Home > An Introduction to E - Banking

An Introduction to E - Banking

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                E - Banking 

Nikola Skundric  

Prof. Dr. Veljko Milutinovic  

Milos Kovacevic  

Nikola Klem  

of Belgrade 

� 2000 - last update: July, 2003 

- 90 minute version -

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  1. Introduction to e-Banking
    • What is an e-Bank and

       why to do e-Banking

    • Some facts about e-Banking
  1. Security issues
    • Overview of the security problems
    • Cryptography basics
    • Digital Signatures
    • Digital Certificates
    • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)


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  1. Bankers’ Point of View
    • E-Bank software architecture
    • Application Service Providers (ASPs)
    • Required tasks after initial introduction of a new channel
    • Searching for financial information on the Web
  2. Conclusion


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Introduction to  
E - Banking

Part I

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  • Banking consumers today have  
    more options then ever before:
    • “brick and mortar” institution 
      (has a building and personal service representatives) 
    • “brick and click” institution 
      (physical structure + Internet bank services)
    • “virtual bank” 
      (no public building – exists only online)

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  • Traditional banking business assumes:
    • Customer desk at bank’s building
    • Office hours from 8.00 am to 7.00 pm
  • Customers have:
    • Their job during the day
    • Family or other activities after the job

What Is an E-Bank? 


What can we do about it?

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What Is an E-Bank? 

  • Logical answer is to use e-channels:
    • Internet
    • WAP based mobile network
    • Automated telephone
    • ATM network
    • SMS and FAX messaging
    • Multipurpose information kiosks
    • Web TV and others … 
  • E-channels enable financial transactions from anywhere      and allow non-stop working time.

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What Is an E-Bank? 

  • Customers’ requests are:
    • Non-stop working time
    • Using services from anywhere
  • E-channels provide:
    • Working time 0 - 24h
    • Great flexibility



  • E-Bank is transforming banking business  
    into e-Business through utilizing e-Channels

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Other Advantages of E-Banking 

  • Possibility to extend your market  
    (even out of country)
  • Possibility to process more financial transactions
  • Possibility to lower your transaction cost

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Electronic Banking

  • By using Automated Teller Machines (ATMs),  
    telephones (not via Internet) or debit cards.

    (debit cards look like credit card, but using debit card removes funds from your bank account immediately) 

Internet Banking

  • Through a PC that connects to a banking website via modem and phone line (or other telecommunication connection)  
    and Internet Service Provider
  • Or via wireless technology through PDA or cell phone

Internet Banking ... and E-Banking 

  • There are two different types of online banking:
    1. Internet banking
    2. Electronic banking

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Internet Banking 

  • In this tutorial we shall focus on Internet Banking.
  • No need explaining why Internet is so important  
    • 670 million users worldwide  
      (end of 2001)
    • Almost 1.2 billion users in 2005 
      (forecasts, worldwide)
    • 54% of U.S. population (143 mil.)  
      is using it (February 2002)
    • Every month 2 million users  
      are going online only in USA

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What Internet Banking Offers 

  • As a consumer, you can use Internet banking to:
    • Access account information
    • Review and pay bills
    • Transfer funds
    • Apply for credit
    • Trade securities
    • Find out if a check was cleared
    • Find out when a bill is due
    • Apply for mortgage
    • Search for the best loan rates
    • Compare insurance policies and prices
  • Many consumers also like the idea of not waiting in line to do their banking, and paying their bills without shuffling papers and buying stamps.

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Some Facts 

  • More then 12 million Internet bank consumers in Europe
  • In Germany 51% of the online population use  
    online banking services (average for Europe is 10%;  
    expected to be 15% by the end of 2003)
  • Structural change in the  
    new economy (USA)
  • More then $2B investments 
    in 2005 planned.

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E-Banking in the USA 

  • Powerful banks are more present



More then $10B 



$3B to $10B 



$1B to $3B 



$500M to $1B 



$100M to $500M 



Less then $100M 

Online Presence 

Number of Banks 


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E-Banking in the USA 

  • Today about 1,100 U.S. banks, large and small, provide full-fledged transactional banking on-line
  • In next two years additional 1,200 transactional on-line banks are expected
  • By 2005, the number of such banks should increase to more than 3,000

    Online Status of the Top 100 U.S. Banks 
   (Sept. 2000) 




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E-Banking in Serbia 

  • Mali procenat korisnika
  • Prilično veliko interesovanje 

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E-Banking in Serbia 

  • Elektronski promet Delta banke: 
    6.5 milijardi dinara u prva tri meseca
  • 25% naloga u Raiffeisen banci stižu elektronskim putem
  • U HVB banci svaki drugi nalog je elektronski
  • 35% prometa Nacionalne štedionice obavlja se kroz elektronske usluge
  • 30% klijenata Atlas banke koristi elektronsko  bankarstvo

Izvor: Mikro, jun 2003.

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Internet Banking 

  • Using Internet as an e-Channel makes financial services available to wide population
  • In this tutorial we shall focus on the Internet banking
  • WWW service

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Security Issues 

Part II

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Security problems 

  • Network access can be performed through  
    a combination of devices (PC, telephone, interactive TV equipment, card devices  
    with embedded computer chips, ...)
  • Online banking relies on a networked environment.
  • Worth noting: 
    Internal attacks are potentially the most damaging!
  • Connections are completed primarily through telephone lines, cable systems, in some instances even wireless tech.
  • All these systems improve efficiency, speed and access but also present some privacy and security issues.

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Security Problems 

  • Internet is a public network and 
    open system where the identity 
    of the communicating partners 
    is not easy to define.
  • Communication path is non-physical 
    and may include any number of 
    eavesdropping and active interference possibilities.
  • “Internet communication is much like anonymous postcards, which are answered by anonymous recipients.”
  • Although open for everyone to read, and even write in them, they must carry messages between specific endpoints in a secure and private way.

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Security Problems 

Data Alteration 




    “How can I reassure customers who come to my site that they are doing business with me, not with a fake set up to steal their credit card numbers?” 

    “How can I be certain that my customers’ account number information is not accessible to online eavesdroppers when they enter into a secure transaction on the Web?” 

    “How can I be certain that my personal information is not altered by online eavesdroppers when they enter into a secure transaction on the Web?”

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What Do We Have to Achieve 


no spoofing 

Data Integrity

no data alteration 


no claiming

of user action 


no eavesdropping

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How to Achieve It? 

  • Cryptography algorithms to provide privacy.
  • Digital Certificates and Digital Signatures  
    for Web servers, to provide authentication.  
    data integrity, and non-repudiation service.
  • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) uses all these techniques 
    to achieve trusted communication.

    When URL begins with https it identifies the site as “secure”  
(meaning that it encrypts or scrambles transmitted information)

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Few Security Tips 1/3 

  • Protect yourself from potential pitfalls and make  
    your Internet banking more safe, productive  
    and enjoyable by following these advices 
    (given by Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago)
    • Make sure your transmissions are encrypted before doing any online transactions or sending personal information.
    • E-mail is usually not secure. Do not send sensitive data via e-mail (unless you know it is encrypted).  
      Change all passwords and PIN codes received via e-mail that is not encrypted.
    • Make sure you are on the right website.


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Few Security Tips 2/3 

    • Make sure that the financial institution is 
      properly insured.
    • Be “password smart”  
      (use mix of letters and numbers; change pw regularly;  
      keep your pw and PIN codes to yourself;  avoid easy  
      to guess pw like first names, birthdays, anniversaries,  
      social security numbers...)
    • Keep good records. Save information about banking transactions. Check bank, debit and credit card  
      statements thoroughly every month. Look for any  
      errors or discrepancies.  



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Few Security Tips 3/3 

    • Report errors, problems or complaints promptly
    • Keep virus protection software up-to-date.  
      Back-up key files regularly.
    • Exit the banking site immediately after completing your banking.
    • Do not have other browser windows open at the same time you are banking online.
    • Do not disclose personal information such as credit card and Social Security numbers unless you know whom you are dealing with, why they want this information and how they plan to use it.


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Know Your Rights 

  • There are regulations against unauthorized 
    transactions (Including Internet banking, 
    ATM and debit card transactions)
  • A consumer's liability for an unauthorized transaction is determined by how soon the financial institution is notified (max. 60 days upon receipt of statement)
  • When making purchases via the Internet it is smart to use a credit card instead of a debit card (liability should be no more than $50 if properly reported, plus you do not have to pay disputed amount during investigation).

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Cryptography Basics 

  • Asymmetric approach













  • Symmetric approach
  • Hybrid approach  
  • Cryptography provides privacy

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Symmetric Approach 












  • Both sides use the same key for encryption and decryption
  • Convenient for bulk data encryption  
    (computationally faster then other methods)
  • Problem: key distribution
  • Examples: DES (Digital Encryption Standard, IBM & National Bureau  
    of Standards, 1977, braking record 22h15m), 3DES (enhanced DES), 
    AES (Joan Daemen & Vincent Rijmen, 2000)

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Asymmetric Approach 












  • Sender uses public key for encryption, 
    receiver uses private key for decryption
  • Convenient for short data encryption  
    (computationally slower then other methods)
  • Problem: binding the public key and its owner.
  • Examples: RSA (Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir & Leonard Adleman, 1977),  
    basics given by Whitfield Diffie & Martin Hellman (1976), …

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Hybrid Approach 

  • Uses asymmetric approach for passing the symmetric key
  • Uses symmetric approach for data encryption



This approach is applied in SSL

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Digital Signatures 

  • Cryptography provides privacy, but what about security?
  • As mentioned before, from a security point of view,  
    we have to achieve three important things:

Digital Signatures 






Was the

message sent by

the declared


Prevention of a

denial of a

previous act. 

  • This is all accomplished through the Digital Signatures.

Was the message

changed after

it was sent?

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Digital Signatures 

  • Process of generation of Digital Signatures:
  • Creating message digest using one way hashing algorithm 
    (MD5 from RSA, SHA-1 from NIST…)
  • Encrypting digest with private key

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Digital Signatures 












Public Key 


Private key 

  • Authentication of the message using Digital Signature:

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Digital Signatures 

    “Non-repudiation: a service that prevents the denial of a previous act.”

                A. Menezes – “Handbook of Applied Cryptography” 

  • Non-repudiation service provides proof of the integrity  
    and origin of data – both in an unforgeable relationship  
    which can be verifiable by any third party at any time.


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Key Management Problem 

  • The whole system of Digital Signatures  
    relies on the capability to securely bind  
    the public key and its owner.
    • Q1: “How can I be sure that the public key my browser uses to send account number information is in fact the right one for that Web site, and not a bogus one?”
    • Q2: “How can I reliably communicate my public key to customers so they can rely on it to send me encrypted communications?”
  • The solution is to use Digital Certificates. 

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These problems do not disappear

with encryption or even a secure protocol 

Digital Certificates 

Problems caused by a false certification

or no certification mechanism 

“Man-in-the-middle” attack

(gaining knowledge over controlled data) 

Completely open attack

(gaining access to data & resources)

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  • Certificates provide strong binding  
    between the public-key and some  
    attribute (name or identity).
  • Certificates introduce tamperproof attributes used to help someone receiving a message decide whether the message, the key and the sender’s name are what they appear to be...

without asking the sender

Absolute certification methods are logically impossible

because a certificate cannot certify itself.

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Digital Certificates 

  • An electronic file that uniquely identifies communication entities on the Internet.
  • Associate the name of an entity  
    with its public key.
  • Issued and signed by Certification Authority.

Everybody trusts CA, and CA is responsible

for entity name – public key binding.

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ITU-T Recommendation X.509 

    X.509 defines framework 
for provision of  
authentication services  
under a central control  
paradigm represented  
by “Directory” 

De facto standard 

    The “Directory” is implemented by CA, which issues certificates  
to subscribers (CA clients) in order for such certificates  
to be verifiable by users (the public in general). 

There are three

main entities


in X.509



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Certification Authority 

  • CA is a general designation for any entity that controls the authentication services and the management of certificates (also called issuer)



e.g. a bank 


a company

for private



you, me 




In general independent,

even in the same country

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X.509 Naming Scheme 

  • A certificate associates  
    the public key and  
    unique distinguished name (DN)  
    of the user it describes.
  • Authentication relies  
    on each user possessing  
    a unique distinguished name.
  • The DN is denoted by a NA  
    and accepted by a CA  
    as unique within the CA’s domain,  
    where the CA can double as a NA.

It’s interesting to note that the same user can

have different DNs in different CAs, or can have

the same DN in different CAs even if the user is

not the first to use it in any of the CAs.

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How X.509 Certificate Is Issued 

Section 3.3.3 of X.509v3 defines a certificate as: 

    the public keys of a user, together with some other information, rendered unforgeable by encipherment with the private key of the certification authority which issued it. 

user certificate; public key certificate; certificate:

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Contents of X.509 Certificate 

The certificate holder’s public key value 

  • The certificate holder’s unique name (DN)
  • Version of the certificate format
  • Certificate serial number
  • Signature algorithm identifier  
    (for certificate issuers signature)
  • Certificate issuer’s name (the CA)
  • Validity period (start/expiration dates/times)
  • Extensions

Certificate is signed by the CA

with its private key

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Verification of DCs in User Browser

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Verification of DCs in User Browser 

  • Most of the servers that use CA certificates force the client to accept certain  
    CAs’ signatures (for top level CAs),  
    which are “hardwired” into the software,  
    or stored on Smart cards.
  • The CAs’ PK may be the target of an extensive decryption attack.  
    That is why CAs should use very long keys and change keys regularly. 

Top-level CAs unfortunately are exceptions.

It may not be practical for them to change keys frequently

because their keys may be written into software (such as browser)

used by a large number of verifiers 

  • CAs that may be the most probable targets  
    are the ones that offer the smallest protection level.
  • Protection, in this case, is an inverse function of worth.

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Useful Links to Visit 

Two largest commercial CA’s: 

  • www.verisign.com

    how to apply for DC,  
security related stuff 

  • www.thawte.com

    how to apply for DC,  
security related stuff

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Secure Sockets Layer 

  • SSL is perhaps the widest  
    used security protocol  
    on the Internet today.
  • Together with DC enables  
    secure communication 
    over the TCP/IP network
  • Secure Sockets Layer is a protocol designed to work  
    at the socket layer, to protect any higher level protocol  
    built on sockets (telnet, ftp, http & s-http, LDAP, IMAP...)
  • Higher level protocols can layer on top of the SSL transparently.

Common mistake is to regard HTTPS and S-HTTP as identical 

HTTPS = HTTP + SSL (part of the Network Layer)

S-HTTP = Secure HTTP (superset of HTTP and part of the App. Layer)

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SSL Communication Channel 

    SSL connection is established  
between application program  
and OS specific communication  

SSL has two layers:

  • Handshake Layer
  • Record Layer

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SSL Record Layer 

  • At the lowest level, layered on top of some reliable  
    transport protocol (e.g. TCP)
  • It provides connection security using data encryption  
    with symmetric cryptography and message integrity check with keyed MAC (Message Authentication Code)
  • As a public key for encryption for every SSL session  
    we create a randomly generated temporary master key, SSK (adoption of a SSK is described in Handshake Layer)

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SSL Data Exchange Phase (simplified) 



Fragments msg. into blocks (bytes) 

Calculates MAC and appends it to msg. 

Encrypts data with SSK  

Decrypts data with SSK 

Calculates new MAC and verifies the old one 

Reassembles the msg. 

Msg. block   MAC 

Failures to authenticate, decrypt or otherwise

get correct answers result in a close of connection.

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SSL Handshake Layer 

  • A handshake occurs when a machine  
    tries to use a SSL connection.
  • If connection is opened, but no session exist recently (suggested under 100 sec - SSL, C.8)  
    we have to make a new handshake.
  • Other type of handshake occurs  
    when client authentication is desired.

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Strongest cipher supported + DC  



CLIENT-MASTER-KEY message (encrypt. with SPK)

CLIENT-FINISHED message (encrypt. with CWK) 

SSL Handshaking Phase (simplified) 

List of supported ciphers  



SSK generated and encrypted with SPK 

Encrypted SSK 

From now use SSK! 

Decrypts SSK with own SK and sends ack. 






Responding challenge (encrypt. with SWK) 



Connection ID

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SSL Handshaking Phase 

  • If client authentication is in use  
    there are three more steps:
    challenge’ + means of authentication desired
    client certificate’s type + certificate  
    + bunch of response data
  2. SERVER-FINISHED message

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SSL Keys 

  • There are number of keys used over the course of a conversation:
    • Server’s public key (SPK)
    • Master key (SSK) – randomly generated
    • Client-read-key also called Server-write-key (CRK/SWK)
    • Client-write-key also called Server-read-key (CWK/SRK)
  • CWK & CRK are derived via a secure hash from  
    the master key, the challenge, and the connection ID.
  • Only master key is sent encrypted (with SPK)
  • The master key is reused across sessions, while the  
    read- & write- keys are generated anew for each session.

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SSL Data Exchange Phase 

  • Once the handshaking is complete,  
    the application protocol begins to operate, 
    as described in the Record Layer. 
    (this is also called the data-exchange phase, as noted before)
  • SSL specification is not clear at what point the SSL connection is consider to be done with a connection, or what to do with the keys at that point.
  • Implicitly, the session is done when the TCP connection  
    is torn down, and the keys should be kept for roughly 100 sec after that (although that is not explicitly defined)

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About SSL Strength 

  • Two variants of SSL:

          40-bit and 128-bit 
 (refers to master key length)

  • According to RSA labs it would take a  
    trillion trillion years to crack 128-bit SSL  
    using today’s technology!
  • However, SSL, being a low level protocol, does little to protect you once your host is compromised.

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Point of View 

Part III

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Internet Bank Architecture 

Bank back office


Internet front office




Web server 


SSL connection 

Branch office terminals 


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In-house Architecture  

All components are in the bank 

Core System

(On Site) 

CustomerLink Server

(On Site) 

In-house Web Server

(On Site) 

Security Firewall

(On Site) 


(On Site) 

(CustomerLink Primer)

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Out-of-house Architecture 


ASP (Equifax) 



Web server 

CustomerLink server 

Core server 

Data transfer server 

Bank site 

(CustomerLink Primer)

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Banking Software Architecture 

  • Before Internet revolution, banking software systems  
    were dominantly of client-server type







Client demand services or information from other machines – servers.

Executes Front-end App. 

Sever can access huge databases and perform searches in behalf of the client.

Executes Back-end application. 


The network configuration  
where the work potential (processing abilities & accessible information) is distributed between several machines.

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Banking Software Architecture 

  • In the Internet era banking software systems are n-tier (n > 2)

Data management


Application logic 

Presentation logic

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Presentation Logic 

https = ssl + http 

thin client 

Presentation logic forms HTML and interacts with application tier 

web server 

Java Server Pages/Servlets

Active Server Pages


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Application Logic 




Business objects, can be on a single or multiple app. servers 

Written in C/C++, Java(EJB), COBOL … 



SQL through JDBC/ODBC 
to data tier 

Req. for service 

Required data 



Data response 

CORBA = Common Object Request Broker Architecture

DCOM = Distributed Component Object Model

RMI = Remote Method Invocation  
(J2J object communication)

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Application Service Providers 

First step in the setup process is making a plan.

  1. What are the services to be installed?
  2. What services we (bank) could implement  
  3. What services we could implement  
    through ASPs (out-of-house)?
  4. Who are technology partners?

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Application Service Providers 

Certain degree of service 

Necessary infrastructure 

Standardized packages of applications 

ASP offers: 

Main characteristic of ASPs is that they offer

applications that are already purchasable.

  • ASP → one-to-many solution
  • Classic IT outsourcing → one-to-one solution

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ASPs Pros and Cons 

  • Thin client
  • Renting instead of buying
  • Only effective using time charged
  • Cost planning more reliable
  • Total cost of ownership decreased
  • Less IT workforce needed
  • Installation / upgrading time saved
  • Reaction time reduced
  • One single business partner
  • Every workstation needs Internet access
  • Broad bandwidth necessary
  • Doubtful data security on the Internet
  • Not all applications have Internet compatible surfaces yet
  • Loss of company’s independence



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Planning Phase in the Setup Process 

  • Complexity of a problem
    • Telecommunications infrastructure
    • Security
    • Multi-tier software infrastructure
    • Maintenance

Bank size? 

We recommend using ASPs

for setting up  
a new Internet channel 

Reconsider which services

to delegate to ASPs 




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Services offered by ASPs 














    • Online personal banking 
      (account information, transfers, deposits, …)
    • Online cash management for companies
    • Bill payment
    • Check payment
    • Card payment solutions
    • Insurance services
    • Web presentation design, hosting, administration
    • Security services
    • Testing of electronic business software
    • Remote administration of bank’s servers …

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Have a secure and fault-tolerant LAN 

Choosing the right ASP is the most

important task in the setup procedure 

Choosing Strategic and Tech Partners 

An ASP must 

Be an expert for Internet access 

Have experience in electronic business 

Have a good software solution 

Have well educated IT staff

Accessible 24 hours, 365 days 

Have a secure and fault-tolerant LAN

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ASPs The Cost of Downtime 

99.9% uptime is still nearly 10h of downtime per year!

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Choosing ASPs - International 

  • Personal Banking & Cash Management:
    • Equifax,  www.equifax.com;  
      CustomerLink, www.efx-ebanking.com
    • Digital Insight, www.digitalinsight.com, AXIS
    • Vifi, www.vifi.com, InternetBanker
  • Bill Payment:
    • CheckFree, www.checkfree.com
  • Card Payment:
    • RS2 Software Group, www.rs2group.com, BankWorks
  • Web Hosting and Web Design:
    • Digex , www.digex.com
    • DiamondBullet, www.diamondbullet.com, www.bankingwebsites.com

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Choosing ASPs - Serbia 

  • PEXIM (Nacinalna Štedionica, Delta banka)
    • Web pristup
    • Namenska aplikacija
  • HALCOM (HVB, Vojvođanska banka) 
    • Isključivo namenska aplikacija
  • SAGA (Atlas banka, Raiffeisen banka) 
    • Isključivo Web pristup

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After Initial Introduction of a New Channel 


Be informed 


marketing campaign 

Education of bank’s staff 

  • Required tasks after initial introduction of a new channel:

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You do it but you don’t think it is important to you. 

  • Education process can be done through:
    • Courses after the job
    • By stimulating staff to use Internet Banking from home (participating in PC purchase,  
      obtaining discounts from local ISP)

You do it (Internet Banking) because everyone does it. 

Education of Staff 

  • Studies show that education of bank’s staff  
    in using the Internet channel is often incomplete.
  • Staff should provide answers to FAQ  
    about using the Internet channel to their customers.

    Conclusions deduced from  
incompetence of the staff...

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Permanent Marketing 

We have a good solution for Internet banking

but number of online users is very low after initial setup.

What’s wrong? 

The answer is:

We need  a permanent marketing campaign! 



to involve customers that became ready

in the meanwhile 

  • Customers who were not ready for new  
    service at the moment of initial introduction  
    will be ready after few months.
  • Key of success – enthusiasm,  
    especially among the management

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How To Do Marketing 

  • Spreading enthusiasm among staff
  • Utilizing common media for advertising  
    (professional agencies).
  • Organizing education  
    about Internet technologies  
    and new banking services  
    among customers.
  • Agreements with local ISPs and resellers of PC equipment.

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Education of Customers 

  • Studies show that:
    • 7% of bank users are technically advanced
    • 25% is open to new banking services  
      but they lack technical experience

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Education of Customers 

How to attract more

online customers? 

Provide PC installations

inside bank halls and rooms,

accessible to customers 

Organize courses for

using PCs and Internet 

Make agreements

with local ISP

to give discounts for

online bank customers 

Organize periodical meetings

where online customers

can exchange information

about Internet banking services

and e-Business in general

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Monitoring Activity on Internet Channel 

  • In order to react fast we should gather information about channel use
  • Different statistics should be made:
    • Number of visitors
    • Number of transactions
    • Which services are most/least used
    • Average time spent at Web site  
      by common user
  • Feedback support
    • customers forms
    • e-mail for additional questions/services

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Be Informed! 

  • To be successful in any business  
    (including banking services)  
    you constantly need information about:
    • Competition 
      (what they offer, what are the complaints of their customers)
    • Potential customers
  • Among other ways for obtaining information,  
    it is useful to monitor the Web and Web activity  
    using search engines.

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Financial Data on the Internet 

  • Huge amount of financial data publicly available  
    on the Internet
  • Among 660 largest companies from 22 countries  
    (30 from each) 62% had some form of financial data  
    on their Web sites  
    (IASC Report for 1999)
  • The role of outsiders:
    • DigiTRADE
    • EDGAR
    • Wall Street City.Com
    • Yahoo! Finance

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Nature of the Financial Data on the Internet 

    • Quarterly and annual financial report
    • Financial history
    • SEC filings
    • Stock quotas
    • Press releases
    • Information request forms
    • Other shareholder information

Among others, we can find information about:

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Searching Services on the Web 

We can generally search the Web using three types of searching services: 







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Subject Directories 

  • Links to Web sites are collected  
    according to topics they treat
  • Links are collected by humans  
    who evaluate them
  • Useful when searching  
    for some topic in general
  • Not effective when trying  
    to find something specific
  • Examples:  
    Yahoo!, Lycos, LookSmart, Excite…

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Search Engines 

  • They try to collect as many as possible pages  
    from the Web and store them locally  
    for later keyword search.
  • Pages are collected by using crawlers  
    (SW components).
  • Good for search on specific query
  • Result pages are sorted by relevancy
  • Results can be out of date  
    (currency problem)
  • Examples:  
    Google, AltaVista, Fast, Northern Light, ...

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Search Engines How Do They Work? 

Html page 






URL queue 

Word Index + URLs 

Search Engine 


List of pages

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  • They utilize other search engines concurrently  
    by sending user’s request to them.
  • Good for queries about exotic topics.
  • Queries have to be simple  
    because of different formats  
    among search engines.
  • Examples:  
    MetaCrawler, Dogpile, HotBot, …

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Focused Crawling 

  • Focused crawlers versus classic crawlers  
    (solve currency problem)

I’ll go only this way 



  • Focused crawlers visit only topic-specific pages.

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Search Engines - Comparison 

  • Recent extensive comparison (September 2001) of search engines conducted by PC World’s staff can be found on the following URL:


  • Leaders are:
    • Google – www.google.com
    • Fast – www.alltheweb.com
    • Yahoo – www.yahoo.com
    • Lycos – www.lycos.com
    • Northern Light – www.northernlight.com

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Search Engines - Comparison 

  • Directories of search engines can be found on following URLs:
    • Search Engine Guide – www.searchengineguide.com
    • Argus Clearinghouse – www.clearinghouse.com
    • BeauCoup – www.beaucop.com
    • Search Engine Watch – www.searchenginewatch.com
  • There is even directory of directories of search engines
    • SearchAbility – www.searchability.com
  • You can also try with public databases not accessible to search engines.
    • Lycos Searchable Databases Directory  http://dir.lycos.com/reference/searchable_databases


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Other Useful Links to Visit 

  • www.streeteye.com/cgi-bin/allseeingeye.cgi, financial data meta-crawler
  • www.moneysearch.com,  
    finance specific directory search
  • www.dailystocks.com,  
    excellent financial portal for investors
  • www.companysleuth.com,  
    excellent financial portal for investors

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Part IV

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  • In this tutorial on e-Banking  
    we covered many of its aspects:
    • You learned what an e-Bank is,  
      and what the benefits  
      of e-Banking are
    • You familiarized yourself with the structure of the e-Bank
    • You learned how to implement your own Internet channel  
      and how to afterwards search for financial information on the Web  
      in order to improve your business
    • And you have also learned what possible security problems can occur and how to fight those problems

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Conclusion in 40 Words 

  • Every bank should implement its Internet channel  
    (reduced cost of transaction, global connectivity).
  • Small and mid sized banks could benefit from using  
    Application Service Providers for different kind of service  
    (and choosing the good ASP is the most important step).

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Final Words 

Some Internet Myths

(from “European ECM momentum”, Maria Luisa Rodriguez, San Jose State University) 



  • The Internet requires little upfront investment.
  • You get what you pay for.
  • The Internet will drive transactions from other channels.
  • Channel behavior is additive (channel adoption has always been additive).
  • The Internet is borderless.
  • Brand, marketing and consumer behavior is local.

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~ The End ~ 


Nikola Skundric  

Prof. Dr. Veljko Milutinovic  

Milos Kovacevic  

Nikola Klem  

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