasting Authority
IBA Intel Boot Agent
IBAC In Band Adjacent Channel
IBAN International Bank Account Number
IBC Illinois Benedictine College (Gutenberg-Projekt)
IBC Inadequate But Cute (Slang)
IBC Inter Base Component
IBC International Broadcasting Convention
IBCN Integrated Broadband Communication Network
IBCS1 Intel Binary Compatibility Specification Edition 1
IBDWT Irrational Based Discrete Weighted Transform
IBFD Interessengemeinschaft Blinder Funkamateure Deutschlands
IBIA International Biometric Industry Association
IBL Input Buffer Limit
IBM International Business Machines (Big Blue)
IBN International Booking Network
IBO Inter Base Object

Seite 233
IBOC In Band On Channel
IBOND Intelligent Business On Demand
IBP Institut Blaise Pascal, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France
IBS Integriertes Banken-System
IBS Intelsat Business Services
IBSS Independent Basic Service Set
TSF Timing Synchronization Function
IBT Internet Based Training
IBTD I Beg To Differ (Slang)
IBU Informationsverbund Buchhandel
IBX Individualized Blackbox Component (Microsoft)
IC I See (Slang)
IC In Characters (Slang)
IC Incoming Call
IC Information Centre
IC Input/Integrated Circuit
IC Instruction Cache
IC Interexchange Carrier
IC Interrupt Controller
ICA Image Component Attribute
ICA Independent Component Analysis
ICA Independent Computing Architecture
ICA Intelligent Channels/Console Architecture
ICA Intelligent Communication Adapter
ICA Interface Connector Assembly
ICALP International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming
ICAM Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing
ICAN Individual Customer Access Network
ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
ICAP Integrated Computer Aided Production
ICARE International Council for Amateur Radio in Education
ICAS Information Communication Assistance System
ICAS Intel Communicating Applications Specifications
ICB Interface Control Board
ICBM Inter-continental Ballistic Messenger
ICC Integrated Circuit Card
ICC Intelligent Channel Controller
ICC International Color Consortium
ICC International Conference on Communications
ICCB Internet Control and Configuration Board
ICCC International Conference on Computer Communications
ICCCM Interclient Communications Conventions Manual
ICCE International Conference on Consumer Electronics
ICCHP International Conference on Computers for Handicapped Persons
ICCS Integrated Communications Cabling System (Siemens)
ICD International Code Designator

Seite 234
ICDE International Conference on Data Engineering
ICE Image Correction and Enhancement
ICE In-Circuit Emulator/Emulation
ICE Information Content Exchange
ICE Integrated Communication Environment
ICE Inter Client Exchange (Protocol)
ICF Interact Communication Facility
ICE Internal Compiler Error
ICE Internet Communications Engine
ICF Internet Connection Firewall
ICG Inversive Congruential (random number) Generator
ICG Interface Coordination Group
ICH I/O Contoller Hub
ICI Inter/Interexchange Carrier Interface
ICI Information Science Institute
ICIA International Communications Industries Association
ICIP ICI Protocol
ICL Interface Clear
ICM Image Color Management/Matching
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
ICN Information and Communication Network
ICN Integrated Computing Network
ICO Information Commissioner's Office
ICO Intermediate Circular Orbit
ICOCBW I Could, Of Course, Be Wrong (Slang)
ICP Input Control Procedure
ICP Integrated Channel Processor
ICP Interconnection Partner
ICP Internet Cache Protocol
ICP Internet Content Provider
ICPC (ACM) International Collegiate Programming Contest
ICQ I Seek You (Slang)
ICR Information Collection Request
ICR Initial Cell Rate
ICR Intelligent Character Recognition
ICRA Internet Content Rating Association
ICS IBM Cabling System
ICS Integrated Communication Services
ICS Internet Chess Server
ICS Internet Connecting/Connection Sharing (Microsoft)
ICS Intuitive Command Structure
ICSA International Customer Service Association
ICSTIS Independent Committee for the Supervision of Standards of Telephone Information Services
ICT Information and Communication Technology
ICTF Internet Content Task Force
ICU ISA Configuration Utility
ICU Instruction Cache Unit

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ICU International Components for Unicode
ICV Integrity Check Value
ICX Inter Cartridge Exchange
ID Identification, Identifier
ID Instruction Decode
ID Internet Draft
ID Intrusion Detection
IDA Independent/Intelligent Disk/Drive Array
IDA Interactive Debugging Aid
IDAPI Integrated Database Application Programming Interface
IDB Integrated Database
IDC I Don't Care (Slang)
IDC International Data Corporation
IDC Internet Database Connector
IDC Item Description Code
IDCT Inverse Discrete Cosine Tranform/Transformation
IDD International Direct/Distance Dialling
IDE Integrated Development Environment
IDE Integrated Device/Drive Electronics
IDE Interactive Design and Engineering
IDE Interface Design Enhancement
IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm
IDF Intel Developer Forum
IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame
IDF Inverse Document Frequency
IDI Initial Domain Identifier
IDI ISDN Driver Interface
IDK Interessengemeinschaft Datenkommunikation
IDL Interactive Data Language
IDL Interface/Internet Definition Language
IDM Identity Management
IDM Improved/Integrated Data Modem
IDM Intelligent Device Management
IDM Internet Download Manager
IDMS Imaging and Document Management System
IDMS Integrated Database Management System
IDN Identification Number
IDN Integriertes Datennetz, Integrated Digital Network
IDN Internationalized Domain Name
IDP Initial Domain Part
IDP Integrated Data Processing
IDP Internet Datagram Protocol
IDR Intergalactic Digital Research
IDR Intermediate Data Rate Service
IDRP Interdomain Routing Protocol
IDS Integrated Data System
IDS Intrusion Detection System

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IDSL ISDN Digital Subscriber Line
IDST I Didn't Say That (Slang)
IDT Improved Definition Television
IDT Interrupt Descriptor Table
IDTRC Interrupt Descriptor Table Register Cache
IDTS I Don't Think So (Slang)
IDTV Improved Definition Television
IDU Interface Data Unit
IDXP Intrusion Detection Exchange Protocol
IE Information Element
IEB Institute of Electronic Business, Berlin
IEC Interexchange Carrier
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IEC International Engineering Consortium
IECC Intercultural E-mail Classroom Connections
IECQ IEC Quality Assessment System for Electrical Components
IED Intelligent Electronic Device
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE/CS IEEE Computer Society
IEF Information Engineering Facility
IEMMC Internet Electronic Mail Marketing Council
IEMP Internal Electromagnetic Pulse
IEN Image Enabled Netware
IEN Internet Engineering/Experiment/Experimental Note
IEPRC International Electronic Publishing Research Centre
IES Information Exchange System
IES Integrated Election System
IESG Internet Engineering Steering Group
IET Image Enhancement Technology
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IETM Interactive Electronic Technical Manual
IEX Imaging Extensions for XWS
IF Intermediate Frequency, Zwischenfrequenz
IFA Internationale Funkausstellung, Berlin
IFC Integrated Factory Control
IFC Industry/Internet Foundation Classes
IFD Image File Directory
IFD Interface Device
IFF Interessengruppe Funkamateure im Fernverkehr
IFF Interchange File Format (Amiga)
IFF Internet Fast Forward
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation
IFG Incoming Fax Gateway
IFG Informationsfreiheitsgesetz
IFG Inter Frame Gap
IFIP International Federation for Information Processing
IFL Integrated Facility for Linux

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IFL Internet For Learning
IFMP Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol
IFPI International Federation of the Phonographic Industry
IFRB International Frequency Registration Board
IFS Inter Frame Space
IFS Installable File System (OS/2)
IFS Interchange File Separator
IFS Internal Field Separator
IFU Instruction Fetch Unit
IFU Internationale Fernmeldeunion
IFV Internationaler Fernmeldevertrag
IFVV Internationale feste virtuelle Verbindungen
IFW ISDN for Workgroups (Microsoft)
IFWFW ISDN for Windows for Workgroups (Microsoft)
IG Interactive Graphics
IG Interessengemeinschaft, Interest Group
IG Interior Gateway
IGA Integrated Graphics Adaptor/Array
IGBT Insulated/Insulator Gate Bipolar Transistor
IGC Institute for Global/Galactic Communications
IGC Integrated Graphics Controller
IGD (Fraunhofer-)Institut f�r Grafische Datenverarbeitung, Darmstadt
IGE (Eidgen�ssisches) Institut f�r geistiges Eigentum, Bern
IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
IGF Internet Governance Forum
IGIS Interactive Graphics Information System
IGITT Interactive Graphics Information Troubleshooting Technology
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol
IGN IBM Global Net
IGP Interior Gateway Protocol (Internet)
IGRF International Geomagnetic Reference Field
IGRP Internet/Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Cisco)
IGS Interchange Group Separator
IGS Internet Go Server
IGTF Internet Governance Task Force
IH In House
IHEM In-House Energy Management
IHL Internet Header Length
IHS Integrated Heat Spreader
IIC Inter Integrated Circuit (Bus)
IID Interface Identifier
IIF Image Interchange Facility
III Institute for Information Industry, Taiwan
IIJ Internet Initiative Japan
IIL Integrated Injection Logic
IIM Identified Internet Mail
IIM Information Interchange Model

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IIOP Internet Inter-ORB Protocol
IIP ISDN Intermediate Interworking Profile
IIPS Irrevocably Interruptible Power Supply
IIR Immediate Impulse Response
IIRC If I Remember Correctly (Slang)
IIS Internet Information Server (Microsoft)
IIS Internet Integrated Services
IISP Interim Inter Signalling/Switch Protocol
IITA Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications
IITF Information Infrastructure Task Force, USA
IITYWYBMADIf I Tell You Will You Buy Me Another Drink? (Slang)
IIWM If It Were Me/Mine (Slang)
IJCAI International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
IJS Inkjet Server (HP)
IK-CAPE Industriekooperation Computer Aided Process Engineering
IKE Internet Key Exchange (Protocol)
IKMP Internet Key Management Protocol
IKOE Institut f�r Kommunikations�kologie, Hamburg
IKT Informations- und Kommunikations-Technologie
IL Idle
IL Idle Listening
IL Intermediate Language
ILA Internet Learning Agent
ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
ILETS International Law Enforcement Telecommunications Seminar
ILG Initiated Linux Guru
ILLAB Ich Liege Lachend Am Boden (Slang), vgl. ROTFL
ILLIAC Illinois Institute for Advanced Computing
ILLIAC Illinois Integrator + Automatic Computer
ILM Industrial Light + Magic, Inc. (G. Lucas)
ILMI Interim Local Management Interface
ILP Inductive Logic Programming
ILP Integer Linear Programming
ILP Integer, Long, Pointer
ILS Integrated Logistic Support
ILT Item Level Tagging
ILVU Interleaved Video Unit
IM Information Management/Modeling
IM Instant Message/Messaging/Messenger
IM Intermodulation
IM IPv4 Multicast
IMA Interactive Multimedia Association
IMA Internationale Multimedia Akademie (Karlsruhe)
IMA Inverse Multiplexer for ATM
IMAC Isochronous MAC (FDDI)
IMACS International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation
IMAO In My Arrogant Opinion (Slang)

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IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol
IMBE Improved Multi-Band Excitation
IMC Internet Mail Consortium
IMCO In My Considered Opinion (Slang)
IMDS Image Data Stream (IBM)
IME In My Experience (Slang)
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identifier/Identity
IMG Image
IMG Information Management Group
IMHO In My Humble Opinion (Slang)
IMI I Mean It (Slang)
IMI Internet MSS Interface
IMIMG ISDN Memorandum of Understanding Implementation Management Group
IMNSCO In My Not So Considered Opinion (Slang)
IMNSHO In My Not So Humble Opinion (Slang)
IMO In My Opinion (Slang)
IMO International Maritime Organization
IMOBO In My Own Biased Opinion (Slang)
IMP Information/Interface Message Processor
IMP Instant Messaging Protocol
IMP Internet Messaging Program
IMPA Intelligent Multi-Port Adaptor
IMPP Instant Messaging and Presence Protocol
IMPS Infinite Monkey Protocol Suite
IMQ Intermediate Queuing (device)
IMR Internet Monthly Report
IMS Information Management System
IMS Integrated Media Service
IMS Internet Mail Service
IMS Intermediate Maintenance Standards
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IMSL International Mathematical Subroutine Library (VNI)
IMSP Independent Manufacturers Support Program
IMSP Internet Message Support Protocol
IMT Information Managment Team
IMT Inter-Machine Trunk
IMT International Mobile Telecommunications
IMTC International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium
IN Individual Network e. V.
IN Input
IN Intelligentes Netz (Telekom)
INA Institut National de l'Audiovisuel
INAK Information Negative Acknowledgement
INAP Intelligent Network Application Part
INARP Inverse Address Resolution Protocol
INC In Chain

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INC Increment
INC Internet Computer
INCA Interleaved Native Compiled Architecture
INET International Networking Conference
INFN Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy
INH Intelligent Networking Hub
INIS International Nuclear Information System
INKA Individual Network Region Karlsruhe
INM Integrated Network Management
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization
INMS Integrated Network Management Services
INN International Network News
INOC Internet Network Operations Center
INPO In No Particular Order (Slang)
INRIA Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique, France
INS Input String
INS Instance Object
INSB Internet Services for the Blind
INT Interrupt, Internal, Integer, Interrogative
INTA International Trademark Association
INTA Interrupt Acknowledge
INTAP Interoperability Technology Association for Information Processing, Japan
INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
INWG International/Internet Working Group
IO Input/Output, I/O
IOAPIC Input Output Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
IOAT Input Output Acceleration Technology
IOC Initial Operational Capability
IOC Input Output Controller
IOCS Input/Output Control System
IOCTL Input/Output Control
IOD Information Object Definition
IOD Intelligence On Demand
IODE Issue Of Data Ephemeris
IOE Input Output Engine
IOFEXT Input Output Far End Crosstalk
IOI Input Output Interconnect/Interface/Interrupt
IOI Integrated Operator Interface
IOI International Olympiad in Informatics
IOMMU Input Output Memory Management Unit
IONL Internal Organization of the Network Layer (OSI)
IOP Input Output Processor
IOP Internal Operation
IOPL Input/Output Priviledge Level
IOR Indian Ocean Region
IOS Input Output Subsystem
IOS International Organization for Standardization

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IOS Internetwork Operating System (CISCO)
IOSGA Input/Output Support Gate Array
IOT Inter-Office Trunk
IOTA Islands On The Air
IOTP Internet Open Trading Protocol
IOW In Other Words (Slang)
IP Image Processing
IP Information Provider
IP Instruction Pointer
IP Integer Programming
IP Intellectual Property
IP Intelligent Peripheral
IP Interactive Proof
IP Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
IP Interrupt Process
IPA Fraunhofer-Institut f�r Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung
IPA International Phonetic Alphabet
IPAE IP Address Encapsulation
IPARS International Passenger Airline Reservation System
IPAVS IP-Adressen-Verwaltungs-System
IPC Instructions Per Clock
IPC Integrated Passive Component
IPC Inter Personal Computer
IPC Interprocess Communication
IPCA Internet Parallel Computing Archive
IPCI Industrial PCI
IPCP Internet Protocol Control Protocol
IPDS IBM/Intelligent Printer Data Stream
IPES Improved Proposed Encryption Standard
IPF Information Presentation Facility
IPG In Plane Gate Transistor
IPG Inter Packet Gap
IPI Image Processing and Interchange
IPI Intelligent Peripheral Interface
IPI International Payment Instruction
IPIP Internet Protocol within Internet Protocol
IPL Information Processing Language
IPL Initial Program Loader
IPL Interrupt Priority Level
IPLS IP-Only LAN-Like Service
IPM Intelligent Power Mode/Module/MOS, Interpersonal Message
IPMI Intelligent Platform Management Interface
IPMP Intellectual Property Management and Protection
IPMV95 Integrated Packet Trunk Module V.95 Interface
IPNG Internet Protocol Next Generation (IPv6)
IPNS ISDN PBX Networking Specification
IPOC Interim Policy Oversight Committee

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IPON Intelligent Passive Optical Network
IPP Intel Primitive Performance (Library)
IPP Internet Presence Provider
IPP Internet Printing Protocol
IPPV Impulse/Instant Pay Per View
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IPRB Intellectual Property Review Board
IPS Image Packaging System
IPS In Plane Switching (panel)
IPS inch per second
IPS Internet Privacy Standard
IPS Intrusion Prevention System
IPSE Integrated Project Support Environment
IPSEC Internet Protocol Security Protocol
IPSI (Fraunhofer-Institut f�r) Integrierte Publikations- und Informationssysteme
IPT Immersive Projection Technology
IPTC International Press Telecommunications Council
IPTO Information Processing Techniques/Technology Office
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
IPU Imposition Processing Unit
IPV4 Internet Protocol Version 4
IPV6 Internet Protocol Version 6 (= IPng)
IPVR Inst. f�r parallele und verteilte H�chstleistungsrechner, Stuttgart
IPW Incremental Packet Writing
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange (Novell)
IPXCP Internetwork Packet Exchange Control Protocol
IQL Interactive Query Language
IQMS Integrated Quality Management System
IR Information Request/Retrieval
IR Infrared, Infrarot
IR Intermediate Representation
IR Internet Registry
IRAC Indpendent Review Advisory Committee
IRAF Image Reduction and Analysis Facility
IRAS I Really Am Sorry (Slang)
IRAW Idle Read After Write
IRB Instruction Recoder Buffer
IRB Instrumentation Request Broker
IRC International Record Carrier
IRC International Reply Coupon
IRC Internet Relay Chat
IRD Integrated Receiver Decoder (TV)
IRD Internet Resource Directory
IRDA Infrared Data Association
IRDS Information Resources Dictionary System
IRG Implicit Regeneration
IRICE Integrated Remote Interface Control Element

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IRIG Interrange Instrumentation Group
IRIS Infrastructure for Resilient Internet Systems
IRIS Intelligent Reference Information System
IRIS Interregional Information Society Initiative
IRL In Real Life (Slang)
IRL Inter Repeater Link
IRLED Infrared Light Emitting Diode
IRM Information Rights/Resource Management
IRQ Information/Interrupt Request
IRR Information Request Response
IRR Internet Routing Registry
IRS Information Retrieval System
IRS Interchange Record Separator
IRS Internal Revenue Service
IRS Intrusion Response System
IRSG Internet Research Steering Group
IRT Institut f�r Rundfunktechnik, M�nchen
IRTF Internet Research Task Force
IRV International Reference Version
IS In Service
IS Information Separator/Sevices/System
IS Integrated Service
IS Intensity Stereo
IS Interactive Service (Telecommunication)
IS Intermediate System
IS International Standard (ISO)
IS Interrupt Status
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISA Informationssystem Studienwahl und Arbeitsmarkt, Duisburg/Essen
ISA Instruction Set Architecture
ISA Integrated Services Architecture
ISA Interactive Services Association
ISA Internet Security and Acceleration (Server)
ISAKMP Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol
ISAM Index/Indexed Sequential Access Method
ISAPI Internet Server API
ISBD International Standard Bibliographic Description
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ISBT It's Strange But True (Slang)
ISC Instruction Set Computer
ISC Internet Service Center
ISCA International Symposium on Computer Architecture
ISCB Interessengemeinschaft sehgesch�digter Computerbenutzer
ISCSI Internet SCSI
ISD Image Section Descriptor
ISD Instructional System Design
ISD International Standard Data Network

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ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN Isosorbitdinitrat
ISDN Ist sowas denn n�tig? (Slang)
ISFET Ionensensitiver Feldeffekttransitor
ISFT Industrial Siemens Flatpanel Technology
ISH Information Superhighway
ISI Information Sciences Institute of the University of Southern California
ISI Information Society Index
ISI Institute for Scientific Information, USA
ISI Inter Symbol Interference
ISI Internally Specified Index
ISIN International Securities Identification Number
ISIS Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol (OSI)
ISIS Industrial Signature Interoperability Specification
ISL Imperceptible Structured Light
ISL Initial System Loader
ISL Interactive System Language
ISL Intersatellite Link
ISM Industrial, Scientific, Medical (Applications)
ISMA Internet Streaming Media Alliance
ISMP Internet Message Support Protocol
ISMS Information Security Management System
ISN Internet School/Shopping Networking
ISNS Internet Storage Naming Service
ISO International Standardization Organization
ISOC Internet Society
ISODE ISO Development Environment (OSI)
ISP Image Synthesis Processor
ISP International Standardized Profile
ISP Internet Service Provider
ISP Interrupt Stack Pointer
ISP Interrupt Status Port
ISPBX ISDN Private Branche Exchange
ISPF Interactive Structured Programming Facility (IBM)
ISPI Institut f�r Integrierte Publikationssysteme, Darmstadt
ISPLSI in-system-programmable LSI
ISPO Information Society Project Office
ISQIT Information Systems Quality Improvement Team
ISR Information Storage and Retrieval
ISR Intermediate Session Routing
ISR Interrupt Service Routine
ISRC International Standard Recording Code
ISRN International Standard Recording Number
ISSA Information Systems Security Association
ISSCC International Solid State Circuits Conference
ISSE Information Security Solutions Europe
ISSE Internet Streaming SIMD Extension

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ISSI Individual Short Subscriber Identity
ISSN International Standard Serial Number
ISSO Information System Security Officer
ISSP Inter-Switch Signalling Protocol
ISSP Internet Satellite Service Provider
ISSS IBM Speech Server Services
ISST (Fraunhofer-)Institut f�r Software- und Systemtechnik
IST Information Society Technologies (Programme)
IST Internet Transaction Server
ISTF Internet Science and Technology Fair
ISTF Internet Societal Task Force
ISTM It Seems To Me (Slang)
ISTO Information Science and Technology Office
ISTPA International Security, Trust + Privacy Alliance
ISTR I Seem To Remember (Slang)
ISU Industry Solution Unit (IBM)
ISUG International SGML/XML Users' Group
ISUP ISDN User Part
ISUS Information Services and User Support (DFN)
ISV Independent Software Vendor
ISVR Intel Smart Video Recorder
ISWIM If you See What I Mean
ISWL International Short Wave League
ISWYM I See What You Mean (Slang)
IT Information Technology, Informationstechnik
ITA Intend To Adopt (Debian)
ITA Interface Test Adapter
ITA Interim Type Approval
ITA International Telegraphy Alphabet
ITAA Information Technology Association of America
ITAC ISDN Terminal Adapter Circuit
ITB Information Technology Branch
ITB Intermediate Text Block
ITC Independent Television Commission
ITC IntelliCAD Technology Consortium
ITC International Telegraph Code
ITE Informationstechnische Einrichtung
ITE Internal Terminal Emulator
ITF Isochronous Transfer
ITG Informationstechnische Gesellschaft im VDE
ITG Informationstechnische Grundausbildung
ITHE International Travel Host Exchange
ITI Interactive Terminal Interface
ITIF Information Technology and Innovation Foundation
ITK Informationstechnik und Telekommunikation
ITLB Instruction TLB
ITM Internet Transaction Mix

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ITO Indium Tin Oxide
ITO Intend To Orphan (Debian)
ITOT ISO Transport Service on top of TCP
ITP Intent To Package (Debian)
ITR Internet Talk Radio
ITRS International Roadmap for Semiconductors
ITS Incompatible Time-Sharing System
ITS Institute for Telecommunication Sciences, USA
ITS Intelligent Transport System
ITS International Telecommunications Society
ITS Internationalization Tag Set
ITS (NIST) Internet Time Service
ITSEC Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria/Certification
ITSEM Information Technology Security Evaluation Manual
ITSK IT Sicherheitskriterien (Gr�nbuch)
ITSO Information Technology Security Office, Indiana University
ITSP Internet Telephony Service Provider
ITSTC Information Technology Steering Committee
ITT Internet, Television, Telephone
ITT Invitation To Transmit (Arcnet)
ITU Intelligent Thermal Update
ITU International Telecommunication Union
ITUG International Telecommunications Users' Group
ITV Interactive Television
ITW In The Wild
ITX Intermediate Text Block
IU Integer Unit
IUG Informix User Group
IUK Information und Kommunikation
IUKDG Informations- und Kommunikationsdienste-Gesetz
IUMA Internet Underground Music Archive
IUPAP International Union of Pure and Applied Physics
IUR International User Requirements
IUS Interchange Unit Separator
IUTY It's Up To You (Slang)
IV Initialisation Vector
IV Interessenverbund
IVB Individuelle Verkehrsbeeinflussung
IVBB Informationsverbund Bonn-Berlin
IVC Inter-Vehicle Communication
IVCA International Visual Communication Association
IVDLAN Integrated Voice and Data Local Area Network
IVHS Intelligent Vehicle Highway System
IVIS Interactive Video Information System
IVN Intervening Network
IVNM Interessenverband Neue Medien
IVOD Interactive Video On Demand

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IVP Installation Verification Image
IVR Interactive Voice Recognition/Response
IVS IBM Verkabelungssystem
IVS Interactive Visualization System
IVT Interrupt Vector Table
IVV Independent Verification and Validation
IVW Informationsgemeinschaft zur Feststellung der Verbreitung von Werbeertr�gen
IW Information Warfare
IWBNI It Would Be Nice If (Slang)
IWF Impulswahlverfahren (Telefon)
IWU Interworking Unit
IWV Impulswahlverfahren
IX Internet Exchange
IXA Internet Exchange Architecture
IXC Interexchange Carrier
IXF Integrated Exchange Format
IXI International X.25 Interconnect
IXP Internet Exchange Point
IYB In Your Basket (Slang)
IYSWIM If You See What I Mean (Slang)
IZT Institut f�r Zukunftsstudien und Technologiebewertung
J Java, Japan, Job
J2EE Java 2 Enterprise Edition
J2SE Java 2 Standard Edition
JA Jump Address
JAAS Java Authentication and Authorization Service
JAD Joint Application Design
JAE Java Application Environment
JAM Just A Minute (Slang)
JAM Jyacc Application Manager
JANET Joint Academic Network, England
JAP Java Anon Proxy
JAR Java Archive
JASON Journal Articles Sent On Demand
JAUA Just Another Useless Answer (Slang)
JAXP Java API for XML Processing
JBCE Japan Business Council in Europe
JBCE JavaBean Calculation Engine
JBD Journaling Block Device
JBIG Joint Bilevel Image Group
JBOD Just a Bunch Of Discs
JCA Java Connection Architecture
JCALS Joint Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistic Support System
JCB Job Conrol Block
JCC Java Competence Center

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JCE Java Cryptography Extension
JCL Job Control Language (IBM)
JCP Java Community Process
JCS Job Control Statement/System
JCT Job Control Table
JD Julian Date/Day
JDB Java Debugger
JDBC Java Data Base Connectivity
JDC Japanese Digital Cellular
JDK Java Developers/Development Kit
JECC Japan Electronic Computer Center
JEDEC Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council
JEIDA Japan/Japanese Electronics Industry Development Association
JES Job Entry Subsystem
JESA Japan Engineering Standard Association
JESSI Joint European Submicron Silicon Initiative
JFC Java Foundation Class
JFET Johnson/Junction Field Effect Transistor
JFFS Journalling Flash File System
JFIF JPEG File Interchange Format
JFS Journal/Journaled/Journalling/Java File System
JFS Jumbo Frame Support
JGFET Junction Gate Field Effect Transistor
JIB Job Information Block
JIC Just In Case (Slang)
JICST Japan Information Center of Science and Technology
JID Jabber Identifier
JIF Journal Impact Factor
JIT Just In Time (Compiler)
JJ Josephson Junction
JJ Just Joking (Slang)
JMMD Jokes Make My Day (Slang)
JMP Job Monitor Protocol
JMS Java Messaging Service
JMS Job Management System
JNDI Java Naming and Directory Interface
JNDSPI Java Naming and Directory Service Provider Interface
JNI Java Native Interface
JOL Job Orientation Language
JOSS Joint Object Services Submission
JOTA Jamboree On The Air
JPDA Java Platform Debugging Architecture
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPL Java Perl Lingo
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA
JPL Jyacc Procedural Language
JRE Java Runtime Environment

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JRTS Java Real Time System
JSDK Java Servlet Development Kit
JS JavaScript
JS Jumper Setting
JSC Job Status code
JSF Jabber Software Foundation
JSGF Java Speech Grammar Format
JSH Job control Shell
JSM Job Stream Manager
JSML Java Speech Markup Language
JSNM Just Stark Naked Magic (Slang)
JSP Jackson Structured Programming
JSP Java Server Page/Pages
JSQL Java SQL
JSS JavaScript Style Sheet
JSSE Java Secure Socket Extension
JT Job Table
JTAG Joint Test Action Group
JTAM Job and Transfer Manipulation
JTAP JTC1 TAG Application Portability Study Group
JTAPI Java Telephony Application Programming Interface
JTC Joint Technical Committee (ISO/IEC)
JTM Job Transfer and Management/Manipulation
JTRS Joint Tactical Radio System, USA
JTS Java Transaction Service
JUBL J�licher BlueGene/L (Supercomputer)
JUD Jabber User Directory
JUG Java User Group
JUGD Java User Group Deutschland
JUGFET Junction Gate Field Effect Transistor
JUMP Java User Migration Path
JUNET Japan/Japanese UNIX Network
JUST Joint Users of Siemens Telecommunications
JV Job Variable
JVM Java Virtual Machine
JVNC John-von-Neumann (Super-Computer-) Center
JVT Joint Video Team
JWS Java Workshop
JXTA Juxtapose (Sun)
K Key, Kilo, Kommunikation
K12 Kindergarten through 12th grade, K-12
KA Kamikaze (packet)
KA Keine Ahnung (no idea)
KA Key Account
KA Knowledge Access/Acquisition/Architecture

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KA Kommunikationsausr�stung
KAD Knowledge Aided Design
KAD Kontoauszugsdrucker
KADB Kernel Assembly Debugger
KADM Kerberos Administration (server)
KADS Knowledge Analysis and Design System
KAI Kurzweil Applied Intelligence
KALUG Karlsruhe Linux User Group
KAM Knowledge Aided Manufacturing
KAOS Kent Applicative Operating System
KAP Kernel Andorra Prolog
KAPSE Kernel Ada Program Support Environment
KAS Kerberos Authentication Server
KB Keyboard
KB Kilobyte
KB Knowledge Base
KBE Knowledge Based Engineering
KBPS Kilobit/byte per second
KBS Knowledge Based System
KC Kids' Computer
KCC Keyboard Communications Concentrator
KCD Kernel Cousin Debian
KCL Kyoto Common Lisp
KCP Kernel Control Path
KCS Kansas City Standard
KD Knowledge Discovery
KDC Key Distribution Center
KDD Knowledge Discovery in Databases
KDE KDE Desktop Environment
KDF Knowledge Discovery Framework
KDS Knowledge Discovery System
KDS Kommunikationsdatensatz
KDT Key Definition Table
KE Knowledge Economy
KEA Key Exchange Algorithm
KED Kundenenddokumentation
KES Key Escrow System
KEWL Knowledge Environment for Web-based Learning
KF Knopflerfish
KGI Kernel Graphics Interface
KHM Kunsthochschule f�r Medien, K�ln
KI K�nstliche Intelligenz
KIBO Knowledge In, Bullshit Out (Slang)
KIK Kommunaler Info-Kanal
KIS Kernel Information/Intrusion System
KIS Knowbot Information Service
KISS Keep It Simple/Small and Stupid/Simple

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KIT Kernel Software for Intelligent Terminals
KJM Kommission f�r Jugendmedienschutz
KK Konnektivit�ts-Koordination
KLNG Knowledge-supported Line Network Global (Vectorization)
KLO Knowledge Level Object
KLOC Kilo Lines Of Code
KM Knowledge Management/Mismanagement
KMMT Kompetenzzentrum Multimedia und Telematik, T�bingen
KMS Key Management Server
KMS Knowledge Management System
KMU Kleine und Mittlere Unternehmen
KNAS Kerberos Network Authentication Service
KNF Konjunktive Normalform
KNI Katmai New Instructions
KOALA Konstanzer Ausleih- und Anfragesystem
KOP Kontaktplan (DIN 19 239)
KPA Key Process Area
KPI Key Performance Indicator
KQML Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language
KOS Keep On Smiling (Slang)
KOS Kernel/Kohler Operating System
KOS Key Object Selection
KR Knowledge Representation
K&R Kernighan + Ritchie
KRC Kent Recursive Calculator
KRITIS (Arbeitsgruppe) Kritische Infrastrukturen
KRS Knowledge Retrieval System, Kernighan + Ritchie Standard
KS Session Key
KSAM Keyed Sequential Access Method
KSK Key Signing Key
KSR Keyboard Send Receive
KT Kommunikationstechnik
KTA Korean Telecommunication Authority
KTK Kommission f�r den Ausbau des technischen Kommunikationssystems
KU Unit Key
K�FUST K�stenfunkstelle
KUUG Karlsruher UNIX User Group
KV Kabelverzweiger, Karnaugh Veitch (Diagramm)
KVM Kernel-based Virtual Machine
KVM Keyboard, Video, Mouse
KVNO Key Version Number
KVP Kontinuierlicher Verbesserungsprozess
KVZ Kabelverzweiger
KW Kurzwelle, Kurzwahl
KWIM Know What I Mean? (Slang)
KWIPS Kilo Whetstones Per Second
KZK Klasse - Zust�ndigkeit - Kooperation

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KZU Kennzeichenumsetzer
L Line, Link, Linux, Local, Logic, Low
L2CAP Logical Link and Control Adaptation Protocol
L2F Layer 2 Forwarding
L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
LA LAN Analyzer
LA License Application
LA License/Licensing Administration/Administrator
LA Location Area
LA Logical Address
LAA Locally Administered Address
LAB Logic Array Block
LABNET Laboratory Broadband Network
LAC L2TP Access Controller
LACC Los Alamos Computer Code
LACP Link Aggregation Control Protocol
LAD Leistungsanschlusseinheit, digital
LADDR Layered Device Driver Architecture
LADE Language Definition Environment
LADSPA Linux Audio Developer's Simple Plug-in API
LADT Local Area Data Transport
LAES Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance
LAF Look And Feel (L&F)
LAG Link Aggregate Group
LAI LAN Automatic Inventory
LAI Location Area Identity
LAICS Los Alamos Integrated Communications System
LALL Longest Allowed Lobe Length
LALR Lexically Assign, Logically Refine
LALR Look Ahead Left Right
LAM Lobe Attachment Unit
LAM Local Area Multicomputer
LAMPS Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP, SSL
LAN Local Area Network
LANANA Linux Assigned Names And Numbers Authority
LANC Local Application Control Bus System
LANC Local Area Network Control (Sony)
LANDSAT Land-use Satellite
LANE Local Area Network Emulation/Emulator
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA
LANUG Los Alamos NeXT Users Group
LAP Link Access Profile/Protocol/Procedure
LAP Lower Address Part (Bluetooth)
LAPB Link Access Procedure for Balanced Mode
LAPD Link Access Procedure for the D-Channel

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LAPF Link Access Procedure Framed Mode
LAPF Link Access Protocol for Frame Mode Bearer Services
LAPIC Local Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
LAPM Link Access Protocol for Modems
LAPS Local Area Network Adapter and Protocol Support (IBM)
LAR Load Access Right
LARC Livermore Automatic Research Computer
LARP Live Action Role Playing
LARS Linux Accessibility Resource Site
LART Loser/Luser Attitude Readjustment Tool
LAS Library Access System
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LASIC Laser Application Specific Integrated Circuit
LAST Local Area Storage Transport (DEC)
LAT Local Area Transport (DEC)
LATA Local Access and Transmit/Transport Area
LATM LPI Approved Training Materials
LAU Lobe Access Unit
LAVC Local Area VAX Cluster
LAVMS Los Alamos Voice Messaging System
LAWN Local Area Wireless Network
LBA Linear Beschr�nkter Automat
LBA Logical Block Addressing
LBB Logic Building Block
LBC Local Bus Controller
LBM Local Bus Master
LBRV Low Bit Rate Voice
LBS Location Based Services
LBT Listen Before Talk
LBT Local Bus Target
LBV Leistungsbedarfsvorhersage
LBX Low Bandwidth X
LC Late Counter
LC Library of Congress, USA
LC Liquid Crystal
LC Live Camera
LC Local Changes/Control
LC Low Complexity
LC Lower Case
LCA Logic Cell Array
LCA Losely Coupled Architecture
LCC Linux Core Consortium
LCCM LAN Client Control Manager
LCD Liquid Crystal Device/Display
LCF LAN Configuration Facility
LCF Lightweight Client Framework
LCF Location Confirmation

Seite 254
LCF Logic for Computable Functions
LCF Low Cost Fiber
LCG Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid, CERN, Genf
LCG Linear Congruential (random number) Generator
LCHU Low Cost Home User
LCI Life Cycle Integration
LCI Logical Channel Indentifier
LCIM Life Cycle Information Management
LCL Local Clock
LCM LEAF Creation Method
LCM Life Cycle Management
LCN Local Control Network
LCN Logical Channel Number
LCOM Lack of Cohesion in Methods
LCOS Liquid Crystal On Silicon
LCP Link Control Protocol (Internet)
LCR Least/Low Cost Router/Routing
LCRD Low Cost Removable Drive
LCS Linux Compatibility Standard
LCS Liquid Cooling System
LCS Liquid Crystal Shutter
LCSC Local Carrier Service Center
LCSH Library of Congress Subject Headings
LCU Last Cluster Used
LD Long Distance
LD Low Delay
LDA Local Delivery Agent
LDA Logical Device Address
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LDCM LAN Desk Client Manager (Intel)
LDF Linear Display File
LDG Los Alamos Debugger
LDIF LDAP Data Interchange Format
LDIP Laboratory Data Integrity Program
LDLN Long Distance Learning Network
LDM Long Distance Modem
LDN Linux Standard Base Developer Network
LDP Label Distribution Protocol
LDP (The) Linux Documentation Project
LDP Loader Debugger Protocol
LDR Light Dependent Resistor
LDR Long Distance Relationship
LDRI Low Dynamic Range Image
LDS Landesamt f�r Datenverarbeitung und Statistik
LDS Logical Data Structure
LDS Lotus Discovery Server
LDSG Landesdatenschutzgesetz

Seite 255
LDSL Low Speed ISDN Digital Subscriber Line
LDSS Low-dimensional Semiconductor Structure
LDT Lightning Data Transport
LDT Local Descriptor Table
LDTR Load Descriptor Table Register
LDTRC Load Descriptor Table Register Cache
LDTV Limited Definition Television
LDUP LDAP Duplication and Update (Protocol)
LE Light/Limited Edition
LE Link Encapsulation
LE Logical Element/Extent
LEA Law Enforcement Agency
LEAF Large Effective Area Fiber
LEAF Law Enforcement Access Field
LEAP Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol
LEARP LAN Emulation Address Resolution Protocol
LEC LAN Emulation Client
LEC Local Exchange Carrier
LECS LAN Emulation Client/Configuration Server/Service
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEF Library Exchange Format
LEL Link Embedded and Launch-to-edit
LEM Language Extension Module
LEM Link Error Monitor
LEMF Law Enforcement Monitoring Facility
LEMP Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse
LEN Low Entry Networking/Node
LEO Link Everything Online
LEO Low Earth Orbit/Orbiting
LEOSAR Low Earth Orbit Search And Rescue
LEP Light Emitting Polymer
LEPS Lancom Enhanced Passphrase Security
LER Light Emitting Resistor
LES LAN Emulation Server/Service
LES Land-Erdfunkstelle
LESC London E-Science Center
LF Lifetime Failure
LF Line Feed
LF Login Facility
LF Low Frequency
LFA Log File Analysis
LFAP Lightweight Flow Admission Protocol
LFF Large Form Factor
LFI Last File Indicator
LFK Landesanstalt f�r Kommunikation
LFM Low Frequency Mode
LFN Logical File Name

Seite 256
LFN Long File Names
LFO Low Frequency Oscillator
LFP Large Format Printing
LFS Large File Support
LFS Linux From Scratch
LFS Linux Log File System
LFS Local File System
LFS Log-structured File System
LFSA List of Frequently Seen Acronyms
LFSR Linear Feedback Shift Register
LFU Least Frequently Used
LGA Low Gain Antenna
LGFT Lie Group Fourier Transform
LGMR Laser Guided Magnetical Recording
LGN Logical Group Node
LGPL Library/Lesser General Public License (GNU)
LH Link Header
LHS Left Hand Side
LI Lawful Interception
LI Length Indication
LIC Logical Link Control
LICS Lotus International Character Set
LID Logical Input Device
LIDAR Light Detection And Ranging
LIDS Linux Intrusion Detection System
LIEP Large Internet Exchange Packet (Novell)
LIF Low Insertion Force
LIFE Laboratory of International Fuzzy Engineering
LIFO Last In, First Out (Speicher)
LII Linux Internationalisation Inititative
LILO Last In, Last Out (Speicher)
LIM Light Intensity Modulation
LIM Load Information Manager
LIM Lotus, Intel, Microsoft
LIMB Listing of Molecular Biology Databases
LIMDOW Laser Intensity Modulation Direct Overwrite
LIMS Laboratory/Library Information Management System
LIN Local Interconnect Network
LINFO The Linux Information Project
LINQ Language Integrated Query
LINX London Internet Exchange
LIP Large Internet Packet
LIP Line Interconnection Point
LIP Loop Initialization Protocol
LIPS Lightweight Internet Person Schema
LIPS Logical Inferences/Instructions Per Second
LIPX Large Internet Packet Exchange

Seite 257
LIR Library of International Relations
LIR Line Reference
LIR Local Internet Registry
LIRA Learning Information Retrieval Agent
LIRC Linux Infrared Remote Control
LIS Logical IP Subnetwork
LISA Localization Industry Standards Association
LISP List Processing (Language/Program)
LISP Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses
LITA Library and Information Technology Association, USA
LIVE Linux Verband e. V., Frickenhausen
LK Linienkoppler
LKCD Linux Kernel Crash Dump
LKM Loadable Kernel Module
LKML Linux Kernel Mailing List
LKP Local Knowledge Pool
LKS Loadable Kernel Server
LL Leased Line
LL Local Loopback
LLA Latitude, Longitude, Altitude
LLA Link Level Access
LLC Logical Link Control
LLC Low Layer Compatibility
LLC2 Logical Link Control Class 2
LLF Least Laxity First
LLF Low Level Format
LLG Lesser Linux God
LLH Logical Link Header
LLNL Lawrence Livermoore National Laboratory, USA
LLOC Lines Of Code
LLP Link Layer Protocol
LLP Live Long and Prosper (Slang)
LLR Least-Loaded Route
LLS Linear Least Squares
LLTA Lots and Lots of Thundering Applause (Slang)
LLU Link Local Use
LMAO Laughing My Ass Off (Slang)
LMB Line Mode Browser
LMB Local Master Browser
LMBCS Lotus Multibyte Character Set
LMDO Laughing My Diaper Off (Slang)
LMDS Local Multipoint Distribution Service
LME Layer Management Entity
LMF Local Media Format
LMF Logical Mainframe
LMI Local Management Interface
LMK Langwelle, Mittelwelle, Kurzwelle

Seite 258
LMOS Loop Maintenace Operations System
LMP Layer Management Protocol
LMP Link Manager/Management Protocol
LMR Land Mobile Radio
LMS Laser Magnetic Storage
LMS Learning Management System
LMS License Management Service (OSF)
LMSC LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE)
LMTP Local Mail Transfer Protocol
LMU Logical Network Management Unit
LN Logical Network
LNA Low Noise Amplifier
LNAI Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence
LNB Low Noise Block Converter
LNC Low Noise Converter
LNCS Lecture Notes in Computer Science
LNG Line Network Global (Vectorization)
LNI Lecture Notes of Informatics
LNOV Line Network Orientied Vectorization
LNP Local Network Protocol
LNS L2TP Network Server
LO Local Oscillator
LOA Letter Of Assurance
LOAF Linux On A Floppy
LOB Large Object
LOC Library Of Congress, USA
LOC Line(s) Of Code
LOC Loop On-Line Control
LOCIS Library Of Congress Information System, USA
LOD Level Of Detail
LOF List Of Figures
LOF Loss of Frame
LOI Letter Of Intent
LOL Laughing Out Loud (Slang)
LOL List Of Lists
LOL Lots Of Luck (Slang)
LOM LAN On Mainboard/Motherboard
LOM Learning Object Metadata
LON Local Operating Network
LOOPS LISP Object Oriented Programming System
LOP Logikplan (DIN 19 239/40 719)
LOP Loss of Pointer/Power
LORAN Long Range Aid to Navigators
LORE Line Oriented Editor
LOS Line Of Sight
LOS Loss Of Signal
LOT List Of Tables

Seite 259
LOWFER Low Frequency Experimental Radio
LP Line Printer
LP Linear/Logic Programming
LP Logical Partition
LP Long Play
LP Low Power/Profile
LPA Logarithmic Periodical Antenna
LPAC Lossless Predictive Audio Compression
LPB Local Peripheral Bus
LPC Linear Predictive Coding
LPC Local Procedure Call
LPC Low Pin Count (Interface)
LPD Landespostdirektion
LPD Line Printer Daemon (UNIX)
LPD Low Power Device
LPI lines per inch
LPI Linux Professional Institute
LPI Lower Prediction Interval
LPIC Linux Professional Institute Certification
LPL Lotus Programming Language
LPM lines per minute
LPM Low Power Mode
LPN Logical Page Number
LPO Logical Post Office
LPP Licensed Program Product
LPPB Land Pre Pit Level before Recording
LPPL LaTeX Project Public License
LPQ Line Printer Queue
LPRS Low Power Radio Service
LPS lines per second
LPS Low Power Schottky (Semiconductor)
LPT Line Printer
LPTF Laboratoire Primaire du Temps et des Frequences
LPTS Low Power Time Source
LQ Letter Quality
LQM Link Quality Monitoring
LQR Link Quality Report
LRC Local Register Cache
LRC Longitudinal Redundancy Check
LRE Left to Right Embedding
LRE Limited Regular Expression
LRE Long Reach Ethernet
LRI Least Recently Loaded
LRJ Location Reject
LRP Linux Router Project
LRPC Lightweight Remote Procedure Call
LRQ Location Request

Seite 260
LRU Least Recently Used
LRU Lowest Replaceable Unit
LRZ Leibniz-Rechenzentrum M�nchen
LS Location Services
LSA Line Sharing Adapter
LSA Local Security Authority
LSA Link State Algorithm/Advertisement
LSA l�tfrei -- schraubfrei -- abisolierfrei
LSB Least Significant Bit
LSB Linux Standard Base
LSB Lower Side Band
LSC Least Significant Character
LSC Live Sequence Chart
LSCD Licensed Status Confirmation Document
LSD Least Significant Digit
LSDV Link Segment Delay Value
LSF Load Sharing Facility
LSF Log Structured File (Array)
LSI Large Scale Integration
LSID Local Session Identifier
LSL Link Support Layer
LSM Linux Security Module
LSM Linux Software Map
LSM Logical Storage Manager
LSO Linux Standards Organization
LSP Link State Packet/PDU
LSP Linux Support Package
LSP Local Support Provider
LSR Label/Load Switch/Switched/Switching Router
LSR Least Squares Regression
LSR Link State Request/Routing
LSR Linux Software Resources/Review
LSR Load Shifting Resistor
LSR Local Service Request
LSR Logical Shift Right
LSR Logical Storage Resource
LSR Loose Source Route
LST Linux Support Team
LSV Low Speed Variant
LSX Lotus Script Extensions
LSZ Leitungschl�sselzahl
LSZH Low Smoke Zero Halogen (Kabel)
LT LaGrande Technology
LT Lease Time
LT Link Trailer
LTA Laptop Access
LTCC Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic

Seite 261
LTDC Long Term Data Collection
LTE Long Term Evolution
LTI Laser Thermal Imaging
LTI Linear Time Invariant (system)
LTM Long Term Memory
LTNS Long Time No See (Slang)
LTO Linear Tape Open
LTP Linux Test Project
LTP Long Term Plan/Prediction/Program
LTPS Low Temperature Polysilicon
LTS Local Time Server/Service
LTS Long Term Support
LTSC Learning Technology Standards Committee
LTSP Linux Terminal Server Project
LTV Light To Voltage
LU Logical Unit
LUA Limited User Account
LUB Least Upper Bound
LUF Lowest Usable Frequency
LUFS Linux Userland File System
LUG Linux/Local User Group
LUI Live User Interface
LUKS Linux Unified Key Setup
LUM Linux User Management
LUN Logical Unit Number
LUNI LAN Emulation User Network Interface
LUP Language Upgrade
LUT Local User Terminal
LUT Look Up Table
LUUG Lunar UNIX Users Group
LV Logical Volume
LV Low Voltage
LVD Low Voltage Differential (SCSI)
LVDS Low Voltage Differential Sensing/Signal/Signalling/SCSI/Swing
LVM Logical Volume Manager
LVN Landesverwaltungsnetz Baden-W�rttemberg
LVS Linux Virtual Server
LW Langwelle, Long Wave
LW Long Wire Antenna
LWAPP Lightweight Access Point Protocol
LWC Lift Window Control
LWDMO Lead Writing Device - Manual Option (vulgo Bleistift)
LWDRM Light Weight Digital Rights Management
LWE Linux World Conference + Expo
LWIR Long Wave Infrared
LWL Lichtwellenleiter
LWL Long Wave Laser

Seite 262
LWN Linux Weekly News
LWP Lightweight Process
LWX LAN WAN Exchange
LZ Leerzeichen (space)
LZH Lempel, Ziv, Huffman (Algorithm)
LZMA Lempel, Ziv, Markow Algorithm
LZSS Lempel, Ziv, Storer, Szymanski (Algorithm)
LZW Lempel, Ziv, Welch (Algorithm)
M Manage, Memory, Message, Mobile, Mode, Multi
M Meldeleitung
M2FM Modified Double Frequency Modulation
M2M Machine To Machine
MA Management Agent
MA Master
MAB Maschinelles Austauschformat f�r Bibliotheken
MABI Macintosh Application Binary Interface
MAC Machine Aided Cognition
MAC Mainframe Attachment Controller
MAC Maintaining Arc Consistency
MAC Mandatory/Medium/Media/Memory Access Control/Controller
MAC Membership Advisory Committee
MAC Message Authentication Check/Code
MAC Multi Access Computer
MAC Multiplexed Analogue Components
MAC Multiply Accumulate/Accumulator (Command, Unit)
MACE Middleware Architectural Committee for Education
MACF Mandatory Access Control Framework
MACP Motion Adaptive Color Plus
MACS Mixed Aloha Carrier Sense
MACS Modem Access Control System
MACUL Michigan Association of Computer Users in Learning
MADCAP Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol
MADSL Margin Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line
MAE Macintosh Application Environment
MAE Metropolitan Area Exchange
MAF Mozilla Archive Format
MAGRAM Magnetic Random Access Memory
MAN Manchester (Coding)
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MANET Mobile Adhoc Network
MANIAC Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator, and Computer
MAP Maintenance Analysis Procedure
MAP Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MAP Manufacturing Package
MAP Mesh Access Point

Seite 263
MAP Message Access Protocol
MAP Mobile Application Part
MAPI Mail/Message/Messaging Application Programmer/Programming Interface
MAPICS Manufacturing, Accounting and Production Information Control System (IBM)
MAPS Mail Abuse Prevention System
MAPTOP MAP Technical Office Protocol
MAR Memory Address Register
MARBI Machine-Readable Bibliographic Information (Committee)
MARC Machine-Readable Cataloging/Code
MARID MTA Authorization Records In DNS
MARP Multi LAN Address Resolution Protocol
MARPA Mini Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
MARS Message Archiving and Retrieval Service
MARS Military Affiliate Radio System
MARS Multicast Address Resolution Server
MAS Microsoft Anti-Spyware
MAS Multi Agent System
MASC Multicast Address-Set Claim (Protocol)
MASER Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
MASI (Laboratoire de) Modelisation et d'Architecture des Systemes Informatiques
MASM Macro Assembler (Microsoft)
MASS Mass Storage System
MASS Message Authentication Signature Standard
MATIP Mapping of Airline Traffic over Internet Protocol
MATRIX Multistate Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange
MAU Medium Attachment Unit (Ethernet)
MAU Multi Station Access Unit
MAVT Mobile Audio Visual Terminal
MAZ Magnetbildaufzeichnung
MB Macro Block
MB Megabyte/Multi Byte
MBA Macroblock Address
MBA Managed (PC) Boot Agent
MBC Multi Bit Cell
MBCS Multibyte Character Set (encoding)
MBFT Multipoint Binary File Transfer
MBMS Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Service
MBONE Multicast/Multimedia Backbone
MBPS Megabits/bytes per second
MBR Master Boot Record
MBS Maximum Burst Size
MBS Mobile Broadband System
MBSA Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer
MBX Mailbox
MC Master Control
MC Miniature Card
MC Mobile Commerce/Communication

Seite 264
MC Moving Coil
MC Multi Carrier/Cast
MC Multipoint Controller
MCA Machine Check Architecture
MCA Micro Channel Architecture (IBM)
MCA Mission Critical Application
MCA Motion Capture and Analysis
MCA Multiprocessor Communication Adapter
MCAD Mechanical Computer Aided Design
MCAST Motif Cluster Alignment and Search Tool
MCAT Metadata Catalog
MCB Memory Control Block
MCBSP Multi Channel Buffered Serial Port
MCC Mamas Computer Club
MCC Manchester Computing Centre
MCC Media Changer Commands
MCC Memory Cache Controller
MCC Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation
MCC Mission Control Center
MCCI Multi-Channel Communications Interface
MCCI Multimedia Copyright Clearance Ireland
MCCOI Multimedia Communications Community of Interest
MCCS Monitor Command and Control Set (VESA)
MCD Mad Computer Disease
MCD Mini Client Driver
MCDA Micro Channel Developers Association
MCDS Mail Channel Directory System
MCDU Multipurpose Control and Display Unit
MCE Machine Check Exception
MCE Management Communication Engine
MCE Media Center Edition (Microsoft)
MCF Meta Content Format
MCF MOM Connector Framework (Microsoft)
MCFT Multi Cash File Transfer (eBanking)
MCGA Multi Colour Graphics Adaptor/Array
MCGAM MIXER Conformant Global Address Mapping
MCH Memory Controller Hub
MCI Media Control Interface
MCIR Machine Controlled Interactive Retrieval
MCIS Microsoft Commercial Internet System
MCM Media and Communication Management
MCM Multi Carrier Modulation
MCM Multi Chip Module
MCN Media Catalogue Number
MCN Multiple Crossbar Network
MCNC Microelectronics Center of North Carolina
MCNS Multimedia Cable Network System

Seite 265
MCOP Management Coprocessor
MCOP Mobile Connect One-time Password
MCOP Multimedia Communication Protocol (KDE)
MCP Macintosh Coprocessor Platform
MCP Master Control Programm
MCP Media and Communications Processor
MCP Microsoft Certified Professional
MCP Multichip Package
MCPP Microsoft Communications Protocol Program
MCR Minimal/Minimum Cell Rate
MCS Master Control Station
MCS Mission Critical Server
MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme
MCS Multicast Server
MCS Multinational Character Set
MCS Multipoint Communication Services/System
MCSE Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
MCSG Mathematical and Computational Sciences Group
MCT Memory Controller
MCT Mind Control Technology
MCT MOS Controlled Thyristor
MCU Master Control Unit
MCU Memory/Micro/Multipoint/Module Control/Controller Unit
MCU Minimum Coded Unit
MCU Multi Chip Unit
MCU Multicast Unit
MCU Multipoint Conferencing/Control Unit
MCX Media Center Extender
MD Mail Drop
MD Mediation Device
MD Message Digest
MD Mini Disk
MD5 Message Digest 5
MDA Mail Delivery Agent
MDA Media Dependent/Device Adapter
MDA Mediated Digest Authentication
MDA Mesh Deterministic Access
MDA Mobile Digital Assistant
MDA Model Driven Architecture
MDA Merci d'avance (Slang)
MDA Monochrome Display Adapter
MDAC Master Data Acquisition and Control System
MDAC Microsoft Data Access Component
MDBMS Multidimensional DBMS
MDBS Mobile Data Base Station
MDDI Mobile Digital Display Interface (VESA)
MDE Maschinendatenerfassung

Seite 266
MDEC Motion (JPEG) Decoder
MDF Main Distribution Frame
MDG Message Design Guidelines
MDG Minimum Delay Generator
MDG Mobile Data Gateway/Group
MDG Module Dependency Graph
MDG Multiple Default Gateway
MDG Multiuser Dungeon Game
MDH Multimedia Data Handling
MDI Media Dependent Interface
MDI Multiple Document Interface
MDIS Mobile Data Intermediate System
MDIX Media/Medium Dependent Interface Crossed
MDK Multimedia Development Kit (Microsoft)
MDN Message Disposition Notification
MDNI Management Director (!) Network Interface
MDNI Multicast Device Network Interface
MDNS Managed Data Network Service
MDR Minimum Design Requirement
MDS Meta Data Server
MDS Microsoft Deployment Solution
MDS Monitoring and Discovery Service
MDS Mulit-Dimensional Scaling
MDS Multiple Data Stream
MDSL Medium Bit Rate/Multirate Digital Subscriber Line
MDSTV Mediendienstestaatsvertrag
MDT Mittlere Datentechnik
MDT Mobile Data Terminal
MDY Month Day Year (Datumsangabe)
ME Micro Edition
ME Mutation Engine
MEB Memory Expansion Board
MEC Memory Expansion Card
MECN Mobile Extended Corporate Network
MEDARS Medical Access and Retrieval System
MEDLINE Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System
MELANI Melde- und Analysestelle Informationssicherung, Schweiz
MEMS Micro Electro-Mechanical System
MEO Medium Earth Orbit
MERIT Michigan Education Research Insruction Triad
MERLIN Message Handling and Radio Link Management
MERS Most Economical Route Selection
MES Mobile End System
MESFET Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MESI Modified Exclusive Shared Invalid (Cache)
MET Memory Enhancement Technology
MET Middle European Time

Seite 267
MET Mission Elapsed Time
METAL Macro Expansion Template Attribute Language
MEXE Mobil Station Execution Environment
MEZ Mitteleurop�ische Zeit
MF Marinefunker
MF Multifunktion
MFC Mainframe Computer
MFC Microsoft Foundation Classes
MFC Multifunktionale Chipkarte
MFFS Microsoft Flash File System
MFI Metafile Input
MFIA Magtape Formatter Interface Adapter
MFJ Modified Final Judgement
MFLOP Million Floating Point Operations
MFM Modified Frequency Modulation
MFO Metafile Output
MFP Multifunction Peripheral
MFPA Multi Function Peripheral Association
MFQ Multilevel Feedback Queue
MFR Multi Frequency Receiver
MFS Macintosh File System
MFS Maximum Frame Size
MFS Memory File System
MFS Mitteilungen f�r Seefunkstellen
MFT Master File Table
MFT Multi-Programming with a Fixed number of Tasks
MFTL My Favorite Toy Language
MFTP Multicast File Transfer Protocol
MFV Mehrfrequenz-Wahlverfahren (Telefon)
MG Master Group
MG Media Gateway
MGA Mehrge�teanschluss
MGA Monochrome/Multimode Graphic Adapter
MGC Media Gateway Controller
MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol
MGFT Motion Group Fourier Transform
MGPF Multiprogram General Purpose Facilities
MGR Multi Gigabit Router
MH Modified Huffman (Compression)
MHD Moving Head Disk
MHEG Multimedia and Hypermedia Expert Group
MHF Message Handling Facility
MHN M�nchener Hochschul-Netz
MHOTY My Hat's Off To You (Slang)
MHP Multimedia Home Platform
MHS Message/Mail Handling Service/System
MHTML MIME encoded Hypertext Markup Language

Seite 268
MI Mode Indicate
MI Modul Interface
MI Multiple Instruction (Stream Computer)
MIA Missing In Action (Debian)
MIAS Mehrwertsteuerinformationsaustauschsystem
MIB Management Information Base
MIB Melde- und Informationssystem Binnenschifffahrt
MIC Macro Interpretative Command
MIC Media Interface Connector
MIC Memory In Cassette
MIC Message Integrity Check/Code
MIC Mode Indicate Common
MIC Multimedia Interactive Control
MICA Modem ISDN Channel Aggregation
MICE Multimedia Integrated Conferencing for Europe
MICK Multimedia-Informations-Centrum Karlsruhe
MICR Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MICS Mobile Information and Communication Systems
MID Maritime Identification Digit
MID Message Identifier
MID Mobile Internet Device
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIDP Mobile Information Device Profile
MIDS Matrix Internet Data Survey
MIEF Management Information Error Facility
MIF Management Information File/Format
MIHMA Model-based Integration Heterogeneous Multimedia Archives
MII Media Independent Interface
MII Microsoft, IBM, Intel
MIL military; Internet-Domain: Milit�r in den USA
MIL (amerikanische Milit�rnorm)
MIL Machine Interface Layer
MILNET Military Network, USA
MIM Metall-Isolator-Metall (Bildschirm)
MIMD Multiple Instructions Multiple Data
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output
MINC Multilingual Internet Names Consortium
MINT Mathematik, Informatik, Naturwissenschaften, Technik
MIO Modular Input Output
MIP Maximum Integration Phone
MIPA Mutual Internet Practices Association
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MIPS Most Irrelevant Product Specification
MIPS Multimedia Interactive Protocols and Systems
MIPTEL Mobile IP Telephony
MIS Management Information System

Seite 269
MIS Metal Insulator Semiconductor
MISD Multiple Instructions Single Data
MIT Management Information Tree
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MITI Ministry of Trade and Industry, Japan
MITM Man In The Middle (attack)
MITMA Man In The Middle Attack
MITS Model Instrumentation Telemetry System
MIX Member Information Exchange
MIXER MIME Internet X.400 Enhanced Relay
MJ Major Descriptor
MJ Modular Jack (Steckersystem)
MJD Modified Julian Date
MJPEG Motion-JPEG
MKB Media Key Block
MKL Mathematical Kernel Library (Intel)
MKT Multifunktionales Kartenterminal
ML Machine/Markup/Meta Language
MLA Micro Lense Array
MLA My Local Address
MLC Multi Level Cell
MLD Master Logic Diagram
MLD Multicast Listener Discovery
MLE Millenium Language Extension
MLI Multiple Link Interface
MLID Multiple Link Interface Driver
MLIS Multilingual Information Society
MLM Mailing List Manager
MLM Multi-Level Marketing
MLP Message/Multilayer Link Protocol
MLP Mobile Location Protocol
MLPPP Multi Link PPP
MLR Multi-Channel Linear Recording
MLS Multi Level Security
MLS Multiple Link Support
MLT Mechanized Loop Testing
MLT Multi-Level Transition/Transmission
MLT Multi Link Trunking
MLV Multi Language Vendor
MM Maschinenlesbares Merkmal
MM Material/Mobility Management
MM Metadata Manager
MM Moving Magnet
MM Multiple Master
MMA Million Message Attack
MMA Multi-Megabit-Anpassung
MMAC Multi Media Access Center

Seite 270
MMAP Multi Media Access Profile
MMC Man Machine Communication
MMC Matched Memory Cycle
MMC Microsoft Management Console
MMC MIDI Machine Control
MMC Multi Media Card/Commands
MMCA Multi Media Card Association
MMCD Multimedia Compact Disc
MMDF Multichannel Memorandum Distribution Facility
MMDS Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System
MME Multi Media Extensions
MMF Make Money Fast
MMF Multi-Mode Fiber
MMI Man Machine Interface
MMIC Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit
MMIS Materials Manager Information System
MMJ Modified Modular Jack (Steckersystem)
MMK Multimediale Kommunikation
MML Man Machine Language
MML Mathematical Markup Language
MMM Memory Mapper Modul
MMM Micro Macro Magician
MMM Microsoft Multimedia Movie
MMM Mobile Media Mode
MMM Multi Media Mediocrity
MMORPG Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game
MMP Massive Multi Processing
MMPC Multi Message Package Chaffing
MMPM Multi Media Presentation Manager
MMR Modified Modified Read (Compression)
MMR Multi Hop Relay
MMS Manufacturing Message Specification
MMS Module Management System
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service
MMS Multimedia Survey
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
MMT Multimedia Timer
MMTCA Multimedia Toolbox for Cooperative Applications
MMU Memory Management Unit
MMX Multi Media Extensions
MN Minor Descriptor
MNG Minimal No-Good
MNIT Mobile Networks Integration Technology
MNP Microcom Networking Protocol
MNP Multiple Networking Program
MNRE Manual Not Read Error (Slang)
MNS Managed Network Services

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MO Magneto-Optical (Disk)
MO Managed Object
MO Mobile Originated (Message)
MOAP Multihop Over the Air Programming
MOBB Month Of Browser Bugs
MOCA Music Online Competition Act
MOD Magneto-Optical Disk
MOD Movie/Music On Demand
MODCA Mixed Object Document Content Architecture
MODEM Modulator-Demodulator
MODFET Modulation Doped Field Effect Transistor
MOESI Modified, Owner, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid
MOF Meta Object Facility
MOH Music On Hold
MOHLL Machine Oriented High Level Language
MOKB Month Of Kernel Bugs
MOLAP Multidimensional Online Analytical Processing
MOLI Microsoft Online Institute
MOLP Microsoft Open License Pak
MOM Map Oriented Machine
MOM Message Oriented Middleware
MOM Microsoft Operations Manager
MOO MUD/Multiuser Object Oriented
MOON Management Of Optical Networks
MOP Maintenance Operations Protocol (DEC)
MOP Multiple Original Prints
MOPL Map oriented Programming Language
MOPS Million Operations Per Second
MOS Mean Opinion Score
MOS Metal Oxide Semiconductor
MOSC Modified Original Smart Card
MOSFET Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MOSIX Multicomputer Operating System for UNIX
MOSPF Multicast Extensions to OSPF
MOSPF Multicast Open Shortest Path First
MOSS Microsoft Office Sharepoint Server
MOSS MIME Object Security Services
MOST Media Oriented Systems Transport
MOST Mobile Open Systems Technology
MOT Multimedia Object Transfer
MOTAS Member Of The Appropriate Sex (Slang)
MOTIS Message Oriented Text Interchange System
MOU Memorandum Of Understanding
MOV Metal Oxide Varistor
MP Magic Packet
MP Massively Parallel
MP Mesh Point

Seite 272
MP Multilink Protocol
MP Multiple Processors
MP Multipoint Processor
MP Multiprocessing
MP3 MPEG Layer 3
MPA Minimum Perceptable Action
MPA Motion Picture Association
MPAA Motion Picture Association of America
MPC Media Port Controller
MPC Microsoft Certified Professional
MPC Multimedia PC
MPCS Manufacturing Planning and Control System
MPE Maximum Permissible Exposition
MPE Multiprogramming Executive
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MPF Mapping Field
MPG Medizinprodukte-Gesetz
MPI Message Passing Interface
MPI Multi-Protocol Interchange
MPICH Message Passing Interface Chameleon
MPL Mozilla Public License
MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching
MPM Message/Multi Processing Module
MPMLQ Multipulse Maximum Likelihood Quantization
MPOA Multi Protocol Over ATM
MPP Massively Parallel Processing/Processor
MPP Message Posting/Processing Program/Protocol
MPPP Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol
MPQS Multiple Polynomial Quadratic Sieve
MPR Massenparallelrechner
MPR M�t- och Provningsr�det (Schweden)
MPR Multi-Protocol Router
MPR Multipart Repeater
MPR Multipoint Relay
MPRM Mobile Payment Reference Model
MPT Memory Protocol Translator
MPT Ministry of Post and Telecommunications, UK + Japan
MPTF Multiple Protocol Transport Feature
MPTN Multi-/Multiple Protocol Transport Network (IBM)
MPTP Micro Payment Transfer Protocol
MPTS Multiprotocol Transport Services (IBM)
MPU Microprocessor Unit
MPU MIDI Processing Unit
MPW Macintosh Programmers/Programming Workbench
MPX Multi Pointer X (Server)
MPX Multiplex
MQ Message Queuing

Seite 273
MQE Managed Query Environment
MQI Messaging and Queuing Interface
MR magneto-resistiv
MR Modem Ready
MR Modified Read (Compression)
MRAM Magnetoresistive/Ferromagnetic Random Access Memory
MRB Method Request Broker
MRC Magneto-Resistive Cluster
MRCC Maritime Rescue Coordination Center
MRCF Microsoft Realtime Compression Format
MRCI Microsoft Realtime Compression Interface
MRM Motif Resource Manager
MRM Multi Resolution Mesh
MRML Mind Reading Markup Language
MRML Multimedia Retrieval Markup Language
MRO Multi-Region Operation
MRP Material Requirements Planning
MRP Manufacturing Resource Planning
MRPL Main Ring Path Length
MRS Media Recognition System
MRS Microcontroller Readable Sector
MRS Mode Register Set
MRS Moderator Recovery System
MRS Monitored Retrievable Storage
MRT Mean Repair Time
MRTD Machine Readable Travel Document
MRU Maximum Receive Unit
MRU Most Recently Used
MRZ Machine Readable Zone
MS Management Services
MS Memory Stick/System
MS Message Store
MS Microsoft Corporation
MS Mobile Station
MS Multiplexer Section
MS Music/Speech
MSA Microsoft Systems Architecture
MSA Mobile Service Architecture
MSAA Microsoft Active Accessibility
MSAIS Multiplexer Section Alarm Indication Signal
MSAM Microsoft Screen Access Model
MSAM Multikeyed Indexed Sequential File Access Method
MSAP Minislotted Alternating Priorities
MSAS Multimedia-Stream Adaptation Services
MSAU Multi-Station Access Unit
MSB Most Significant Bit/Byte
MSC Main Service Channel

Seite 274
MSC Mid Speech Clipping
MSC Mobile (Services) Switching Centre
MSCDEX Microsoft Compact Disk Extensions
MSCHAP Microsoft Challenge/Reply Handshake Protocol
MSCP Mass Storage Control Protocol
MSCS Microsoft Cluster Server/Services
MSD Mass Storage Device
MSD Most Significant Digit
MSDL Motion Special Description Language
MSDN Microsoft Developer Network
MSDOS Microsoft Disk Operating System
MSDP Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
MSDR Multiplexed Streaming Data Request
MSDS Microsoft Developer Support
MSDS MIDI Sample Dump Standard
MSFDC Microsoft + First Data Corporation
MSG Message
MSI Maritime Safety Information
MSI Medium Scale Integration
MSI Message Signaled Interrupt
MSI Microsoft Installer
MSIE Microsoft Internet Explorer
MSIL Microsoft Intermediate Language
MSISDN Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network
MSISDNN Mobile Subscriber Integrated Services Digital Network Number
MSK Minimum Shift Keying
MSL Master Symbol List
MSL Map Specification Library
MSL Mean Sea Level
MSL Mirrored Server Link
MSLR Max Scan Line Register
MSLR Morphological and Syntactic LR Parser
MSM Mainstream Media
MSN Microsoft Network
MSN Multiple Subscriber Number
MSO Multiple System Operator
MSOH Multiplexer Section Overhead
MSOPF Multicast Open Shortest Path First
MSP Message Security Protocol
MSP Multiplexer Section Protection
MSR Machine Specific Register
MSR Message Service Routine
MSR Messen, Steuern, Regeln
MSR Model Specific Registers
MSR Multiplicity Shift Register
MSRN Mobile Station Roaming Number
MSS MAN Switching System

Seite 275
MSS Maximum Segment Size
MSS Mobile Satellite Service
MSSG MPEG Software Simulation Group
MSTE Multiplexer Section Terminating Equipment
MSTP Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
MSU Multi Service Unit
MSV Medium Speed Variant
MSW Machine Status Word
MT Mobile Terminated (Messaging)
MT Movable Type
MTA Macintosh Telephony Architecture
MTA Mail/Message Transfer Agent
MTA Multiple Terminal Access
MTBB Mean Time Between Breakdowns
MTBDL Mean Time Between Data Loss
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures
MTBJ Mean Time Between Jams
MTC Multi Threaded Calculation
MTD Memory Technology Device
MTDA Mean Time Data Availability
MTF Mean Time to Failure
MTF Microsoft Tape Format
MTF Modulation Transfer Function
MTFBWY May The Force Be With You (Slang)
MTH Memory Translation/Translator Hub
MTJ Magnetic Tunnel Junction
MTN Mini Typing Notify
MTOPS Millions Theoretical Operations Per Second
MTP Mail Transfer Protocol (Internet)
MTP Message Transfer Part
MTP Meteo Time Protocol
MTQP Message Tracking Query Protocol
MTRR Memory Type Range Register
MTS Message Transfer/Telephone Services/System
MTS Michigan Terminal System
MTS Microsoft Transaction Server
MTS Multichannel Television Sound
MTS Multimedia Teleschool (Berlitz)
MTTF Mean Time To Failure
MTTH Mean Time To Half Brightness
MTTR Mean Time To Recovery/Repair
MTU Maximum Transfer/Transmission Unit
MTUF Magnetic Tape Unit Formatter
MU Message Unit
M� Maschinelle �bersetzung
MUA Mail User Agent
MUCK Multi User Chat Kingdom

Seite 276
MUD Multi/Multiple-User Dialogue/Dimension/Dungeon (Spiele)
MUEW Monopol�bertragungsweg
MUF Maximal Usable Frequency
MUFF Maus- und Fenster-Firlefanz
MUL Memory Upper Low
MUL Mobile User Link
MULTICS Multiplexed Information and Computing Service
MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System
MUNDI Multiplexed Network for Distributive and Interactive Services
MUSE Multiple Sub-Nyqyist-Sampling Encoding
MUSEN Meinem Unmassgeblichen Sprachempfinden Nach (Slang)
MUSH Multi-User Shared Hallucinations
MUSIC Multiple Signal Characterization/Classification
MUSICAM Masking Universal Subband Integrated Coding and Multiplex
MUTEX Mutual Exclusion
MUX Multiplexer
MVA Multi-domain Vertical Alignment (panel)
MVB Multimedia Viewer Book
MVC Manual Volume Control
MVC Model View Controller (design pattern)
MVC Multimedia Viewer Compiler
MVC Micro-Bit-Virus-Centrum, Karlsruhe
MVCC Multi Version Concurrency Control
MVD Multi Valued Dependency
MVDM Multiple Virtual DOS Machines
MVFS Multi Version File System
MVGA Monochrome Video Graphics Array
MVIP Multi Vendor Integration/Interaction Protocol
MVL Multiple Virtual Line
MVM Matrix Vector Multiplier
MVP Multimedia Video Processor
MVQ Motion Vector Quantization
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage/Systems (IBM)
MVT Multiprogramming with a Variable number of Tasks
MVT Multi Vendor Teaming
MW Mittelwelle, Medium Wave
MWC Mirror Write Cache
MWCG Multiply With Carry (random number) Generator
MWCM Molecular Wire Crossbar Memory
MWD Mehrwertdienst
MWI Message Waiting Indication
MWM Motif Window Manager
MWMR Multiple Write, Multiple Read
MWN Managed WAN Networks
MX Mail Exchange/Exchanger (DNS-Record)
MXF Material Exchange Format
MXS Mail Exchangers (plural of MX)

Seite 277
MXS Message Exchange Services
MXS Microsoft Exchange Server
MXT Memory Expansion Technology (IBM)
MYOB Mind Your Own Business (Slang)
MZAP Multicast-Scope Zone Announcement Protocol
N National, Network, No/Non
NA Network Access
NA Not Applicable/Available
NAB National Address Base
NAB National Association of Broadcasters (USA)
NAC Network Access/Admission Control
NAC Network Analysis Corporation
NAC Network Applications Consortium (USA)
NAC Null Attachment Concentrator
NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (USA)
NACD National Association of Computer Dealers
NACK Negative Acknowledge
NACS National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors
NACS NetWare Asynchronous Communication Server
NADIR Network Anomaly Detection + Intrusion Reporter
NAEC Novell Authorized Education Center
NAF National Arbitration Forum
NAFOD No Apparent Fear Of Death (Slang)
NAG Numerical Algorithms Group, Oxford
NAIF Navigation Ancillary Information Facility
NAK Negative Acknowledge/Acknowledgement
NAL Network Abstraction Layer
NAL Novell Application Launcher
NAM Name and Address Module
NAM Narrow Amplitude Modulation
NAM National Account Manager
NAM Netware Application Manager
NAM Network Analysis Module
NAM Number Assignment Module
NAMP NetWare Asynchronous Messaging Protocol
NAN Not a Number
NAND not and
NANOG North American Network Operators Group
NAP Network Access Point/Protection/Protocol
NAP Non-significant Address Part (Bluetooth)
NAPAW North American Process Algebra Workshop
NAPLPS North American Presentation Layer/Level Protocol Syntax
NAPT Network Address Port Translation (RFC 3022)
NAPTR Naming Authority Pointer
NAQ Never Answered Questions

Seite 278
NARR Narrative
NAS Network Access Server
NAS Network Administration System
NAS Network Application Services
NAS Network Application Support (DEC)
NAS Network Attached Storage
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA
NASA .net Application and Strategic Alternatives
NASI NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface (Novell)
NASIG Numerical Analysis Special Interest Group
NASK Naukowa i Akademicka Siec Komputerowa (Polen)
NASS Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation System
NAT Network Address Translation
NAU Network Access/Addressable Unit
NAUN Nearest Active Upstream Neighbour
NAV Network Allocation Vector
NAVI New Analog Video Interface
NAVTEX Navigational Warnings by Telex
NAX Nachrichten auf Fax
NB Noise Blanker
NB Northbridge
NBC National Broadcasting Compnay, USA
NBD Network Block Device
NBD No Big Deal (Slang)
NBF Netbios Frame (Transport Protocol)
NBFCP NetBIOS Frames Control Protocol
NBG Networking Business Group
NBMA Non-Broadcast Multiple Access
NBN Nixdorf Breitbandnetz
NBNS NetBIOS Name Server/Service
NBO Network Byte Order
NBP Name Binding Protocol
NBP Netbios Protocol
NBP Network Bootstrap Program
NBS National Bureau of Standards, USA (jetzt NIST)
NBT NetBIOS on TCP/IP
NC Network Computer/Control
NC Newcastle Connection
NC No Connection
NC Node Consistency
NC Number Cruncher/Crusher
NC Numerical Control
NCA Network Communications Adapter
NCA Network Computer/Computing Architecture
NCAM National Center for Accessible Media, USA
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
NCB NetBIOS Control Block

Seite 279
NCC National Computing Centre
NCC Network Computer Client
NCC Network Control Center
NCC Network Coordination Centre (RIPE)
NCCUSL National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws
NCD Network Computing Device
NCD Network Copy Detection
NCE Nomadic Computing Environment
NCEG Numerical C Extensions Group
NCF Network Computing Facility
NCGA National Computer Graphics Association
NCI Network Control Information
NCM Network Configuration Management
NCMT Numerical Control for Machine Tools
NCN New Century Network
NCNCNC No Coffee, No Chocolate, No Computer (Slang)
NCO Numerically Controlled Oscillator
NCP NetWare Core Protocol
NCP Network Control Processor/Protocol/Program
NCP Not Copy Protected
NCQ Native Command Queuing
NCR National Cash Register Corporation, USA
NCS Natural Colour System
NCS Network Computer Server
NCS Network Computing System
NCS NASI Connection Service
NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Applications, USA
NCSA National Computer Security Association
NCSA National Customer Service Association
NCSC National Computer Security Center
NCSC North Carolina Supercomputing Center
NCSD National Cyber Security Division, USA
NCSI Network Communication Services Interface
NCSL National Computer System Laboratory
NCSTRL Networked Computer Science Technical Reports Library
ND Nat�rliche Dummheit (Gegensatz zu KI)
ND Network Diagram
NDA Non Disclosure Agreement
NDA Norddeutsche Datenautobahn
NDAC Not Data Accepted
NDAS Network Direct Attached Storage
NDB Non-Directional Beacon
NDC National Destination Code
NDC Normalized Device Coordinate
NDI Network Distribution Infrastructure
NDIS Network Device/Driver Interface Specification
NDL Network Database Language

Seite 280
NDLTD Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
NDM Netzwerk-Datenmodell
NDM Normal Disconnected Mode
NDMP Network Data Management Protocol
NDMS NetWare Distributed Management Services
NDP Numeric Data Processor
NDPS Netware Distributed Printing Services
NDPS Non-Disruptive Path Switching
NDR Non Delivery Report
NDR Norddeutscher Rundfunk
NDS Netware/Novell Directory Services
NDS Noise Detected as Speech
NDST Network Dedicated Systems Time
NDT Net Data Throughput
NDT Network Design Tool
NDTP Network Dictionary Transfer Protocol
NE Name Error
NE Network/Node Element
NE4 Netzebene 4
NEA Nichtdeterministischer Endlicher Automat (NFA)
NEARNET New England Academic and Research Network
NEC National Electric Code (Kabel)
NEC Nippon Electric Company, Japan
NEC Numerical Electromagnetics Code
NECC National Education Computing Conference, USA
NECTAR Network Computer Architecture
NEDD New Electrostatic Drop Detector
NEES Network for Earthquake Engineering and Simulation
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NEMS Nano Electromechanical Storage
NEOS Networked Educational On-line System
NERD Network Event Recording Device
NEST Novell Embedded Systems Technology
NET network; Internet-Domain: Netzverwaltung
NET Network Entity Title
NET Norme Europeenne de Telecommunication
NETBEUI NetBIOS Extended User Interface (IBM)
NETBIOS Network Basic Input and Output System (IBM)
NETBLT Network Block Transfer (Protocol)
NETCDF Network Common Data Form
NETSC Netscape (Browser)
NETSC Network Security Consortium
NEWS Network Extensible Window System
NEXT Near End Cross Talk
NF Niederfrequenz
NF Noise Factor
NF Normalform (Datenbank)

Seite 281
NFA Nondeterministic Finite Automaton
NFAR Network File Access Routine
NFC Near Field Communications
NFF No Fault Found
NFGM Nano Floating Gate Memory
NFI No Frigging Idea (Slang)
NFM Narrow Frequency Modulation
NFM Network File Manager
NFS Nachrichten f�r Seefunkstellen
NFS Network/Nightmare File Server/System
NFS Number Field Sieve
NFSS New Font Selection Scheme
NFW No Fucking Way (Slang)
NG Next/New Generation
NG No Good
NGG Network Group Germany
NGI Next Generation Internet
NGIO Next Generation Input Output
NGM Netware Global Messaging
NGMHS NetWare Global Message Handling System
NGMN Next Generation Mobile Network
NGN Next Generation Network
NGO Non Governmental Organization
NGS Non Government Standard
NGSCB Next Generation Secure Computing Base
NGSCBFW Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows
NGWS Next Generation Windows Services
NGZ Network Game Zone
NHC Notebook Hardware Control
NHOB Non-specific Hierarchical Operational Binding
NHRP Next Hop Routing/Resolution Protocol
NI Neighbourhood Interchangeability
NI Network Interconnect
NIA Network Interoperability Alliance
NIC National ISDN Council
NIC Network Information Center
NIC Network Interface Card
NIC John-von-Neumann-Institut f�r Computing, J�lich
NICA Novell Integrated Computing Architecture
NICAD Nickel Cadmium (Akkumulator)
NICAM Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex
NICE Network Information and Control Exchange (Protocol)
NICK Netzweites Informationssystem im Campus der Universit�t Karlsruhe
NID Namespace Identifier
NID Next ID
NIDL Network Interface Definition Language
NIDS Network Intrusion Detection System

Seite 282
NIF Nautischer Informationsfunk
NIF Network Information File/Frame
NIG Non Isolated Gate
NIH National Institute of Health, USA
NIH Not Invented Here
NIHCL NIH Class Library
NII National Information Infrastructure, USA
NIIT National Information Infrastructure Testbed
NIK Nachhaltigkeit in der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik
NIL Network Interchange Language
NILFS New Implementation of a Log-structured File System
NIM Network Installation Manager
NIM Network Interface Machine
NIMA National Imaging and Mapping Agency
NIMBY Not In My Backyard (Slang)
NIMH Nickel Metal Hydride (Akkumulator)
NIMP NetWare Internetwork Messaging Protocol
NIP Network Inquiry Protocol
NIP Non-Impact Printer/Printing
NIPC National Infrastructure Protection Center
NIPS Network I/O Per Second
NIR Network Information Retrieval
NIS Nachbarschafts-Informationssystem
NIS NATO Identification System
NIS Network Information/Interpreting Service
NIS Norddeutsches Informationssystem
NISA New Information Services Architecture
NISDN Narrow Band ISDN
NISO National Information Standards Organization
NISS National Information Services and Systems, USA
NISS National Information on Software and Services, USA
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA
NIT Network Information Table
NIT Network Interface Tap
NITC National Information Technology Center
NIU Network Interface Unit
NIUF National ISDN Users Forum
NJE Network Job Entry (IBM)
NL Network Layer
NL New Line
NLA Next Level Aggregator
NLA Not Long Ago (Slang)
NLANR National Laboratory for Applied Networking Research, USA
NLB Network Load Balancing
NLE Nonlinear Editing
NLLS Nonlinear Least Squares
NLM Netware Loadable Modul (Novell)

Seite 283
NLMB Nolifemuddinbastard (Slang)
NLOC Netto Lines Of Code
NLP Natural Language Processing
NLP Non Linear Programming
NLPID Network Layer/Level Protocol Identifier
NLQ Near Letter Quality
NLS National/Native Language Support
NLSP Netware Link Service/State Protocol
NLUUG Niederl�ndische UNIX User Group
NM Network Management
NM New Maintainer (Debian)
NMA Network Management Architecture
NMAS Novell Modular Authentication Services
NMC Network Management/Measurement Center
NMCP Network Management Control Protocol
NMEA National Marine Electronics Association
NMI Non Maskable Interrupt
NML Normal
NMM NetWare Management Map (Novell)
NMM Network Management Modul
NMO Network Management Option (OSF)
NMOS N-Channel MOS (Transistor)
NMOS Network Management Operating System
NMP Network Management Processor
NMPR Networked Media Product Requirements
NMR Network Management Responder (Novell)
NMR Noise to Mask Ration
NMS Network/NetWare Management Station/System
NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone
NMU Non-Maintainer Upload (Debian)
NMVT Network Management Vector Command
NMX Network Magement Extensions
NN Network Node
NN Newbie Note (Slang)
NN Nightmare Networker (Slang)
NNGS No Name Go Server
NNI Network Node/Network Interface
NNI Next Node Indicator
NNR Novell Network Registry
NNSC NSFnet Network Service Center
NNSP National Network of State Polls, USA
NNSP Neural Networks for Signal Processing
NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol (Internet)
NNX Nerwork Numbering Exchange
NOA Nerds on Air
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration
NOAH Network Oriented Application Harmonization

Seite 284
NOC Network Operation Center
NOC Number of Children
NOEBL Nicht�ffentlicher beweglicher Landfunk
NOEML Nicht�ffentlicher mobiler Landfunk
NOMA National Online Media Association
NOP No Operation
NOR not or
NORC Naval Ordnance Research Calculator
NORSAR Norwegian Seismic Array
NOS Network Operating System
NOW Network Of Workstations
NP No Problem (Slang)
NP Nondeterministic Polynomial time
NPA Network Performance Analyzer
NPA Network Printer/Printing Alliance
NPA Numbering Plan Area
NPACI National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure
NPAP Network Printing Alliance Protocol
NPAPI Netscape Plug-in Application Program Interface
NPC Network Personal Computer
NPCID Network Provides Caller Identifier
NPH Non Processed Header
NPI Neighbourhood Partial Interchangeability
NPI Network Printer Interface
NPL National Physical Laboratory, England
NPL Nonprocedural Language
NPP Network Printing Protocol
NPR Non Persistent Reference
NPS Network Print Server
NPTL Native POSIX Thread Library
NPTN National Public Telecomputing Network, USA
NPV Non Patient Vicinity
NQE Network Queuing Environment
NQS Network Queuing System
NR No-Good Recording
NRC National Research Council, USA
NRCS National Replacement Character Set
NREN National Research and Education/Educational Network
NRF Nerds' Revolutionary Front
NRL Namespace Routing Language
NRM Normal Response Mode
NRN National Research Network
NRN Netware Remote Node
NRN No Reply Necessary (Slang)
NRO Numbering Resource Organisation
NRPC (Lotus) Notes Remote Procedure Call
NRRT Non-reroutable Traffic

Seite 285
NRT Non Real Time
NRTL Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (USA)
NRTM Near Real Time Mirroring
NRV Nieders�chsicher Rechner-Verbund
NRZ Non Return to Zero
NRZI Non Return to Zero, Invert on ones
NS Name Server (Record)
NS Natural Stupidness
NS Netscape
NS Network Supervisor
NS New Signal
NSA National Security Agency, USA
NSA Nichtschl�sselattribut
NSAP Network Service Access Point
NSAPA Network Service Access Point Address
NSAPI Netscape Server API
NSC National Support Center
NSC Network Security Controller
NSC Network Signon Coordinator
NSCACE NSC Auxiliary Control Element
NSCD Name Service Cache Daemon
NSDI National Spatial Data Infrastructure
NSDI Networked Systems Design and Implementation
NSE Network Software Environment
NSF National Science Foundation, USA
NSF Non Standard Format
NSF Norges Standardiseringsforbund
NSF (Lotus) Notes Storage Facility/File
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network (Internet)
NSI Network Solutions, Inc.
NSI Norsk Sentrum for Informatikk, Norwegen
NSIC National Storage Industry Consortium, USA
NSID (DNS) Name Server Identifier
NSL Network Service Layer
NSM Network Storage Manager
NSM Netz-Service-Modul
NSM Netz- und Systemmanagement
NSO Network Security Officer
NSO Nonvirtual Significant Other (Slang)
NSP Native Signal Processing
NSP Network Services Protocol/Provider
NSR Niederspannungsrichtlinie
NSRA Nordv�stra Sk�nes Radioamat�rer
NSRMP Network Security Risk Management Protocol
NSS Namespace Specific String
NSS Name Service Switch
NSS National Search and Rescue Secretariat, Canada

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NSS Network Specific String
NSS Nodal Switching System
NSS Novell Storage Services
NSSDC National Space Science Data Center, USA
NSSN National Standards System Network, USA
NSSR Non-Specific Subordinate Reference
NSTL National Software Testing Labs, USA
NSTVA Nebenstellen-Vermittlungsanlage
NSTX Name Server Tunnel Exchange (Protocol)
NSUB Neighbourhood Substitutability
NSUE Netzsteuerungs- und -�berwachungssystem
NSW National Software Works, USA
NSW Network Setup Wizard
NSW Norton SystemWorks (Symantec),USA
NSW Novell Script for NetWare
NT Network Termination/Terminator (ISDN)
NT New Technology/Trouble
NTAS Windows NT Advanced Server
NTBA Network Terminator Basicrate Access (ISDN-Netzbasisanschluss)
NTC National Telecommunications Conference
NTC Negative Temperature Coefficient
NTDLM Neue Telefondienstleistungsmerkmale
NTF Neutral Transfer Format
NTF No Trouble Found
NTFS New Technology File System (Microsoft)
NTG Nachrichtentechnische Gesellschaft e. V.
NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration, USA
NTIC Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication
NTL Network Tracing and Logging
NTM Nondeterministic Turing Machine
NTN Network Terminal/Termination Number
NTP Network Termination Point
NTP Network Time Protocol
NTR Nationale Teilnehmer-Rufnummer
NTS Network Transport Services (IBM)
NTS New Typesetting System
NTSA Networking Technical Support Alliance
NTSC National Television Standards/System Committee, USA
NTSC Never The Same Color (Slang)
NTT Nippon Telegraph + Telephone Corporation, Japan
NTTAWWT Not That There's Anything Wrong With That (Slang)
NTTF Networking and Telecommunications Task Force
NTV Network Television
NUA Network User Address
NUI Network User Identification/Interface
NUL Null
NUMA Non Uniform Memory Access/Address/Architecture

Seite 287
NURBS Non Uniform Rational B-Spline
NV Net View/Vision/Volume
NV Network Variable/Video
NV New Version
NV No Overflow
NV Nominal Voltage
NV Non-volatile
NVE Nummer der Versandeinheit
NVM Non Volatile Memory
NVN National Videotext Network
NVO Non-Visual User Object
NVOD Near Video On Demand
NVP Network Voice Protocol (Internet)
NVP Nominal Velocity of Propagation
NVQ National Vocational Qualification
NVR Non Volatile Random Access Memory
NVRAM Non Volatile Random Access Memory
NVT Network Virtual Terminal
NWFS Netware File System (Novell)
NWG Network Working Group
NWNET North West Net
NWS National Warning System, USA
NWS Network Weather Service
NX No Execute
NYPSC New York Public Service Commission
NYSERNet New York State Educational and Research Network
O Object, Open, Operate, Optical
OA Open Access
OAA Open Agent Architecture
OAEP Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding
OAF Origin Address Field
OAG Open Application Group
OAI Offene Anwendungs- und Interkommunikationssysteme
OAI Open Applications Interface
OAI Open Archive Initiative
OAI Oracle Academic Initiative
OAIS Open Archival Information System
OAM Object Attribute Memory
OAM Operation, Administration, Maintenance
OAO Over And Out (Slang)
OASIS Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
OATUS On A Totally Unrelated Subject (Slang)
OAUS On An Unrelated Subject (Slang)
OAW Optically Assisted Winchester
OB Orange Book

Seite 288
OBC Onboard Computer
OBE Overcome By Events (Slang)
OBEX Object Exchange (Protocol)
OBI Online Book Inititative
OBO Or Best Offer (Slang)
OBS Objektbanksystem
OBS Optical Burst Switching
OBST Object Management System of STONE
OBTW Oh, By The Way (Slang)
OBU On Board Unit
OC Open Control
OC Optical Carrier
OC3 Optical Carrier Level 3
OCA Object/Open Component Architecture
OCALA Open Common Annotation Language
OCB Optically Compensated Bend
OCC Omas/Opas Computer-Club
OCC Operations Control Center
OCC Other Common Carrier
OCCC Obfuscated C Code Contest
OCE Open Collaborative Environment (Apple)
OCFS Oracle Cluster File System
OCI Object Code Insertion
OCI Operational Cryptography and Interception
OCI Oracle Call Interface
OCL Operator/Operation Control Language
OCLC Online Cataloging/Computer Library Catalog/Center
OCP Optical Storage Processor
OCR Optical Character/Curve Recognition
OCR Oracle Cluster Registry
OCS Object Compatibility Standard
OCS Open Cabling System
OCSP Online Certificate Status Protocol
OCT Object Code Translator
OCTD Observation, Conclusion, Temporary Data
OCX OLE Control Extensions
ODA Open Data Applications
ODA Open/Office Document Architecture
ODAC Open Document Architecture Consortium
ODAM Open Distributed Application Model
ODAPI Open Database Application Programming Interface
ODB Object Oriented Data Base
ODBC Open Data Base Connectivity (Microsoft)
ODBMS Object Oriented Database Management System
ODC Overdrive Circuit
ODCS Open Distributed Computing Structure
ODD Open Data Desktop

Seite 289
ODE Object Data and Environment
ODE Open Dynamics Engine
ODE Ordinary Differential Equation
ODE OSF Development Environment
ODETTE Organisation for Data Exchange by Tele-Transmission in Europe
ODF On Disk Format
ODF Open Document Format
ODF OpenDoc Development Framework
ODFA Open Document Format Alliance
ODI Open Data-Link Interface (Novell)
ODIF Open/Office Document Interchange Format
ODIMS Open Distributed Information Management System
ODINSUP ODI-NDIS Supplementary Driver
ODL Object Definition Language, Optical Disc Library
ODM Object Data Manager
ODMA Open Document Management API
ODMG Object Database Management Group
ODMR On Demand Mail Relay
ODN Optical Data Network
ODP Open Directory Project
ODP Open Distributed Processing
ODR Optical Digital Reference
ODS Offene Datenschnittstelle
ODS Offenes Deutsches Schulnetz
ODS On Disc Structure (File System)
ODS Open Data Services
ODSI Open Directory Service Interface
ODT On-Die Termination
ODTM Optical Time Division Multiplexing
ODVA Open Device-Net Vendor Association
OE Opportunistic Encryption
OE Output Enable
OEB Open Electronic Book
OEBL �ffentlicher beweglicher Landfunk
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OEF Origin Element Field
OEM Odd Even Merge (Graph, Netz)
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OES Odd Even Sort (Graph, Netz)
OES Open Enterprise Server (Novell)
OF Overflow Flag
OFA Optimal Flexible Architecture
OFAP Old Fart At Play (Slang)
OFB Output Feedback
OFD Optical Frequency Division Demultiplexer/Demultiplexing
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex/Multiplexing
OFE Open Financial Exchange

Seite 290
OFET Organic Field Effect Transistor
OFFIS Oldenburger Forschungs- und Entwicklungsinstitut f�r Informatik-Werkzeuge und -Systeme
OFHC Oxygen Free High Conductivity (Copper)
OFM Optical Frequency Division Multiplexer/Multiplexing
OFS Object File System
OFS Old File System (Amiga)
OFS Output Field Separator
OFTC Open and Free Technology Community
OFTP Odette File Transfer Protocol
OFW Oberfl�chenwelle
OFX Open Financial Exchange
OGIS Open Geodata Interoperability Specification
OGM Ogg Media
OGSA Open Grid Services Architecture
OGSI Open Grid Services Infrastructure
OH Off Hook
OHA Open Handset Alliance
OHCI Open Host Controller Interface
OHR Over Horizon RADAR
OIC Oh, I See (Slang)
OIC Operator Interface Console
OID Object Identifier (IANA)
OIDC Object Identifier Component
OIDL Object Interface Definition Language
OII (European Commission's) Open Information Interchange (Service)
OIM Object Interaction Model
OIM Office of Information Management
OIM Offline Instant Message
OIM Open Information Model
OIM Operating Instruction Manual
OIM Operations/Operator Interface Module
OIM Optical Interface Module
OIM Oracle Identity Management
OIM OSI Internet Management
OIN Open Invention Network
OIO Open Infrastructure for Outcomes
OIRT Organisation International de Radio et Television
OIS Office/Online Information System
OIT Object Identifier Tree
OIU Operator Interface Unit
OIV Object Identifier Value
OIW OSI Implementors' Workshop
OK Oberer Kanal
OKKSA Offener Katalog f�r Kommunale Softwareanforderungen
OLALA Open Local Area Linux Applications
OLAP Online Analytical Processing
OLC Online Computer

Seite 291
OLC Optical Link Card
OLE Object Linking and Embedding
OLE Open License for Education
OLED Organic Light Emitting Device/Diode/Display
OLI Open Link Interface (Novell)
OLI Optical Phone Line Interface
OLIT Open Look Intrinsic Toolkit
OLIX On-Line Informationssystem UNIX
OLM Optical Link Modul
OLP Open License Plan/Program
OLPC One Laptop Per Child
OLSR Optimized Link State Routing (Protocol)
OLT Optical Line Termination
OLTC On Line Trace Compression
OLTP On Line Transaction Processing
OLWM Open Look Window Manager
OM Object Manager
OM Old Man (Radioamateur)
OM Optimal Mismatch
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OMA Object/Open Management Architecture
OMA Open Mobile Alliance/Architecture (Cabrio?)
OMAC One-key Message Authentication Code
OMAP Open Multimedia Applications Protocol
OMAP Operation and Maintenance Part
OMC Operation and Maintenance Center
OMCR Operation and Maintenance Center Radio
OMCS Operation and Maintenance Center Switch
OME On-board Modul Extension
OMF Object Management Facility/Framework
OMF Object Module Format
OMF Open Media Framework
OMF Open Source Metadata Framework
OMFS Open Mosix File System
OMG Object Management Group
OMI Open Messaging/Modelling Interface
OMI Open Microprocessor Systems Initiative
OML Object Manipulation Language
OMR Optical Mark Recognition
OMS Object management System
OMT Object Modelling Technique
OMUP Operating and Maintenance User Part
ONAL Off-Network Access Line
ONC Open Network Computing (Sun)
ONCS Open Network Compute Server
ONE Open Net/Network Environment (Sun)
ONI Operator Number Identification

Seite 292
ONM Open Network Management
ONMS Open Network Management System
ONN Open Network Node
ONNA Oh No, Not Again (Slang)
ONNTA Oh No, Not This Again (Slang)
ONP Open Network Provision
ONP Open Network Provision
ONP Open Networking Platform
ONS Object Naming/Numbering System
ONU Optical Network Unit
OO Owner Override
OOA Object Oriented (System) Analysis
OOC Object Oriented Concepts
OOC Out Of Characters (Slang)
OOD Object Oriented Design
OODBMS Object Oriented Database Management System
OOE Objektorientierter Entwurf
OOF Out Of Frame
OOI Object Of Interest (Slang)
OOI Object Oriented Implementation
OOIS Object Oriented Information System
OOK On Off Keying
OOL Object Oriented Language
OON Object Oriented Nonsens
OOP Object Oriented Pleasure/Programming
OOP Out Of Print (Slang)
OOPL Object Oriented Programming Language
OOPS Object Oriented Programming System
OOPS Objext Oriented Proxy Server
OOPS Out Of Phase Stereo
OOPSLA Object Orientied Programming Systems, Languages and Applications
OOSA Object-Oriented Software Architecture
OOT Object Oriented Technology
OOTB Out Of The Box (Slang)
OOTC Obligatory On-Topic Comment (Slang)
OOXML Office OpenXML (Microsoft)
OPA Old Programmers Association
OPA Open Protocol Architecture
OPA Overview Pac Attribute
OPAC Online Public Access Catalogue
OPAL Optische Anschlussleitung
OPB On-Chip Peripheral Bus
OPC OLE for Process Control
OPC Optical Photo Conductor
OPC Optical Proximity Correction
OPC Output Control
OPCAT Object Process CASE Tool

Seite 293
OPD Oberpostdirektion
OPD Original Point of Distribution
OPD Output Driver
OPEN Optical Pan-European Network
OPI Open Prepress Interface
OPI Operator Interface
OPIC Open Programmable Interrupt Controller
OPIE Open Palmtop Integrated Environment
OPL Open Publication License
OPM Object Process Methodology
OPM Operations Per Minute
OPM Output Protection Management
OPML Outline Processor Markup Language
OPN Open Projects Network
OPP Open Publication Policy
OPS Online Programming and Simulation
OPS Open Profiling Standard
OPSEC Open Platform for Security
OPT Open Protocol Technology
OPTA Onafhankelijke Post en Telecommunicatie Autoriteit (NL)
OPUS Octal Program Updating System
OPUS Online Publikationsverbund der Universit�t Stuttgart
OPUS Overlay Peer Utility Service
OPX Off Premises Extension
OQL Object Query Language
OQPSK Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
OR Operations Research
ORACLE Optional Reception of Announcement by Coded Line Electronics
ORB Object Request Broker
ORBL Open Relay Black List
ORDB Open Relay Data Base
ORG organizational; Internet-Domain: Organisationen in den USA
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory
OROM Optical Read Only Memory
ORP Open Router Project
ORS Open Relay Server
ORS Output Record Separator
ORSN (European) Open Root Server Network
OS Operating System
OS Output Specification
OSA Open Scripting/Services/Solutions/Storage/Systems Architecture
OSA Open System Authentication
OSA Optical Society of America
OSACA Open System Architecture for Controls within Automation Systems
OSADL Open Source Automation Development Laboratory
OSAF Origin Subarea Address Field
OSBF Open Source Business Foundation

Seite 294
OSC On Scene Commander
OSC Open System Center (IBM)
OSC Operating System Command
OSCAR Open System for Communication in Realtime
OSCAR Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio
OSCI Online Services Computer Interface
OSD Object-based Storage Device
OSD On Screen Display
OSD Open Software Description (Format)
OSD Open Source Definition
OSDL Open Source Development Lab/Labs, Oregon
OSE Open Systems/Software Environment
OSF Open Software Foundation
OSG Open Science Grid
OSGI Open Services Gateway Initiative
OSI Open Source Initiative
OSI Open Systems Interconnect/Interconnection (ISO)
OSIE Open Systems Interconnection Environment
OSINLCP OSI Network Layer Control Protocol
OSITOP Open Systems Interconnection Technical and Office Protocols
OSL Object Script Language
OSL Open Subscription License
OSM On Screen Menue
OSM Operating System Specific/Service Module
OSNR Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
OSNR Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
OSO Overscan Operation
OSPF Open Shortest Path First (Internet)
OSPI Operating System Programming Interface
OSPM Operating System Power Management
OSQL Object Structured Query Language
OSS Object Storage Server
OSS Open Sound System
OSS Open Source Software/Solution
OSS Operational/Operator Support System
OSSO Open Source Solutions Operation (HP)
OST Object Storage Target
OSTA Optical Storage Technology Association
OSTG Open Source Technology Group
OSTM Open System Transaction Management
OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy
OSU Officially Sanctionized User
OSU Ohio/Oklahoma/Oregon/Oswego State University
OSU On-orbit Serviceable Unit
OSU Optical Scanning Unit
OSVS Operating System Virtual Storage
OT Object Technology

Seite 295
OT Off Topic (Slang)
OT Open Transport
OT Ordering Table
OTA Over The Air
OTA US Congress Office of Technology Assessment
OTD Optical Time Division
OTDM Optical Time Division Multiplexer/Multiplexing
OTDR Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
OTF Open Token Foundation
OTF Open Type Font
OTG (USB) On The Go
OTI Original Transmitter Identification
OTIST One Touch Intelligent Secutity Technology
OTL Out To Lunch (Slang)
OTM On Time Marker
OTOH On The Other Hand (Slang)
OTP One-Time Pad/Password/Programmable
OTP Open Trading Protocol
OTR One Touch Record/Recording
OTRS Open Ticket Request System
OTTH On The Third Hand (Slang)
OUI Organizationally Unique Identifier
OUM Ovonic Unified Memory
OURS Open Users Recommended Solutions
OV Overflow
OVC Over-Current Protection
OVL Over-Load Protection
OVL Overlay
OVP Over-Voltage Protection
OVST Ortsvermittlungsstelle
OVT Over-Temperature Protextion
OWA Outlook Web Access
OWAMP One Way Active Measurement Protocol
OWFS Optical WORM File System
OWG Optical Waveguide
OWL Object/Open Windows Library
OWL One World Language
OWL Online Web Library
OWL Open Wire Line
OWL Operational Web Link
OWL Oracle Web Listener
OWL Web Ontology Language (sic!)
P Packet, Personal, Power, Project, Protocol, Public
P Polynomial time
P2P Peer To Peer

Seite 296
P2P Private To Private
P3P Platform for Privacy/Private Preferences
PA Percentage of Allowable Aliasing Energy
PA Power Amplifier
PA Preamble
PA Program/Project Administrator
PA Provider Aggregated
PA Public Address (System)
PAB Policy Advisory Body (Internet)
PABX Private Access/Automatic Branch Exchange
PAC PCI AGP Controler
PAC Perceptual Audio Coding
PAC Player Access Control
PAC PPTP Access Concentrator
PAC Privilege Attribute Certificate
PACE Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)
PACE Priority Access Control Enabled
PACI Partnerships for Advanced Comptutational Infrastructure
PACS Personal Access Communication System
PACS Picture Archiving and Communications System
PACT PBX and Computer Teaming
PACTOR Packet Radio AMTOR
PACX Private Automatic Computer Exchange
PAD Packet Assembler and Dissassembler
PAD Personal Aroma Diffusor
PAD Personenauskunftsdatei
PADI Packet Assembly Dissassembly
PADI PPPoE Active Discovery Inititation
PADI Protocol for Application Database Interface
PADL Pattern Development Language
PADO PADI Active Discovery
PADO PPPoE Active Discovery Offer
PADR PADO Active Discovery
PADR Port A Data Register
PADR PPPoE Active Discovery Request
PADS Parallel And Distributed Systems
PADS PPPoE Active Discovery Session(-confirmation)
PADS Processing Arbitratry Data Streams
PADS Processing of Analog and Digital Signals
PADS Public Area Display System
PADT PPPoE Active Discovery Terminate
PAE Page/Physical Address Extension
PAGSI Programme d'Action Gouvernemental pour la Societe de l'Information
PAID Purchasing, Accepting, Invoicing, and Disbursing System
PAISY Payroll And Information System
PAISY Personalabrechnungs- und Informationssystem
PAK Packet (Arcnet)

Seite 297
PAK Product Authorization Key
PAL Paradox/Programming Application Language
PAL Phase Alternating Line/Loop (TV)
PAL Privileged Architecture Library (DEC)
PAL Programmable Array Logic
PAL Protocol Adaptation Layer
PAL Prototype Access Language
PALC Plasma Addressed Liquid Crystal (Display)
PAM Personal Application Manager
PAM Physical Access Method
PAM Pluggable Authentication Module/Modules
PAM Puls Amplitude Modulation
PAMR Public Access Mobile Radio
PAN Personal Area Network/Networking (Profile)
PANU Personal Area Network Unit
PAP Password Authentication Protocol
PAP Point Authorization Protocol
PAP Printer Access Protocol
PAP Programmablaufplan
PAP Public Access Profile
PAPR Power Architecture Platform Reference
PAR Positive Acknowledgement with Retransmission
PAR Project Authorization Request (IEEE)
PARC Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox)
PARISC Precision Architecture Reduced Instruction Set Computer
PARK Public Access Rights Key
PARLE Parallel Architectures and Languages Europe
PAS Publicly Available Specifications
PASS Picture Archiving and Sharing Standard
PAT Page Attribute Table
PAT Performance Acceleration Technique (Intel)
PAT Port Address Translation
PAT Program Association Table
PAT Public Access Terminal
PATA Parallel ATA
PATC Page Address Translation Cache
PAX Parallel Architecture Extended
PAX Pixel Addressing Extension
PAX Portable Archive Exchange
PAX Public Access Xanadu
PB Packet Bus
PB Page Break/Buffer/Builder
PB Pipeline/Pipelined Burst (cache)
PB PowerBook (Macintosh)
PB Printed Board
PB Program Block
PB Programs Branch

Seite 298
PB Public Broadcasting
PB Push Button
PBA Printed Board Assembly
PBC Peripheral Board Controller
PBC Peripheral Bus Computer
PBC Pipeline Burst Cache
PBC Plain-text Block Chaining
PBC Processor Bus Controller
PBC Push-Button Configuration
PBDBM Peripheral Backup Detailed Billing Control Element
PBDU Protocol Bridge Data Unit
PBE Prompt By Example
PBGA Plastic Ball Grid Array
PBM Pipelined Burst Mode
PBM Port Bypass Module
PBM Portable Bitmap
PBM Position Based Multicast
PBN Packet Based Network
PBNAC Port Based Network Access Control
PBNSC Peripheral Backup NSC Control Element
PBO Paperless Business Office
PBO Pixel Buffer Object
PBO Port Based Object
PBO Power Back Off
PBO Process Before Output
PBO Profiler Binary Output
PBO Pseudo Boolean Optimization
PBOS Processed Book Open Source
PBOS Processed Book Operating System
PBP Peer Binding Protocol
PBU Page Buffer Unit
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PC Path Consistency/Control
PC Personal Computer
PC Pervasive Computing
PC Primary Channel
PC Program Counter
PC Programmable Controller
PCA Parallel Channel Adapter
PCA Personal Client Architecture
PCA Policy Certification Authority
PCA Principal Component Analysis
PCB Printed Circuit Board
PCB Program Control Block
PCBC Propagating Cipher Block Chaining
PCC Papas Computer-Club
PCC Peoples' Computer Company

Seite 299
PCC Portable C Compiler
PCCH Physical Control Channel
PCD Photo Compact Disc
PCD Plasma Coupled Device
PCD POSIX Conformance Document
PCD Protein Coated Disc
PCDATA Parsed Character Data
PCE Phase Change Erasable
PCF Packaged Collaboration File
PCF Parallel Computing Forum
PCF Point Coordination Function
PCF Portable Compiled Font
PCH Paging Channel
PCI Payment Card Industry
PCI Peripheral Component/Controller Interface
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect (Bus)
PCI Programmable Communication Interface
PCI Protocol Control Information
PCIDSS Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard
PCIE Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (Bus)
PCIOS Processor Common Input Output System
PCIPIO PCI Programmable Input/Output
PCL Primary Copy Locking
PCL Printer/Procedure/Process Control Language
PCLAN Personal Computer Local Area Network
PCM Physical Connection Management
PCM Plug Compatible Machine
PCM Puls-Code-Modulation
PCMCIA PC Memory Card International Association
PCN Personal Communication Network
PCNFS Personal Computer Network File System
PCP Post's Correspondence Problem
PCP Probabistically Checkable Proof
PCR Peak Cell Rate
PCR Phase Change Recording
PCRAM Phase Change Random Access Memory
PCRE Perl Compatible Regular Expression
PCS PC Service (OSF)
PCS Personal Communication Services/System
PCS Personal Conferencing Specification
PCS Physical Coding Signalling/Sublayer
PCS Pinball Construction Set
PCS Port Concentrator Shelf
PCS Print Contrast Signal
PCS Probabilistic Clock Synchronization
PCS Program Control System
PCS Project Control System

Seite 300
PCSA Personal Computing Systems Architecture (DEC)
PCSC Personal Computer Site Coordinator
PCSC Personal Computer Smart/Sound Card
PCSC Personal Computer/Computing Support Center
PCSC Personal Communications Switching Center
PCSC Pitch Corrected Speed Control
PCSP Partial Constraint Satisfaction Problem
PCT Private Communication Technology
PCTE Portable Common Tool Environment
PCTS POSIX Conformance Test Suite
PCTT Physical Church Turing Thesis
PCWG Personal Conferencing Work Group
PD Page Directory
PD Phase Change Dual
PD Plug + Display, P+D (Interface)
PD Protocol Driver
PD Public Domain
PDA Personal Digital Assistant (Apple)
PDA Push Down Automaton
PDAP Prospero Data Access Protocol
PDB Process Data Base
PDB Professional Disc for Broadcasting
PDB Protection Database
PDC Power Disc Cartridge
PDC Primary Domain Controller
PDC Professional Developer Conference
PDC Program Development Computer/Council
PDCH Physical Data Channel
PDD Physical Device Driver
PDD Portable Digital Document
PDD Professional Disc for Data
PDE Partial Differential Equation
PDES Product Data Exchange Standard
PDF POP Directional Formatting
PDF Portable Document Format (Adobe)
PDF Printer/Product Description File
PDF Processor Defined Function
PDF Program Development Facility
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PDI Packet Driver Interface
PDI Personal/Product Data Interchange
PDIAL Public Dialup Internet Access List
PDIF Product Definition Interchange Format
PDL Page Description Language
PDL Primary Defect List
PDL Program Design/Description Language
PDL Push Down List

Seite 301
PDLC Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal
PDM Product and Document Management
PDM Product Data Management
PDM Projekt- und Datenmanagement
PDM Pulsdauer-Modulation
PDN Public Data Network
PDO Packet Data Optimized
PDO Portable Distributed Object
PDO Prozessdatenobjekt
PDP Packet Data Protocol
PDP Parallel Distributed Processing
PDP Peer Dicovery Protocol
PDP Plasma Display Panel
PDP Policy Decision Point
PDP Programmed Data Processor (DEC)
PDQ Pretty Darned Quick (Slang)
PDR Packet Drop Rate
PDR Program Data Requirement
PDS Packet Driver Specification
PDS Partitioned Data Set
PDS Processor Direct Slot (Apple)
PDS Professional Development System
PDS Program Design Specification
PDS Public Domain Software
PDSL Power Line Digital Subscriber Line
PDSS Program/Post Development Support System
PDT Portables Daten-Terminal
PDT Programmable Drive Table
PDT Produktionsdatentechnik
PDT Propagation Delay Time
PDTE Packet-mode DTE
PDU Packet/Protocol Data Unit (OSI)
PDV Path Delay Value
PE Parity Error
PE Periphere Einrichtung
PE Phase Encoded/Encoding
PE Physical Extent
PE Processing Element
PE Product/Professional/Project Engineer
PE Protected Environment
PE Protective Earth
PE Provider Edge (device)
PEA Pocket Ethernet Adapter
PEAP Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
PEARL Process and Experiment Automation Realtime Language
PEB Peripheral Extension Bus
PEB Process Environment Block

Seite 302
PEBKAC Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair (Slang)
PEC Packet Error Checking
PECL PHP Extension Code Libary
PEG PCI Express for Graphics
PEL Picture Element
PEM Privacy Enhanced Mail
PEM Privacy Enhancement for Electronic Mail
PEN Private Enterprise Number
PEP Packet Exchange Protocol
PEP Packetized Ensemble Protocol
PEP Pan European Paging
PEP Peak Envelope Power
PEP Point d'Echange de Proximite
PEP Policy Enforcement Point
PEP Protocol Extension Protocol
PER Packet Error Rate
PERL Practical Extraction and Report Language
PERM Programmgesteuerte Elektronische Rechenanlage TH M�nchen
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PES Packetized Elementary Stream
PES Position/Positioning Error Signal
PES Processor Enhancement Socket
PES Proposed Encryption Standard
PET Personal Electronic Transactor (Commodore)
PET Print Enhancement Technology
PEX PHIGS Extension to X
PF Packet Filter
PF Process Flow (Analysis, Diagram)
PF Punch Off
PFA Power FORTRAN Accelerator
PFA Predictive Failure Analysis
PFB Postscript Font Binary
PFC Power Factor Compensation/Correction
PFD Programming Facility for Display Users
PFF Packet Filtering Firewall
PFIR People For Internet Responsibility
PFM Postscript Font Metric
PFM Pure Fantastic Magic (Slang)
PFN Physical File Name
PFOS Passive Fiber Optic Segment
PFR Portable Font Resource
PFR Power Fail Restart
PFS Perfect Forward Secrecy
PFS Portable File System
PFS Professional File system (Amiga)
PFTP Passive FTP
PFTP Port File Transfer Program

Seite 303
PFW Personal Firewall
PFY Pimply-Faced Youth (BOFH's assistant)
PG Program/Programme
PG Project Gutenberg
PGA Pin Grid Array
PGA Professional Graphics Adapter
PGA Program Global Area
PGC Program Chain
PGE PTE Global Flag
PGI Parameter Group Identifier
PGL Peer Group Leader
PGL Professional Games League
PGM Portable Gray Map
PGM Pragmatic General Multicast (protocol)
PGML Precision Graphics Markup Language
PGO Profile Guided Optimization
PGN Portable Game Notation
PGP Pretty Good Privacy/Piracy/Protection
PH Packet Handler
PH Polynomial Hierarchy
PHB Per Hop Behaviour
PHCB Page Header Control Bit
PHIGS Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System
PHOTON Paneuropean Photonic Transport Overlay Network
PHP Personal Home Page (Tools)
PHP PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
PHS Personal Handy-Phone System
PHY Physical Access
PHY Physical Layer Protocol
PI Page Impression
PI Parameter Identifier
PI Partial Interchangeability
PI Profibus International
PI Program Identification/Interruption
PI Protection Index
PIA Peripheral Interface Adapter
PIA Privacy Impact Assessment
PIC Picture File
PIC Platform for Internet Content
PIC Position Independent Code
PIC Primary Interexchange Carrier
PIC Priority/Programmable Interrupt Controller
PIC Programmable Integrated Circuit
PIC Programmable Interconnection
PIC Programmable Interrupt Controller
PICA Personal Internet Client Architecture
PICMG PCI Industrial Computers Manufacturers Group

Seite 304
PICS Platform for Internet Content Selection
PICS Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement
PICS Protocol Interoperability Conformance Statment
PID Persistant/Personal/Protocol Identifier
PID Privater Informationsdienst
PID Process/Protocol Identifier (Identification Number)
PIE Persistent Identification Element
PIE Position Independent Executable
PIF Parity Inner Fails/Failures
PIF Postscript Interchange Format
PIF Program Information File (Microsoft)
PIFS Point Coordination/PCF Inter Frame Space
PIG Pathologischer Internet-Gebrauch
PII Personally Identifiable Information
PIK Programmer's Imaging Kernel
PIL Python Imaging Library
PIM Personal Information Manager/Management
PIM Port Interface Module
PIM Processor In Memory
PIM Protocol Independent Multicasting
PIMF Pair In Metal Foil (cable)
PIMS Project Information Management System
PIN Pers�nliche Identifikations-Nummer
PIN Processor Independent NetWare
PIN Program Item Number
PINET Physics Information Network
PING Packet Internet Groper
PINT Phone IP Internetworking (Services)
PINT PSTN and Internet Internetworking
PINX Private Integrated Services Network Exchange
PIO Parallel/Programmable/Programmed Input/Output (Chip)
PIOFS Parallel I/O File System
PIP P-Internet-Protocol
PIP Path Independent Protocol
PIP Peer Information Protocol
PIP Periodical Informational Posting
PIP Peripheral Interchange Program
PIP Picture in Picture
PIP Process Improvement Proposal
PIPI Packet Interchange Protocol Instruction
PIPO Parallel In, Parallel Out
PIR Private Information Retrieval
PIR Public Internet Registry
PIS Personal-Informations-System
PIS Premium Information Service
PISS Public Information System Specialist
PIT Programmable Interval Timer

Seite 305
PITA Pine In The Ass (Slang)
PITAC President's Information Technology Advisory Committee
PITR Point-In-Time Recovery
PIU Path Information Unit
PIU Pathological Internet Use
PIW Photo Imaging Workstation
PIXEL Picture Element
PIXIT Protocol Implementation Extra Informations for Testing
PJL Printer Job Language
PK Primary Key
PKC Public Key Cryptography
PKCS Public Key Cryptography Standards (Group)
PKI Philips Kommunikationsindustrie AG
PKI Personal/Public Key Infrastructure
PKV Privatkundenvertrieb (Telekom)
PKZ Personenkennziffer
PL Payload Length
PL Physical Layer
PL Presentation Layer
PL Private Line
PL Programming Language
PLA Partial Look Ahead
PLA Programmable Logic Array
PLATO Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations
PLB Personal Locator Beacon
PLB Processor Local Bus
PLC Packet Loss Concealment
PLC Power Line Communication/Converter
PLC Product Lifecycle (Management)
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
PLCC Plastic Leadless Chip Carrier
PLCE Peripheral and Loading Control Element
PLCP Physical Layer Convergence Protocol
PLD Programmable Logic Device
PLE Programmable Logic Element
PLEDM Phase-state Low Electron Drive Memory
PLIC Programmable Logic Integrated Circuit
PLID Plugin Identifier
PLIP Parallel Line Internet Protocol
PLL Permanent Logical Link
PLL Phase Locked Loop
PLM Product Lifecycle Management
PLM Programming Language for Microcomputers
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PLP Packet Layer Protocol
PLP Perl Page
PLP Personal License Password

Seite 306
PLP Portable Line Printer (spooler system)
PLP Presentation Level Protocol
PLR Packet Lost Ratio
PLS Physical Layer Signaling
PLS Programmable Logic Sequencer
PLSI Programmable Large Scale Integration
PLT Power Line Telecommunication
PLT Procedure Linkage Table
PLUMPS Public Long-distance Unified Mail Provider Service/System
PLV Presentation/Production Level Video
PLZ Postleitzahl
PM Performance Management
PM Phasenmodulation
PM Physical Modeling
PM Power Management
PM Presentation Manager (IBM)
PM Preventive Maintenance
PM Private Mail
PM Problem/Process/Project Management
PM Protected Mode
PMA Parked Member Addressing (Bluetooth)
PMA Performance Management and Accounting
PMA Physical Medium Attachment
PMA Program Area
PMAC Parallelizable Message Authentication Code
PMAC Programmable Multi Axis Controller
PMAP Port Mapper
PMC Physical Media Components Sublayer
PMC Programmable Machine Controller
PMD Packet Mode Data
PMD Physical Medium Dependence/Dependent (Layer)
PMD Polarization Mode Dispersion
PME Pattern Matching Engine
PME Power Management Event
PMETC Pardon Me, etc. (Slang)
PMFJIB Pardon Me For Jumping In But (Slang)
PMI Product Manufacturing Information
PMK Pairwise Master Key
PML Programmable Macro Logic
PMMU Paged Memory Management Unit
PMOS p-Channel MOS (Transistor)
PMP Point to Multi Point
PMP Process Management Portal
PMP Protected Media Path
PMPO Peak Music Power Output
PMR Perpendicular Magnetic Recording
PMR Private Mobile Radio

Seite 307
PMS Pantone Matching System (Colours)
PMS Password Management System
PMS Printer Management Software
PMT Program Map Table
PMTMR Power Management Timer
PMTU Path Maximum Transfer Unit
PMW Project Manager Workbench
PMX Presentation Manager for X
PMXAS Prim�r-Multiplex-Anschluss (ISDN)
PN Part/Path Number
PN Phase Noise
PN Punch On
PNA Parallel Network Architecture
PNA Personal Navigation Assistant
PNC Paging Network Controller
PNCP Peripheral Network Control Point
PND Personennamendatei
PND Portable Navigation Device
PNG Portable Network Graphic
PNNI Private Network/Node to Network Interface
PNO Profibus-Nutzer Organisation
PNO Public Network Operator
PNP Positive Negative Positive (Transistor)
PNP Plug and Play/Pray
PNR Passenger Name Record
PNS Post's Normal System
PNS PPTP Network Server
PNW Personal NetWare (Novell)
PO Paper Out, Parity Odd
POA Post Office Agent
POB Post Office Box
POC Phase-only Correlation
POC Planned Organizational Change
POC Point Of Call/Communication/Consistency/Contact
POC Policy Oversight Committee (Internet)
POC Portable Object Compiler
POC Post Operative Constipation
POC Power Converter
POC Processor Outage Control
POC Proof Of Concept
POC Purchase Order Change
POC Push-to-Talk Over Cellular (Phone)
POCE Pantone Open Color Environment
POCSAG Post Office Standardisation Advisory Group
POD Piece Of Data
POD Ping Of Death
POD Plain Old Data/Documentation

Seite 308
POD Point Of Demarcation/Deployment/Distribution
POD Pop-up Directory
POD Print/Printing/Publishing On Demand
POD Processing Of Data
POD Project Overview Document
POD Protocol Object Device
PODA Priority-Oriented Demand Assignment
POE Power Open Environment (IBM)
POE Power Over Ethernet
POEM Portable Object-oriented Entity Manager
POET Persistent Objects and Extended Database Technology
POET Partially Overlapped Echo Cancelled Transmission
POF Parity Outer Fails/Failures
POF Plastic/Polymer Optical Fiber
POH Path Section Overhead
POH Power-on Hours
POI Path Overhead Indicator
POI Point Of Information/Interaction/Interconnection/Interest
POL Point of Learning
POL Problem Oriented Language
POM Persistant Object Manager
POM Project Object Model
PON Passive Optical Network
POP Point of Presence/Purchase
POP Post Office Protocol (Internet)
POP Probability Of Plagiarism
POPO Post Office Protocol Object/Operator
POPS Performance Optimized Page Size
POR Pacific Ocean Region
POR Power-on Reset
POS Persistant Object Service/Simple
POS Personal Operating Space
POS Pivoting Optical Servo
POS Point of Sale
POSE Portable Operating System Extension
POSI Promotion Conference for OSI, Japan
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Systems/UNIX
POST Power-on Self Test
POT Portable Object Template/Translation
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service/System
POV Persistence Of Vision
POV Point Of View (Slang)
POWER Performance Optimization/Optimized With Enhanced RISC (IBM/Motorola)
PP Peering Point
PP Physical Partition
PP Portable Part
PP Predictive Pipelining

Seite 309
PP Protection Profile
PPA Print Performance Architecture (HP)
PPB Paced Packet Batch
PPC Pay Per Click
PPC Personal Productivity Center
PPC Physical Presence Command
PPC Power PC
PPC Production Planning and Control
PPCS Phoenix Page Control System
PPD Postscript Printer Description (Adobe)
PPDS Personal Printer Data Stream
PPF Plain Paper Fax
PPF Print Production Format
PPGA Platic Pin Grid Array
PPH Pages per Hour
PPI pixels per inch
PPI Programmable Peripheral Interface
PPID Parent Process Identification Number
PPL Point-to-Point/Process-to-Process Link
PPM Parts per Mille
PPM Pages per Minute
PPM Perl Package Manager
PPM Portable Pixmap
PPM Post Programmable Memory
PPM Prediction by Partial Matching
PPM Process Performance Manager
PPM Pulse Position Modulation
PPN Private Packet Network
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol (Internet)
PPPOE Point-to-Point Protocol Over Ethernet
PPRC Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy
PPS Point of Presence Server
PPS Precise Positioning Service/System
PPS Production Planning System
PPS Programming Procedures and Standards
PPS Pulse Per Second
PPTP Point to Point Tunneling Protocol
PPU Physics Processing Unit
PPUC Probably Permanently Under Construction (Web, Slang)
PQET Print Quality Enhancement Technology
PQN Prefix Query Notation
PR Pacing Response
PR Packet Radio
PR Page Rank
PR Path Replacement
PR Perpendicular Recording
PR Primitive Recursive (function)

Seite 310
PR Public Relations
PRA Primary Rate Access
PRA Purported Responsible Address
PRACE Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PACE)
PRAM Parallel/Perimeter/Phase Change Random Access Memory
PRCS Project Revision Control System
PRD Program Requirements Document
PRDMD Private Directory Management Domain
PRE Partial Redundancy Elimination
PREP PowerPC Reference Platform
PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency
PRI Primary Rate Interface (ISDN)
PRIG Packet Radio Interest Group
PRISM Parallel Reduced Instruction Set Multiprocessor
PRISM Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata
PRMD Private Management Domain (X.400)
PRML Partial Response Maximum Likelihood
PRMS Problem Report Management System
PRN Packet Radio Network
PRN Permanent/Pseudo Random Number
PRN Printer
PRN Pseudo Random Noise (GPS)
PRNET Packet Radio Network
PRNG Pseudo Random Number Generator
PRO Precision RISC Organization
PROFS Professional Office System (IBM)
PROLOG Programming in Logic
PROM Programmable Read Only Memory
PRP Peer Resolver Protocol
PRQ Preisrequest
PRS Print Management Service (OSF)
PRTI Professional Realtime Interface
PS Packet Switch
PS Personal System (IBM)
PS (Adobe) PostScript
PS Power Supply
PS Privilege Service
PS Program Service Name
PS Program Stream
PS Proportional Spacing
PSA Physical Sector Address
PSABI Processor Specific Application Binary Interface
PSAP Public Safety Answering Point
PSB Path State Block
PSC Physical Signaling Components Sublayer
PSC Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center
PSC Print Scan Copy

Seite 311
PSC Product Service Center
PSCN Program Support Communications Network
PSCT Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Texture (Display)
PSD Page Setup Dialogue
PSD Platform Specific Driver
PSD Power Saving Drive
PSD Power Spectral/Spectrum Density
PSDS Power Spectral/Spectrum Density Shaping
PSDN Packet/Public Switched/Switching Data/Digital Network
PSE Packet Switching Exchange
PSE Page Size Extension
PSE Path Switching Element
PSE Personal Security Environment
PSE Personen-Such-Einrichtung
PSE Port Switched Ethernet
PSF PC Screen Font
PSF Permanent Swap File
PSFQ Pump Slowly, Fetch Quickly
PSI Packetnet System Interface
PSI Postscript Interpreter
PSK Phase Shift Keying
PSK Pre-Shared Key
PSL Problem Statement Language
PSN Packet Switch Node
PSN Processor Serial Number
PSNR Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
PSO Protocol Supporting Organization
PSP (Corel) Paint Shop Pro
PSP Pascal/Python Server Pages
PSP Personal Software Process
PSP Program Segment Prefix
PSP Programmable Signal Processor
PSP Projektstrukturplan
PSPDN Packet Switched Public Data Network
PSR Parallel/Processor/Project Software
PSR Phase Shift Resistivity
PSR Physical Storage Resource
PSR Power/Processor/Program State/Status Register
PSR Prescaler Select Register
PSR Priority Service Request
PSR Program Support Requirements
PSR Programmable Scanner
PSR Project Status Report
PSRAM Pseudo Static Random Access Memory
PSS Private Signalling System
PSSC Preliminary System Security Concept
PST Pre-Structured Technology

Seite 312
PSTN Public Switched/Switching Telephone Network
PSU Page Storage Unit
PSU Power Supply Unit
PSW Program Status Word
PSYC Protocol for Synchronous Conferencing
PT Packet/Payload Type
PT Page Table
PT Payload Type
PTAL Payment Transaction Application Layer
PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig
PTBR Page Table Base Register
PTBT Prime Times, Bad Times
PTBT Probabilistic Timed Behaviour Tree
PTD Parallel Transfer Disk Drive
PTE Page Table Entry
PTF Program Temporary Fix
PTF Pthread Framework
PTI Payload Type Identifier/Indicator
PTMP Point To Multi Point (Connection)
PTMSC Point To Multipoint Service Centre
PTN Plant Test Number
PTO Patent and Trademark Office, USA
PTO Please Turn Over (Slang)
PTO Public Telecommunication Network Operator
PTP Point To Point (Connection)
PTR Pointer Record (DNS)
PTS Post- och Telestyrelsen
PTS Presentation Time Stamp
PTS Problem Tracking System
PTSE PNNI Topology State Element
PTT Post, Telephon, Telegraph
PTT Push To Talk (key)
PTY Program Type
PTZ Posttechnisches Zentralamt, Darmstadt
PU Physical/Processing Unit
PUC Public Utility Commission
PUI Picoscopic User Interface
PUK Personal Unblocking Key
PUL Packet Underway Limit
PUMA Protected User-Mode Audio
PUO Prohibited User Operation
PUP PARC Universal Packet (Protocol)
PUP Product Upgrade
PUPA Preliminary Universal Programming Architexture (for GRUB)
PUPM Price per User Per Month
PUPS PDP UNIX Preservation Society
PURL Persistent Uniform Resource Locator

Seite 313
PUS Potenziell unerw�nschte (unwanted) Software
PUS Processor Upgrade Socket
PV paketvermittelt
PV Physical Volume
PVA Patterned Vertical Alignment (panel)
PVC Permanent Virtual Channel/Circuit/Connection
PVFS Parallel Virtual File System
PVM Parallel/Passthru Virtual Machine (IBM)
PVN Private/Programmable Virtual Network
PVP Protected Video Path
PVR Permanent Virtual Route
PVR Personal Video Recorder
PVR Physical Volume Repository
PVRA Physical Volume Reserved Area
PVS Potentially Visible Set
PVS Professional Vision Services
PVT Position, Velocity, Time (GPS)
PVV Path Variability Value
PW Pseudo Wire
PWB Printed Wire Board
PWB Programmer's Workbench
PWI Public Windows Initiative/Interface
PWL Password List
PWM Pulse Width Modulation, Pulsweitenmodulation
PWP Phase Wobble Prepit
PWR Power (Saft)
PWS Personal Workstation
PWSCS Programmable Workstation Communication Services
PXE Preboot Execution Environment
PXI PCI Extension for Instrumentation
PXISA PXI Systems Alliance
PZF Pseudozufallsfolge
PZM Punkt-zu-Mehrpunkt (-Verbindung, ISDN)
PZP Punkt-zu-Punkt (-Verbindung, ISDN)
Q Quality, Query, Queue
QA Quality Assurance/Audit
QA Query Analyser
QA Questions and Answers, Q&A
QAM Quadraturamplitudenmodulation
QARE Quick Agent Runtime Environment
QAWN QoS in Ad hoc Wireless Networks
QBE Query By Example
QBF Query By Forms
QBIC Query by Image Content
QBM Quad Band Memory

Seite 314
QCA Quantum-dot Cellular Automaton
QCB Queue Control Block
QCIF Quarter Common Intermediate Format
QD Quad Density, Quick Disconnection
QDL Quadri Data Layer
QDR Quad Data Rate
QES Qualifizierte elektronische Signatur
QFA Quick File Access
QFD Quality Function Deployment
QFP Quadratic Flatpack
QFP Questions Frequent/Frequemment Posees
QFT Queued File Transport
QIAM Queued Indexed Access Method
QIC Quality Insurance Chain
QIC Quarter Inch Cartridge/Committee
QID Quanteninformationsdynamik
QISAM Queued Index Sequential Access Method
QL Query Language
QLLC Qualified Logical Link Control
QLP Query Language Processor
QM Quality Management
QMF Query Management Facility
QMR Quarterly Maintenance Release
QMS Quality Management System
QMTP Quick Mail Transfer Protocol
QNN Quantum Neural Network
QOS Quality of Service
QPI QuickPath Interconnect/Interface
QPL Q Public License (Trolltech)
QPL Quantum/Questionaire Programming Language
QPSK Quadrature/Quaternary Phase Shift Keying
QRI Queue Response Indicator
QRSS Quasi Random Signal Source
QS Qualit�tssicherung
QSA Qt Script for Applications
QSAM Queued Sequential Access Method
QSDPCM Quadtree-strukturierte Differenz-Puls-Code-Modulation
QSIG Quersignalisierung
QSIG Unified International Corporate Network Signalling Standard
QSMTP Queued SMTP
QSND Queue Send (command)
QST Calling All Stations (not an acronym)
QST Qualified Software Tester
QST Qualit�ts- und Sicherheitstechnik
QST Quick Start Tutorial
QST Quiet System Technology (Intel)
QTAM Queued Teleprocessing Access Method

Seite 315
QTD Quote of The Day
QTML Quicktime Media Layer
QUED Quick Editor
QUIP Query Interactive Processor
QUISAM Queued Index Sequential Access Method
QWERTY (US Typewriter Layout)
QWERTZ (German Typewriter Layout)
QXML QuarkXPress Markup Language
R Radio, Real, Receive, Reference, Remote
RA Radiocommunications Agency
RA Random Availability
RA Receiver Address
RA Regul�rer Ausdruck
RA Repository Access
RA Return Authorization
RA Router Advertisement
RAB RAID Advisory Board
RAC Radio Amateurs of/du Canada
RAC Real Application Cluster (Oracle)
RAC Remote Access Concentrator
RACE Research And Development in Advanced Communication Technologies in Europe
RACE Row-based ASCII Compatible Encoding
RACF Resource Access Control Facility (IBM)
RACH Random Access Channel
RACKS Reusable Application Interface for Communicating Real-Time Kernels
RACON Radar Beacon
RAD Rapid Application Development
RADAR Radio Detecting and Ranging
RADB Routing Arbiter Data Base
RADIUS Remote Access/Authentication Dial-In User Service
RADSL Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line
RAEBNC Read And Enjoyed, But No Comment (Slang)
RAG Row Address Generator
RAI Remote Alarm Indication
RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive/Independent Discs
RAK Regeln f�r die alphabetische Katalogisierung
RAL Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK
RALU Register Arithmetic Logic Unit
RAM Random Access Machine/Memory
RAM Rate Adaptive Mode
RAM Rechargeable Alcali Mangan (battery)
RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital Analog Converter
RAMP Remote Access Maintenance Protocol
RAMPS Reliability, Availability, Manageability, Performance, Serviceability
RAND Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory (License)

Seite 316
RAO Remote Access Outsourcing
RAOLSR Radio Aware Optimized Link State Routing
RAP Radio Local Loop Access Profile
RAP Rapid Application Prototyping
RAP Rogue Access Point
RAP Route Access Protocol
RAP Roving Analysis Port
RAR Roshal Archiver
RARE Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Europeenne
RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (Internet)
RAS Random Access Storage
RAS Registration, Admission, and Status
RAS Reliability, Availability and Serviceability
RAS Remote Access Server/Service
RAS Row Address Select/Strobe
RASMED Redundant Array of Slightly More Expensive Disks
RAST Receive and Send Terminal
RASUM Reliability, Availability, Serviceability, Usability, Manageability
RATP Reliable Asychronous Transfer Protocol (Internet)
RATS Radio Amateur Telecommunications Society
RATS Rough Auditing Tool for Security
RAVE Renderer Acceleration Virtual Machine
RAW Read After Write
RBAC Role Based Access Control
RBAM Remote Batch Access Method
RBBS Remote Bulletin Board System
RBER Residual Bit Error Rate
RBL Realtime/Remote Black/Blackhole List
RBM Rule Base Memory
RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company
RBS Reference Broadcast Synchronization
RBW Resolution Bandwidth
RBW Reverse Band Working
RBW Roll Back Version
RC Reaction Controller
RC Receive Common
RC Receiver Clock
RC Reconfigurable Computing
RC Release Candidate/Critical
RC Replica Catalog
RC Rivest Cipher
RC Run Command
RCA Radio Corporation of Amerika, USA
RCA Ripple Carry Adder
RCB Release Critical Bug
RCC Radio Common Carrier
RCC Reduced Complexity Computer

Seite 317
RCC Remote Cluster Controller
RCC Rescue Coordination Centre
RCC Routing Control Center/Channel
RCD Recordable Compact Disc
RCDATA Replaceable Character Data
RCE Region Code Enhancement
RCE Revision Control Engine
RCEVH Research Centre for the Education of the Visually Handicapped
RCF Registration Confirmation
RCLK Rack Clock
RCP Radio Control Protocol
RCP Reality Immersion Coprocessor
RCP Retransmission Control Procedure
RCS Record Communication Switching System
RCS Resource Construction Set
RCS Revision Control System
RCS Rights Control System
RCU Read, Copy, Update
RCV Receive
RD Receive Data
RD Recursive Design
RD Request Disconnect
RD Resource Discovery
RD Route Distinguisher
R&D Research and Development
RDA Remote Data/Database Access
RDAT Rotary Digital Audio Tape
RDB Receive Data Buffer
RDB Relational Database
RDBMS Relationales Datenbank-Management-System
RDC Remote Dual Copy
RDCCG Regional Data and Computing Center Germany, Karlsruhe
RDD Replaceable Database Driver
RDE Ruby Development Environment
RDF Resource Definition/Description Format/Framework
RDH RSA DES Hybrid
RDL Register Description Language
RDMA Remote Direct Memory Access
RDN Relative Distinguished Name
RDO Remote Data Object
RDOS Real-time Disk Operating System
RDP Reliable Datagram Protocol (Internet)
RDP Remote Desktop Protocol
RDR Rijksdienst voor Radiocommunicatie
RDRAM Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
RDRN Rapidly Deployable Radio Network
RDS Radio Data System

Seite 318
RDS Rapid Development System
RDS Remote Data Services
RDS Resolver Discovery Service
RDSL Rate-adaptive/Residential/Reverse Digital Subscriber Line
RDSR Receiver Data Service Request
RDSS Radio Determination Satellite Services
RDST Rotating Head Digital Storage Tape
RDTSC Read Time Stamp Counter
RE Recall
RE Regular Expression
RE Report Engine
RE Recursively Enumerable
RE Reverse Engineering
REACH Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals
READSL2 Reach Enhanced ADSL2
RED Random Early Detection
REG Regular Languages
REGTP Regulierungsbeh�rde f�r Telekommunikation und Post
REJ Reject
REKO Reparatur-Konzept (Swisscom)
REL Rights Expression Language
REM Remark
REM Remote
REM Reseau d'Enseignement Multimedia
REM Ring Error Monitor
REO Removable Erasable Optical Disk
REP Reply to Message Number
REP Robots Exclusion Protocol
REQ Request
RES Radio Equipment and Systems
RES Remote Execution Server/Service
RES Reset, Restore
RES Rotation Error Signal
REST Representational State Transfer
RESV RSVP Reservation Request
RET Resolution Enhancement Technology (HP)
REXX Restructured Extended Executor (IBM)
RF Radio Frequency
RF Relevance Feedback
RF Remote File
RF Royalty Free (License)
RFA Remote File Access
RFA Request For Adoption (Debian)
RFB Remote Frame Buffer
RFC Remote Function Call
RFC Request For Comments (Internet)
RFC Response For a Class

Seite 319
RFD Request For Discussion (Usenet)
RFE Radio Free Ethernet
RFE Request For Enhancement
RFH Remote Frame Handler
RFI Radio Frequency Interference
RFI Request For Information
RFID Radio Frequency Identification
RFLA Real Full Look Ahead
RFNM Ready/Request For Next Message
RFP Radio Fixed Parts
RFP Request For Packaging (Debian)
RFP Request For Proposal
RFQ Request For Quotation/Quote
RFS Remote File Sharing/System
RFS Remote Forensic Software
RFT Request For Technology (OSF)
RFT Revisable Format Text
RFU Reserved for Future Use
RG Radio Guide (coax cables)
RGB Rot (Red), Gr�n (Green), Blau (Blue) (Farbmodell)
RGBA Rot (Red), Gr�n (Green), Blau (Blue), Alpha (Farbmodell)
RGDI Renaissance Graphics Device Interface
RGP Raster Graphics Processor
RG/U Radio Guide/Utility (Kabel)
RH Request/Response Header
RH Registration Hierarchy
RHAD Red Hat Advanced Development (Laboratories)
RHC Regional (Bell) Holding Company
RHCE Red Hat Certified Engineer
RHCS Red Hat Cluster Suite
RHEL Red Hat Enterprise Linux
RHN Red Hat Network
RHNT Registration Hierarchical Name Tree
RHOB Relevant Hierarchical Operational Binding
RHS Right Hand Side
RHSA Red Hat Security Advisory
RI Referential Integrity
RI Ring In/Indicator
RIA Red Ink Award
RIA Rich Internet Application(s)
RIA Robot Institute of America
RIAA Recording Industry Association of America
RIAS Rundfunk Im Amerikanischen Sektor, Berlin
RIB RenderMan Interface Bytestream
RIB Routing Information Base
RIC Radio Identify Code
RID Relative Identifier

Seite 320
RID Retinal Imaging Display
RIF Radio/Renderman Interface
RIF Record Identifier
RIF Regional/Resource Information
RIF Resource Interchange File
RIF Routing Information Field/Frame
RIF Rule Information
RIF Rule Interchange Format
RIFF Resource Interchange File Format
RII Ring/Routing Information Indicator
RIM Records and Information Management
RIM Remote Installation and Maintenace
RIM Request Initialization Mode
RIMM Rambus In-line Memory Module
RIMS Ranging Integrity Monitoring Station
RIP Raster Image Processor
RIP Request In Progress
RIP Routing Information Protocol
RIP Remote Image/Imaging Protocol/Processing
RIPE Reseaux IP Europeenne
RIPL Remote Initial Program Loading
RIPNG Routing Information Protocol Next Generation
RIPSO Revised Internet Protocol Security Option
RIR Regional Internet Registry
RIS Remote Installation Services
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Code/Computer
RITA Reduced Interim Type Approval
RITA Reliable Internetwork Troubleshooting Agent
RJ Registered Jack
RJE Remote Job Entry (IBM)
RJS Remote Job Service
RKE Remote Keyless Entry
RKO Root Key Operator
RL Real Life (Slang)
RL Reconfigurable Logic
RL Remote Loopback
RLC Radio Link Control
RLC Run Length Coding
RLE Research Laboratory of Electronics
RLE Run Length Encoded/Encoding
RLF Reverse Line Feed
RLG Research Libraries Group
RLIN Research Libraries Information Network (RLG)
RLL Radio in the Local Loop
RLL Row Level Locking
RLL Run Length Limited
RLM Receiver-driven Layered Multicast

Seite 321
RLM Robotic Library Manager
RLM Robust Linear Model
RLMT Redundant Link Management Technology
RLN Remote LAN Node
RLP Radio Link Protocol
RLP Resource Location Protocol
RLS Remote Learning System
RLSD Received Line Signal Detected
RLV Ringleitungsverteiler
RM Reference Model
RM Resource Management
RM Retention Module
RMA Rate Monotonic Analysis
RMA Remote Memory Access
RMC Radio Monte Carlo
RMC Rambus Memory Controller
RMC Resource Monitoring and Control
RMF Remote Management Facility
RMI Remote Method Invocation
RMII Reduced Media Independent Interface
RMOA Realtime Multimedia Over ATM
RMON Remote (Network) Monitoring
RMP Radio Management Panel
RMP Random Match Probability
RMP Reliable Multicast Protocol
RMP Remote Maintenance Panel/Processor
RMP Resource Management Plan/Program/Project
RMS RAID Management Software
RMS Rate Monotonic Scheduling
RMS Reason Maintenance System
RMS Record/Resource Management Services/System
RMS Replica Management System
RMS Richard Matthew Stallman
RMS Root Mean Square
RMT Reliable Multicast Transport
RMT Ring Management
RNA Remote Network Access
RNA Rufnummernanzeige
RNARS Royal Navy Amateur Radio Society
RNC Radio Network Controller
RNG Random Number Generator
RNI Reseau National d'Interconnexion de Renater
RNIS Reseau Numerique a Integration de Services
RNR Receive Not Ready (frame)
RNRT Reseau National de Recherche en Telecommunications
RNSI Remote Node Service for ISDN
RO Read Only

Seite 322
RO Ring Out
ROADS Resource Organization And Discovery in Subject-based services
ROADS Running Out of Address Space
ROBO Remote Office Branch Office
ROC Restricted Operators Certificate
RODPO Reading on Demand - Paper Option (vulgo Buch)
ROFBTC Rolling On the Floor Biting The Carpet (Slang)
ROFL Rolling On the Floor Laughing (Slang)
ROFLASTC Rolling On the Floor Laughing And Scaring The Cat (Slang)
ROFLMAO Rolling On The Floor Laughing My Ass Off (Slang)
ROHC Robust Header Compression
ROHS Restriction Of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in Electric and Electronic Equipment
ROI Rectangle/Region Of Interest
ROI Return Of Investment
ROKSO Register Of Known Spam Operations
ROLAP Relational Online Analytical Processing
ROLZ Reduced Offset Lempel Ziv (Algorithmus)
ROM RAID On the Motherboard
ROM Read Only Memory
RONJA Reasonable Optical Near Joint Access
ROP RISC Operation
ROPES Rapid Object Oriented Process for Embedded Systems
ROPS Remote Operations Service
ROS Record On Silicon
ROS Remote Operation Service
ROS Resident Operating System
ROSA Receive Only Satellite Antenna
ROSE RATS Open System Environment
ROSE Research Open Systems for Europe
ROSE Remote Operations Service Element/Entity
ROTD Release Of The Day
ROTFL Rolling On The Floor Laughing (Slang)
ROW Rest Of the World
RP Radio Paging
RP Randomized Polynomial time
RP Rendezvous Point
RPA Remote Passphrase Authentication
RPB Radio-Praktiker-B�cherei
RPB Reverse Path Broadcasting
RPC Radio Paging Call
RPC Regional Playback Control
RPC Remote Procedure Call
RPC Root Path Cost
RPD Rapid Prototyping Development
RPDB Routing Policy Database
RPDFP Remote Physical Device Finger Printing
RPELPC Regular Pulse Excited Linear Predictive Coder

Seite 323
RPELTP Regular Pulse Excitation with Long-Term Prediction Loop
RPF Reverse Path Forwarding
RPG Record Program Generator (IBM)
RPL Requested Privilege Level
RPL Resident Programming Language
RPM Radio Packet Modem
RPM Rapid Prototyping Module
RPM Red Hat Package Manager
RPM Revolutions per minute
RPN Reverse Polish Notation
RPPROM Reprogrammable PROM
RPS Redundant Power Supply
RPS Remote Procedure Services
RPSL Routing Policy Specification Language
RPSU Redundant Power Supply Unit
RPU Ray Processing Unit
RQBE Relational Query By Example
RQST Request
RR Radio Regulations
RR Real Reality
RR Receive/Receiver Ready
RR Resource Record (DNS)
RR Round Robin
RRA Remote Record Access
RRAS Routing and Remote Access Service
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRD Round Robin Database
RRG Reichsrundfunkgesellschaft
RRI Resource Recovery Interface
RRIP Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol
RRJ Registration Reject
RRLP Radio Resource LCS Protocol
RRO Radial Run Out
RRP Registry Registrar Protocol
RRQ Registration Request
RRT Radar Range Tracking
RRT Radio Receiver Transmitter
RRT Radio Relay Terminal
RRT Random/Randomized Response Technique
RRT Range Router Table
RRT Rapid Reprogramming Terminal
RRT Recommended Replacement Time
RRT Request Response Trace
RRT Routing Request Timer
RRZN Regionales Rechenzentrum Niedersachsen, Hannover
RS Reader Stop
RS Recommended Standard

Seite 324
RS Record Separator
RS Reed Solomon (Code)
RS Registry Service
RS Request to Send
RS Route Server
RS Router Solicitation
RS232 Recommended Standard 232 (Norm f�r serielle Schnittstelle)
RSA Rivest, Shamir, Adleman
RSAC Recreational Software Advisory Council
RSB Repair Service Bureau
RSB Reservation State Block
RSBAC Rule Set Based Access Control
RSCS Remote Spooling and Communications Subsystem
RSCV Route Selection Control Vector
RSDP Root System Description Pointer
RSDT Root System Description Table
RSE Register Stack Engine
RSET Reset
RSFQ Rapid Single Flux Quantum (Logic)
RSI Repetitive Strain Injury
RSIP Realm Specific Internet Protocol (parameter)
RSIS Relocateable Screen Interface Specification
RSL Radio Signaling Link
RSL Received Signal Level
RSL Registry Size Limit
RSL Request and Status Link
RSL Reserve Static Line
RSL Resilient Server Link
RSL Resource Specification Language
RSMLT Routed Split Multi Link Trunking
RSN Real Soon Now (Slang)
RSN Russian Security Newsline
RSOH Regenerator Section Overhead
RSP Required Space Character
RSPC Reed Solomon Product Code
RSPCWS Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelties to Web Surfers
RSRB Remote Source Route Bridging
RSS Radio Subsystem
RSS RDF Site Summary
RSS Really Simple Syndication
RSS Resident Set Size
RSS Rich Site Summary
RSSAC Root Server System Advisory Committee
RSSI Received Signal Strength Indication
RST Readability, Signal Strength, and Tone
RST Receive Start Threshold
RST Reset and Restart

Seite 325
RSTE Regenerator Section Terminating Equipment
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTS Resource Sharing and Time Sharing
RSTV Rundfunkstaatsvertrag
RSVD Reserved
RSVP Resource Reservation Setup Protocol
RSX Real Time Resource Sharing Executive
RT Radio Text
RT Real/Run Time
RT Receive Timing
RT RISC Technology
RTA Runder Tisch Amateurfunk
RTAI Real Time Application Interface
RTAM Remote Terminal Access Method
RTAS Run-Time Abstraction Services
RTB Regional Testbed
RTC Real Time Clock
RTC Return To Control
RTC Reseaux Telphoniques Commutes
RTCA Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
RTCP Realtime Transport Control Protocol
RTDL Real-Time Data Link
RTE Real-Time Enterprise
RTE Right to Left Embedding
RTEID Real Time Executive Interface Definition
RTEL Reverse Telnet
RTEMS Real Time Executive for Military/Multiprocessor Systems
RTEMS Real Time Energy Management Solutions
RTF Rich Text Format
RTFAQ Read The FAQ (Slang)
RTFB Read The Funny Binary (Slang)
RTFF Read The Fantastic FAQ (Slang)
RTFM Read The Fine/Fantastic/Funny ... Manual (Slang)
RTFS Read The Funny Source (Slang)
RTK Real Time Kernel
RTK Real-Time Kinematic Positioning
RTL Register Transfer Level
RTL Resistor Transistor Logic
RTL Run Time Library
RTLS Real Time Locating System
RTM Read The Manual (Slang)
RTM Real Time Modeling
RTM Release To Manufacturing
RTM Response Time Monitor
RTMP Routing Table Maintenance Protocol
RTNR Real-Time Network Routing

Seite 326
RTO Retransmission Timeout
RTOS Real Time Operating System
RTP Rapid Transport Protocol
RTP Realtime Transport Protocol
RTP Regulierungsbeh�rde f�r Telekommunikation und Post
RTP Rendezvous and Termination Protocol
RTP Realtime Transport Protocol (Internet)
RTR RARE Technical Report
RTS Ready/Request To Send
RTS Real Time System
RTS Reliable Transfer Service
RTS Remote Telnet Service
RTS Request To Send
RTSE Reliable Transfer Service Element (OSI)
RTSP Realtime Signal Processor
RTSP Realtime Streaming Protocol
RTSPS Realtime Streaming Protocol Secure/Server/Service/Specification
RTSPU Realtime Streaming Protocol Unreliable
RTT Resonant Tunneling Transistor
RTT Round-Trip Time
RTTI Run Time Type Information/Identification
RTTY Radio Teletype (Funkfernschreiben)
RTV Real Time Video
RTWFQ Read The Whole Fantastic Question (Slang)
RU Request/Response Unit
RUA Remote User Agent
RUC Reservation Upon Collision (Scheme)
RULL Rechnerunterst�tztes Lehren und Lernen
RUM Rechenzentrum Universit�t Mannheim
RUOK Are You Ok (Slang)
RUP Rational Unified Process
RUS Rechenzentrum der Universit�t Stuttgart
RUSH Remote Use of Shared Hardware
RV Real Virtuality
RV Rotational Vibration
RVI Reverse Interrupt
RVL Ringverteilungsleiter
RVML Rich Vector Markup Language
RVP Rendezvous Protocol
RVS Rotational Vibration Safeguard
RVSA Remote Variant Selection Algorithm
RW Rewritable
RWB Responsive Workbench
RWI Reset Window Indicator
RWI Reversed Word Index
RWM Read Write Memory
RWP RIP While Printing

Seite 327
RWS Rufweiterschaltung
RWT Random Walk Theory
RWTH Rheinisch-Westf�lische Technische Hochschule, Aachen
RX Receive Data
RX Receiver
RXC Receive Clock
RXD Received Data
RYS Read Your Screen (Slang)
RZ Rechenzentrum
RZ Return to Zero
RZG Rechenzentrum Garching (MPG)
RZM Root Zone Maintainer
S Service, Signal, Standard, Synchron, System
S Signal Timing
S Steuerleitung
S2M ISDN W�hlverbindung 2 Mbit/s
SA Security Association
SA Selective Availability (GPS)
SA Soft Affinity
SA Software Assurance
SA Source Address
SA SpamAssassin
SA Structured Analysis
SA System Administrator
SAA Silly And Awkward (Slang)
SAA Single Assignment Approach
SAA System/Systems Application Architecture
SAAL Signalling AAL
SAAS Software As A Service
SAB Standards Activities Board (IEEE/CS)
SABM Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode
SABME Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode Extended
SAC Seismic Analysis Code
SAC Service Access Controller
SAC Single Attached/Attachment Component/Concentrator
SAC Special Area Code
SAC Syntax-based Arithmetic Coding
SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel
SACD Super Audio Compact Disk
SACEADM System Auxiliary Control Element Administration
SACECP System Auxiliary Control Element Common Pair
SACEM Societe des Auteurs Compositeurs Editeurs de Musique
SACK Selective Acknowledgement
SACL System Access Control List
SACNET Secure Automated Communications Network

Seite 328
SACT SPARC Application Conformance Toolkit
SAD Security Association Database
SADT Structured Analysis and Design Technique
SAE Self Addressed Envelope
SAF Service Access Facility
SAFI Subsequence Address Family Identifier
SAFIR Service ATM Federateur et d'Interconnexion de Renater
SAFT Simple Asynchronous File Transfer (Protocol)
SAGA Standards und Architekturen f�r eGovernment-Anwendungen
SAGE (UNIX) System Administrators' Guild
SAIC Single Antenna Interference Cancellation
SAIL Stanford AI Laboratory
SAINT Symbolic Automatic Integrator
SAK Secure Attention Key
SAL Self Addressed Envelope
SAL Structured Assembly Language
SALT Speech Application Language Tag
SALT SuSE Advanced Linux Technology
SAM SCSI Architecture Model
SAM Security Access/Account Manager
SAM Sequential Access Method
SAM Serial Access Memory
SAM Smart ATM Modul
SAM Storage and Archive Manager
SAM Synchronous Address Multiplexer
SAM System Administration Manager (tool)
SAMI Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange
SAN Satellite Access Network
SAN Schulen ans Netz e. V.
SAN Standard Address Number
SAN Storage Area Network
SAN System Area Network
SANE Scanner Access Now Easy
SANE Standard Apple Numeric Environment
SANS SysAdmin, Audit, Network, Security (Institute)
SAO Session At Once
SAP Secure Audio Path
SAP Send And Pray
SAP Service Access Point (OSI)
SAP Service Advertising Protocol (Novell)
SAP Session Announcement Protocol
SAP SIM Access Profile
SAP Symbolic Assembler Program
SAP Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte (AG), Walldorf
SAPI Service Access Point Identifier
SAPI Speech API
SAPI Streams Application Programming Interface

Seite 329
SAR Search And Rescue
SAR Segmentation And Reassembling/Reassembly
SAR Smurf Amplifier Registry
SAR Specific Absorption Rate
SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar
SARC Symantec Antivirus Research Center
SARCOM Search And Rescue Communication
SARE SpamAssassin Rules Emporium
SARM Set Asynchronous Response Mode
SARME Set Asynchronous Response Mode Extended
SARP Search And Rescue Processor
SARPA Security Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA
SARSAT Search And Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking
SART Search And Rescue (Radar) Transponder
SARTG Scandinavian Amateur Radio Teleprinter Group
SAS Security Association
SAS Serial Attached SCSI
SAS Short Authentication String
SAS Signature Authority System
SAS Single Attached/Attachment Station (FDDI)
SAS Speicher- und Anforderungssteuerung
SAS Statistical Analysis System
SASDB Security Association Data Base
SASE Self Addressed and Stamped Envelope
SASI Shugart Associates System Interface
SASL St. Andrews Static Language
SASL Simple Authentication and Security Layer
SASL Single Assignment Language
SAT Satisfiability Problem
SATA Serial AT Bus Attachment
SATAN Security Analysis/Administrator's Tool for Analyzing/Auditing Networks
SATL SCSI ATA Translation Layer
SAV Sender Address Verification
SAW Surface Acoustic Wave (Filter)
SAX Simple API for XML
SB Southbridge
SB Standby Indicator
SB System Builder
SBA Small Business Administration
SBAS Satellite Based Augmentation System
SBC SCSI Block Commands
SBC Server Based Computing
SBC Single Board Computer
SBC Smart Bitrate Control
SBC Subband Codec
SBCS Single Byte Character/Command Set
SBE Single Byte Extension

Seite 330
SBE Society of Broadcast Engineers (USA)
SBOD Switched Bunch Of Discs
SBP Serial Bus Protocol
SBP Structured Buffer Pool
SBR Spectral Band Replication
SBR1 Statistical Bit Rate Configuration 1
SBS Secure Boot System
SBS Small Business Server
SBST Smart Battery Status Table
SBT Six Bit Transcode
SBUP System Backup Partition
SBV Skeletonization Based Vectorization
SC Secondary Channel
SC Send Common
SC Sequential Consistency
SC Smart Card
SC Storage Compatibility
SC Subcommittee
SC Subscriber Channel (Sonnector)
SCA Security Control and Audit
SCA Single Connector Attachment
SCA Software Communications Architecture
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCADDS Scalable Coordination Architectures for Deeply Distributed Systems
SCAM SCSI Configured Automagically
SCART Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radio Recepteurs et Televiseurs
SCB Subsystem Control Block
SCC Satellite Control Center
SCC SCSI Controller Commands
SCC Serial Communication Controller
SCC Small Card Clearing
SCC Specialized Common Carrier
SCC Spontaneous Computer Combustion
SCC Standards Coordinating Committee (IEEE/CS)
SCC Synchronous Channel Check
SCCP Signal/Signalling Connection Control Port
SCCS Source Code Control System
SCCS Southern California Computer Society
SCD Standard Color Display
SCD Structured Charts Diagram
SCE Service Creation Environment
SCF Service Control Function
SCF System Control Facility
SCI Scalable Coherent Interconnect
SCI Special Circumstance Instructions
SCI Strategic Computing Inititative
SCI System Control Interrupt

Seite 331
SCIM Smart Commom Input Method
SCLM Software Configuration Library Manager (IBM)
SCM Selected Communication Mode
SCM Software Configuration Management
SCM Supply Chain Management
SCM Switch Control Module
SCML Spectrum Cataloging Markup Language
SCMS Serial Copy Management System
SCN Switched Circuit Network
SCN System Change/Commit Number
SCNR Sorry, Could Not Resist (Slang)
SCO (The) Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.
SCO Structured Complex Object
SCO Synchronous Connection Oriented
SCOS Single Copy Object Store
SCP Secure Copy
SCP Service Control Point
SCP Session Control Protocol
SCP Short Circuit Protection
SCP Subsystem Control Port
SCPC Single CHannel Per Carrier
SCPI Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier
SCR Standard Context Routing
SCR Sustainable/Sustained Cell Rate
SCS Secondary Clear to Send
SCS SNA Communication Service
SCS System Communication Services
SCSA Signal Computing System Architecture
SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface
SCSL Sun Community Source Licensing
SCSP Server Cache Synchronization Protocol
SCSSI Service Central de la Securite des Systemes d'Information
SCSU Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode
SCTP Screened Twisted Pair (cable)
SCTP Shape-Controlled Traffic Pattern
SCTP Simple Control Transport Protocol
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SCTS Secondary Clear To Send
SCTT Strong Church Turing Thesis
SCU System Control Unit
SD Sales + Distribution
SD Secure Digital (Card)
SD Send Data
SD Shutdown
SD Single Density
SD Staircase Deadline (scheduler)

Seite 332
SD Starting Delimiter
SD Structured Design
SD Super Density (Compact Disk)
SDA Scalable Disk Array
SDA Start of/Secure Domain Authority
SDA Swappable Data Area
SDA System Design Automation
SDB Security Policy Database
SDBM Selective Directed Broadcast Mode
SDC Secondary Domain Controller
SDC Secure Digital Card
SDC Service Description Channel
SDCCH Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel
SDCD Secondary Data Carrier Detect
SDD Super Density Disk
SDDC Single Device Data Correction
SDDI Serial Digital Data Interface
SDDI Shielded Twisted Pair Distributed Data Interface
SDDS Sony Dynamic Digital Sound
SDE Software Development Environment
SDF Signal Delay Format
SDF Space Delimited File/Format
SDF Standard/System Data Format
SDF Structured Display File
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDHC Secure Digital High Capacity (Card)
SDHT Selectively Doped Hetero Transistor
SDI Selective Dissemination of Information
SDI Serial Device/Digital Interface
SDI Single Document Interface
SDIF Standard Document Interchange Format
SDIGN Vorschriftensammlung f�r digitale Netze
SDIO Secure Digital Input/Output
SDK Software Development/Developer's Kit
SDL Scene Description Language
SDL Security Development Lifecycle
SDL Simple Direct Media Layer
SDLC Software Development Life Cycle
SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control (IBM)
SDLP Standard Device Level Protocol
SDLT Super Digital Linear Tape
SDM Secure Digital Mini (card)
SDM Security Device Manager
SDM Short Data Message
SDM Sub-rate Data Multiplexer
SDMA Space Division Multiple Access
SDMI Secure Digital Music Inititative

Seite 333
SDMS SCSI Device Management System
SDN Software Defined Network
SDNS Secure Data Network Service/System
SDO Servicedatenobjekt
SDP Service Discovery Protocol
SDP Session Description Protocol
SDP Shared Development Process
SDP Software Delivery Platform
SDP Standard Directory Package (Apple)
SDPS Science/Service/Shared/Spatial/Standard/Surveillance Data Processing Software/System
SDPS Secure Digital Paper Seal
SDPS Standard Dial-up POP3 Service
SDR Session Director
SDR Single Data Rate
SDR Software Defined Radio
SDR Streaming Data Request
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDS Sample Dump Standard
SDS Software Distribution Service (OSF)
SDS Subdivision Surface
SDSC San Diego Supercomputer Center, USA
SDSE Shadowed DSA-Specific Entry
SDSL Single Line/Single Pair/Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
SDSS Sloan Digital Sky Survey
SDTS Spatial Data Transfer Standard
SDTV Standard Definition Television
SDU Service/Signalling Data Unit
SDX Storage Data Acceleration
SDXC Synchronous Digital Cross Connect
SDXF Structured Data Exchange Format
SE Second Editon (Windows)
SE Shared Everything
SE Single Ended
SE-SCSI Single Ended SCSI
SEA Schoof, Elkes, Atkin
SEA Self Extracting Archive
SEA Society for Electronic Access
SEAL Screening External Access Link
SEBD Software Engineering Bibliographic Database (DACS)
SEC Single Error Correction
SEC Standard Ethernet Controller
SECAM Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire
SECBR Severely Errored Cell Block Ratio
SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge
SED Smoke Emitting Diode
SED Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display
SEDAS Standardregelungen einheitlicher Datenaustausch

Seite 334
SEE Software Engineering Environment
SEEFUST Seefunkstelle
SEEK Secure Electronic Exchange of Keys
SEEM Simple Efficient Extensible Mesh
SEL Security Enhanced Linux
SEL Selector
SEL Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG
SEL System Event Logger
SEM Search Engine Marketing
SEM Server Enhancement Module
SEMA Simple Electromagnetic Analysis
SEMPER Secure Electronic Marketplace for Europe
SEO Search Engine Optimization/Optimizer
SEO Sequences Number
SEP Separation
SEP Somebody Else's Problem (Slang)
SEPI School Educational Provision Improvement
SEPP Secure Electronic Payment Protocol
SEPP Single Edge Processor Package
SER Soft Error Rate
SES SCSI Enclosure Services
SES Secure Easy Setup
SES Ship Earth Station
SES Societe Europeenne des Satellites
SESAME Secure European System for Applications in a Multi-Vendor Environment
SESK Session Key
SET Secure Electronic Transaction
SET Setkey
SET Shortest Elapsed Time
SET Single Electron Transistor
SET Standard d'Exchange et de Transfert
SETI Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
SEU Serial Encryption Unit
SEU Smallest Executable Unit
SEUL Simple End User Linux
SEX Software Exchange
SF Select/Send Frequency
SF Sign Flag
SF Single Frequency
SF Store and Forward
SFA Sales Force Automation
SFAUSL Vorschriftensammlung Fernmeldeverkehr Ausland
SFC System File Checker
SFD Start Frame Delimiter
SFF Small Form Factor
SFINX Service for French Internet Exchange
SFLAAE/BS Star Fleet Ladies Auxiliary and Embroidery/Baking Society

Seite 335
SFLC Software Freedom Law Center
SFMJI Sorry For My Jumping In (Slang)
SFP Single Function Peripheral
SFP Super Fine Positioning
SFP System File Protection
SFPS Secure Fast Packet Switching
SFQ Stochastic Fairness Queuing
SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language
SFR Split Frame Rendering
SFS Scalable/Secure File Share/System
SFS Security Feature Set
SFS Smart File System (Amiga)
SFS Storage Attached Network File System
SFT System Fault Tolerance
SFT System File Table
SFTM Switched Frame Transfer Mode
SFTP Simple File Transfer Protocol
SFU Services For Unix
SFURD Stadtfunkrufdienst
SFV Standard-Festverbindung
SG Signal Ground
SG Supergroup
SGA Shared/System Global Area
SGC SCSI Graphic Commands
SGCP Simple Gateway Control Protocol
SGDB Service de Genomique du Departement de Biologie, ENS Paris
SGF Smart Go Format
SGI Silicon Graphics, Inc.
SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language
SGMP Simple Gateway Management/Monitoring Protocol (Internet)
SGPS Simple Global Positioning System (protocol)
SGRAM Synchronous Graphical Random Access Memory
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SH Sample and Hold, S/H
SHA Secure Hash Algorithm
SHA Super High Availability
SHAFT Society to Help Abolish FORTRAN Teaching
SHAR Shell Archive
SHARL Specified Home Appliance Recycling Law, Japan
SHDSL Single-pair High Speed Digital Subscriber Line
SHF Super High Frequency
SHIA Strongly Hedonistic Internet Area
SHIFT Scalable, Heterogeneous, Integrated Facility
SHIT Secure Home Internet Telephony
SHM Semantical Hierarchy Model
SHM Short Hold Mode
SHOE Simple HTML Ontology Extensions

Seite 336
SHRS Sehen, H�ren, Riechen, Schmecken (Multimedia)
SHTTP Secure HTTP
SHV Standard High Volume
SHY Soft/Syllable Hyphen
SI Service Interaction
SI Shift In
SI Signalling Rate Indicator
SI Simple Interface (Cray to UNIX)
SI Source Index
SI Still Image (Exchange)
SI System Information
SI Systeme International d'Unites
SIA Semiconductor Industries Association
SIA Serial Interface Adapter
SIAM Supraleitendes Intelligentes Antennen-Modul
SIASL Stranger In A Strange Land (Slang)
SIB Scaled Index Based
SIC Standard Industry Code
SICAS Semiconductor International Capacity Statistics
SID Security Identification/Identifier
SID Session Identifier
SID Silence Descriptor
SID Society for Information Display
SID Station Identification
SID Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance
SID Symbolic Interactive Debugger
SIE Serial Interface Engine
SIF Stateful Inspection Firewall
SIFS Short Inter Frame Space
SIFT Stanford Information Filtering Tool
SIG Selective Integral Ground
SIG Software/Special Interest Group
SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications and Technology
SIGG Signaturgesetz
SIGIR Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval
SIGPLAN Special Interest Group on Programming Languages
SIH Super Information Highway
SIHFT Software Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance
SII Static Invocation Interface
SIIT Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (Algorithm)
SIL Solid Immersion Lens
SILC Secure Internet Live Conferencing
SILK Speech, Image, Language, Knowledge
SIM Set Initialization Mode
SIM Subscriber Identification/Identity Module
SIMA Support Initiative for Multimedia Applications
SIMCA Sitting In My Chair Amused (Slang)

Seite 337
SIMD Single Instruction Multiple Data (stream)
SIMM Single Inline Memory Module
SIMP Simple Intermachine Protocol
SIMPLE Sheer Idiots Monopurpose Programming Language Environment
SIMPLE SIP for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions
SIN Serial Data In
SIN Service Indicator (ISDN)
SINA Sichere Internet-Anbindung/Architektur (BSI)
SINA SISY Integriertes FTP-Server Archiv, Karlsruhe
SINPO Signal strength, Interference, Noise, Propagation disturbance, Overall merit
SIO Serial Input Output
SIO Simultaneous Interface Operation
SIP SCSI Interlocl Protocol
SIP Second/Simple Internet Protocol
SIP Secure Internet Programming (Princeton U.)
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SIP SMDS Interface Protocol
SIP Submission Information Package
SIPC Simple Integrated/Interactive Personal Computer
SIPO Serial In Serial Out
SIPP Simple Internet Protocol Plus
SIPP Simple Polygon Processor
SIPP Single In-Line Pin Package
SIPP Stable Image PC Platform
SIPP Stable Image Platform Program
SIPS SIP over SSL
SIR Serial Infrared Communication (Hewlett-Packard)
SIRDS Single Image Random Dot Stereogram
SIRF (SiRF Technology Inc., USA)
SIS Schengen Information System
SIS Silicon Isotope Superlattice (Technology)
SIS Stateful Inspection System
SISD Single Instruction Single Data(stream)
SISO Serial In, Serial Out
SISSL Sun Industry Standards Source License
SISY Software Informations-System, Karlsruhe
SIT Satellite Interactive Terminal
SIT (Fraunhofer-Institut f�r) Sichere Telekooperation
SIT Simple Internet Transition
SIT Special Information Tone
SITD Still In The Dark (Slang)
SITOR Simple Telex Over Radio
SITP Strategic Information Technology Plan, DoC, USA
SITP System Integration Test Plan
SIWG Special Interest Working Group
SJCC Spring Joint Computer Conference
SJF Shortest Job First

Seite 338
SJF Super Jumbo Frame (Ethernet)
SK Schneider & Koch, Ettlingen
SK Server Key
SK Synchronknoten
SKA Shared Key Authentication
SKAS Separate Kernel Address Space
SKIP Simple Key Management for Internet Protocols
SKU Stock Keeping Unit (Artikelnummer)
SL Second Life
SL Session Layer
SL Shading/Specification Language
SL Slave
SLA Sealed Lead Acid (Battery)
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLA Site Level Aggregation/Aggregator
SLAC Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
SLAP Sounds Like A Plan (Slang)
SLAPI Salutation Application Programming Interface
SLC Second Level Cache
SLC Single Level Cell
SLC Synchronous Link Control
SLD Second/Sub Level Domain
SLDRAM Synchronous Link Dynamic RAM
SLED Single Large Expensive Disk
SLED Software Life Cycle Experience Database (DACS)
SLED Suse Linux Enterprise Desktop
SLES Suse Linux Enterprise Server
SLI Scalable Link Interface/Interleave
SLI Scanline Interleave
SLI System Level Integration
SLIAA Scalable Link Interface Anti-Aliasing
SLIP Serial Line Interface Protocol (Internet)
SLIP Symmetric List Processor
SLIT System Locality Distance Information Table
SLM Salutation Manager
SLOC Source Lines Of Code
SLOS SuSE Linux Office Server
SLP School License Program
SLP Service Location Protocol
SLP Single Link Protocol
SLP System Load Partition
SLR Scalable Linear Recording
SLS Service Level Specification
SLSI Super Large Scale Integration
SLT Speech and Language Technology
SLU Site Local Use
SLV Single Language Vendor

Seite 339
SLURM Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management
SM Security Management
SM Set Mode
SM Shadow Map
SM Sparse Mode
SM System Management/Manager
SMA Shared Memory Architecture
SMA Sharing with Minimum Allocation
SMA Sub Miniature Assembly (Connector)
SMAC Sensor Media/Medium Access Control
SMACK Simplified Mandatory Access Control Kernel
SMACS Schema Mapping Application Compiler System
SMACS Smart Multi-Access Communication Service
SMACS Stochastic Modelling and Analysis of Communication Systems
SMAE Systems Management Application Entity
SMAP Simple Mail Access Protocol
SMAP System Management Application Process
SMART Self Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology
SMART Software Metering and Resource Tracking
SMASE System Management Application Service Element
SMB Server/Session Message Block
SMB Small and Medium Business
SMB System Management Bus
SMC Secure Messaging Card
SMC Standard Microsystems, Inc.
SMCC Sun Microsystems Computer Corp.
SMD Schiffsmeldedienst
SMD Storage Modul Device
SMD Surface Mounted Device
SMDC Server Management Daughter Card
SMDR Station Message Detail Recording
SMDS Switched Multi-Megabit Data Service, USA
SMDSU Switched Multi-Megabit Data Service Unit
SME Subject Matter Expert
SMF Service Management Facility
SMF Simple Message Format
SMF Single Mode Fiber
SMF Standard Midi File
SMF System Manager Facility
SMFA System Management Functional Area
SMG Supermastergroup
SMI Secure Monitor Interrupt
SMI Serial Management Interface
SMI Structure of Management Information
SMI System Management (mode) Interrupt
SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
SMIME Secure MIME

Seite 340
SMIS Safety/Supply/System Management Information System
SMIS Service Marketing Information System
SMIS Storage Management Initiative Specification
SMIT System Management Interface Tool (IBM)
SMK Software Migration Kit
SML Simple Macro Language
SML Simple Mailing List
SML Simplified Markup Language
SML Standard Math Library
SML Standard Metalanguage
SMLT Split Multi Link Trunking
SMM Start of Manual Message
SMM System Management Mode
SMO Social Memory Organizer
SMON Switched Monitoring Network
SMOP Small/Simple Matter Of Programming
SMP Simple Management Protocol (Internet)
SMP Standard Message Package (Apple)
SMP Standby Monitor Presence
SMP Symmetrical/Synchronous Multi-Processing
SMP SONET Physical Layer Mapping
SMPS Switching Mode Power Supply (Schaltnetzteil)
SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, USA
SMR Signal to Mask Ration
SMS Satellite Multi-Service System
SMS Service/Security Management Station/System
SMS Short Message Service
SMS Software Management System
SMS Storage Management Services
SMS Subsystem Management Service (OSF)
SMS System Management Server
SMSC Short Message Service Center
SMSCB Short Message Service Cell Broadcast
SMSI Sommet Mondial de la Societe de l'Information
SMSMO SMS Mobile Station Originated
SMSMT SMS Mobile Station Terminated
SMSP Storage Management Services Protocol
SMT Simultaneous Multi Texturing
SMT Simultaneous/Symmetrical Multithreading (Technology)
SMT Station Management
SMT Surface Mounted Technology
SMTI Systems Management Tools Initiative
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (Internet)
SMTPE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
SMU System Management Utility
SMUX SNMP Multiplexing Protocol
SMXQ Sharing with Maximum Queues

Seite 341
SN Sequence Number
SN Signal/Noise, S/N (ratio)
SN Subscriber Number
SNA Systems Network Architecture (IBM)
SNACP SNA Control Protocol
SNADS SNA Distribution Services
SNAFU Situation Normal All Fed/Fucked Up (Slang)
SNAP Streamlined Network Accelerated Protocol
SNAP Subnetwork Access/Attachement Point/Protocol
SNAPI Soft Switch Network Application Programming Interface
SNCP Single Node Control Point
SNCP System Services Control Point
SNCS Secure Network Computer Server
SNF Server Natural/Normal Format
SNF Session Sequence Number Field
SNI Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG, Paderborn
SNI Subscriber Network Identifier/Interface
SNIA Storage Networking Industry Association
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol (Internet)
SNMPV2 Simple Network Management Protocol Version 2 (Internet)
SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language
SNP Sequence Number Protection
SNPP Simple Network Paging Protocol
SNR Saved Number Redial
SNR Serial Number
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
SNRM Set Normal Response Mode
SNRME Set Normal Response Mode Extended
SNS Session Network Services
SNVT Standard Network Variable Type
SO Shift Out
SO Small Outline
SO Supporting Organization
SOA Service Order Activation
SOA Service Oriented Architecture
SOA Start Of (zone of) Authority (DNS)
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol
SOB Start Of Block
SOB Statement Of Boredom
SOC System On a Chip
SODIMM Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module
SOE Standard Operating Environment
SOFL Structured Object-Oriented Formal Language
SOG Sync On Green
SOGT Senior Officials Group on Telecommunications
SOH Section Overhead
SOH Start of Header/Heading

Seite 342
SOHO Small Office, Home Office
SOI Silicon On Insulator
SOIF Summary Object Interchange Format
SOIP Storage Over IP
SOL Seniors/Senioren On Line
SOL Siemens Optical Link
SOL Simulation Oriented Language
SOL Special Object Library
SOLAS (International Convention for the) Safety Of Life At Sea
SOM Start Of Message
SOM System Object Model (IBM)
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SONETT Soziales Netz Telecommunikation
SOP Same Origin Policy
SOP Service Object Pair
SOP Standard Operating Procedure
SORBS Spam and Open Relay Blocking System
SOS Silicon On Sapphire
SOS Sophisticated Operating System
SOS Start Of Significance
SOSI Shift Out Shift In
SOSIG Social Science Information Gateway
SOTIS Self-Organizing Traffic Information System
SOUP Simple Offline Usenet Packet
SOUT Serial Data Out
SOX Sound Exchange (File)
SP Segment Priority
SP Service Provider
SP Space (Leertaste)
SP Stack Pointer
SP Strict Priority
SP System Program
SPA Secure Password Authentication
SPA Service Point Application
SPA Simple Power Analysis
SPA Software Publishers' Association
SPADA Sprache und Daten
SPAG Standards Promotion and Application Group (OSI)
SPAM Send Phenomenal Amounts of Mail, Shit Posing As Mail (Slang)
SPAN Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks
SPAN Switched Port Analyzer
SPAP Shiva Password Authentication Protocol
SPARC Scalable Processor Architecture
SPB Synchronous Pipelined Bus
SPC SCSI Primary Commands
SPC Small Peripheral Controller
SPC Statistical Process Control

Seite 343
SPC Stored Program Control
SPC Sub-Process Control
SPD Scalable Performance Data
SPD Secondary Pool Descriptor
SPD Secure Payload Database
SPD Security Policy Database
SPD Selective Packet Delay
SPD Senior Program Developer
SPD Serial Poll Disable
SPD Serial Port Data
SPD Serial Presence Detect
SPD Sharable Private Disk
SPD Silicon Photo Diode
SPD Silicon Pixel Detector
SPD Simple Pattern Detection
SPD Simplified Printer Description
SPD Single Programming Document
SPD Software/System Preliminary Design
SPD Software Product Description
SPD Software Products Division
SPD Spectral Power Density/Distribution
SPD Speed
SPD Sponsored Program Development
SPD Spool Positioning Device
SPD Storage Pool Deficiency
SPD Structured Program Developmenr
SPD Summary Program Description
SPD Surge Protection/Protector Device
SPDA Supplier Data Program
SPDEEPROM Serial Presence Detect Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
SPDIF Sony and Philips Digital Interconnect/Interface Format
SPDL Standard Page Description Language
SPDN Shared Private Data Network
SPDT Single-Pole Double-Throw (Relay)
SPDU Session Protocol Data Unit
SPE Superparamagnetic Effect
SPE Symbolic Programming Environment
SPE Synchronous Payload Envelope
SPE Synergistic Processor/Processing Element
SPEC Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation
SPF Security/Sender Policy Framework
SPF Sender Permitted From (obsolet)
SPF Shortest Path First
SPF System Programming Facility
SPG Service Protocol Gateway
SPI SCSI-3 Parallel Interface
SPI Security Parameter Index

Seite 344
SPI Serial Peripheral Interface
SPI Server Programming Interface
SPI Service Provider Interface
SPI Software in the Public Interest, Inc.
SPI Stateful Packet Inspection
SPI Symbolic Probabilistic Inference
SPICE Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis
SPICE Spacecraft, Planet, Instruments, C Matrix, Events
SPIFF Still Picture Interchange File Format
SPIM Spam over Instant Messaging
SPINE Shared Program Information Network
SPIT Spam over Internet Telephony
SPK Software Porting Kit
SPKM Simple Public Key GSS-API Mechanism
SPL Spooler/Spooling
SPLD Simple Programmable Logic Device
SPM Session Protocol Machine
SPM System Performance Monitor (IBM)
SPMD Single Program Multiple Data
SPML Service Provisioning Markup Language
SPMP Software Project Management Plan
SPMS Software Project Management System
SPN Service Principal Name
SPNR Special People Numbers Registry
SPOC Search And Rescue Point Of Contact
SPOF Single Point Of Failure
SPOOL Simultaneous Peripherals Operation On Line
SPOT Single Point Of Truth
SPOT Systeme Pour l'Observation de la Terre
SPP Scalable Parallel Processing
SPP Sequenced/Sequential Packet Protocol
SPP Serial Port Profile
SPP Standard Parallel Port
SPPI Structure of Policy Provisioning Information
SPR Software Performance Report
SPS Secure Packet Shield
SPS Session Presentation Services
SPS Speicherprogrammierte Steuerung
SPS Standard Positioning Service/System
SPS Standby Power System
SPSI Spots Per Square Inch
SPT Sectors Per Track
SPT Shortest Processing Time
SPU Shader Processing Unit
SPU Sound Processing Unit
SPU Synergistic Processor Unit
SPV Semipermanente Verbindung

Seite 345
SPV Sound, Pictures, Video
SPV Sparsed Pixel Vectorization
SPWG Standard Panels Working Group (VESA)
SPX Secured/Sequenced/Sequential Packet/Protocol Exchange
SQ Signal Quality
SQ Signal-Quantisierungsger�usch
SQA Safety/Software Quality Assurance
SQCIF Sub Quarter Common Intermediate Format
SQE Signal Quality Error (SQE Test, heartbeat, Ethernet)
SQID Superconducting Quantum Interference Device
SQL Squelch
SQL Standard/Structured Query Language
SQUID Source Quench Introduced Delay
SR Sampling/Send Rate
SR Session Reliability
SR Signalling Rate Selector
SR Shift Register
SR Source Routing
SRAM Shadow/Static Random Access Memory
SRAT System Resource Affinity Table
SRB Source Route Bridging (IBM)
SRB Storage Resource Broker
SRC Sampling Rate Converter
SRC Source
SRC System Resource Controller
SRD Screen Reader System
SRD Secondary Received Data
SRD Short Range Device
SREJ Selective Reject
SRES Signed Result
SRF Streaming Register File
SRI Stanford Research Institute, USA
SRL Structural Return Loss
SRL Subject Restriction List
SRM Send Routing Message
SRM Shared Resource Manager
SRMA Split-Channel Reservation Multiple Access
SRMP Spider Remote Monitoring Protocol
SRO Sharable and Read Only (memory)
SRP Security Rollup Package (Microsoft)
SRPI Server-Requester Programming Interface
SRQ Service Request
SRR Search and Rescue Region
SRR Secondary Receiver Ready
SRS Secondary Request to Send
SRS Sender Rewriting Scheme
SRS Shared Registry System

Seite 346
SRS Sound Retrieval System
SRT Secure Request Technology
SRT Shortest Remaining Time
SRT Shuttle Radar Topography (Mission)
SRT Source Route/Routing Transparent
SRTP Secure Realtime Transport Protocol
SRTS Secondary Request To Send
SRUC Split Reservation Upon Collision
SRV Server
SS Sampled Servo
SS Seed/Stack Segment
SS Select Standby
SS Single Shift/Sided
SS Storage Server
SS7 Signalling System No. 7
SSA Screened Subnet Architecture
SSA Serial Storage Architecture (IBM)
SSA Static Single Assignment
SSA Sveriges S�ndareamat�rer
SSB Schw�bischer Standard-Benchmark
SSB Single Sideband
SSBA Suite Synthetique des Benchmarks de l'AFFU
SSC SCSI Stream Commands
SSC Symantec System Center
SSCC Serial Shipping Container Code
SSCF Service Specific Coordination Function
SSCOP Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol
SSCP System Services Control Point/Program
SSCS Service Specific Convergence Sublayer
SSD Schwartz Sequential Dropping
SSD Secondary Send Data
SSD Solid State Disk
SSDA Synchronous Serial Data Adapter
SSDC Stack Segment Descriptor Cache
SSDP Simple Service Discovery Protocol
SSDT System Service Descriptor Table
SSE Streaming SIMD Extensions
SSEC Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (IBM)
SSEM System Security Engineering Management
SSF Service Switching Function
SSF Structured Fax File
SSFDC Solid State Floppy Disc Card
SSGA System Support Gate Array
SSH Secure Shell
SSI SCSI Serial Interface
SSI Server Side Include
SSI Single System Image

Seite 347
SSI Small Scale Integration
SSID Secondary Station Identifier
SSID Service Set Identifier
SSIMM Single RAS SIMM
SSL Sch�ler, Studenten, Lehrer
SSL Secondary System Loader
SSL Secure Server Line
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SSM Source Specific Multicast
SSM Storage System Manager
SSMA Spread Spectrum Multiple Access
SSN Secure Server Network
SSO Single Sign On
SSO System Security Officer
SSP Sender Signing Practices
SSP Serial Storage Protocol
SSP Service Switching Point
SSP Switch-to-Switch Protocol
SSP System Service/Support Processor
SSR Scalable Sampling Rate
SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar
SSR Small Screen Rendering (Opera)
SSR Sum of Squared Residuals
SSR Super Self Refresh
SSRC Synchronization Source Identifier
SSS Switching Subsystem
SST Self Service Terminal
SST Simple SIPP Transition
SSTP Screened Shielded Twisted Pair
SSTV Slow Scan Television
SSU Session Support Utility (DEC)
SSW Schnittstellenwandler
ST Segment Type
ST Send Timing
ST Service Ticket
ST Straight Tip (Connector)
ST Stream Protocol
STA SCSI Trade Association
STA Secure Ticket Authority
STA Spanning Tree Algorithm
STA Station
STACK Start Acknowledgement
STAR Self Defining Text Archival
STAR Self Test And Repair
STAR Self Tuning Architecture
STAR Simultaneous Transmit And Receive
STAR Stateful Assured Routing

Seite 348
STAR Stop Talking And Read (Slang)
STAR Storage And Retrieval
STAX Streaming API for XML
STB Set Top Box
STC Set Top Computer
STC Subtechnical Committee (ETSI)
STD Secondary Transmitted Data
STD Standard
STD State Transition Diagram
STD Subscriber Trunk Dialing
STD Suspend To Disc
STDA StreetTalk Directory Assistance (Banyan)
STDM Statistical/Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing
STE Signalling Terminal
STEP Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data
STF Specialist Task Force
STGO Start Tag Open
STID Secure Table Identifier
STK Software Translation Kit
STL Standard Template Library
STM Science, Technology, Medicine
STM Station/Storage Management
STM Streams Manager
STM Synchronous Transfer/Transport Mode/Modul
STMF State Management Function
STN Scientific & Technical Information Network, Karlsruhe
STN Super Twisted Nematic Field Effective Material
STO Strategic Technology Office
STOA Science/Scientific and Technology/Technological Options Assessment
STOE St�rung
STOMP Streaming Text Oriented Messaging Protocol
STOMP Systematic Test Of Multiplatform Product
STONE Structured and Open Environment
STP Shielded Twisted Pair
STP Signal Transfer Point
STP Spanning Tree Protocol
STP Straight Through Processing
STR Suspend To RAM
STR Synchronous Transmitter Receiver
STRIDE Spoofing, Tampering, Repudiation, Information disclosure, Denial of service, Elevation of privilege
STRIP Starmode Radio IP
STRT Start Initialization
STS Semi-Thue-System
STS Station to Station Protocol
STS Synchronous Transfer/Transport Signal
STT Secure Transaction Technology
STT Spin Torque Transfer (RAM)

Seite 349
STU Schere-Tippex-Uhu (-Verfahren)
STUN Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT
STUSS Simply Time-consuming Unsolicited Superfluous Speaking (Slang)
STX Start of Text
SU Switching Unit
SUB Subaddressing
SUB Substitute/Substitutability
SUB Systemunabh�ngige Betriebsf�hrungstechnik
SUDS Software Update and Distribution System
SUG Sun User Group
SUIT Simple User Interface Toolkit
SUM Simple User Model
SUMR Satellite User Mapping Register
SUN Stanford University Network
SUPL Secure User Plane
SURANET Southeastern Universities Research Association Network
SURE Scalability, Usability, Reliability, Economy
SUS Single UNIX Specification
SUS Software Update Services (Microsoft)
SUSP System Use Sharing Protocol
SUTP Screened Unshielded Twisted Pair
SUUG Soviet UNIX User Group
SV Standortverteiler
SVAPI Scan View API
SVC Supervisor Call
SVC Switched Virtual Call/Channel/Circuit/Connection
SVCC Switched Virtual Channel Connection
SVCD Super Video Compact Disc
SVD Simultaneous Voice and Data
SVD Single Value Decomposition
SVF Simple Vector Format
SVG Scalable Vector Graphics
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array
SVHS Super Video Home System
SVID Unix System V Interface Definition
SVM Support Vector Machine
SVN Subversion (a Version Control System)
SVP Scan-line Video Processor
SVPN Secure Virtual Private Network
SVR Session-based Virtual Route
SVR4 UNIX System V Release 4
SVV Segment Variability Value
SVVS UNIX System V Validation Suite
SW schwarz-weiss
SW Short Wave
SW Software
SW Status Word

Seite 350
SWAN Secure Wide Area Network
SWAP Shared Wireless Application Protocol
SWAT Samba Web Administration Tool
SWB Software Bus
SWBG Subtract With Borrow (random number) Generator
SWERC South Western Europe Regional (ACM Programming) Contest
SWF Scheduled Workflow
SWF Shockwave Flash (File Format)
SWF Short Wave Fading
SWF Small Web File/Format
SWF Staff Working File
SWF Surface Wave Field
SWIB Suchdienst Wissenschaftliche Bibliotheken
SWIFT Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications
SWIFT Software Implemented Fault Tolerance
SWIFT System for Wireless Information Forwarding and Teledistributing
SWIM Super Wozniak Integrated Machine
SWING Subscriber Wireless Network Gateway
SWISH Simple Web Indexing System for Humans
SWIW So Weit Ich Weiss (AFAIK) (Slang)
SWL Short Wave Laser/Listener
SWP Semantic Web Publishing
SWP Semi-orthogonal Wavelet Packet
SWP Shortest Widest Path
SWP Simple Web Printing
SWP Single-Wafer Processing
SWP Software Package/Program
SWP Surface Wave Propagation
SWP Swap (file, partition)
SWP Swisscom Workplace
SWR Standing Wave Ratio
SWS Scientific Workstation
SWS Silly Window Syndrom
SWT Shockwave Template
SWT Softwaretechnik
SWT Standard Widget Toolkit
SX Simplex
SXE Safe Execution Environment
SXGA Super Extended Graphics Array
SXXM Unextended Numbering Set Mode
SYLK Symbolic Link Format (Microsoft)
SYN Synchonizing Segment
SYN Synchronous Idle
SYSOP System Operator
T Telecomm, Telephone, Terminal, Text, Time

Seite 351
T Taktleitung
T Transmit Data
TA Terminaladapter, Informationstechnische Anschlussdose
TA Traffic Announcement
TA Transmitter Address
TAB Tabulator
TAB Technical Advisory Board
TABD Transatlantic Business Dialogue
TABYAS Thinking All But You Are Stupid (Slang)
TAC Terminal Access Control/Controller
TAC Transparent Audio Coding
TAC Type Approval Code
TACACS Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
TACC Texas Advanced Computing Center, USA
TACS Total Access Communications
TAD Telephone Answering Device
TADS Text Adventure Development System
TAE Telekommunikations-Anschluss-Einheit
TAFN That's All For Now (Slang)
TAG Technology Advisors Group
TAG Text And Graphics
TAG Tiny Aggregation
TAGC Tag Close Delimiter
TAI Temps Atomique International
TAL Teilnehmeranschlussleitung
TAL Template Attribute Language
TALES Template Attribute Language Expression Syntax
TAM Telefon, Anrufbeantworter, Modem
TAM Telephone Answering Machine
TAN Total Area Network
TAN Transaction Number
TANJ There Ain't No Justice (Slang)
TANSTAAFL There Ain't No Such Things As A Free Lunch (Slang)
TAO Telephony Application Object
TAO The ACE ORB
TAO Track At Once
TAO Traduction Assistee par Ordinateur
TAOCP The Art Of Computer Programming (D. Knuth)
TAP Telcom Advantage Packaging
TAP Telecator Alphanumeric Protocol
TAP Terminal Access Point
TAP Test Access Port
TAPI Telephony Application Programming Interface (Intel, Microsoft)
TAPR Tucson Amateur Packet Radio Group
TAR Tape Archive (Format)
TARFU Things Are Really Fouled Up (Slang)
TAS Telephone Answering Service

Seite 352
TASI Time-Assignment Speech Interpolation
TAU Test Access Unit
TAV Test, Analyse, Verifikation (von Software)
TAXI Transparent Asynchronous Transceiver Interface
TBB Threading Building Blocks (Intel)
TBC Time Base Corrector
TBETSI Technischer Beirat f�r Normungsfragen des ETSI
TBF Technisch betriebliche Funktionsbedingungen
TBH To Be Honest (Slang)
TBL Technik f�r Betriebslenkung
TBL Tim Berners-Lee
TBO Total Benefits of Ownership
TBRPF Topology dissemination Based on Reverse Path Forwarding
TBT Truncated Binary Tree
TC Technical Committee/Corrigendum
TC Telecine
TC Transform Coding
TC Transmission Control/Convergence
TC Treatment Code
TC Trust Center
TCA Telecommunications Carrier Association
TCA Tightly Coupled Architecture
TCA Traffic Conditioning Agreement
TCAP Transaction Capability Application Part
TCB Trouble Came Back
TCB Trusted Computer/Computing Base
TCCC IEEE Technical Committee on Computer Communications
TCE Transmission Control Element
TCF Transparent Computing Facility
TCFS Transparent Cryptographic File System
TCG Trusted Computing Group
TCH Traffic Channel
TCI Tag Control Information
TCIF Telecommunications Industry Forum, USA
TCL Tool Command Language
TCM Terminal Controller Module
TCM Time Compression Multiplexing
TCM Trellis Code Modulation
TCMP Tightly Coupled Multiprocessor System
TCNG Traffic Control Next Generation
TCNS Thomas Conrad Networking System
TCO Tj�nstem�nnens Centralorganisation (Schweden)
TCO Total Cost of Ownership
TCOS IEEE Technical Committee on Operating Systems
TCP Tape Carrier Package
TCP TeX Code Page
TCP Transmission Control Protocol/Program (Internet)

Seite 353
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, TCP/IP (Internet)
TCPA Time of Closest Point of Approach
TCPA Trusted Computing Platform Alliance/Architecture
TCQ Tagged Command Queuing
TCR Telephone Conversation Record
TCS Telephony Control Specification
TCS Terminating Call Screening
TCSB Traffic Control State Block
TCSEC Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book)
TCT The Coroner's Toolkit
TCU Transmission Control Unit
TCW Tagged Control Word
TD Transmit Data
TDA Tactile Digital Assaistant
TDA Telediffusion d'Algerie
TDA Temporal Data Authority
TDA Terminal Data Adapter
TDA To Do Archive
TDA Tracking and Data Acquisition
TDA Traffic Data Acquisition
TDA Transition Data Analysis
TDA Transmitted/Transported Data
TDA Tunnel Diode Amplifier
TDAB Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting, T-DAB
TDAC Time Domain Aliasing Cancellation
TDB Trivial Data Base
TDC Transparent/Tranportation Data Channel
TDCC Transportation Data Coordinating Committee
TDD Telecommunication Device for the Deaf
TDD Time Division Duplex
TDDSG Teledienstedatenschutzgesetz
TDDSGDVO Teledienstedatenschutzgesetzdurchf�hrungsverordnung
TDE Telescript Development Environment
TDES Triple Data Encryption Standard
TDF Telediffusion de France
TDF Telemetry/Tracking Data Formatter
TDF Time Division/Domain Filtering
TDF Title/Trace/Typeface Definition File/Format
TDF Transaction Data File
TDF Transborder/Transnational Data Flow
TDF Transformada De Fourier
TDG Telekommunikations-Dienst-Gesetz, Teledienstegesetz
TDHS Time Domain Harmonic Scaling
TDI Transport Driver Interface
TDL Trusted Devices List
TDM Time Division Multiplexer/Multiplexing
TDMA Time Division Multiple/Multiplex Access

Seite 354
TDMF Transparent Data Migration Facility
TDP Tag Distribution Protocol
TDP Thermal/Typical Design Power
TDR Time Domain Reflectometer/Reflectometry
TDRS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite
TDS TeX Directory Structure
TDSR Transmitter Data Service Request
TDSV Telekommmunikations-Datenschutz-Verordnung
TDT Terrestrial Dynamic Time
TDU Topology Database Update
TDX Time Domain Crosstalk
TE Terminal Equipment
TE Traffic Engineering
TE Type Enforcement
TEA Tiny Encryption Algorithm
TEB Thread Environment Block
TECO Tape/Text Editor and Corrector
TED Telefonischer Ermittlungsdienst
TEGFET Two-dimensional Electron Gas Field Effect Transistor
TEHO Tail End Hop Off
TEI Terminal Endpoint Identifier
TEI Text Encoding and Interchange
TEI Text Encoding Initiative
TEI Transport Error Indicator
TEL Trans Europe Line
TELEX Telegraph Exchange (Fernschreiben)
TELNET Telecommunications Network
TEMEX Telemetry Exchange
TEMPE Telecommunications and Enterprise Multimedia Platform Environment
TEN Trans European Network
TEP Transequatorial Propagation
TER Terminal Interface
TET Test Environment Toolkit
TETRA Trans European/Terrestrial Trunked Radio (System)
TF Task Force
TF Term Frequency
TF Tr�gerfrequenz
TFA Transparent File Access
TFB Terminal Framing Bit/Bits
TFB Thin Film Battery
TFB Time Frequency Bus
TFC Thermal Fly-height Control
TFC Traffic Channel
TFD Thin Film Diode
TFDD Text File Device Driver
TFE T�rfreisprecheinrichtung
TFEL Thin Film Electroluminescent

Seite 355
TFH Text File/Files from Hell (Slang)
TFH Thanks For Helping (Slang)
TFH Thin Film Head
TFM TeX Font Metric
TFN Tribe Flood Network
TFS Translucent File System (Sun)
TFT Thin Film Transistor (Display)
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol (Internet)
TFTS Terrestrial Flight Telephone System
TFTT Thanks For The Thought (Slang)
TG Target
TG Transmission Group
TGAL Think Globally, Act Locally (Slang)
TGB Tres Grande Bibliotheque
TGIF Thank God It's Friday (Slang)
TGM Timetable Generation Module
TGN Thesaurus of Geographic Names
TGN Transmission Group Number
TGS Ticket Granting Server/Service
TGT Ticket Granting Ticket
TH Transmission Header
TH Trouble History
THD Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (jetzt TUD), Deutschland
THP Tomlinson Harashima Precoder
THT Through Hole Technology
THT Token Hold/Holding Time/Timer
THWLAIAS The Hour Was Late, And I Am Senile (Slang)
THX Thanks (Slang)
THX Tomlinson Holman's Experiment
TI Tele Immersion
TI Texas Instruments Inc.
TI Transaction Identifier
TIA Telecommunications Industries Association
TIA Thanks In Advance (Slang)
TIA Totally Integrated Automation
TIAM Terminal Interactive Access Method
TIB Tag Information Base
TIB Technische Informationsbibliothek, Hannover
TIC Token Ring Interface Coupler
TIC Tongue In Cheek (Slang)
TICF Transport Independent Convergence for FNA
TID Target Identifier
TIDSV Telekommunikations- und Informationsdienstunternehmen-Datenschutzverordnung
TIE Time Interval Error
TIES Telecom Information Exchange Services, Genf
TIES Time-Independent Escape Sequence
TIF Tag Image Format

Seite 356
TIFF Tag/Tagged Image File Format
TIG Terminal Internet Gateway
TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture
TIL Technical Information Library
TIM Thermal Interface Material
TIM Traffic Indication Map/Message
TINAR This Is Not A Recommendation/Review (Slang)
TINC There Is No Cabal (Slang)
TINS This Is No Shit (Slang)
TINWIS That Is Not What I Said (Slang)
TIP Technology Integration Program
TIP Terminal IMP
TIP Terminal Interface Processor
TIP Terminal Internet Protocol
TIP Transputer Image Processing
TIPC Telecommunications Information Privacy Code
TIPC Total Information Processing
TIPC Transparent Inter Process Communication
TIPC Transputer Image Processing
TIPHON Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonization over Networks
TIRPC Transport Independent Remote Procedure Call
TISE Take It Somewhere Else (Slang)
TK Telekommunikation
TKG Telekommunikationsgesetz
TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
TKO Telekommunikationsordnung
TK�V Telekommunikations-�berwachungsverordnung
TKV Telekommunikations-Kundenschutzverordnung
TKZULV Telekommunikationszulassungsverordnung
TL Transport Layer
TLA Temporal Logic of Actions
TLA Three Letter Acronym
TLA Top Level Aggregator
TLAB Translation Look Aside Buffer
TLAP Token Talk Link Access Protocol
TLB Translation Look Aside Buffer
TLC Target Language Compiler
TLD Top Level Domain
TLDP The Linux Documentation Project
TLER Time Limited Error Recovery
TLGE The Little Golem Editor
TLH Top Level Hierarchy
TLI Transport/Transfer Layer/Library Interface
TLK Trusted Linux Kernel
TLM Telemetry (word)
TLN Telephone/Transfer Line Number
TLN Terminal Location Number

Seite 357
TLN The Learning/Library/Local Network
TLN Too Late Now (Slang)
TLN Transnational Learning Network
TLN Trunk Line Network
TLNKG Teilnehmerkennung (NUI)
TLQ Top Letter Quality
TLS Transport Layer Security
TLS Three Level Scheduling
TLT Teaching, Learning, and Technology
TLT Temporal Logic of Transitions
TLU Table Lookup
TLV Tag, Length, Value
TM Tape/Trade Mark
TM Terminal Multiplexer
TM Test Mode
TM Traffic Management
TM Transaction Monitor
TM Turing Machine
TMA Telecom Management
TMA Telecommunication Managers' Association
TMA Telekom Malaysia
TMA Thinfilm Micromirror Array
TMA Timeseries Moving Average
TMA Tivoli Management Agent
TMA Trusted Mail Agent
TMAC Telex Multimedia Audio Communication
TMAC Tool Monitor Adaptive Control
TMC Traffic Message Channel
TMD Time Division Multiplexing
TMDS Transition Minimized Differential Signal
TME Tetra Meldeempf�nger
TME Tivoli Management Environment
TMG Telemediengesetz
TMM Testing Maturity Model
TMN Telecom Managed Network
TMN Telecommunications Management Network
TMO Thermal Magnetic Optical
TMP Temporary
TMR Triple Modular Redundancy
TMR Tunnel/Tunneling Magnetoresistance
TMRC Tech Model Railroad Club
TMS Truth Maintenance System
TMSI Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
TMSL Test and Measurement Systems Language
TMTO Time Memory Trade Off
TMTOWTDI There's More Than One Way To Do It (Slang)
TN TelNet

Seite 358
TN Twisted Nematic (panel)
TNA Temex-Netzabschluss
TNB Teilnehmernetzbetreiber
TNB Telekommunikationsnetz-Betreiber
TNC Terminal Node Controller
TND (Directie) Toezicht Netwerken en Diensten (NL)
TNFEM Twisted Nematic Field Effective Material
TNHD The New Hackers's Dictionary
TNN Transport Network Node
TNPC Taiwan New PC Consortium
TNPP Telocator Network Paging Protocol
TNS Temporal Noise Shaping
TNS Transparent Network Substrate
TNV Total Network Visibility
TNX Thanks (Slang)
TO Timeout
TOA Type Of Address
TOC Table Of Content/Contents
TOD Time Of Day
TODO (kein Akronym, to do = noch zu erledigen)
TOE TCP/IP Offload Engine
TOEIC Test of English for International Communication
TOF Task Oriented Forms
TOF Top of Form
TOFU Text Oben, Fullquote Unten (Slang)
TOI T-Online International AG
TOJ Tears Of Joy (Slang)
TOL T-Online
TOM T-Online Messenger
TOP Table Of Pages
TOP Technical and Office Protocol
TOPFET Temperature and Overload Protected FET
TOR Telex Over Radio
TOR The Onion Router
TOS Tape Operating System
TOS The/Tramiel's Operating System
TOS Top Of Stack
TOS Type Of Service
TOUR Transport Optional Upgrade Release
TP Technology Preview
TP Tiefpass
TP Traffic Program
TP Transaction Processing
TP Transport Protocol
TP Turbo PASCAL
TP0 Transport Protocol Class 0 (OSI)
TP4 Transport Protocol Class 4 (OSI)

Seite 359
TPA Transient Program Area
TPC Transaction Processing/Performance Council
TPC Transmit Power Control
TPDDI Twisted Pair Distributed Data Interface
TPDU Transport Protocol Data Unit
TPEP Trusted Product Evaluation Program
TPF The Perl Foundation
TPF Transmission Priority Field
TPH Transport Packet Header
TPI Tag Protocol Identifier
TPI tracks per inch
TPM Terrible/Trusted Platform Module
TPM Third Party Maintenance
TPM Transactions Per Minute
TPM Trusted Platform Module
TPS Third Person Shooter
TPS Transaction Processing System
TPS Transactions Per Second
TPSE Transaction Processing Service Element
TPSN Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks
TPTB The Powers That Be (Slang)
TPU Text Processing Utility
TPU Transparency Unit
TPU Turbo PASCAL Unit
TQFP Thin Quad Flat Package
TQM Total Quality Management
TR Task Register
TR Technische Richtlinie
TR Terminal Ready
TR Token Ring
TR Travan Cartridge
TR Travel Report
TR Trunk Reservation
TRA Technology Related Anxiety
TRA Telecommunications Research Associates
TRAC Telecommunications Recommendations Application Committee
TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adaption Unit
TRC Tone Reproduction Curve
TRCVR Transmitter-Receiver, Transceiver
TRDMC Tears Running Down My Cheeks (Slang)
TRE Telecommunications Research Establishment, Malvern, England
TREAT Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool
TREC Text Retrieval Conference
TRIL Token Ring Interoperability Lab
TRIP Telephony Routing over IP
TRIPS Tera-op, Reliable, Intelligently adaptive Processing System
TRIPS Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Seite 360
TRIZ Teorija Reschenija Isobretatelskich Zadatsch
TRMPWR Terminator Power (Leitung, SCSI)
TRNG True Random Number Generator
TROLI Token Ring Optimized Link Interface
TRON The Realtime Operating System Nucleus
TRT Token Ring Terminal
TRT Token Ring/Rotation Time/Timer
TRX Transmitter-Receiver, Transceiver
TS Telesync
TS Transport Station, Telekom Service
TSA Target Service Agent
TSA Technical Support Alliance, Test Signal Analyser
TSAP Transport Service Access Point (OSI)
TSAPI Telephony Server/Service Application Programming Interface
TSB Technical Service Bulletin
TSC Time Stamp Counter
TSC Transport Scrambling Control
TSCC Technical Standards and Common Criteria
TSCC Technical Support Call/Contact Center
TSCC Techsmith Screen Capture Codec
TSCC Terminal Server Connection Configuration
TSCC Time Slot Control Channel
TSE Text Setup Environment
TSF Timing Synchronization Function
TSM Terminal Server Manager (DEC)
TSM Tivoli Storage Manager
TSO TCP Segmentation Offload
TSO Time Sharing Option (IBM)
TSOHF Total Sense Of Humour Failure (Slang)
TSOP Thin Small Outline Package
TSP Texture and Shading Processor
TSP Time-Stamp Protocol
TSP Travelling Salesman Problem
TSPI Telephony Service Provider Interface
TSPS Traffic Service Position System
TSR Terminate and Stay Resident
TSS Task State Segment
TSS TCP Support for Sensor Networks
TSS Telecommunications Standardisation/Standards Sector (ITU)
TSS Temex-Schnittstelle
TSS Time Sharing System
TSSDC Task State Segment Descriptor Cache
TST Transmit Start Threshold
TSTN Triple Supertwisted Nematic
TSW Tele-Software
TSWTCM Time Sliding Window Three Colour Marker
TT Terminal Timing

Seite 361
TT Tracing Thread
TT Trunk Type
TTAP Trust Technology Assessment Program
TTBOMK To The Best Of My Knowledge (Slang)
TTCAN Time Triggered Communications Area Network
TTCN Testing and Test Control Notation
TTF Truetype Font, Timetable File
TTFF Time To First Fix (GPS)
TTFN Ta Ta For Now (Slang)
TTI Teaching, Training, and Information
TTL Time To Live
TTL Transistor-Transistor-Logik
TTLS Tunneled Transport Layer Security
TTML Tagged Text Markup Language
TTO Tactical Technology Office
TTP Time Triggered Protocol
TTP Timed Token Protocol
TTP Trusted Third Party
TTRT Target Token Rotation Time/Timer
TTS Text To Speech
TTS Transaction Tracking System
TTT Teleteaching and Training
TTT That's The Truth (Slang)
TTTN Tandem Tie Trunk Network
TTU Teletex-Telex-Umsetzer
TTUL Talk To You Later (Slang)
TTW Through The Web
TTX Teletex
TTX Videotext
TTXAU Teletex Access Unit
TTY Teletype (Fernschreiber)
TTYL Type/Talk To You Later (Slang)
TU Tributary Unit
TUBA TCP and UDP with Big/Bigger Addresses
TUD Technische Universit�t Darmstadt (ehemals THD), Deutschland
TUEB Temex-Uebertragungsbaugruppe
TUG TeX User Group
TUG Tributary Unit Group
TUHS The UNIX Heritage Society
TUI Text/Touch User Interface
TULIP TCP and UDP over Lightweight IP
TUP Telephone User Port
TUSTEP T�binger System von Textverarbeitungsprogrammen
TV Television
TVC Transient Virtual Channel
TVI Television Interference
TVOL TV Online Cable Service

Seite 362
TVR Temex-Vermittlungsrechner
TVS Transient Voltage Suppressor
TVST Teilnehmer-Vermittlungsstelle
TVX Valid Transmission Time/Timer
TWAIN Technology Without An Interesting Name
TWINKLE The Weizman Institute Key Locating Engine
TWIRP Two Way Infrared Protocol
TWIU That's What I Understand/Understood (Slang)
TWSC Team World Service Center
TWX Teletypewriter Exchange Service
TWX Twinax (Cable)
TX Telex (Fernschreiben)
TX transmit, Transmitter
TXC Transmit Clock
TXD Tranmitted Data
TXD Transmitter Delay
TYCLO Turn Your Caps Lock Off (Slang)
TYVM Thank You Very Much (Slang)
U Ultra-, Uniform, Universal, Unix, User
UA Unnumbered Acknowledgement (frame)
UA User Area/Agent (OSI)
UA Upgrade Advantage
UAA Universally Administered Address
UAAC University Academic Advising Center, USA
UAC Unbalanced Asynchronous Class
UAC User Account Control
UAE Universelle Anschlusseinrichtung
UAE Unrecoverable Application Error
UAF User Authorization File
UAM User Authentication Method/Module
UAP Upper Address Part (Bluetooth)
UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
UAWG Universal ADSL Working Group
UBB Unified Back Buffer
UBC Unified Buffer Cache
UBC University of British Columbia
UBE Unsolicited Bulk Electronic Mail
UBH Union de Bloggers Hispanos
UBH Universit�t der Bundeswehr Hamburg
UBH Universit�tsbibliothek Heidelberg
UBH Usenet Binary Harvester
UBHR User Block Handling Routine
UBK Universit�tsbibliothek Karlsruhe
UBR Unspecified/Undefined Bit Rate
UC Ubiquitous Computing

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UC Universal Code
UC Upper Case
UCAID University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development
UCAR University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
UCB University of California at Berkeley, USA
UCD Uniform Call Distributor
UCD Univention Corporate Desktop
UCE Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail
UCF Unregister Confirmation
UCFS Unix Connectivity File Service
UCI Universal Chess Interface
UCIR User Controlled Interactive Retrieval
UCITA Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act
UCL Universal Communications Language
UCL University College London
UCLA University of California at Los Angeles, USA
UCO Unstructured Complex Object
UCR Undercolor Removal
UCS Uniform Chromaticity Scale
UCS Univention Corporate Server
UCS Universal Card Slot
UCS Universal Character Set (ISO 10646)
UCSB University of California at Santa Barbara, USA
UCSC University of California at Santa Cruz, USA
UCSD University of California at San Diego, USA
UCSF University of California at San Francisco, USA
UDB Universal Database
UDC User Defined Command
UDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
UDF Uniqueness Database File
UDF Universal Disk Format
UDF User Defined Function
UDI Unified Display/Driver Interface
UDI Universal Document Identifier
UDI Unrestricted Digital Information
UDK Universale Dezimalklassifikation
UDLC Universal Data Link Control
UDLI Unified Design Language for Integrated Circuits, UDL/I
UDM Unternehmensdatenmodell
UDMA Ultra Direct Memory Access
UDO Ultra Density Optical (storage, disc)
UDP Usenet Death Penalty (Slang)
UDP User Datagram Protocol (Internet)
UDP User Defined Protocol
UDRP Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (ICANN)
UDSL Unidirectional/Universal Digital Subscriber Line
UDSV Teledienst-Unternehmen-Datenschutz-Verordnung

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UDT User Defined Datatype
UE Unterhaltungs-Elektronik
UEB �bertragungseinheit mit Basisbandverfahren
UEC User Environment Component
UED Unreal Tournament Editor
UED URL Encoded Data
UED User Environment Design
UED User Experience Database/Directory
UEFI Unified Extensible Firmware Interface
UEG �bertragungseinheit nach ITU G.703
UEI �bertragungseinheit nach ITU I.430
UEM �bertragungseinheit mit Modemverfahren
UEM Universal Energy Management
UEP �bergabepunkt
UEP Unequal Error Protection
UERE User Equivalent Range Error (GPS)
UEV User End of Volume
UFC Ubiquitous Fashionable Computer
UFC Unified File Cache
UFC URL Filter Client
UFC User Filtered Content
UFS Ultra Fast Switching
UFS Universal/UNIX File System
UFS Universal Flash Storage
UG Underrun Goal
UG User Group
UGL Universal Glyph List
UGS Univention Groupware Server
UHC Unified Hangul Code
UHCI Universal Host Controller Interface
UHD User Help Desk
UHF Ultrahigh Frequency (300 MHz -- 3 GHz)
UHG Ultrahigh Gain (Antenna)
UHL User Header Label
UHN Unique Home Node
UI UNIX International
UI Unnumbered Information (frame)
UI User Interface
UIAP UNIX International Asia/Pacific
UIC User Identification Code
UIC User Interface Classes
UID Unique/Unix/User Identifier
UIDL Unique Identifier Listing
UIFRAME Unnumbered Information Frame
UIL User Interface Language
UIM User Interface Management
UIML User Interface Markup Language

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UIMS User Interface Management System
UIO Userspace Input Output
UIPI User Interface Privilege Isolation
UIS User Interface Specification
UIT Union Internationale des Telecommunications
UKW Ultrakurzwelle
UL Underwriters' Laboratory, Inc.
UL Upload
UL Urban Legend (Slang)
ULA Uncommitted Logic Array
ULA Unique Local Address
ULD Unabh�ngiges Landeszentrum f�r Datenschutz, Kiel
ULCPC Ultra Low Cost Personal Computer
UIN Unbreakable Linux Network
UIN Unique Identification Number
UIN Universal Internet Number
ULN Universal Link Negotiation
ULP Unit in the Last Place
ULP Upper Layer Protocol
ULSI Ultra Large Scale Integration
ULSN Ultra Low Speed Networking
ULV Ultra Low Voltage
UM Unified Messaging
UMA Unified/Uniform Memory Access/Architecture
UMA Universal Management Architecture
UMA Unlicensed Mobile Access
UMA Upper Memory Area
UMAC Universal Hashing Message Authentication Code
UMB Upper Memory Block
UMD Universal Media Disc (Sony)
UMI User MAN Interface
UMIT University of Manchester Institute of Technology, UK
UMIT Utilities, Municipalities, and Independent Telcos
UML Unified Modeling Language
UML User Mode Linux
UMM Unidirectional Multipoint to Multipoint
UMM Unix Macro Magician
UMPC Ultra Mobile Personal Computer
UMS Unified Messaging System
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UN Unbalanced Normal
UN United Nations
UNA Upstream Neighbour Address
UNC Unbalanced Normal Class
UNC Uncorrectable (error)
UNC Unique/Universal Naming Convention
UNC University of North Carolina, USA

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UNDI Universal Network Device Interface
UNGTDI UN Guidelines for Trade Data Interchange
UNI User Network Interface
UNICOM Universal Integrated Communication System
UNICORE Uniform Interface to Computing Resources
UNICOS UNIX-based Cray Operating System
UNII Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer
UNIX (kein Akronym, not an acronym)
UNMA Unified Network Management Architecture
UNO Universal Network Objects
UNSW University of New South Wales, Australia
UP Unambiguous nondeterministic Polynomial time
UP Unnumbered Poll
UP User Plane
UPA Ultra Port Architecture (Sun)
UPA Usability Professionals Association
UPC Universal Printer Controller
UPC Universal Product Code
UPC Usage/User Parameter Control
UPE User Portability Extension
UPGS Unfinished Project Guilt Syndrome
UPI United Press International
UPI Universal Peripheral Interface
UPI Upper Prediction Interval
UPL User Program Language
UPM Unidirectional Point to Multipoint
UPM User Profile Management (IBM)
UPN Umgekehrte Polnische Notation, RPN
UPNP Universal Plug and Play
UPP Unidirectional Point to Point
UPPS Universal Portable Protocol Stack
UPS Uninterruptable Power Supply, USV
UPT Universal Personal Telecommunication (service)
URA Uniform Resource Agent
URC Uniform Resource Characterictics/Citation
URD URL Rendezvous Directory
URGC Uniform Reliable Group Communication Protocol
URI Uniform/Universal Resource Identifier
URJ Unregister Reject
URL Universal/Uniform Resource Locator (Internet)
URM Unbegrenzte Registermaschine
URM Universal Retention Module
URN Uniform Resource Name/Number
URQ Unregister Request
URSI Union Radio-Scientifique Internationale
US Unit Separator

Seite 367
USAN University Satellite Network
USART Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
USB Universal Serial Bus
USB Upper Side Band
USC University of Southern California
USDC US Display Consortium
USF Uplink State Flag
USFF Ultra Slim Form Factor
USG UNIX Support/System Group (Novell)
USIA US Information Agency
USIM Universal Subscriber Identification/Identity Module
USK Unterhaltungssoftwareselbstkontrolle
USKA Union Schweizer Kurzwellenamateure
USL UNIX System Laboratories (AT&T, Novell)
USLE UNIX System Laboratories Europe
USM User-based Security Model
USN Update Sequence Number
USO UNIX Software Operation
USOC Uniform Service Order Code
USRP Universal Software Radio Peripheral
USRT Universal Synchronous Receiver Transmitter
USSA Universal Storage System Architecture
USSD Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
USTA US Telephone Association
USV Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung, UPS
USW Ultra Short Wave
UT Universal Terminal/Time
UTC Unicode Technical Committee
UTC Universal Time Coordinated
UTDOA Uplink Time Difference Of Arrival
UTF Unicode Transformation Format (UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-32)
UTI Universal Text Interchange
UTL User Trailer Label
UTLB Unified TLB
UTMA Ultra Thin Client Multiple Access
UTNET University of Texas Network
UTP Universal Personal Telephone Service
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
UTRA UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
UTRAN UMTS Radio Access Network
UTSL Use The Source, Luke (Slang)
UUCP UNIX to UNIX Copy Program/Protokoll
UUID Unique Universal Identifier (DCE)
UUID Universally Unique Identifier
UULP Unified User Level Protocol
UUS User to User Signalling
UUU Unknown UNIX User (J. Random Hacker?)

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UV Ultraviolett
UVC USB Video Class
UVD Unified Video Decoder
UVL User Volume Label
UVP Under-Voltage Protection
UWB Ultra Wide Band
UWG Gesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb
UWM Universal Window Manager
UX Unix (all kinds, BSD + Linux incl.)
UXGA Ultra Extended Graphics Array
V Value, Video, Virtual
V24 V.24(CCITT-Norm f�r eine serielle Schnittstelle)
V4FSL System V Release 4 File System Layout
VA Vertical Alignment (panel)
VA Virtual Address
VA Volladdierer
VA Vulnerability Assessment
VAB Value Added Business
VACM View-based Access Control Model
VAD Value Added Driver/Disaster/Dealer
VAD Value Assignment Delay
VAD Voice Activity Detection/Detector
VADCG Vancouver Amateur Digital Communications Group
VADD Value Added Disk Driver
VADE View, Add, Delete, Edit
VADER View, Add, Delete, Edit, Restore
VADS Value Added Data Service
VADSL Very High Rate Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
VAFC VESA Advanced Feature Connector
VAL Voice Application Language
VAM Verband der Anbieter von Mobilfunkdiensten, Bonn
VAM Virtual Access Method
VAN Value Added Network
VANS Value Added Network Services
VAP Value Added Process
VAP Virtual Access Point
VAR Value Added Reseller/Retailer
VAS Value Added Service
VASCOM Value Added Services Network Communication
VAST Vector and Array Syntax Translator
VAT Video/Visual Audio Tool
VATM Verband der Anbieter von Telekommunikations- und Mehrwertdiensten
VATP Velazquez Application Transfer Protocol
VAX Virtual Address Extension (DEC)
VB Variable Block

Seite 369
VB VESA Bus
VB Virtual Beer
VB Visual Basic
VBA Visual BASIC for Applications (Microsoft)
VBE VESA BIOS Extensions
VBFS Very Big File System
VBG Very Big Grin (Slang)
VBL Vertical Blanking
VBN Vermittelndes/Vermitteltes/Vorl�ufer Breitbandnetz (Telekom)
VBNS Very High Performance/Speed Backbone/Broadband Network Service
VBR Variable Bit Rate (Encoding)
VBR-NRT Variable Bit Rate - No Real Time
VBR-RT Variable Bit Rate - Real Time
VBS Verteiltes Betriebssystem
VBS Visual Basic Script
VC Virtual Call/Circuit/Channel/Connection/Container
VCA Voltage Controlled Amplifier
VCC Virtual Channel Connection
VCCI Voluntary Control Council for Interferences
VCD Video Compact Disc
VCD Virtual Communications Driver
VCEG Video Coding Experts Group
VCF Voltage Controlled Filter
VCI Virtual Channel Identifier/Indicator
VCK Virtueller Campus Karlsruhe
VCL Video Coding Layer
VCL Virtual Channel Link
VCL Visual Computing Library
VCLF Virtual (host) Common Logfile Format
VCM Virtual Channel Memory
VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator
VCPI Virtual Control Programm Interface
VCR Video Cassette/Conference Recorder
VCS Virtueller Campus Schweiz
VCS Version/Virus Control System
VCSC Virtual Campus Supercomputing Center
VCSEL Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser
VCSIP Videotex Communication System for Information Providers
VCU Voice Communication Unit
VCX Virtual Component Exchange
VD Voice + Data, V+D
VD Volume Descriptor
VDC Virtual Device Coordinates
VDCW Verband der Deutschen Content Wirtschaft
VDD Virtual Device/Display Driver
VDDM Virtual Device Driver Manager
VDOP Vertical Dilution Of Precision

Seite 370
VDE Verallgemeinertes Darstellungselement
VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker
VDE Video Display Editor
VDE Virtual Distributed Ethernet
VDEW Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizit�tswerke
VDF Variable Data File
VDG Video Display Generator
VDI Video Display Interface
VDI Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
VDI Virtual Device Interface
VDM Vienna Development Method
VDM Virtual DOS Machine
VDMSL Vienna Development Method -- Semantic Language
VDN Virtual Data Network
VDP Video Datagram Protocol
VDP Video Distribution Profile
VDPI Verein der Post-Ingenieure
VDR Video Disc Recorder
VDR Voltage Dependent Resistor
VDS Virtual Direct Memory Access Service
VDSL Very High Bitrate/Data Rate Digital Subscriber Line
VDSO Virtual Dynamically linked Shared Object
VDT Video/Visual Display Terminal
VDU Video/Visual Display Unit
VDV Vorbestellte Dauerw�hlverbindung
VE Verbraucher-Elektronik
VE Vermittlungseinrichtung
VE Virtual Environment
VE Volksempf�nger
VECLF Virtual (host) Extended Logfile Format
VEMM Virtual Expanded Memory Manager
VERI Virtual Environments Research Institute, Houston
VERIF Verification
VERP Variable Envelope Return Path
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
VEX Video Extensions to XWS
VF Voice Frequency
VFAT Virtual File Allocation Table
VFD Vacuum Fluorescent Display
VFH Virtuelle Fachhochschule
VFIP Voice File Interchange Protocol (Internet)
VFIR Very Fast Infrared
VFN Vendor Feature Note
VFO Variable Frequency Oscillator
VFPI Verein zur F�rderung der P�dagogik der Informationstechnologie
VFS Versioning File System
VFS Virtual File System

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VFSDX Verordnung f�r den Fernschreib- und Datexdienst
VFW Video For Windows (Microsoft)
VG Volume Group
VGA Vertical Grid Array
VGA Video Graphics Array
VGC Video Graphics Controller
VGDA Volume Group Descriptor Area
VGF Voice Grade Facility
VGNV Verkehrsgeb�hrennachverarbeitung
VGRA Volume Group Reserved Area
VGU Virtual Global University
VHCI Virtual Host Controller Interconnect
VHD Very/Video High Density
VHD Virtual Hard Disk/Help Desk
VHDCI Very High Density Cable Interconnect
VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language
VHDSL Very High Bit Rate/Speed Digital Subscriber Line
VHE Virtual Home Environment
VHF Very High Frequency (30 -- 300 MHz)
VHLL Very High Level Language
VHS Very High Speed
VHS Video Home System
VHS Virtual Host Storage
VHSIC Very High Speed Integrated Circuit
VHSIM Very High Speed Interface Module
VHT Verteilte Hash-Tabelle
VIA Vendors ISDN Association
VIA Virtual Interface Architecture
VIAD Video Image Area Definition
VIB Video Interface Bus
VIB Virtualisierung im Bildungsbereich
VIBTS VTAM Integrated Bulk Data Transfer System
VIC Video/Voice Interface Card/Controller
VID VLAN Identifier
VID Voltage Identification
VEIL Video Encoded Invisible Light
VIKAR Virtueller Hochschulverbund Karlsruhe
VIM Vendor Independent Messaging
VINCE Vendor Independent Network Control Entity
VINES Virtual Network/Networking System/Software (Banyan)
VIO Video/Virtual/Voltage Input Output
VIOLA Vertically Integrated Optical Testbed for Large Applications
VIOLD Vision Impaired On-line Documentation (DEC)
VIP Variable Information Processing
VIP Video Input Processor
VIP Video Interface Port
VIP Virtual IP (address, network)

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VIRIM Virtual Reality in Medicine
VIROR Virtuelle Universit�t Oberrhein
VIS Voice Information System, Virtual Instruction Set
VISC Video Instruction Set Computing
VISDP verantwortlich im Sinne des Pressegestzes
VITA VMEbus International Trade Association
VITAL Virtually Integrated Technical Architecture Lifecycle (Apple)
VJ Van Jacobsen (Compression)
VJHC Van Jacobsen Header Compression
VK Videokonferenz
VK Visitenkarte
VK Visuelle Kommunikation
VKL Verkehrseinschr�nkungsklasse
VL Virtual Life (Slang)
VL Volume Location
VLA Very Large Array
VLA Volume License Agreement
VLAN Very/Virtual Local Area Network
VLB Verzeichnis lieferbarer B�cher
VLB VESA Local Bus
VLBA Very Long Baseline Array
VLBI Very Long Baseline Interferometry
VLC Variable (word) Length Code
VLDB Very Large Data Base
VLDB Volume Location Database
VLDW Very Long Data Word
VLF Very Low Frequency
VLF Virtual Lookaside Facility
VLI Variable Length Integer
VLIS Verkehrs-Leit und Informations-System
VLIW Very Long Instruction Word
VLM Very Large Memory
VLM Virtual Loadable Module
VLP Very Low Profile
VLR Visitor Location Register
VLSI Very Large Scale Integration
VLSIC Very Large Scale Integration Circuit
VLSM Variable Length Subnet Mask/Masking
VM Video Mode
VM Virtual Machine/Memory
VMA Virtual Memory Access/Area
VMB Video Memory Buffer
VMC VESA Media Channel
VMD Versatile Multilayer Disc
VME Versacard Modified for Eurocard (Bus)
VME Virtual Memory Executive
VME Virtual (8086) Mode Enhancements

Seite 373
VMG Video Manager
VMI Vertical Motion Index
VMI Video Module Interface
VMI Virtual Machine Interface
VMI VMware Machine Interface
VML Vector Markup Language
VML Vector Mathematical Library
VMM Virtual Machine/Memory Manager/Monitor
VMR Video Mixing Renderer
VMRP VLAN Membership Resolution Protocol
VMS Virtual Memory System (DEC)
VMS Voice Mail/Messaging Server/System
VMSC Visited Mobile Switching Centre
VMT Virtual Memory Technique
VMT Virtual Method Table
VMTP Versatile Message Transaction Protocol (Internet)
VMX Vector Multimedia Extension
VMZ Verkehrsmanagement-Zentrum/Zentrale
VNA Virtual Network Architecture
VNC Virtual Network Computing
VNET Virtual Network
VNL Via Net Loss
VNS Virtual Notebook System
VO Virtual Object/Organization
VO Vollzugsordnung (Funkdienst)
VOB Video Object
VOBS Video Object Set
VOBU Video Object Unit
VOC Voice (File)
VOC Volatile Organic Compound
VOD Video On Demand
VODS Video Operators Distress Syndrom
VOF Vollzugsordnung f�r den Funkdienst
VOFDM Vector Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
VOFR Voice over Frame Relay
VOI Verband der Optischen Informationssysteme
VOIP Voice over IP
VOL Volume Label
VON Video/Voice Over Net
VOR VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range
VOS Virtual Operating System
VOTS VAX OSI Transport Service
VOX Voice Operated Transmission
VP Virtual Path
VPA Virtual Proxy Agent
VPC Very Personal Computer
VPC Virtual Path Connection

Seite 374
VPC Virtual Personal Computer
VPD Vacuum Photo Diode
VPD Verified Pateint Data
VPD Version Planning Document
VPD Vertical Polar Diagram
VPD Vertically Polarized Dipole
VPD Virtual Predictive Dialing
VPD Virtual Printer Device
VPD Virtual Private Database
VPD Virtual Product Development
VPD Vital Product Data (IBM)
VPD Voice Packet Driver
VPD Volunteer Project Directory
VPDN Virtual Private Data/Dialup Network
VPDS Virtual Private Data Service
VPE Virtual Processing Element
VPI Virtual Path Identifier/Indicator
VPL Virtual Path Link
VPL Virtual/Visual Programming Language
VPLS Virtual Private LAN/Line Service
VPM Virtual Protocol Machine
VPN Virtual Private Network
VPNS Virtual Private Network Service
VPO Virtual Projection Origin
VPP Value Predictability Pattern
VPP Virtual Presence Protocol
VPP Volts Peak to Peak
VPP VXI Plug + Play
VPRT Verband Privater Rundfunk und Telekommunikation
VPS Verbindungsprogrammierte Steuerung
VPS Video Program/Programm/Programmier-Service/System
VPS Virtual Private Server
VPT Virtual Printing Technology
VPU Video/Virtual/Visual/Vector/Voice Processing/Processor Unit
VPV Videotex programmiert Video-Recorder
VPWS Virtual Private Wire Service
VQ Vector Quantization
VQEG Video Quality Experts Group
VQF Vector Quantization Format
VR Virtual Reality/Route
VR Voltage Regulator
VRA Vollst�ndiger Regul�rer Ausdruck
VRAM Video Random Access Memory
VRC Vertical Redundancy Check
VRC Viewing Reference Coordinate
VRC Virtual Route Control
VRCA Virtual Reality Center Aachen

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VRCB Virtual Route Control Block
VRD Virtual Retinal Display
VRF Vector Register File
VRF Video Recording Format
VRID Virtual Route Identifier
VRM Variable Range Marker
VRM Voltage Regulator Module
VRML Virtual Reality Modeling Language
VRN Virtual Route Number
VROOMM Virtual Realtime Object-Oriented Memory Management
VRP Viewing Reference Point
VRPRQ Virtual Route Pacing Request
VRPRS Virtual Route Pacing Response
VRRP Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
VRU Voice Response Unit
VRV Vorw�rts-R�ckw�rts-Verh�ltnis
VS Virtual Storage
VSA Virtual Server Architecture
VSA Virtual Storage Access
VSAM Virtual Storage Access Method
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
VSC Voice Security Card
VSD Variable Speed Drive
VSE Verification Support Environment
VSE Virtual Storage Extended
VSF Vertical Scanning Frequency
VSI Verband der Software-Industrie Deutschlands e. V.
VSI Virtual Socket Interface (Alliance)
VSIS Video Signal Standard (VESA)
VSK Video-Sender-Kennung
VSL Vienna Symphonic Library
VSL Virtual Socket Library
VSM Virtual Shared Memory
VSM Virtual Storage Management
VSMO Virtual Social Memory Organizer
VSMSC Virtual Short Message Center
VSN Virtual Switched Network
VSO Variable Speed Operation
VSO Vertical Synchronization Offset
VSO VITA Standards Organization
VSOP Very Special Old Programmer (like me)
VSOS Virtual Storage Operating System
VSPW Vertical Synchronization Pulse Width
VST Vermittlungsstelle
VST Voltage Settling Time
VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
VSX Verification Suite for X/Open

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VSYNC Vertical Synchronization (signal)
VT Vanderpool Technology (Intel)
VT Vertical Tabulator
VT Video/Virtual Terminal
VT Visualization Tool
VTAM Virtual Terminal/Telecommunications Access Method
VTB Video Timing Block
VTC Vertical Transistor Cell
VTC Video Teleconference Center
VTCO Virtual Terminal Control Object
VTM Verband der Telekommunikationsnetz- und Mehrwertdiensteanbieter, K�ln
VTOA Voice and Telephony Over ATM
VTOC Volume Table Of Contents
VTOS Virtual Time Operating System
VTP Virtual Terminal Protocol
VTS Video Title Set
VTS Virtual Tape/Terminal Server/Service/Support
VTS Voucher Trading System
VTSU Virtual Terminal Support
VU Volume Unit (Lautst�rke)
VUD Verband der Unterhaltungssoftware Deutschland
VUE Visual User Environment
VUEN Virtual University Education Network
VUI Video User Interface
VUIT Visual User Interface Tool (DEC)
VUP VAX Unit of Performance
VUP Version Upgrade
VV Versorgungsvereinbarung
VV Virtual Virtuality
VVL Verbund Virtuelles Labor
VVPAT Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail
VWM Virtual Warehouse Manager
VXD Virtual Device Driver (Microsoft)
VXE VESA XGA Extensions
VXFS VERITAS File System
VXI VME Extensions for Instrumentation
VZFDPBDK Verein zur F�rderung der privat betriebenen Daten-Kommunikation e. V.
W Wide, Window, Wireless, World
W3 WWW, World Wide Web (Internet)
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
WAA Wavelet Analysis and its Applications
WAA Web Analytics Association
WAA Web Application Adaptor
WAA Wireless Advertising Association
WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System

Seite 377
WAB What Another Bill (Slang)
WABI Windows Application Binary Interface
WACK Wait Acknowledgement
WACS Wireless Access Communications System
WAD W�hlautomat f�r Datenverbindungen
WADFS Wide Area Distributed File System
WAE Worked All Europe
WAENA Wide Area Educational Network
WAF Web Application Firewall
WAF Womens' Acceptance Factor
WAFL Write Anywhere File Layout
WAI Web Accessibility Initiative
WAIK Windows Automated Installation Toolkit
WAIS Wide Area Information Servers/Service
WAITS Wide Area Information Transfer System
WAL Write Ahead Logging
WAM Warren Abstract Machine
WAM Wide Amplitude Modulation
WAMKSAM Why Are My Kids Staring At Me? (Slang)
WAMP Windows, Apache, MySQL, PHP
WAMPUM Ward's Automated Menu Package Using Microcomputers
WAN Wide Area Network
WAO Warteschlange der ablaufbereiten Objekte
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WAP Wissenschaftlicher Arbeitsplatz
WAPECS Wireless Access Policy for Electronic Communication Services
WAPI Wireless Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure
WARC World Administrative Radio Conference
WASP Web Standards Project
WATS Wide Area Telephone/Telecommunications Service
WATTC World Administrative Telegraph and Telephone Conference
WAWA Work Anywhere With Anybody
WB Welcome Back (Slang)
WB Write Back
WBA Wireless Broadband Access
WBC Web Based Communication
WBC Wide Band Channel
WBEM Web Based Enterprise Management
WBM Web Based Management
WBRC W�rttembergisch-Badischer Radioclub
WBT Web Based Training
WBT Windows Based Terminal
WC Workgroup Computing
WC World Coordinate
WC Worst Case
WCAG Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
WCF Waveguide Cavity Filter

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WCF Weather/Wireless Communications Facility
WCF Web Component Framework
WCF Windows Communication Foundation
WCF Word Class Function
WCCP Web Cache Coordination Protocol
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WCE Write Cache Enable
WCMS Web Content Management System
WCP Worst Current Practice
WCPN Wireless Customer Premises Network
WCS Wireless Control System
WCS Writable Control Store
WCT WIPO Copyright Treaty
WD Western Digital
WDA Wahldiensteanbieter
WDDM Windows Display Driver Model
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexer/Multiplexing
WDM Windows Driver Model
WDS Wireless Distribution System
WDSL Wireless Digital Subscriber Line
WDYMBT What Do You Mean By That (Slang)
WDYS What Did You Say (Slang)
WDT Watchdog Timer
WE Write Enable
WEB Workshop on E-Business
WEB World Entertainment Broadcasting
WEB (short for:) World Wide Web, WWW
WEBDAV Web Document Authoring And Versioning
WEEB Western European EDIFACT Board
WEEE Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment
WEFT Web Embedding Fonts Tool (Microsoft)
WELL Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link
WEP Wired/Wireless Equipment/Equivalent Privacy/Protocol
WF Workflow
WFA Wi-Fi Alliance
WFG Wait For Graph
WFM Wide Frequency Modulation
WFM Wired for Management
WFM Works For Me (and no one else)
WFMC Workflow Management Coalition
WFMS Workflow Management System
WFP Wait for First Packet
WFP Well Formed Path
WFP Windows File Protection
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing
WFS Woodstock File Server
WFW Windows For Workgroups (Microsoft)

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WG Working Group (ISO)
WGA Windows Genuine Advantage
WGDTB Working Group on Digital Television Broadcasting
WGIG Working Group on Internet Governance (ITU)
WGS Work Group System
WGS World Geodetic System (WGS84)
WHAK With Hugs And Kisses (Slang)
WHNF Weak Head Normal Form
WHQL Windows Hardware Quality Lab
WIA Windows Image Acquisition
WIBNI Would It Be Nice If (Slang)
WIC Wireless Indoor Communication
WILD Wireless Interactive Learning Device
WIMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus/Mice, Pointing (s. a. MUFF)
WIMPS Windows, Icons, Menus/Mice, Pointing, Scroll bars
WIMRE Wenn Ich Mich Recht Erinnere (Slang)
WIN Wireless Inhouse Network
WIN Wissenschaftsnetz des DFN (X.25)
WINS Windows Internet Name Service (Microsoft)
WINS Wireless Integrated Network Sensor
WIP Work In Progress (Slang)
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization
WIS Windows Installer Service
WISOA WIMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance
WISP Wireless Internet Service Provider
WKS Well Known Service/Socket (Internet)
WL Wear Leveling
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
WLANA Wireless LAN Association
WLBS Windows Load Balancing Service
WLL Wireless Local Loop
WLM Workload Manager
WM Window Manager
WMA Windows Media Audio
WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
WMD Web Media Developers
WMD Windows Media Device/Download
WMD World Mail Directory
WMD WYSIWYM Markdown (language, editor)
WMDRM Windows Media Digital Rights Management
WME Windows Media Encoder
WMF Windows Media/Metafile Format
WMI Windows Management Interface/Instrumentation
WML Wireless Markup Language
WMM Wi-Fi Multimedia
WMN Wireless Mesh Network

Seite 380
WMR Wireless Meshing Router
WMRS Write Me Real Soon (Slang)
WMS Wide Area Master Station
WMT Windows Media Technologies
WMV Windows Media Video
WNIC WAN Interface Coprocessor
WNIM WAN Interface Module
WNP Weissbier Networking Protocol (Microhopf)
WNPP Work-Needing and Prospective Package (Debian)
WOA Web Object Application
WOCNRA Wobble Signal to Noise Ration after Recording
WOD Web Object Definition
WOK Wake On Keyboard
WOL Wake On LAN
WOL Window Object Library
WOLF Weak Signal Operation for Low Frequency
WOM Wake On Modem
WOM Write-Only-Memory
WOMBAT Waste Of Money, Brains, And Time (Slang)
WOP Werkstattorientierte Programmierung
WORM Write Once, Read Many/Multiple
WOS Web Object Script
WOS Web/Workplace/Workstation Operating System
WOS Webserver On Stick
WOS Windows Open Services
WOS Wireless Office Services/Solutions/System
WOS Wizards of OS (Operating Systems)
WOS Workshop for Open Systems
WOSA Windows Open Systems Architecture (Microsoft)
WOT Web Of Trust
WOTA Who's On The Air (database)
WP White Pages
WP Wikipedia
WP Word Processor
WP Write Protected
WPA Wi-Fi Protected Access
WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network
WPC Wearable Personal Computer
WPD Windows Printer Description
WPF Windows Presentation Foundation
WPHD Write Protected Hard Disk
WPIM WAN Interface Port Module
WPM words per minute
WPPT WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty
WPS Wi-Fi Protected Setup
WPS Windows Printing System
WPS Workplace Shell (IBM)

Seite 381
WRAM Window Random Access Memory
WRB Web Request Broker
WREL Wireless Resonant Energy Link
WRL (DEC) Western Research Laboratory
WRP Winsock Redirection Protocol
WRR Weighted Round Robin
WRS Wide Area Ground Reference Station
WRT With Regard/Respect To (Slang)
WRTH World Radio and Television Handbook
WS Wide Screen
WS Window Size
WS Workstation
WSAD Websphere Studio Application Developer
WSDL Web Services Description Language
WSGI (Python) Web Server Gateway Interface
WSH Windows Scripting Host
WSIS World Summit on the Information Society
WSN Wireless Sensor Network
WSP Web Standards Project
WSQ Wavelet Scalar Quantization
WSRF Web Services Resource Framework
WSS Web Services Security
WSS Windows Sharepoint Services (Microsoft)
WSS Windows Sound System (Microsoft)
WST World System Teletext
WSTS World Semiconductor Trade Statistics
WSUS Windows Server Update Services
WT Without Thinking (Slang)
WT Write Through
WTB Wanted To Buy (Slang)
WTH What The Heck/Hell (Slang)
WTK Wechselstrom-Telegrafie auf Kurzwelle
WTL Wechselstrom-Telegrafie auf Langwelle
WTLS Wireless Transport Layer Security
WTOS Wyse Thin Operating System
WTS Web/Wireless Tracking System
WTS Web Transaction Security/Services
WTS Web Transcoding Server
WTS WiMAX Test System
WTS Windows Terminal Server (Microsoft)
WTS Wireless Telephone System
WTS World Telecommunication Standardization
WTT Wanted To Trade (Slang)
WTTF Want To Test First (Slang)
WTTM Without Thinking Too Much (Slang)
WULF Wake Up on Line/Liquid Feed
WUS Windows Update Services (Microsoft)

Seite 382
WUSB Wireless Universal Serial Bus
WUXGA Wide Ultra Extended Graphics Array
WVQ Wavelet Vector Quantization
WW Wahlwiederholung
WWC World Wide Computing
WWDM Wide Wavelength Division Multiplex
WWG Wieder Was Gelernt (Slang)
WWOZ Wahre Weingartener Ortszeit
WWRF Wireless World Research Forum
WWW W3, World Wide Web, World Wide Waiting, Weltweites Warten
WWW Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows ME
WWW Works With and Without
WWWW World Wide Web Wizard/Worm
WWWWW World Wide Web Worm Warning
WXGA Wide Extended Graphics Array
WYS Whatever You Say (Slang)
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get
WYSIWYM What You See Is What You Mean
WYSIWIS What You See Is What I See
WZC Wireless Zero Configuration
X Exchange, Execute, Extended, X Window System
X11 X Window System Version 11
X11R7 X Window System Version 11 Release 7
XA Extended Architecture/Attribute
XAA XFree86 Acceleration Architecture
XAFS X-ray Absorption Fine Structure
XAML Extensible Application Markup Language
XAPIA X.400-API Association
XAUI 10 Gigabit Attachment Unit Interface
XBAC Experience Based Admission Control
XBAP XAML Browser Application
XBM X Window System Black-and-white Bitmap (file)
XBRL Extensible Business Reporting Language
XCBP XML Common Biometric Format
XCD Extended Compact Disc
XCHG Exchange
XCHS Extended Cylinders, Heads, Sectors
XCMD Extended Mode Command (Apple)
XCMD External Command
XCP Extended Copy Protection (Sony)
XD Execute Disable
XD Extreme Digital (Card)
XDCS X/Open Distributed Computing Services
XDF Extended Density Format (IBM)
XDLE Transparent Data Link Escape

Seite 383
XDMCP X11 Display Manager Control Protocol
XDP XML Data Package
XDR External/Extended Data Representation
XDS X/Open Directory Service
XED XML Enabled Directory
XETB Transparent End of Transmission Block
XETX Transparent End of Text
XEWA XML-Enabled Wide Area Search in Bioinformatics
XFA Extended File Attribute
XFA XML Forms Architecture
XFCN External Function
XFDF XML Forms Data Format
XFDL Extensible Forms Description Language
XFN X/Open Federated Naming Service
XFS Extensions for Financial Services
XFS SGI Extended File System
XFS X11 Extended File System
XFS X11 Font Server
XG Extended General MIDI
XGA Extended Graphics Array (IBM)
XHCI Extended Host Controller Interface
XHTML Extensible Hypertext Markup Language
XID Exchange Identifier/Identification
XIE X11 Image/Imaging Extension (Standard)
XIE-DIS XIE Document Imaging Subset
XIM X11 Input Method
XIO Extended Input Output
XITB Transparent Intermediate Block
XKB X11 Keyboard Extension
XLATE Translate
XLFD X11 Logical Font Description/Descriptor
XLINK Extended Local Informatik Netz Karlsruhe
XLL Extensible Linking Language
XLL XLink and XPointer Languages
XLM Excel Macro Language (Microsoft)
XMI XTendbus Multibus Interface
XMIT Transmit
XML Extensible Markup Language
XMM Extended Memory Manager
XMP X/Open Management Protocol
XMP Extensible Metadata Platform (Adobe)
XMPP Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
XMS Extended Memory Specification
XMSN Transmission
XMT Transmit
XMTR Transmitter
XNS Xerox Network Services/Standard/System

Seite 384
XOFF Exchange/Transmitter Off
XOM X/Open Management
XON Exchange/Transmitter On
XOR Exclusive Or (auch: EOR)
XORP Extensible Open Router Platform
XOS Experimental Operating System
XOT X.25 Over TCP/IP
XP Cross Point
XP Extreme Programming
XPC X11 Performance Characterization Group
XPEL X11 Protocol Engine Library
XPFE Cross Platform Front End
XPG X/Open Portability Guide
XPLA Extended Programmable Logic Array
XPM X Window System Pixelmap (file)
XPS XML Paper Specification
XPT External Page Table
XPVM Executable Parallel Virtual Machine
XR Index Register
XRC Extended Remote Copy
XREF Cross Reference List
XSC Extended Scientific Calculation
XSDT Extended System Description Table
XSI X/Open Systenm Interface Specification
XSL Extensible Style(sheet) Language
XSLFO Extensible Style(sheet) Language Formatting Object
XSLT Extensible Style(sheet) Language Transformation
XSMD Extended Storage Module Drive
XSMP X11 Session Manager Protocol
XSS Cross-Site Scripting
XSSI Extended Server Side Includes
XSSO X/Open Single Sign-On (Service)
XSTX Transparent Start of Text
XSYN Transparent Synchronous Idle
XT Crosstalk
XT Extended Technology
XTAL Crystal
XTCLK External Transmit Clock
XTI X/Open Transport (Layer) Interface
XTP XPress Transfer Protocol
XTTD Transparent Temporary Text Delay
XUI X11 User Interface
XUL Extensible/XML-Based User Interface Language
XUMA Expertensystem Umweltgef�hrlichkeit von Altlasten
XVE X11 Visual Extensions
XVI XTendbus VMEbus Interface
XVS X/Open System V Specification

Seite 385
XVT Extensible Virtual Toolkit
XWD X11 Window Dump
XWS X Window System, X11
Y2K Year 2000 A.D.
YABA Yet Another Bloody Acronym (Slang)
YAFIYGI You Asked For It, You Got It (Slang)
YAFFS Yet Another Flash File System
YALE Yet Another Learning Environment
YAODL Yet Another Object Description Language
YAPC Yet Another Perl Conference
YAPL Yet Another Programming Language
YAS Yet Another Society
YCAGWYW You cannot always get what you want (Slang)
YDL Yellow Dog Linux
YKWIS You Know What I'm Saying (Slang)
YMD Year Month Day (ISO 8601)
YMMD You Made My Day (Slang)
YMMD Your Mileage May Differ/Diminish (Slang)
YMMV Your Mileage May Vary (Slang)
YODL Yet one Other Document Language
YOU YAST Online Update (SuSE)
YOYOW You Own Your Own Words (Slang)
YP Yellow Pages (NIS)
YTTT You Telling The Truth (Slang)
YUV (Farbmodell: Luminanz Y, Chrominanzwerte U, V)
Z Zahl, Zeichen, Zeit, Zentral-, Zentrum, Zero, Zone
ZA Zero Adjusted/Adjuster
ZA Zero Administration (networking)
ZA Zone Alarm
ZAC Zero Administration Client
ZAI Zero Administration Initiative
ZAIK Zentrum f�r Angewandte Informatik, Universit�t K�ln
ZAK Zero Administration Kit (Microsoft)
ZAM Zentralinstitut f�r Angewandte Mathematik, J�lich
ZBR Zone Bit Recording
ZBT Zero Bus Turnaround
ZBTSI Zero-Byte Time Slot Interchange
ZC Zone Coordinator
ZCAV Zone/Zoned Constant Angular Velocity
ZCC Zone Coordinator Council
ZCLV Zone/Zoned Constant Linear Velocity
ZCML Zope Configuration Markup Language
ZCR Zero Channel RAID
ZCT Zero Count Table

Seite 386
ZDF Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, Mainz
ZDL Zero Delay Lockout
ZDR Zeilendrucker
ZDR Zone Density Recording
ZDVA Zentrale Datenverarbeitungsanlage
ZE Zentraleinheit
ZEC Zone Echomail Coordinator
ZEN Zero Effort Network (Novell)
ZEO Zope Enterprise Object
ZF Zwischenfrequenz
ZFM Zentralamt F�r Mobilfunk, M�nster
ZFS Zettabyte File System
ZFS Zone Field Selection
ZGDV Zentrum f�r Graphische Datenverarbeitung
ZGS Zeichengabesystem
ZHR Zero Hop Routing
ZI Zentrale Instandhaltung
ZIA Zentrale Inteliigenz-Agentur
ZIB Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum f�r Informationstechnik, Berlin
ZIF Zero Insertion Force
ZIMS Zope Inventory Management System
ZIP Zone Improvement Plan
ZIP Zone Information Protocol
ZIS Zertifikationsinfrastruktur
ZISC Zero Instruction Set Computer
ZKA Zentraler Kreditausschuss
ZKD Zentrum f�r Kommunikationstechnik und Datenverarbeitung, Stuttgart
ZKDSG Zugangskontrolldiensteschutzgesetz
ZKM Zentrum f�r Kunst und Medientechnologie, Karlsruhe
ZL Zeile
ZMH Zone Mailing Hour
ZMI Zone Management Interface
ZNB ZNYX NetBlaster
ZODB Zope Object Data Base
ZOFF Zeichenorientierte Fenster-Funktionen
ZOO Zone Operation Organisation
ZOPE Z Object Publishing Environment
ZPP Zero-error Probabilistic Polynomial time
ZPT Zope Page Template
ZPUe Zentralstelle f�r Private �berspielungsrechte
ZRTP Zimmermann's Real-time Transport Protocol
ZS Zeitschlitz
ZSI Zentralstelle f�r Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik
ZSK Zone Signing Key
ZSL Zero Slot LAN
ZSP Zwischenspeicher
ZSS Zentraler Service Switch

Seite 387
ZTZB Zentrale Technik Zentraler Betriebslenkung
ZV Zahlungsverkehr
ZV Zeilenvorschub
ZV Zoomed Video (Port)
ZVDFUE Zahlungsverkehr-Datenfern�bertragung
ZVE Z�hlervergleichseinrichtung
ZVEH Zentralverband der Deutschen Elektrohandwerke
ZVEI Zentralverband der Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie
ZW Zielwahl
ZWR Zwischenraum (space)
ZWS Zero Wait State
ZZF Zentralamt f�r Zulassungen im Fernmeldewesen
ZZK Zentraler Zeichenkanal (ISDN)

Seite 388
U Karlsruher Test
Nicht jedermann eignet sich f�r so schwierige Dinge wie die elektronische
Datenverarbeitung. Um Ihnen die Entscheidung zu erleichtern, ob Sie in die
EDV einsteigen oder sich angenehmeren Dingen widmen sollten, haben wir
ganz besonders f�r Sie einen Test entwickelt. Woran denken Sie bei:
Bit Was zum Trinken, aus der Eifel (1 Punkt)
Schraubendrehereinsatz (1)
kleinste Dateneinheit (2 Punkte)
Festplatte Was zum Essen, vom Partyservice (1)
Schallplatte (0)
Massenspeicher (2)
Men� Was zum Essen (1)
Dialogtechnik (2)
mittelalterlicher Tanz (0)
CPU politische Partei (0)
Zentralprozessor (2)
Carnevalsverein (0)
Linker Linksh�nder (0)
Anh�nger einer Linkspartei (1)
Programm zum Binden von Modulen (2)
IBM Ich Bin M�de (1)
International Business Machines (2)
International Brotherhood of Magicians (1)
Schnittstelle Verletzung (1)
Verbindungsstelle zweier EDV-Ger�te (2)
Werkstatt eines Bartscherers (0)
Slot Steckerleiste im Computer (2)
einarmiger Bandit (1)
niederdeutsch f�r Kamin (0)

Seite 389
Fortran starker Lebertran (0)
Formal Trash Notation (0)
Programmiersprache (2)
Mainframe Frachtkahn auf dem Main (0)
Damit wollte Fridtjof Nansen zum Nordpol (0)
gro�er Computer (2)
PC Plumpsklo (Gravitationstoilette) (1)
Personal Computer (2)
Power Computing Language (0)
Puffer Was zum Essen, aus Kartoffeln (1)
Was am Eisenbahnwagen (1)
Zwischenspeicher (2)
Software Rohstoff f�r Softice (0)
Programme, Daten und so Zeugs (2)
was zum Trinken (0)
Port was zum Trinken (1)
Hafen (1)
Steckdose f�r Peripherieger�te (2)
Strichcode maschinell lesbarer Code (2)
Geheimsprache im Rotlichtviertel (0)
Urliste in der Statistik (0)
Chip was zum Essen (1)
was zum Spielen (1)
Halbleiterbaustein (2)
Pointer Hund (1)
starker Whisky (0)
Zeiger auf Daten, Adresse (2)
Page Hotelboy (1)
englisch, Seite in einem Buch (1)
Untergliederung eines Speichers (2)
Character was manchen Politikern fehlt (1)
Schriftzeichen (2)
Wasserfall (0)

Seite 390
Betriebssystem Konzern (0)
betriebsinternes Telefonsystem (0)
wichtigstes Programm im Computer (2)
Traktor Papiereinzugsvorrichtung (2)
landwirtschaftliches Fahrzeug (1)
Zahl beim Multiplizieren (0)
Treiber Hilfsperson bei der Jagd (1)
Programm zum Ansprechen der Peripherie (2)
Vorarbeiter (0)
Animator was zum Trinken (1)
Unterhalter (1)
Programm f�r bewegte Grafik (2)
Hackbrett Musikinstrument (1)
Werkzeug im Hackbau (0)
Tastatur (2)
emulieren nachahmen (2)
�l in Wasser verteilen (0)
entpflichten (0)
Font Menge von Schriftzeichen (2)
So�engrundlage (1)
Hintergrund, Geldmenge (0)
Server Brettsegler (0)
Kellner (0)
Computer f�r Dienstleistungen (2)
Yabbawhap Datenkompressionsprogramm (2)
Kriegsruf der S�dstadt-Indianer (0)
was zum Essen (0)
Terminal Schnittstelle Mensch - Computer (2)
Bahnhof oder Hafen (1)
Zubeh�r zu Drahttauwerk (1)
Ampersand Sand aus der Amper (1)
et-Zeichen, Kaufmanns-Und (2)
Untiefe im Wattenmeer (0)

Seite 391
Alias altgriechisches Epos (0)
alttestamentarischer Prophet (0)
Zweitname (2)
Buscontroller Busfahrer (0)
Busschaffner (0)
Programm zur Steuerung eines Datenbusses (2)
Algol was zum Trinken (0)
Doppelstern (1)
Programmiersprache (2)
Rom Stadt in Italien (1)
schwedisch f�r Rum (1)
Read only memory (2)
Dram Dynamic random access memory (2)
d�nisch f�r Schnaps (1)
Stra�enbahn (0)
Diskette M�dchen, das oft in Discos geht (0)
weiblicher Diskjockey (0)
Massenspeicher (2)
Directory oberste Etage einer Firma (0)
Inhaltsverzeichnis (2)
Kunststil zur Zeit der Franz. Revolution (0)
Dekrement was die Verdauung �brig l��t (0)
Anordnung von oben (0)
Wert, um den ein Z�hler verringert wird (2)
Sprungbefehl Vorkommnis w�hrend Ihres Wehrdienstes (0)
Kommando im Pferdesport (0)
Anweisung in einem Programm (2)
Oktalzahl Ma� f�r die Klopffestigkeit (0)
Zahl zur Basis 8 (2)
Anzahl der Oktaven einer Orgel (0)
Subroutine Kleidungsst�ck eines Priesters (0)
was im Unterbewu�ten (0)
Unterprogramm (2)

Seite 392
Spoiler Was zum Essen (0)
Posting in den Netnews (2)
Was am Auto (1)
virtuell tugendhaft (0)
die Augen betreffend (0)
nicht wirklich vorhanden, scheinbar (2)
Klammeraffe ASCII-Zeichen (2)
B�roger�t (1)
Affenart in S�damerika (0)
ESC Eisenbahner-Spar- und Creditverein (0)
Eishockeyclub (0)
escape, Fluchtsymbol (2)
Monitor Karlsruher Brauerei (0)
Fernsehsendung (1)
Bildschirmger�t, �berwachungsprogramm (2)
Unix T�tensuppe (0)
Freund von Asterix und Obelix (0)
hervorragendes Betriebssystem (2)
Joystick Computerzubeh�r (2)
m�nnlicher K�rperteil (0)
Hebel am Spielautomat (0)
Maus kleines S�ugetier (1)
Computerzubeh�r (2)
junge Dame (1)
Icon russisches Heiligenbild (0)
Sinnbild (2)
Kamerafabrik (0)
Pascal franz�sischer Mathematiker (1)
Ma�einheit f�r Druck (1)
Programmiersprache (2)
Wysiwyg englisch f�r Wolpertinger (0)
franz�sisch f�r Elmentritschen (0)
what you see is what you get (2)

Seite 393
Register was in Flensburg (1)
was an der Orgel (1)
Speicher (2)
Record was im Sport (1)
englisch f�r Blockfl�te (0)
Datensatz (2)
HP High Price (0)
Hewlett-Packard (2)
Horse Power (1)
Kermit Dichtungspaste (0)
Frosch aus der Muppet-Show (1)
Datei�bertragungs-Protokoll (2)
Ethernet Baustoff (Asbestzement) (0)
Local Area Network (2)
Student der ETH Z�rich (0)
Algorithmus �berm��iger Genu� geistiger Getr�nke (0)
Krankheit (0)
Rechenvorschrift (2)
File Was zum Essen, vom Metzger (0)
Menge von Daten (2)
Durchtriebener Kerl (0)
Bug Vorderteil eines Schiffes (1)
Fehler im Programm (2)
englisch f�r Wanze (1)
Router jemand mit Routine (0)
franz�sischer LKW-Fahrer (0)
Verbindungsglied zweier Netze (2)
Zylinder Kopfbedeckung (1)
Teil einer Kolbenmaschine (1)
Unterteilung eines Plattenspeichers (2)
FTP kleine, aber liberale Partei (0)
File Transfer Protocol (2)
Floating Point Processor (0)

Seite 394
Dom�ne Geist(0)
Bereich (2)
Blume (0)
Bridge Kartenspiel (1)
internationales Computernetz (0)
Verbindung zweier Computernetze (2)
Email Glasur (1)
elektronische Post (2)
Sultanspalast (0)
Baum was im Wald (Wurzel unten) (1)
was auf einem Schiff (keine Wurzel) (1)
was aus der Informatik (Wurzel oben) (2)
Internet Schule mit Schlafgelegenheit (0)
Zwischenraum (0)
Weltweites Computernetz (2)
Split UNIX-Kommando (2)
kantige Steinchen (0)
Stadt in Dalmatien (1)
Mini Damenoberbekleidung (1)
kleiner Computer (2)
Frau von Mickey Mouse (0)
Cut Herrenoberbekleidung (1)
Colonia Ulpia Traiana (1)
UNIX-Kommando (2)
2B|!2B Parallelprozessor (0)
Assembler-Befehl (0)
ein Wort Hamlets (2)
Shell Filmschauspielerin (Maria S.) (0)
Kommando-Interpreter (2)
Mineral�l-Gesellschaft (1)
Slip Unterbekleidung (1)
Schlupfschuh (0)
Internet-Protokoll (2)

Seite 395
Di�resis Durchfall (0)
Diakritisches Zeichen (Umlaute) (2)
Ern�hrungslehre (0)
Space Bar Kneipe im Weltraum (www.spacebar.com) (0)
Ma�einheit f�r den Druck im Weltraum (0)
Gr��te Taste auf der Tastatur (2)
Popper Popcorn-R�ster (0)
Mail-Programm (2)
Philosoph aus Wien (1)
Rohling W�ster Kerl (1)
Noch zu beschreibende CD/DVD (2)
Rohkost-Liebhaber (0)
Schleife Kleidungsst�ck (1)
Schlitterbahn (1)
Kontrollanweisung eines Programmes (2)
Alex Altlasten-Expertensystem (1)
Automatic Login Executor (1)
Globales Dateisystem (1)
Altair Stern (Alpha Aquilae) (1)
Gebirge in Zentralasien (0)
fr�her Personal Computer (2)
Halbbitter Was zum Essen (Schokolade) (1)
Strom- und bitsparender Prozessor (0)
Was zum Trinken (0)
Eure Priorit�t Anrede des Priors in einem Kloster (0)
Anrede des Ersten Sekret�rs im Vatikan (0)
Anrede des Systemverwalters (6)
Z�hlen Sie Ihre Punkte zusammen. Die Auswertung ergibt Folgendes:
? �ber 170 Punkte: �berlassen Sie das Rechnen k�nftig dem Computer.
? 85 bis 170 Punkte: Mit etwas Flei� wird aus Ihnen ein EDV-Experte.
? 18 bis 84 Punkte: Machen Sie eine m�glichst steile Karriere au�erhalb
der EDV und suchen Sie sich f�hige Mitarbeiter.
? unter 18 Punkten: Vielleicht hatten Sie schlechte Lehrer?

Seite 396
V GNU Lizenzen
V.1 GNU General Public License
Kopiert von http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright � 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to sha-
re and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to
guarantee your freedom to share and change free software---to make sure the
software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most
of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose
authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is
covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply
it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our
General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom
to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish),
that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change
the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you
can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to
deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restricti-
ons translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the
software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or
for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must
make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must
show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribu-
te and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that
everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the
software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to
know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced
by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.

Seite 397
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We
wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually
obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent
this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's
free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification
follow.
GNU General Public License
Terms and Conditions For Copying, Distribution and Modification
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a no-
tice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under
the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to
any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means
either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is
to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim
or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Herein-
after, translation is included without limitation in the term "modificati-
on".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not co-
vered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the
Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered
only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent
of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true de-
pends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source co-
de as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this Li-
cense and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients
of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you
may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it,
thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such
modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that
you also meet all of these conditions:
(a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating
that you changed the files and the date of any change.
(b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part
thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties
under the terms of this License.

Seite 398
(c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such in-
teractive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an an-
nouncement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice
that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a war-
ranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these
conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
(Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normal-
ly print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is
not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifia-
ble sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be
reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves,
then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you
distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same
sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the
distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose
permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to
each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your
rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the
right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on
the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume
of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under
Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
(a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software inter-
change; or,
(b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to
give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physi-
cally performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable
copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the
terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for
software interchange; or,
(c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to
distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed
only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the

Seite 399
program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in
accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code
means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated
interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and
installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source
code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed
(in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler,
kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs,
unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access
to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy
the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source
code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source
along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except
as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy,
modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automa-
tically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who
have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have
their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full complian-
ce.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed
it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute
the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law
if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distribu-
ting the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your
acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for
copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Pro-
gram), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original
licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms
and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the reci-
pients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for
enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringe-
ment or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are
imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that
contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the
conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simul-
taneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent
obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program
at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free re-
distribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or

Seite 400
indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and
this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Pro-
gram.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any
particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply
and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents
or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims;
this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free
software distribution system, which is implemented by public license
practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide
range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consis-
tent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if
he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and
a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be
a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain coun-
tries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copy-
right holder who places the Program under this License may add an ex-
plicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so
that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus exclu-
ded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written
in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditi-
ons either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number
of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free
Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs
whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask
for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software
Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes ma-
ke exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of
preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of
promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
No Warranty

Seite 401
11. Because the program is licensed free of charge, there is no warranty for
the program, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Except when
otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/or other parties
provide the program "as is" without warranty of any kind, either expres-
sed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire risk as
to the quality and performance of the program is with you. Should the
program prove defective, you assume the cost of all necessary servicing,
repair or correction.
12. In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing will
any copyright holder, or any other party who may modify and/or redis-
tribute the program as permitted above, be liable to you for damages,
including any general, special, incidental or consequential damages ari-
sing out of the use or inability to use the program (including but not
limited to loss of data or data being rendered inaccurate or losses sustai-
ned by you or third parties or a failure of the program to operate with
any other programs), even if such holder or other party has been advised
of the possibility of such damages.
End of Terms and Conditions
Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible
use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which
everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach
them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of
warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer
to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it
does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published
by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License,
or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty
of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PUR-
POSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foun-
dation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307,
USA.

Seite 402
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when
it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for de-
tails type 'show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under
certain conditions; type 'show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands show w and show c should show the appro-
priate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use
may be called something other than show w and show c; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
program
'Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by
James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public
License instead of this License.
V.2 GNU Free Documentation License
Kopiert von http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright �2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The purpose of this license is to make a manual, textbook, or other functio-
nal and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, eit-
her commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this license preserves for

Seite 403
the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being
considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This license is a kind of copyleft, which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements
the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.
We have designed this license in order to use it for manuals for free soft-
ware, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should
come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But
this license is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textu-
al work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed
book. We recommend this license principally for works whose purpose is in-
struction or reference.
1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This license applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
under the terms of this license. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free
license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated
herein. The Document, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member
of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as you. You accept the license if
you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under
copyright law.
A Modified Version of the Document means any work containing the Do-
cument or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or
translated into another language.
A Secondary Section is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related mat-
ters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
(Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Sec-
tion may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter
of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The Invariant Sections are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are
designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that
the Document is released under this license. If a section does not fit the above
definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not
identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.
The Cover Texts are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-
Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is
released under this license. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and
a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A Transparent copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, re-
presented in a format whose specification is available to the general public,

Seite 404
that is suitable for revising the Document straightforwardly with generic text
editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for dra-
wings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable
for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or
discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image
format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy
that is not Transparent is called Opaque.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII
without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML
using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, Post-
Script or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent
image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprie-
tary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors,
SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by
some word processors for output purposes only.
The Title Page means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this license re-
quires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, TTitle Pagemmeans the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
A section Entitled XYZ means a named subunit of the Document whose
title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text
that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific sec-
tion name mentioned below, such as Acknowledgements, Dedications, Endor-
sements, or History.) To Preserve the Title of such a section when you modify
the Document means that it remains a section Entitled XYZ according to this
definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
states that this license applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers
are considered to be included by reference in this license, but only as regards
disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclai-
mers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this license.
2. VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either com-
mercially or noncommercially, provided that this license, the copyright noti-
ces, and the license notice saying this license applies to the Document are
reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to
those of this license. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control
the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However,
you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you
may publicly display copies.

Seite 405
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have prin-
ted covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's
license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that
carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front
cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly
and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must
present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible.
You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes
limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you
should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover,
and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
a computer-network location from which the general network-using public
has access to download using public-standard network protocols a comple-
te Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the
latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distri-
bution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the
last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
retailers) of that edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Do-
cument well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a
chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
4. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Mo-
dified Version under precisely this license, with the Modified Version filling
the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the
Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
these things in the Modified Version:
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that
of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if
there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You
may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
that version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities re-
sponsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version,
together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all
of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
from this requirement.

Seite 406
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version,
as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
the other copyright notices.
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
license, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this license.
I. Preserve the section entitled History, Preserve its title, and add to it
an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the
Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled
History in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item
describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network
locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on.
These may be placed in the History section. You may omit a network
location for a work that was published at least four years before the
Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
gives permission.
K. For any section entitled Acknowledgements or Dedications, Preserve the
title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone
of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not consi-
dered part of the section titles.
M. Delete any section entitled Endorsements. Such a section may not be
included in the Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be entitled Endorsements or to
conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices
that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the
Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as
invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the
Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other
section titles.

Seite 407
You may add a section entitled Endorsements, provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties -- for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organiza-
tion as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover
Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one
of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any
one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one,
on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this license give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorse-
ment of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
license, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, pro-
vided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all
of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections
of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their
Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this license, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make
the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses,
the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled History in
the various original documents, forming one section entitled History; likewise
combine any sections entitled Acknowledgements, and any sections entitled
Dedications. You must delete all sections entitled Endorsements.
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other docu-
ments released under this license, and replace the individual copies of this
license in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the col-
lection, provided that you follow the rules of this license for verbatim copying
of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this license, provided you insert a copy of this license into
the extracted document, and follow this license in all other respects regarding
verbatim copying of that document.

Seite 408
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and
independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution
medium, is called an aggregate if the copyright resulting from the compilation
is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the
individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate,
this license does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not
themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies
of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire
aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket
the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if
the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed
covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute
translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Inva-
riant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copy-
right holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sec-
tions in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may
include a translation of this license, and all the license notices in the Docu-
ment, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the ori-
ginal English version of this license and the original versions of those notices
and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the
original version of this license or a notice or disclaimer, the original version
will prevail.
If a section in the Document is entitled Acknowledgements, Dedications,
or History, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its title (section 1) will
typically require changing the actual title.
9. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided for under this license. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically termina-
te your rights under this license. However, parties who have received copies,
or rights, from you under this license will not have their licenses terminated
so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address
new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Seite 409
Each version of the license is given a distinguishing version number. If
the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this license or
any later version applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been
published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document
does not specify a version number of this license, you may choose any version
ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
ADDENDUM: How to use this license for your documents
To use this license in a document you have written, include a copy of the
license in the Document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:
Copyright �YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy,
distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the
GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later ver-
sion published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant
Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of
the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documen-
tation License.
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the with...Texts. line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combi-
nation of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recom-
mend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software
license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free
software.

Seite 410
W Zeittafel
Die meisten Errungenschaften entwickelten sich �ber manchmal lange Zeit-
spannen, so dass vor einige Jahreszahlen um etwa zu setzen ist. Auch sind an
der Entwicklung oft mehrere Personen in unterschiedlichem Ma� beteiligt,
was sich in der folgenden �bersicht nicht immer ber�cksichtigen l�sst.
-10E8 Der beliebte Tyrannosaurus hatte zwei Finger an jeder Hand
und rechnete vermutlich im Dualsystem, wenn �berhaupt.
-2000 Die Babylonier verwenden f�r besondere Aufgaben ein
gemischtes Stellenwertsystem zur Basis 60.
Griechen und Perser arbeiten mit Rechenbrettern.
-400 In China werden Z�hlst�bchen zum Rechnen verwendet.
20 In der Bergpredigt wird das Bin�rsystem erw�hnt (Matth. 5, 37).
Die R�mer schieben Rechensteinchen (calculi) auf dem Abakus herum.
600 Die Inder entwickeln das heute �bliche reine Stellenwertsystem,
die Null ist jedoch �lter. Etwa gleichzeitig entwickeln die Mayas
in Mittelamerika ein Stellenwertsystem zur Basis 20.
1200 Leonardo von Pisa, genannt Fibonacci, setzt sich f�r die
Einf�hrung des indisch-arabischen Zahlensystems im Abendland ein.
1550 Die europ�ischen Rechenmeister verwenden sowohl die r�mische
als auch die indisch-arabische Schreibweise.
1617 John Napier erfindet die Rechenknochen (Napier's Bones).
1623 Erste mechanische Rechenmaschine mit Zehner�bertragung
und Multiplikation, von Wilhelm Schickard, T�bingen.
1642 Rechenmaschine von Blaise Pascal, Paris f�r kaufm�nnische
Rechnungen seines Vaters.
1674 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz baut eine mechanische
Rechenmaschine f�r die vier Grundrechenarten und befasst sich
mit der dualen Darstellung von Zahlen. In der Folgezeit
technische Verbesserungen an vielen Stellen in Europa.
1714 Henry Mill erh�lt ein Patent auf eine Schreibmaschine.
1778 Rechenmaschine des schw�bischen Pfarrers Philipp Matth�us Hahn.
1801 Joseph Marie Jacquard erfindet die Lochkarte aus Holz und
steuert Webst�hle damit.
1821 Charles Babbage stellt der Royal Astronomical Society
eine programmierbare mechanische Rechenmaschine vor, die
jedoch keinen wirtschaftlichen Erfolg hat. Er denkt auch an
das Spielen von Schach oder Tic-tac-toe auf Maschinen.
1840 Samuel Finley Breeze Morse entwickelt einen aus zwei
Zeichen plus Pausen bestehenden Telegrafencode, der die
Buchstaben entsprechend ihrer H�ufigkeit codiert.
1847 George Boole entwickelt die symbolische Logik.
1852 Ada Lovelace stirbt, eine fr�he Informatikerin

Seite 411
1861 Johann Philipp Reis erfindet das Telephon.
1873 Eliphalet Remington and Sons, NY, stellen au�er Gewehren
und N�hmaschinen auch Schreibmaschinen her. 1886 trennen sie sich
vom Schreibmaschinenbereich, der sp�ter den Namen Remington Rand
und noch sp�ter den Namen Sperry Rand tr�gt.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell erh�lt ein Patent auf sein Telefon.
1877 Gr�ndung der Bell Telephone Company, heute AT&T.
1890 Herman Hollerith erfindet die Lochkartenmaschine und
setzt sie bei einer Volksz�hlung in den USA ein. Das ist der
Anfang von IBM.
1894 Otto Luegers Lexikon der gesamten Technik f�hrt
unter dem Stichwort Elektrizit�t als Halbleiter �ther,
Alkohol, Holz und Papier auf.
1895 Erste �bertragungen mittels Radio (Alexander Popow,
Guglielmo Marconi).
1896 Gr�ndung der Tabulating Machine Company, der sp�teren IBM.
1898 Valdemar Poulsen erfindet die magnetische Aufzeichnung
von T�nen (Telegraphon).
1900 01. Januar 1900 00:00:00 GMT Nullpunkt der gegenw�rtigen
NTP-�ra (eine NTP-�ra umfasst 136 Jahre).
1910 Gr�ndung der Deutschen Hollerith Maschinen GmbH, Berlin,
der Vorl�uferin der IBM Deutschland.
1918 Das Enigma-Verschl�sselungsverfahren entwickelt.
1924 Aus der Tabulating Machine Company von Herman Hollerith,
sp�ter in Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company umbenannt,
wird die International Business Machines (IBM).
1930 Edwin Link baut -- anstatt Pianos und Orgeln wie sein Vater --
einen mechanischen Flugsimulator f�r �bungs- und Vergn�gungszwecke
und erh�lt ein Patent darauf. Der Link-Trainer erlangt Verbreitung.
1932 Die Firma AEG baut das erste Tonbandger�t mit dem Namen
Magnetophon. Die B�nder dazu liefert die BASF.
1936 Erste Direkt�bertragung im deutschen Fernsehen anl�sslich der
Olympischen Spiele in Berlin.
1937 Alan Turing ver�ffentlicht sein Computermodell.
1938 Konrad Zuse stellt den programmgesteuerten Rechner Z 1 fertig.
Ein sp�terer Nachbau schafft 1 Rechenoperation pro Sekunde.
Elektronische bin�re Addiermaschine von John Vincent Atanasoff
und Clifford Berry, Iowa State University, zur L�sung linearer
Gleichungssysteme.
1939 Konrad Zuse stellt die Z 2 fertig.
Gr�ndung der Firma Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, Kalifornien
durch William Hewlett und David Packard. Ihr erstes
Produkt ist ein Oszillator f�r Tonfrequenzen (Messtechnik).
1941 Konrad Zuse stellt die Z 3 fertig.
1942 Die Purdue University beginnt mit der Halbleiterforschung und
untersucht Germaniumkristalle.
1943 Der Computer Colossus, Bletchley Park/Buckinghamshire UK,

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entschl�sselt deutsche Milit�rnachrichten (Enigma).
IBM-Chef Thomas Watson sch�tzt den weltweiten Bedarf an
Computern auf 5 (f�nf) St�ck.
1944 Die Zuse Z 4 wird fertig (2200 Relais, mechanischer Speicher).
Sie arbeitet von 1950 bis 1960 in der Schweiz.
An der Harvard University bauen Howard Aiken und Grace Hopper
die Mark I in Relaistechnik. Die Maschine l�uft bis 1959.
1945 Konrad Zuse entwickelt den Plankalk�l, die erste h�here
Programmiersprache.
William Bradford Shockley startet ein Forschungsprojekt zur
Halbleiterphysik in den Bell-Labs.
Vannevar Bush entwickelt ein System zur Informationsspeicherung
und -suche, das auf Mikrofilmen beruht.
1946 John von Neumann ver�ffentlicht sein Computerkonzept.
John Presper Eckert und John William Mauchly bauen in
den USA die ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Computer). Die ENIAC rechnet dezimal, enth�lt 18000 Vakuumr�hren,
wiegt 30 t, ist 5,5 m hoch und 24 m lang, braucht f�r eine Addition
0,2 ms, ist an der Entwicklung der Wasserstoffbombe beteiligt und
arbeitet bis 1955. Sie ist der Urahne der UNIVAC.
1948 Claude Elwood Shannon begr�ndet die Informationstheorie.
John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain und
William Bradford Shockley entwickeln in den Bell-Labs
den Transistor, der 10 Jahre sp�ter die Vakuumr�hre abl�st.
1949 Erster Schachcomputer: Manchester MADM. Das Wort Bit kreiert.
1950 An der ETH Z�rich geht die Zuse Z 4 in Betrieb.
1952 IBM bringt ihre erste elektronische Datenverarbeitungs-
anlage, die IBM 701, heraus.
1953 IBM baut die erste Magnetbandmaschine zur Datenspeicherung (726).
1954 Remington-Rand bringt die erste UNIVAC heraus, IBM die 650.
Silizium beginnt Germanium zu verdr�ngen.
1955 IBM entwickelt die erste h�here Programmiersprache, die
Verbreitung erlangt: FORTRAN (Formula Translator) und verwendet
Transistoren in ihren Computern.
1956 Konrad Zuse baut die Z 22, die mit R�hren arbeitet.
Sie kommt 1958 auf den Markt. Bis 1961 werden 50 St�ck verkauft.
Bardeen, Brattain und Shockley erhalten den Nobelpreis
f�r Physik.
IBM stellt die erste Festplatte vor (IBM 350 Disk File f�r den
Computer RAMAC 305), Kapazit�t 5 MByte, gro� wie ein Schrank,
Gewicht 1 to, bestehend aus 50 Scheiben zu 24 Zoll, 50.000 US-$.
1957 Die IBM 709 braucht f�r eine Multiplikation 0,12 ms.
Weltweit arbeiten rund 1300 Computer.
Seminar von Prof. Johannes Weissinger �ber Programm-
gesteuerte Rechenmaschinen im SS 1957 der TH Karlsruhe.
Karl Steinbuch (Firma SEL, sp�ter TH Karlsruhe) pr�gt den
Begriff Informatik.

Seite 413
Erster Satellit (Sputnik, Sowjetunion) kreist um die Erde.
1958 Als eine Reaktion auf den Sputnik gr�ndet das us-amerikanische
Verteidigungsministerium (DoD) die Denkfabrik Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA), die sp�ter das ARPANET aufbaut.
Marvin Lee Minsky pr�gt den Begriff Artificial Intelligence.
Die TH Karlsruhe erh�lt ihren ersten Computer, eine ZUSE Z 22,
finanziert vom Land Baden-W�rttemberg.
Die Maschine verwendet 400 Vakuumr�hren und wiegt 1 t. Der
Arbeitsspeicher fasst 16 W�rter zu 38 Bits, d. h. 76 Byte. Der
Massenspeicher, eine Magnettrommel, fasst rund 40 KByte. Eine
Gleitkommaoperation dauert 70 ms. Das System versteht nur
Maschinensprache (Freiburger Code) und l�uft bis 1972.
Im SS 1958 h�lt Priv.-Doz. Karl Nickel (Institut f�r Angew.
Mathematik) eine Vorlesung Programmieren mathematischer und
technischer Probleme f�r die elektronische Rechenmaschine Z 22.
Die Programmiersprache ALGOL 58 kommt heraus.
Bei Texas Instruments baut Jack St. Clair Kilby den ersten IC;
im Jahr 2000 erh�lt er daf�r den Nobelpreis f�r Physik.
1959 Im SS 1959 h�lt Priv.-Doz. Karl Nickel erstmals die
Vorlesung Programmieren I, im WS 1959/60 die Vorlesung
Programmieren II. Erstes Werk von Hewlett-Packard in
Deutschland. Siemens baut die Siemens 2002.
1960 Programmieren steht noch in keinem Studienplan, sondern
ist freiwillig. Die Karlsruher Z 22 arbeitet Tag und Nacht.
Die Programmiersprache COBOL wird ver�ffentlicht.
Ein Computerspiel namens Spacewar l�uft auf einer
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-1 im MIT eingsetzt.
Alan Shugart entwickelt ein Verfahren zur Aufzeichnung von
Daten auf einer magnetisch beschichteten Scheibe.
1961 Die TH Karlsruhe erh�lt im Zuge der Berufungsverhandlungen von
Prof. Nickel eine Zuse Z 23, die mit 2400 Transistoren arbeitet.
Ihr Hauptspeicher fasst 240 W�rter zu 40 Bits.
Eine Gleitkommaoperation dauert 15 ms. Au�er Maschinensprache
versteht sie ALGOL.
Weltweit arbeiten etwa 7300 Computer.
1962 Die TH Karlsruhe erh�lt einen SEL ER 56, der bis 1968 l�uft.
An der Purdue University wird die erste Fakult�t f�r Informatik
(Department of Computer Science) gegr�ndet.
Texas Instruments und Fairchild nehmen die Serienproduktion von ICs
(Chips) auf.
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (1912--1990) hat zwei Visionen: den interaktiven
Computer und das galaktische Netz (wenn schon, denn schon). Er wird
Direktor in der ARPA und geht an die Verwirklichung seiner Visionen.
Ivan Sutherland entwickelt ein Grafiksystem namens Sketchball.
Morton Heilig meldet sein Sensorama zum Patent an, einen
multimedialen Simulator mit Bild, Ton und Geruch.
1963 Weltweit arbeiten etwa 16.500 Computer.

Seite 414
Erster geostation�rer Satellit (Syncom).
Ivan E. Sutherland entwickelt in seiner Doktorarbeit am MIT
das Sketchpad, einen grafischen Bildschirm mit Lichtgriffel, und
wird damit zum Vater der Computergrafik.
Der ASCII-Standard wird verabschiedet.
1964 John Kemeny und Thomas Kurtz ver�ffentlichen die Programmiersprache BASIC.
Paul Baran entwickelt bei der RAND Corporation die Idee paketvermittelter Netze.
Douglas Carl Engelbart erfindet am Stanford Research Institute
die Maus und die Fenstertechnik und hat zukunbftsweisende Visionen.
IBM legt das Byte zu 8 Bits fest (IBM 360).
Ein Chip enth�lt auf 0,5 cm2 10 Transistoren.
1965 Beginn des Betriebssystems MULTICS bei MIT, Bell und
General Electric. Aus dessen Misserfolg erw�chst sp�ter UNIX.
Gordon Earle Moore ver�ffentlicht das nach ihm benannte Gesetz.
Theodor Holm (Ted) Nelson pr�gt den Begriff Hypertext.
1966 Die TH Karlsruhe erh�lt eine Electrologica X 8, die bis
1973 betrieben wird. Gr�ndung des Karlsruher Rechenzentrums.
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-9 auf dem Markt.
Hewlett-Packard steigt in die Computerei ein (HP 2116 A).
1967 Erster elektronischer Taschenrechner (Texas Instruments) entwickelt.
Beim Bundesministerium f�r wissenschaftliche Forschung wird
ein Fachbeirat f�r Datenverarbeitung gebildet.
Die Sekunde wird von ihrer astronomischen Definition auf eine
atomphysikalische umgestellt.
Ivan E. Sutherland entwickelt an der Harvard University einen
Helm mit binokularem Display und bringt damit die Virtual Reality
ein gutes St�ck voran.
Niklaus Wirth beginnt an der ETH Z�rich mit der Arbeit an PASCAL.
IBM stellt die ersten Disketten her, Durchmesser 8 Zoll, Kapazit�t ??.
1968 Am 26. Februar entscheiden sich ma�gebende Vertreter der
Computerwissenschaft im deutschsprachigen Raum im Anschluss an
ein internationales Kolloquium in Dresden f�r die Bezeichnung
Informatik nach franz�sischem Beispiel.
Die Programmiersprache PASCAL kommt heraus. Gordon Earle Moore und
Robert Norton Noyce gr�nden die Firma Integrated Electronics (Intel).
gegr�ndet. Hewlett-Packard baut den ersten wissenschaftlichen
programmierbaren Tischrechner (HP 9100 A).
1969 In Karlsruhe wird am 1. Januar das Institut f�r Informatik
gegr�ndet, Direktor Karl Nickel. Im WS 1969/70 beginnt in
Karlsruhe die Informatik als Vollstudium mit 91 Erstsemestern.
Gr�ndung der Gesellschaft f�r Informatik (GI) in Bonn.
In den Bell Labs UNIX in Assembler auf einer DEC PDP 7
(K. L. Thompson).
Beginn des ARPANET-Projektes, erste Teilnehmer U. of California at
Los Angeles, Stanford Research Institute, U. of California at
Santa Barbara und U. of Utah. Ma�geblich beteiligt sind Steve Crocker,
David H. Crocker, Jon Postel, Vinton Cerf, Robert Kahn und Robert Braden.

Seite 415
RFC 0001: Host Software, von Steve Crocker, Mitarbeiter der UCLA.
1970 Die Universit�t Karlsruhe erh�lt eine UNIVAC 1108,
die bis 1987 l�uft und damit den hiesigen Rekord an Betriebsjahren
h�lt. Preis 23 MDM, 3 Zentraleinheiten, 256 Kilo-W�rter zu
je 36 Bits Arbeitsspeicher, 20 Bildschirme.
Die Karlsruher Fakult�t f�r Informatik wird gegr�ndet.
Am 01. Januar 1970 00:00:00 GMT beginnt die UNIX-Uhr zu laufen.
1971 UNIX auf C umgeschrieben, erster Mikroprozessor (Intel 4004).
Alan Shugart entwickelt bei IBM die Floppy Disk.
Die Internet-Protokolle FTP (RFC 114) und Telnet (RFC 137) werden
vorgeschlagen und diskutiert.
Project Gutenberg von Michael Stern Hart an der U. of Illinois gestartet.
1972 IBM entwickelt das Konzept des virtuellen Speichers und
stellt die 8-Zoll-Floppy-Disk vor. Xerox (Robert Metcalfe),
DEC und Intel entwickeln den Ethernet-Standard.
Das ARPANET wird der �ffentlichkeit vorgestellt.
Ein Student namens Stephan G. Wozniak l�tet sich einen
Computer zusammen, der den Smoke-Test nicht �bersteht.
In der Bundesrepublik arbeiten rund 8.200 Computer.
Erster wissenschaftlicher Taschenrechner (Hewlett-Packard 35).
1973 Erste internationale Teilnehmer am ARPANET: NORSAR
(Norwegian Seismic Array), Norwegen und U. College of London.
Robert Melancton Metcalfe ver�ffentlicht Gedanken, die
1975 beim Xerox PARC zur Entwicklung von Ethernet f�hren.
1974 Der erste programmierbare Taschenrechner kommt auf den
Markt (Hewlett-Packard 65), Preis 2500 DM.
1975 UNIX wird ver�ffentlicht (Version 6), Beginn der BSD-Entwicklung.
Die Zeitschrift Byte wird gegr�ndet.
Erste, m��ig erfolgreiche Personal Computer (Xerox, Altair).
Die Firma Microsoft Corporation von William Henry Gates III.
und Paul Allen gegr�ndet.
Das Xerox PARC meldet Ethernet zum Patent an.
Die Computer-Tomografie dringt in die Medizin und andere Gebiete ein.
1976 Steven P. Jobs und Stephan G. Wozniak gr�nden
die Firma Apple und bauen den Apple I. Er kostet 666,66 Dollar.
Alan Shugart stellt die 5,25-Zoll-Diskette vor.
Die nichtprozedurale Datenbanksprache SQL -- entwickelt von
Edgar F. Codd bei IBM -- wird ver�ffentlicht.
Whitfield Diffie und Martin E. Hellmann ver�ffentlichen
die erste Arbeit �ber unsymmetrische Verschl�sselung.
1977 Robert E. Kahn und Vinton Gray Cerf ver�ffentlichen
das Konzept von TCP/IP, anfangs Kahn-Cerf-Protokolle (1974) genannt.
1978 In der Bundesrepublik arbeiten rund 170.000 Computer.
Der Commodore PET 2001 -- ein Vorl�ufer des C64 -- kommt heraus,
4 bis 32 kbyte Arbeitsspeicher, Bildschirm 25 Zeilen zu 40 Zeichen.
Erste Tabellenkalkulation Visicalc, f�r den Apple II,
von Dan Bricklin und Bob Frankston, Harvard University.

Seite 416
Erste Fassung von TeX (Donald Ervin Knuth) ver�ffentlicht.
Das Network Time Protocol (NTP) wird in Gebrauch genommen.
1979 Faxdienst in Deutschland eingef�hrt.
Beginn des Usenet in der Duke University und der University of
North Carolina auf der Basis von uucp-Verbindungen (Steve M. Bellovin).
Die Zusammenarbeit von Apple mit Rank Xerox f�hrt zur Apple
Lisa, ein Mi�erfolg, aber der Wegbereiter f�r den Macintosh.
Plattenherstellerfirma Seagate gegr�ndet.
Gr�ndung der Satelliten-Kommunikations-Firma Inmarsat.
Bjarne Stroustrup beginnt mit der Entwicklung von C++.
Programmiersprache Ada ver�ffentlicht.
Betriebssystem DOS f�r Intel 8086/8088 von Fa. Seattle Computer
Products entwickelt, sp�ter von Microsoft erworben.
1980 Erster Jugendprogrammier-Wettbewerb der GI.
Erster Home-Computer: Sinclair ZX-80, f�r rund 500 DM.
Sony f�hrt die 3,5-Zoll-Diskette ein. In den Folgejahren entwickeln
andere Firmen auch Disketten mit Durchmessern von 3 bis 4 Zoll.
Microsoft bringt Xenix, ein UNIX f�r PCs, heraus.
1981 Die Universit�t Karlsruhe erh�lt eine Siemens 7881 als
zentralen Rechner.
IBM bringt in den USA den IBM-PC heraus mit PC-DOS 1.0
(MS DOS) als wichtigstem Betriebssystem.
In Berlin wird der Chaos Computer Club gegr�ndet.
Xanadu-Projekt von Ted Nelson, ein Vorl�ufer des Web.
1982 Die Firma Sun Microsystems wird gegr�ndet, entscheidet sich f�r
UNIX und baut die ersten Workstations.
Jim Clark gr�ndet Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI)
Scott E. Fahlman, damals Student an der CMU, ver�ffentlicht den ersten
Grinsling (Smiley, Emoticon) :-).
Beginn des EuNETs, einer der ersten deutschen Internet-Provider,
an der Universit�t Dortmund.
William Gibson pr�gt das Wort Cyberspace.
Morton Heilig pr�sentiert einen Spielautomaten f�r Motorrad-
und Auto-Simulationen mit Stereotonfilm, Gebl�se, Ger�chen und
vibrierenden Sitzen, echt multimedial, aber erfolglos, da zu teuer.
1983 Die Universit�t Karlsruhe erh�lt einen Vektorrechner Cyber 205
und eine Siemens 7865. Die Cyber leistet 400 Mio. Flops.
Beginn des Lokalen Informatiknetzes Karlsruhe (LINK), ab 1984
Xlink, in der Fakult�t f�r Informatik der Universit�t Karlsruhe.
IBM bringt den PC auf den deutschen Markt.
UNIX kommt als System V von AT&T in den Handel,
die erste Ausgabe der Zeitschrift Computertechnik (c't) erscheint
(Nr. 12/83 vom Oktober 1983).
Gr�ndung der X/Open-Gruppe.
MS-DOS 2.0 (PC-DOS 2.0) und Novell Netware kommen heraus.
Microsoft Windows wird angek�ndigt.
Das ARPAnet wechselt von NCP auf TCP/IP.

Seite 417
Paul V. Mockapetris ver�ffentlicht in RFC 882 und 883 das Konzept des DNS.
1984 Der erste Apple Macintosh (128K) und der Hewlett-Packard Thinkjet,
der erste Tintenstrahldrucker, kommen auf den Markt.
GNU-Projekt von Richard Matthew Stallman gegr�ndet.
Der IBM PC/AT mit Prozessor Intel 80 286 und MS-DOS 3.0
kommen heraus.
Siemens steigt in UNIX (Sinix) ein.
Die Universit�t Karlsruhe wird Email-Relay f�r Deutschland
zum Computer Science Net (CSNet) in den USA. Als erste Mail
erh�lt Prof. Zorn, U. Karlsruhe, einen Gru� vom CSNet.
Entwicklung des X Window Systems am MIT.
1985 MS-Windows 1.0, IBM 3090 und IBM Token Ring Netz.
XLink an der Universit�t Karlsruhe stellt als erstes deutsches
Netz eine Verbindung zum nordamerikanischen ARPANET her.
Hewlett-Packard bringt den ersten Laserjet-Drucker heraus.
1986 Weltweit etwa eine halbe Million UNIX-Systeme und
3000 �ffentliche Datenbanken.
In den USA nimmt das zivile NFSNET die Arbeit auf.
Mit dem Computer-Investitionsprogramm des Bundes und der
L�nder (CIP) kommen mehrere HP 9000/550 unter UNIX an
die Universit�t Karlsruhe.
1987 Microsoft XENIX (ein UNIX) f�r den IBM PC/AT
IBM bringt die PS/2-Reihe unter MS-OS/2 heraus.
Weltweit mehr als 5 Millionen Apple Computer und etwa
100 Millionen PCs nach Vorbild von IBM.
Das MIT ver�ffentlicht das X Window System Version 11 (X11).
In Berkeley wird die RAID-Technologie entwickelt.
Beginn des baden-w�rttembergischen Landeshochschulnetzes BelWue.
1988 Jarkko Oikarinen, Finnland, entwickelt den IRC.
Das Karlsruher Campusnetz KARLA wird durch das Glasfasernetz
KLICK ersetzt. VBN-Strecke Karlsruhe - Stuttgart im BelWue-Netz.
Frankreich geht ans Internet (INRIA, Rocquencourt bei Paris).
Gr�ndung der Open Software Foundation (OSF) und der UNIX
International Inc. MS-DOS 4.0 f�r PCs.
Ein Internet-Wurm namens Morris geht auf die Reise, darauf
hin Gr�ndung des Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERT).
Erster Hoax (2400-baud-Modem-Hoax) im Internet, siehe CIAC.
Erstes landmobiles Satellitensystem f�r Datenfunk (Inmarsat-C).
1989 Das NFSNET l�st das ARPANET als Backbone des Internet ab.
UNIX System V Release 4 vereinheitlicht System V, BSD und Xenix.
Im Rechenzentrum Karlsruhe l�st die IBM 3090 die
Siemens 7881 ab. ISDN in Deutschland eingef�hrt.
Erster deutscher Internet-Direktanschluss via Xlink, Karlsruhe.
1990 Zunehmende Vernetzung, Anschluss an weltweite Netze.
Die Internet Society (ISOC) sch�tzt das Internet auf 500.000 Knoten.
Das ARPAnet stellt seinen Betrieb ein.
Computer-Kommunikation mittels E-Mail, Btx und Fax vom

Seite 418
Arbeitsplatz aus. Optische Speichermedien (CD-ROM, WORM).
Das Web (URL, HTTP, HTML) von Timothy Berners-Lee und
Robert Cailliau am CERN in Genf entwickelt.
UNIX System V Version 4.
Die Hardware eines selbstmontierten PCs mit 386/20 kostet 10.000 DM.
Die mittlere Computerdichte in technisch orientierten Instituten und
Familien erreicht 1 pro Mitglied.
1991 Das UNIX-System OSF/1 mit dem Mach-Kernel der Carnegie-
Mellon-Universit�t kommt heraus.
17. Sep.: Anfang von LINUX (Linus Benedict Torvalds).
Erster Web-Server in den USA: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
MS-DOS 5.0 f�r PCs. Anf�nge von Microsoft Windows NT.
Das DE-NIC an der Universit�t Dortmund gegr�ndet.
IBM, Apple und Motorola kooperieren mit dem Ziel, einen
Power PC zu entwickeln.
1992 Am Neujahrstag stirbt Grace Murray Hopper, Konteradmiral der
US Navy, wesentlich an der Entwicklung von COBOL beteiligt und
Entdeckerin des ersten Bugs, einer Motte im Mark II der Harvard University.
Die Universit�t Karlsruhe nimmt den massiv parallelen
Computer MasPar 1216A mit 16000 Prozessoren in Betrieb.
Novell �bernimmt von AT&T die UNIX-Aktivit�ten (USL).
FORTRAN 90 verabschiedet.
Eine Million Knoten im Internet. Weltweit etwa 50 Web-Server.
Erster deutscher Web-Server, am DESY in Hamburg.
1993 MS-DOS Version 6.0. Microsoft k�ndigt Windows-NT an.
DEC stellt PC mit Alpha-Prozessor vor, 150 MHz, 14.000 DM.
Novell tritt das Warenzeichen UNIX an die X/Open-Gruppe ab.
Marc Andreessen, NCSA, schreibt einen Web-Browser f�r das
X Window System mit der M�glichkeit, farbige Grafiken darzustellen.
Patrick Volkerding stellt die Linux-Distribution Slackware
zusammen, die erste Distribution von einiger Verbreitung.
Ian Murdock, Student an der Purdue University, stellt am 16. August
das Debian-Projekt vor. Gegen Jahresende Debian GNU/Linux Version 0.90.
Das Xlink-Projekt wird aus der Universit�t Karlsruhe ausgegliedert.
Das CERN gibt die WWW-Technologie allgemein frei.
Weltweit etwa 250 Web-Server.
Das DE-NIC zieht ans Rechenzentrum der Universit�t Karlsruhe.
1994 Linux 1.0 ver�ffentlicht.
Matthias Ettrich startet das KDE-Projekt.
Das Internet umfasst etwa 4 Mio. Knoten und 20 Mio. Benutzer.
Erste Spam-Mail (Canter + Siegel). Erste Banner-Werbung (Wired).
Marc Andreessen und Jim Clark gr�nden die Firma Netscape.
1995 Kommerzielle Netze l�sen in den USA das NFSNET als Backbone ab.
Die X/Open-Gruppe f�hrt die Bezeichnung UNIX 95 f�r Systeme
ein, die der Single UNIX Specification gen�gen.
Die Universit�t Karlsruhe erm�glicht in Zusammenarbeit
mit dem Oberschulamt nordbadischen Schulen den Zugang zum

Seite 419
Internet. �hnliche Projekte werden auch an einigen anderen
Hoch- und Fachhochschulen durchgef�hrt.
Die Programmiersprache JAVA wird von Sun ver�ffentlicht.
Online-Auktionshaus Ebay als Sammlerb�rse in den USA gegr�ndet.
Der Webserver Apache Release 1.0 ver�ffentlicht.
Weltweit etwa 50000 Web-Server.
1996 Die Massen und Medien entdecken das Internet.
Debian GNU/Linux Version 1.1 (buzz) wird ver�ffentlicht, zum
Jahresende folgt Version 1.2 (rex).
FORTRAN 95, eine revidierte Fassung von FORTRAN 90, fertig.
Intel bringt den Universal Serial Bus (USB) auf den Markt.
Die Open Software Foundation (OSF) und X/Open schlie�en sich zur
Open Group zusammen.
1997 Fast Ethernet ist erschwinglich geworden, �ber das Gigabit-Ethernet
wird geredet. In Deutschland gibt es rund 20 Mio. PCs und
1 Mio. Internetanschl�sse (Quelle: Fachverband Informationstechnik).
Debian GNU/Linux Version 1.3 (bo) freigegeben, rund 1000 Pakete.
Single UNIX Specification Version 2 im Web ver�ffentlicht.
HTML 4.0 vom W3C freigegeben.
Die Xlink Internet Service Gmbh wird eine hundertprozentige Tochter
des niederl�ndisch-amerikanischen Telekommunikationskonzerns KPNQwest,
der 2002 insolvent und aufgel�st wird.
Der Buchversender Amazon meldet ein Patent an dergestalt, dass man
mit einem Mausklick im Internet eine Ware bestellt.
1998 Compaq �bernimmt die Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
IBM bringt DOS 2000 heraus, Microsoft k�ndigt Windows 2000 an.
Die Suchmaschine Google Inc. gegr�ndet.
Debian GNU/Linux Version 2.0 (hamm) freigegeben, 1500 Pakete.
KDE 1.0 ver�ffentlicht. 9-GB-Festplatten kosten 500 DM.
Gigabit-Ethernet-Standard IEEE 802.3z verabschiedet.
Gr�ndung der Bluetooth Special Interest Group durch Ericsson,
Intel, IBM, Nokia und Toshiba.
Jonathan B. Postel, einer der Apostel des Internet und Autor
vieler RFCs, gestorben. Siehe RFC 2441: Working with Jon und
RFC 2468: I Remember IANA.
1999 Das Y2K-Problem -- die Jahrtausendwende -- besch�ftigt die Gem�ter,
weil die Programmierer fr�herer Jahrzehnte mit den Bits knauserten.
Der RFC 2550 l�st auch gleich das Y10K-Problem.
Debian GNU/Linux Version 2.1 (slink) kommt heraus.
Betreiber gro�er Suchmaschinen sch�tzen die Anzahl der
Web-Seiten weltweit auf 1 Milliarde.
Linus B. Torvalds wird Ehrendoktor der Universit�t Stockholm.
2000 Das Y2K-Problem hat sich praktisch nicht ausgewirkt.
Den 29. Februar 2000 haben wir auch gut �berstanden, einen Schalttag
nach einer Regel, die nur alle 400 Jahre angewendet wird.
Debian GNU/Linux Version 2.2 (potato) kommt heraus, 6500 Pakete.
Microsoft Windows 2000 ist erh�ltlich. Ein Macro-Virus namens

Seite 420
Love Letter sorgt f�r Aufregung -- au�erhalb der Linux/UNIX-Welt.
Der Intel Pentium kommt bei einer Taktfrequenz von 1,5 GHz an.
Zum Jahresende 2 Mio. Internet-Hosts in Deutschland (Quelle: RIPE).
2001 Claude Elwood Shannon gestorben, gilt als Erfinder des Bits
und Begr�nder der Informationstheorie.
Jimmy Donal Wales und Lawrence Mark Sanger starten
in den USA die Wikipedia, eine internationale Online-Enzyklop�die auf
der Grundlage eines Wikis.
Die SCO (Santa Cruz Operation) verkauft ihre UNIX-Rechte an Caldera Systems,
die sich daraufhin The SCO Group nennt und durch einige Prozesse bekannt wird.
2002 Die Einf�hrung der Euro-W�hrung f�hrt zu einem neuen Zeichen
in internationalen Zeichens�tzen.
Im Herbst bef�llt der Wurm Slapper zahlreiche Webserver unter Linux.
Debian GNU/Linux Version 3.0 (woody) wird als stabil freigegeben.
Die Distribution umfasst 8700 Pakete.
2004 PCs werden zunehmend ohne Floppy-Laufwerk ausgeliefert.
Ubuntu Linux, ein Debian-Derivat, erscheint erstmals.
Politische �berlegungen, die Patentierung von Software zuzulassen,
bedrohen die Open Source Welt.
2005 Anfang Juni wird Debian GNU/Linux Version 3.1 (sarge) nach reiflicher
�berlegung als stabil freigegeben und l�st 3.0r6 (woody) ab;
die Distribution umfasst rund 15.000 Pakete. Woody wird damit
zur Old-stable-Version, etch r�ckt zur Testing-Version auf.
In Frankfurt (M) findet die Wikimania 2005 statt, die erste internationale
Wikimedia-Konferenz.
Die deutsche Wikipedia n�hert sich der Marke von 300.000 Eintr�gen.
Internet-Telefonie (Voice over IP) ist stark im Kommen.
Prof. Karl Steinbuch gestorben.
Ende des Jahres kommt X11R7 heraus.
Der weltweit leistungsf�higste Rechner -- ein IBM Blue Gene -- l�uft
unter einem Linux (Quelle: http://www.top500.org/).
2006 Die englische Wikipedia �berschreitet die Marke von 1,5 Mio. Eintr�gen,
die deutsche 500.000, die franz�sische 400.000, die japanische und
die polnische 300.000, die schwedische, italienische, niederl�ndische
und portugiesische 200.000.
Laut http://www.netcraft.com/ sind die am h�ufigsten
besuchten Websites Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, BBC, CNN, Ebay,
Fox News, Amazon und Wikipedia.
Das Deutsche Forschungsnetz nimmt das X-Win in Betrieb, eine
Netzinfrastruktur mit Anschl�ssen bis zu 10 Gigabit/s und
43 Kernstandorten.
Mitte des Jahres gibt es 10 Mio. Eintr�ge unter der Top Level Domain
.de, sie ist damit weltweit nach .com die zweitumfangreichste.
2007 Debian stellt den Sicherheitssupport f�r woody ein und
erkl�rt zu Ostern die Version 4.0 (etch) mit Kern 2.6.18
als stabil.
Apple Inc. erwirbt CUPS von Easy Software Products.

Seite 421
Im Sommer �berschreitet die deutschsprachige Wikipedia die Marke von
600.000 Eintr�gen, der RFC 5001 wird ver�ffentlicht.
Die FSF ver�ffentlicht die Version 3 der GNU GPL und der GNU LGPL.
The SCO Group (siehe 2001) beantragt Insolvenz nach Chapter 11.
Nach der Statistik von www.top500.org vom November setzen 426 der 500
schnellsten Rechner weltweit ein Linux-Betriebssystem ein. Bei den
Herstellern f�hrt IBM vor Hewlett-Packard und Dell, bei den L�ndern
die USA vor dem UK und Deutschland.
2008 Im Januar �berschreitet die deutschsprachige Wikipedia die Marke von
700.000 Eintr�gen und ist nach der englischen die zweitgr��te.
AOL stellt Entwicklung und Vertrieb des Web-Browsers Netscape ein.
Im Februar weiht das Forschungszentrum J�lich einen Supercomputer vom Typ
IBM Blue Gene ein, der der schnellste zivil genutzte Rechner der Welt ist.
Die Kiste ist nicht nur schnell, sondern geht auch sparsam mit der Energie um.

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