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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE
Architecture Vernaculaire Arquitectura Vern��cula
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RESTRICTED AREA
MONUMENTS AND SITES
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INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL �� �� MONUMENTS AND SITES CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL DES MONUMENTS ET DES SITES CONSEJO INTERNACIONAL DE MONUMENTOS Y SITIOS �������������������������� ���������� ���� ���������������� �������������������� �� �������������������������������������� ��������
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE
Architecture Vernaculaire Arquitectura Vern��cula
ICOMOS
MONUMENTS AND SITES MONUMENTS ET SITES MONUMENTOS Y SITIOS
V
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Monuments and Sites / Monuments et Sites / Monumentos y Sitios
edited by ICOMOS
Contents
ICOMOS is very grateful
to the Messerschmitt Foundation for its generous support of this publication
Preface/Pr��face/Prefacio
Christoph Machat, The History of CIAV ....
Kirsti Kovanen, About the Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage
Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage
Charte du Patrimoine Bâti Vernaculaire
Carta del Patrimonio Vern��culo Construido
Front Cover and p. 4: Views of Taos Pueblo, New Mexico
(photo: Christoph Machat)
Back Cover: Indian house in Acoma, New Mexico
(photo: Christoph Machat)
Photo credits: If not indicated otherwise, all pictures were provided by the authors.
© 2002 ICOMOS
Editorial Staff: Michael Petzet, John Ziesemer
Typesetting and Printing: Lipp GmbH, Graphische Betriebe, Meglingerstraße 60, 81477 M��nchen
Publication obtainable from: Lipp GmbH, Graphische Betriebe, Meglingerstraße 60, 81477 M��nchen, info@lipp.de
ISBN: 3-87490-678-7
Vernacular architecture and its conservation in different countries
Australia
Canada
Costa Rica
Cuba
Denmark
Miles Lewis, An Australian Hybrid: The Gardiner House, French Island
Marc de Caraffe, Hawthorne Cottage and Maison Trestler
Erick Chaves, Cuatro Casas
Ir��n Mill��n Cuet��ra, Vivienda Calle 35 y Villa Elena, Cienfuegos
Sören Vadstrup, Stone Buildings in Greenland 1830-1915
Finland
Great Britain
Kirsti Kovanen, Conservation of built vernacular heritage in rural and urban areas Peter Smith, Tŷ-Mawr
Greece
Marikitta Diamantopoulou and Orestis Vavatsioulas, Re-use of a vernacular mansion complex in the medieval castle of Naxos
Japan
Naomi Okawa, Four Houses
Lithuania
Dale Puodžiukiene, Two Houses
Mexico
Francesco Javier L��pez Morales, Influencias de la arquitectura y el espacio
Mexico
Berenice Aguilar y Valeria Prieto, La Troje: tipologia de vivienda purepecha
Mexico
Netherlands
The Philippines
Romania
Slovak Republic Spain
Felix Benito Martin, Arquitectura tradicional en Castilla y Le��n
Switzerland
prehisp��nicos en el h��bitat vern��culo actual
ry
Ada Avendano Enciso, Casas de tierra en Solaga, Oaxaca
Ellen L. van Olst, Building traditions in the Netherlands
Augusto Villalon, The Filipino bahay cubo, where form does not necessarily follow function Ioana Tanasescu, Problems of physical deterioration on vernacular buildings in Transsylvania -- Râsca village and open-air museum ��Astra", Sibiu a comparative study Gabriela Hab��nov��, Peasant House in Such��ň no. 7
Max Gschwend, Granaries in Switzerland
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Preface
Volume V of the series of ��Monuments and Sites�� combines a number of contributions which members of the International Scientific Committee on Vernacular Architecture (CIAV) pre- pared for the conference in Morelia on the occasion of the 12th General Assembly of ICOMOS. At the same time this publica- tion complies with a resolution made at the annual CIAV meet- ing in August 1998 in Santo Domingo: When the Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage was completed after years of prepara- tion, it was decided that this Charter, finally adopted in 1999 during the General Assembly in Guadalajara/Mexico, should be illustrated by a collection of examples from all over the world. In this present volume mostly examples of rural houses and farm buildings are introduced. Thus with the topic of the,,traditional house" a section of the vernacular has been chosen which was also the focus of the International Day for Monuments and Sites in 2001, namely the architecture of the villages in danger of dis- appearing worldwide.
It is to be hoped that this publication will be able to help save the endangered values of vernacular architecture, which accord- ing to the latest Heritage at Risk Report 2001/2002 is under par- ticular pressure. As part of our cultural heritage vernacular ar- chitecture plays a role which should not be underestimated, and particularly in conjunction with efforts to protect entire cultural
landscapes this is becoming increasingly important. At the same time we need to be aware that the wide range of vernacular ar- chitecture has only been documented in a few countries, thus re- maining without any protection against decay and a devastating urge for renewal in most regions of the world. Nearly every- where regional building materials and traditional skills are being lost. Besides, the topic of vernacular architecture, comprising not only traditional settlements such as the various "house land- scapes", has not yet been exhaustively researched. It can even in- clude present-day makeshift houses in the gigantic outskirts of some big cities. Vernacular architecture could also play a signif- icant role in the future for sustainable development due to the reuse of materials and the ever-repetitive processes of repair.
We would like to thank all authors, and especially Kirsti Kovanen for collecting the contributions as well as John Ziesemer for revising the texts.
We hope this publication will help point out that vernacular architecture, often underestimated, is in fact a major part of the cultural heritage of mankind.
Christoph Machat (President of CIAV)
Michael Petzet (President of ICOMOS)
Pr��face
Le volume V de la s��rie Monuments et Sites rassemble des contributions pr��par��es par des membres du Comit�� Scienti- fique International Architecture Vernaculaire (CIAV) lors de la conf��rence de Morelia �� l'occasion de la 12��me assembl��e g��n��- rale de l'ICOMOS. Au m��me moment, cette publication se conforme �� la r��solution prise par le CIAV au cours de sa r��- union annuelle d'août 1998 �� Santo Domingo. En effet, lorsque la Charte du patrimoine bâti vernaculaire fut achev��e apr��s des ann��es d'��laboration, il fut d��cid�� que celle-ci, finalement adop- t��e en 1999 durant l'assembl��e g��n��rale �� Guadalajara/Mexico, devait ��tre illustr��e par une s��rie de cas du monde entier. De nombreux exemples de maisons rurales et de bâtiments de fer- me sont introduits dans le pr��sent volume. Ainsi, il illustre, avec le th��me de la «<maison traditionnelle», un certain type d'archi- tecture vernaculaire. La journ��e internationale des Monuments et Sites de 2001 avait ��galement choisi ce th��me en se concen- trant sur l'architecture en danger des villages du monde entier.
Cette publication a pour objectif d'aider �� la sauvegarde des valeurs mises en p��ril de l'architecture vernaculaire, laquelle, selon le dernier rapport Heritage at Risk 2001/2002, est particu- li��rement menac��e. Partie int��grante de notre patrimoine cultu- rel, l'architecture vernaculaire joue un rôle qui ne doit pas ��tre sous estim��. Celui-ci prend toute son importance lorsqu'on l'as- socie aux efforts mis en œuvre pour prot��ger des paysages cul- turels dans leur ensemble. Dans le m��me temps, nous devons
garder �� l'esprit que l'ensemble des cat��gories de l'architecture vernaculaire n'ont ��t�� inventori��es
que dans peu de pays, lais- sant sans protection contre la d��t��rioration et l'��lan d��vastateur des constructions nouvelles le bâti vernaculaire de la plupart des r��gions du monde. Les mat��riaux de construction r��gionaux et les savoirs faire traditionnels disparaissent presque partout. De plus, le th��me de l'architecture vernaculaire, ne comprenant pas seulement les ��tablissements traditionnels tels que les diff��rents «<paysages bâtis»>, n'a pas fait l'objet de recherches exhaustives. Il peut m��me inclure les maisons de fortune construites de nos jours dans les p��riph��ries de certaines grandes villes. L'architec- ture vernaculaire peut ��galement jouer un rôle important dans le futur pour le d��veloppement durable de par la r��utilisation des mat��riaux et les processus toujours r��p��t��s de r��paration.
Nous remercions tous les auteurs et plus particuli��rement Kirsti Kovanen qui a rassembl�� les contributions et John Ziesemer qui a r��vis�� les textes.
Nous esp��rons que cette publication aidera �� la reconnaissan- ce de l'architecture vernaculaire, dont l'importance est souvent sous estim��e, comme cat��gorie majeure du patrimoine culturel de l'humanit��.
Christoph Machat (Pr��sident du CIAV)
Michael Petzet (Pr��sident de l'ICOMOS)
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Prefacio
El Volumen V de la Serie "Monumentos y Sitios" recoge contri- buciones de los miembros del Comit�� Cient��fico Internacional sobre Arquitectura Vern��cula (CIAV) preparadas para la confe- rencia de Morelia, M��xico, durante la 12ª Asamblea General del ICOMOS. Al mismo tiempo esta publicaci��n cumple la resolu- ci��n tomada en la reuni��n anual del CIAV, en agosto de 1998 en Santo Domingo: cuando se termin�� la "Carta del Patrimonio Vern��culo Construido�� despu��s de varios años de preparaci��n, se decidi�� que esta Carta, adoptada finalmente en 1999 durante la Asamblea General en Guadalajara, M��xico, deber��a ilustrarse con ejemplos de todo el mundo. En este volumen se presentan ejemplos de casas rurales y de edificios agr��colas. De este mo- do se ilustra, con el tema de la "casa tradicional", un tipo de ar- quitectura vern��cula; este tema fue el elegido tambi��n para el D��a Internacional de los Monumentos y Sitios en el año 2001, concretamente la arquitectura en peligro de desaparici��n de los pueblos de todo el mundo.
Esperamos que esta publicaci��n ayude a salvaguardar los va- lores en peligro de la arquitectura vern��cula, la cual seg��n el ��l- timo Informe Heritage at Risk 2001/2002 se encuentra particu- larmente amenazada. Como parte de nuestro patrimonio cultu- ral, la arquitectura vern��cula juega un papel que no deber��a ser subestimado; particularmente, resulta cada vez m��s importante al asociarlo con los esfuerzos para proteger los paisajes cultura-
les en su conjunto. Al mismo tiempo hay que ser consciente de que la gran variedad del patrimonio vern��culo ha sido docu- mentado solamente en muy pocos pa��ses, permaneciendo de es- te modo sin ninguna protecci��n contra el deterioro y contra el impulso devastador de las nuevas construcciones en la mayor��a de las regiones del mundo. Pr��cticamente en todos los sitios se est��n perdiendo los materiales de construcci��n locales y los ofi- cios tradicionales. Adem��s, el tema de arquitectura vern��cula, comprendiendo no solo los asentamientos tradicionales, como los diferentes "paisajes edificados��, no ha sido investigado ex- haustivamente. Se pueden incluir incluso las chabolas de las afueras de algunas grandes ciudades. La arquitectura vern��cula puede jugar tambi��n un importante papel en el futuro para el de- sarrollo sostenible debido a la reutilizaci��n de materiales y al siempre continuo proceso de reparaci��n.
Queremos agradecer a todos los autores, y especialmente a Kirsti Kovanen por la recopilaci��n de todas las contribuciones as�� como a John Ziesemer por la revisi��n de los textos.
Esperamos que esta publicaci��n ayude al reconocimiento de la arquitectura vern��cula, a menudo subestimada, como una par- te muy importante del patrimonio cultural de la humanidad.
Christoph Machat (Presidente de CIAV)
Michael Petzet (Presidente de ICOMOS)
Christoph Machat
The History of CIAV
The foundation and the first two decades of activity
The International Committee on Vernacular Architecture (Comit�� International d'Architecture Vernaculaire -- CIAV) was founded in 1976, the Executive Committee of ICOMOS thus ac- cepting the requirement for the creation of an international spe- cialised committee expressed by the resolution of the 1975 In- ternational Conference for the Conservation of Vernacular Architecture, held in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The CIAV started work- ing in 1977, the permanent seat being installed in Plovdiv. As the founding President Rachelle Anguelova, Bulgaria, made a sig- nificant contribution to the successful work of the committee, assisted by George Deltchev as Administrative Secretary. In No- vember 1977 the Executive Committee confirmed the 12 per- manent members, completed by 10 associate members follow- ing the recommendations of the national committees. The per- manent (and founding) members came from Bulgaria, USSR, Switzerland, Finland, CSSR, Belgium, UK, Greece, Yugoslavia, Romania, Hungary, Turkey and Spain, the associate members from Austria, Denmark, France, the Federal and the Democratic Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Sweden, Canada and Australia.
The regular annual sessions of the committee have been held in different places and countries: 1977, 1978, 1979, 1985, 1989 in Plovdiv, 1980 in Smoljan, 1981 in Lovetch, 1984 in Sandans- ki and Melnik - all in Bulgaria, 1982 in Istanbul and Izmir, 1986 in Istanbul and Ankara - Turkey, 1983 in Helsinki and Seinäjo- ki, Finland, 1987 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1988 in Petrosavodsk, Karelia, Soviet Union, 1990 in Austria and Switzerland, 1992 in Brauweiler, Germany and 1994 in Sardegna, Italy. There is no doubt that the activities of CIAV would not have been as suc- cessful without the very important financial support given by the Bulgarian National Committee of ICOMOS and the Bulgar- ian Government until 1992 - for the permanent seat in Plovdiv with administration, secretary and library (founded by the con- tributions of all the committee members), for the travel expens- es of the President and the organisation of seven regular sessions in Bulgaria (including the subsistence expenses for the perma- nent members). At the same time the regular budget of the Ex- ecutive Committee of ICOMOS was essentially eased by this in- direct contribution made by Bulgaria. It should be mentioned that all the other sessions have been organised and financed by the ICOMOS national committees of the hosting countries.
Besides these sessions, usually combined with scientific col- loquiums or conferences, the committee members attended sev- eral national or international conferences on topics not neces- sarily related to vernacular problems (e.g. 1979 in Plovdiv on preservation methods for historic cities, in 1981 in Sofia on the preservation of the cultural heritage of Bulgaria) or made an ac- tive contribution to international events, like the symposium on "Vernacular Architecture on the Islands of the Aegean Sea" in 1981 on the island of Santorini, organised by the Technical Uni- versity of Saloniki and the IBI under the auspices of the Greek Minister of Culture. (Almost 20 years later the restructured CIAV returned to Santorini for the annual meeting 2000.) From
the very beginning among the CIAV activities special attention has been given to an active cooperation with other international scientific organisations inside and also outside ICOMOS: The first joint annual conference of CIAV with the Wood Committee of ICOMOS took place in 1980 in Switzerland, followed in 1983 after the annual session in Finland by a visit of CIAV members to the colleagues of the Wood committee in Norway. In this way active contacts have been established between the two spe- cialised committees, a very remarkable fact considering that wood is the most important building material for both commit- tees. As a consequence the international conference on "Con- servation of Wooden Vernacular Architecture��, organised by the USSR ICOMOS National Committee in 1988 in Petrozavodsk, Karelia, was at the same time the joint annual session for both committees. One of the main subjects was the preservation phi- losophy for the "Kishi Pogost", an ensemble of two wooden churches, bell tower and surrounding fence (18th century) in bad condition due to wood alteration and structural problems and on the World Heritage List of UNESCO since 1990.
Contacts to other scientific organisations followed, some of the CIAV delegates working as link members to ICOMOS ISCS, such as Cultural Tourism or Historic Towns and Villages, but al- so to ICOM, the European Association of Open-Air Museums, ICCROM and the Council of Europe, Cultural Heritage Divi- sion. Together with the Committee on Historic Towns the CIAV organised a joint session in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 1989 under the main topic "Historic Towns and Rural Vernacular Sites and the Process of Urbanisation". Focussing on the rapid ongoing changes within contemporary life and society and within the ar- chitectural heritage, the final resolution of the session pointed out on the one hand the necessity to sensitise and involve the communities in the recognition, maintenance and continuance of their cultural values. On the other hand it includes a clearly formulated demand to reorganise, restructure and improve the work of the two committees, studying new methods of assess- ment, conservation strategies and policies, to establish an inter- national multidisciplinary network including specialists in soci- ology, ecology, economy, ethnography, town and landscape plan- ning, to coordinate regional and local initiatives, to participate in development projects and to organise educational and training programmes.
In connection with these ideas and tasks the international pro- ject "Regional Architecture and Cultural Development in Eu- rope" was drafted by M. Laenen, at that time Secretary General of the CIAV and O. Sevan from the Research Institute for Cul- ture in Moscow. It considered the regional character of vernacu- lar architecture, the preservation and development problems of the historical milieu of cities and villages in contemporary soci- ety and the formation of contemporary regional architecture in the context of regional culture in Europe. Presented at the inter- national conference on "Historic Towns and Villages and the Process of Urbanisation", organised by the Union of Architects of the USSR and the Research Institute for Culture in Moscow during a cruise on the Volga river in June 1990, the project was discussed and recommended towards implementation to the
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CIAV, which adopted it during the annual meeting in autumn 1990 in Austria and Switzerland. For the implementation of the project an organisation committee was formed, which met in Belgium in March 1991 and adopted an agenda for the future work - international colloquiums on three main topics: conser- vation in situ - open-air museums - new vernacular architecture. The active contribution of the CIAV to the Skansen Centenary organised by the European Association of Open-Air Museums and the Skansen Museum in September 1991 was part of the project implementation.

The conservation in situ as part of the project was the main topic of the international conference on "Preservation of the Rural Heritage. Cultural Landscape and Sites in Europe", or- ganised by the CIAV (annual session) and hosted by the German National Committee of ICOMOS in May 1992 at Brauweiler Abbey, Germany in cooperation with the Council of Europe. Part of the Brauweiler conference was a joint session of the CIAV and the group of specialists on "Heritage Landescape and Sites", created in 1991 by the Cultural Heritage Department of the Council of Europe. As a result of the Brauweiler conference the Council of Europe in cooperation with ICCROM, CIAV and different European Universities succeeded in organising a pilot training course on multidisciplinary conservation management for cultural landscape areas, held in November 1993 at the Uni- versity of Applied Sciences in Cologne, Germany. (Unfortu- nately an international colloquium on the third main topic - new vernacular architecture - is still missing).
All these ideas, discussions, meetings and projects are in fact the result of the continuous scientific work of the committee members with an agenda including primarily the definition of "vernacular architecture", a dictionary on special vernacular ter- minology in architecture, a "State of the Art" of vernacular ar- chitecture, later the "Charter on Vernacular Architecture" as well as scientific publications or public relations activities. In 1980 a questionnaire on the preservation and evaluation of vernacular architecture was sent to all European National Committees of ICOMOS, and the results were reported at the 7th General As- sembly of ICOMOS in Rostock and Dresden in 1984. (Most of the ideas and recommendations included in that report anticipate those of the final resolution of the Plovdiv conference of 1989.) A more recent ��State of the Art" worked out by M. Laenen was adopted by the CIAV at the annual session in 1990 in Switzer- land. For the long way from the first draft for a "Charter of Ver- nacular Architecture" prepared by R. Anguelova and presented at the annual meeting in Bulgaria in 1984 up to the final version and the adoption of the "Charter on the Built Vernacular Her- itage" by the General Assembly of ICOMOS in Mexico in 1999 see the short contribution in this book by Kirsti Kovanen (see page 10).
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Since the very beginning the CIAV has given special attention to the educational aspect of its activities -- exhibitions, public re- lations, publications etc to inform a larger public, especially the communities living in places of vernacular heritage, about the different aspects of preservation work. Most of the papers presented at the first colloquium on "Vernacular Architecture" in Plovdiv in 1976 were published in Monumentum, vols. XV- XVI, 1977. A special issue of the Romanian Revista muzeelor si monumentelor (Museum and monuments revue, No. 1, Bucharest 1979) was dedicated to the CIAV activities, with most of the committee members contributing with papers.
A first exhibition prepared by the CIAV (M. Gschwend, with H. Hiltbrand) on "Rural Architecture in Switzerland", sponsored
by the foundation Pro Helvetia, was shown in Romania in 1980 (Bucharest, Village Museum and Sibiu), in the same year in the open-air museum of Ballenberg, Switzerland and in 1981 in Sofia, Bulgaria. In exchange, in 1982 the exhibition "Romanian Rural Architecture", organised by G. Stoica, was presented in Zurich (Museum of Ethnology) and Ballenberg and in the year after it was included in the programme of the "Romanian-Ro- manche Weeks�� of the Romanche League in Laax-Flims. Other smaller exhibitions accompanying different sessions or collo- quiums followed.
Even if the efforts to publish the most important papers and results of all the CIAV sessions or meetings failed, at least the papers of the Brauweiler conference (1992) were published in 1993: Historische Kulturlandschaften (Historic Landscapes, = ICOMOS Journals of the German National Committee XI) and those presented during the international river cruise on the Vol- ga in June 1990 were printed under the title Historic Towns and Villages in the Process of Urbanisation, Moscow 1994. Among the books prepared by different national and international scien- tific committees of ICOMOS, especially for presentation at the 10th General Assembly of ICOMOS in Colombo, Sri Lanka, the CIAV was also represented: Vernacular Architecture, Colombo 1993.
Thanks to the efforts made by N. Moutsopoulos (CIAV Presi- dent between 1989 and 1995) and other committee members from the Balkan countries, UNESCO published the volume L'architecture vernaculaire dans les Balkans (Vernacular Archi- tecture in the Balkans, No. 10 in the series Etudes et documents sur le patrimoine culturel, CLT-85/WS/48), including contribu- tions on the Greek Popular House and on Vernacular Architec- ture in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Romania. In Winter 1992 the volume Traditional Architecture of the Balkans was edited by the Melissa Publishing House in Athens, Greece. (In the late 1990s the Melissa Publishing House continued to edit books on the vernacular architecture of the different Balkan countries.)
The work of the committee after 1995
Since its start the CIAV has achieved important results in the field of study and conservation of vernacular architecture, in collaboration with other ISCs of ICOMOS or other scientific or- ganisations, trying at the same time to improve cooperation with national committees and to coopt specialists from outside CIAV or ICOMOS to the scientific work or to support the creation of national sub-committees on vernacular architecture (e.g. in Turkey).
Considering the results of all the scientific achievements, all the aims and tasks included in the resolution of Plovdiv 1989, the "State of the Art" of Vernacular Architecture adopted in 1990, the "Recommendations for the Conservation and Renova- tion of Vernacular Architecture" presented at the Brauweiler conference in 1992 or the different versions towards a final and generally accepted text for the "Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage", some committee and Bureau members of the CIAV became conscious of the main tasks for the future work and started to rewrite its content, the working methods, its interna- tional coordinating or cooperative task and to think about re- structuring its composition in order to become a real worldwide operating committee.
As a consequence after the adoption of the Eger Principles for International Scientific Committees of ICOMOS by the Gener-
al Assembly in Colombo 1993 new statutes were worked out for CIAV in conformity with these principles. Adopted at the annu- al meeting of the committee in Sardegna, Italy in 1994 and con- firmed by the Executive Committee in the same year, the statutes served as a model for a future restructuring of other ISCs. In recognition of the above mentioned contributions by the Bulgarian National Committee of ICOMOS and the Bulgarian Government to the activities of CIAV until 1992, Plovdiv has been confirmed as official seat of the committee in the new statutes, even if the effective administration work has been linked with the seat of the Secretary General (at the moment Kirsti Kovanen in Mikkeli, Finland) since 1992.
Based on the new CIAV statutes up to the end of 1994 36 na- tional committees had already nominated voting members for the restructured committee and the constitutive meeting could take place in May 1995 thanks to the support given by the ICO- MOS National Committee of Guatemala. A detailed plan for fu- ture activities of the committee worked out in close cooperation between the new members and the new Bureau of CIAV (elect- ed by postal vote before the meeting) should be mentioned as one of the most important results of this meeting: The commit- tee decided to start operating worldwide by moving from conti- nent to continent with the annual meetings and scientific con- ferences, enlarging the cooperation with national and interna- tional conservation bodies, especially the ISCs, but also with specialists outside ICOMOS, trying to establish an internation- al multidisciplinary network, at the same time continuously try- ing to increase the number of committee members (at the mo- ment more than 70), to finalise the "Charter on the Built Ver- nacular Heritage��, producing a document accepted generally and worldwide, to pay even more attention to educational and public relations work, such as publications, exhibitions, training programmes, to prepare a "Vernacular Newsletter" and a home- page of the committee for internet etc.
Implementing the Guatemala decisions the following annual meetings took place in Jerusalem, Israel in 1996, in Bangkok, Thailand in 1997, in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic in 1998, in Morelia, Mexico in 1999 as part of the scientific con- ference during the 12th General Assembly of ICOMOS, and on the island of Santorini, Greece in 2000. The meeting 2001 was hosted by the Canadian National Committee of ICOMOS as part of the international scientific conference on conservation prob- lems of 20th century vernacular architecture. Among these very well organised and successful meetings two are of special inter- est: At the Jerusalem meeting the committee members succeed- ed in finalising the doctrinal text for the Charter, prepared by a working group of CIAV members (from all continents) and Spanish specialists during a working session hosted by the Span- ish Ministry of Culture in January 1996. For the first time the Bangkok meeting in May 1997 hosted by the Department of Fine Arts of the Thai Minister of Culture offered specialists from the Asian countries (even without ICOMOS committees) the possibility to discuss the topics related to the preservation of vernacular heritage. More than 120 participants from 24 coun- tries contributed to the success of the meeting with very inter- esting papers, active discussions or poster presentations. The pa- pers printed in the volume Proceedings of the International Conference on Conservation and Revitalization of Vernacular Architecture and ICOMOS-CIAV Annual Meeting 1997 (Bang- kok 1998) include a large number of contributions from CIAV members and also the final "Recommendations for the Preser- vation of the Vernacular Heritage�� worked out by the Bureau of
the CIAV. Other scientific contributions and papers written by members of the committee can be found in the proceedings of the 11th General Assembly in Sofia as well as in those of the 12th General Assembly as part of the papers held at the scientif- ic colloquium in Morelia. The contribution of some CIAV mem- bers to the Encyclopaedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World, edited by Paul Oliver in 1998 (Cambridge University Press) should also be mentioned. Last but not least the present publication is the result of the committee's decision in Santo Domingo in 1998 to publish a book on traditional houses and housing worldwide.
One of the most important results of the committee's work is without
any doubt the final version of the "Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage" in English, French and Spanish, adopted by the General Assembly of ICOMOS in Mexico 1999 and pub- lished (in English and French) in the first issue of ICOMOS News 2000. Besides the long history of preparation the text is a real document of the conservation philosophy of CIAV. Ad- dressed directly to owners, communities but also to specialists, it deliberately avoids any definition of vernacular heritage which may vary according to the specific cultural traditions in the different regions of the world. For this reason the elaboration of regional guidelines will be a very important task for the future work of the committee. The first step was made as a result of the Santorini meeting in 2000: ��Guidelines for Tourism in Vernacu- lar Settlements".
Nevertheless all the important achievements in the field of study and conservation of vernacular architecture or the devel- opment of preservation strategies are the result of the ongoing scientific work of the committee since its foundation. Starting from the traditional preservation strategies of conservation in situ or in open-air museums (in the first years quite a large num- ber of committee members came from open-air museums) and faced with the rapid changes of contemporary life and society, the committee learned to enlarge its understanding of what ver- nacular is -- from the single farmsteads and traditional village units to urban vernacular areas and settlements, to cultural land- scape areas and the links between vernacular heritage and the geomorphological conditions of the landscape. Conscious of the fact that the vernacular is one of the most endangered parts of our heritage, new methods and conservation strategies and poli- cies have been studied and worked out, trying to establish an in- ternational multidisciplinary network, to sensitise and involve the communities in the recognition, maintenance and continu- ance of their cultural values, to coordinate regional and local ini- tiatives, to participate in development projects, such as new ver- nacular architecture and to organise educational and training programmes. Since 1993 committee members have been in- volved in international training programmes addressed both to specialists (Cologne, Germany 1993, Tbilissi, Georgia 1998) and administrative bodies (Guatemala 1996) and in teaching ac- tivities (architectural conservation courses at universities, ICCROM, post-graduate studies etc.). For a couple of years the CIAV has been much more involved in the evaluation process for nomination of the vernacular heritage to the World Heritage List of UNESCO.
At the moment the CIAV has more than 70 members, 60 of them being voting members, the others associate or coopted members. The committee is headed by Christoph Machat (Ger- many) as President, Blanca Nino (Guatemala) and Miles Lewis (Australia) as Vice Presidents and Kirsti Kovanen (Finland) as Secretary General.
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Kirsti Kovanen
About the Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage
CHARTER ON THE BUILT VERNACULAR HERITAGE
The Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage has its early roots in the conservation thinking of the 1980s. The first draft was al- ready prepared by Rachelle Anguelova in 1984. This draft was reworked during the following years by the vernacular commit- tee's chairman, Nicolas Moutsopoulos, and by members of the committee. All the work of that period resulted in a joint paper that was presented to the committee in 1992. In the 1990s ICO- MOS President Roland Silva prepared a paper focused on the conservation of vernacular villages. These ideas were included when the joint paper was once more redrafted by the vernacular committee in 1996. During these basic working phases the char- ter adopted ideas from classical conservation in situ, from the conservation work that was done in open-air museums and from the wide experience in research and conservation design of in- habited houses, villages and towns as well as from their imma- terial traditions. The early drafts carefully covered the general and detailed features of vernacular buildings, the final draft tied together the issues concerning the conservation of any single building, any group of buildings alone or as part of a cultural landscape. It was finalised and distributed to be commented in 1996.
The comments that the committee received in 1997-98 showed that the general and global viewpoint which the charter had introduced covered many parts of the world's vernacular heritage. However, some of the main definitions were difficult to translate into all languages and cultures. The draft was pre- sented to the colleagues in three languages, in English, French and in Spanish. The most controversial issue was the question of definitions, mainly the differences between traditional, popular and vernacular. The second most argued issue was whether the charter could be applied to the conservation of modern vernac- ular heritage. There were also demands for a much more practi- cal paper that would give a conservationist the tools for common field work. The final round of discussions was also held in the three languages and resulted in clarifying the definitions and the general guidelines. Additions concerning educational work were made. The final charter text was adopted in the three working languages in 1999 by the general assembly in Guadalajara, Mexico.
Since the adoption of the charter the committee has tried to continue the discussion by enhancing the work on regional guidelines which at their best will concentrate on the issues vi- tal to the region and result in finding and documenting the com- mon and the particular when conserving the region's own ver- nacular heritage.
INTRODUCTION
The built vernacular heritage occupies a central place in the af- fection and pride of all peoples. It has been accepted as a char- acteristic and attractive product of society. It appears informal, but nevertheless orderly. It is utilitarian and at the same time possesses interest and beauty. It is a focus of contemporary life and at the same time a record of the history of society. Although it is the work of man it is also the creation of time. It would be unworthy of the heritage of man if care were not taken to con- serve these traditional harmonies which constitute the core of
man's own existence.
The built vernacular heritage is important; it is the fundamen-
tal expression of the culture of a community, of its relationship with its territory and, at the same time, the expression of the world's cultural diversity.
Vernacular building is the traditional and natural way by which communities house themselves. It is a continuing process including necessary changes and continuous adaptation as a re- sponse to social and environmental constraints. The survival of this tradition is threatened worldwide by the forces of econom- ic, cultural and architectural homogenisation. How these forces can be met is a fundamental problem that must be addressed by communities and also by governments, planners, architects, conservationists and by a multidisciplinary group of specialists. Due to the homogenisation of culture and of global socio-eco- nomic transformation, vernacular structures all around the world are extremely vulnerable, facing serious problems of ob- solescence, internal equilibrium and integration.
It is necessary, therefore, in addition to the Venice charter, to establish principles for the care and protection of our built ver- nacular heritage.
GENERAL ISSUES
1. Examples of the vernacular may be recognised by:
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a manner of building shared by the community;
a recognisable local or regional character responsive to the environment;
coherence of style, form and appearance, or the use of traditionally established building types;
traditional expertise in design and construction which is transmitted informally;
an effective response to functional, social and environmen- tal constraints;
the effective application of traditional construction systems and crafts.
2. The appreciation and successful protection of the vernacular heritage depend on the involvement and support of the com- munity, continuing use and maintenance.
3. Governments and responsible authorities must recognise the right of all communities to maintain their living traditions, to
protect these through all available legislative, administrative and financial means and to hand them down to future genera- tions.
PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION
1. The conservation of the built vernacular heritage must be car- ried out by multidisciplinary expertise while recognising the inevitability of change and development, and the need to re- spect the community's established cultural identity.
2. Contemporary work on vernacular buildings, groups and set- tlements should respect their cultural values and their tradi- tional character.
3. The vernacular is only seldom represented by single struc- tures, and it is best conserved by maintaining and preserving groups and settlements of a representative character, region by region.
4. The built vernacular heritage is an integral part of the cultur- al landscape and this relationship must be taken into consid- eration in the development of conservation approaches
5. The vernacular embraces not only the physical form and fab- ric of buildings, structures and spaces, but the ways in which they are used and understood, and the traditions and the intan- gible associations which attach to them.
GUIDELINES IN PRACTICE
1. Research and documentation
Any physical work on a vernacular structure should be cautious and should be preceded by a full analysis of its form and struc- ture. This document should be lodged in a publicly accessible archive.
2. Siting, landscape and groups of buildings
Interventions to vernacular structures should be carried out in a manner which will respect and maintain the integrity of the sit- ing, the relationship to the physical and cultural landscape, and of one structure to another.
3. Traditional building systems
The continuity of traditional building systems and craft skills as- sociated with the vernacular is fundamental for vernacular ex- pression, and essential for the repair and restoration of these structures. Such skills should be retained, recorded and passed on to new generations of craftsmen and builders in education and training.
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4. Replacement of materials and parts
Alterations which legitimately respond to the demands of con- temporary use should be effected by the introduction of materi- als which maintain a consistency of expression, appearance, tex- ture and form throughout the structure and a consistency of building materials.
CHARTE DU PATRIMOINE BÂTI VERNACULAIRE
5. Adaptation
Adaptation and reuse of vernacular structures should be carried out in a manner which will respect the integrity of the structure, its character and form while being compatible with acceptable standards of living.
Where there is no break in the continuous utilization of ver- nacular forms, a code of ethics within the community can serve as a tool of intervention.
6. Changes and period restoration
Changes over time should be appreciated and understood as im- portant aspects of vernacular architecture. Conformity of all parts of a building to a single period will not normally be the goal of work on vernacular structures.
7. Training
In order to conserve the cultural values of vernacular expression, governments, responsible authorities, groups and organisations must place emphasis on the following:
a) education programmes for conservators in the principles of
the vernacular;
b) training programmes to assist communities in maintaining
traditional building systems, materials and craft skills;
c) information programmes which improve public awareness of
the vernacular especially amongst the younger generation.
d) regional networks on vernacular architecture to exchange ex-
pertise and experiences.
CIAV:
Madrid, January 30, 1996
Jerusalem, March 28, 1996
Mikkeli, February 26, 1998
Santo Domingo, August 26, 1998
ICOMOS:
Stockholm, September 10, 1998 Guadalajara, October 22, 1999
INTRODUCTION
Le patrimoine bâti vernaculaire suscite �� juste titre la fiert�� de tous les peuples. Reconnu comme une cr��ation caract��ristique et pitto- resque de la soci��t��, il se manifeste de façon informelle, et pourtant organis��e; utilitaire, il poss��de n��anmoins un int��r��t et une beaut��. C'est �� la fois un reflet de la vie contemporaine et un t��moin de l'histoire de la soci��t��. Bien qu'il soit oeuvre humaine, il est aussi le produit du temps. Il serait indigne de l'h��ritage de l'humanit�� de
ne pas chercher �� conserver et �� promouvoir ces harmonies tradi- tionnelles qui sont au coeur m��me de son existence et de son avenir. Le patrimoine bâti vernaculaire est important car il est l'ex- pression fondamentale de la culture d'une collectivit��, de ses re- lations avec son territoire et, en m��me temps, l'expression de la diversit�� culturelle du monde.
La construction vernaculaire est le moyen traditionnel et naturel par lequel les communaut��s cr��ent leur habitat. C'est un processus en ��volution n��cessitant des changements et une adaptation constante en r��ponse aux contraintes sociales et environnemen- tales. Partout dans le monde, l'uniformisation ��conomique, cultu- relle et architecturale menace la survie de cette tradition. La ques- tion de savoir comment r��sister �� ces forces est fondamentale et doit ��tre r��solue non seulement par les populations, mais aussi par les gouvernements, les urbanistes, les architectes, les conservateurs, ainsi que par un groupe pluridisciplinaire d'experts.
En raison de l'uniformisation de la culture et des ph��nom��nes de mondialisation socio-��conomiques, les structures vernacu- laires dans le monde sont extr��mement vuln��rables parce qu'elles sont confront��es de graves probl��mes d'obsolescence, d'��quilibre interne et d'int��gration.
Il est par cons��quent n��cessaire, en compl��ment de la Charte de Venise, d'��tablir des principes pour l'entretien et la protection de notre patrimoine bâti vernaculaire.
PRINCIPES GÉNÉRAUX
1. Les bâtiments vernaculaires pr��sentent les caract��ristiques
suivantes:
un mode de construction partag�� par la communaut��;
un caract��re local ou r��gional en r��ponse �� son environne-
ment;
une coh��rence de style, de forme et d'aspect, ou un recours �� des types de construction traditionnels;
une expertise traditionnelle en composition et en construc- tion transmise de façon informelle;
une r��ponse efficace aux contraintes fonctionnelles, so- ciales et environnementales;
une application efficace de syst��mes et du savoir-faire propres �� la construction traditionnelle.
2. L'appr��ciation et l'efficacit�� de la protection du patrimoine vernaculaire d��pendent de l'engagement et du soutien de la collectivit��, de son utilisation et de son entretien continuels.
3. Les gouvernements et les autorit��s comp��tentes doivent re- connaître �� toutes les collectivit��s le droit de pr��server leurs modes de vie traditionnels et de les prot��ger par tous les moyens l��gislatifs, administratifs et financiers �� leur disposi- tion et de les transmettre aux g��n��rations futures.
PRINCIPES DE CONSERVATION
1. La conservation du patrimoine bâti vernaculaire doit ��tre me- n��e par des sp��cialistes de diverses disciplines, qui reconnais- sent le caract��re in��luctable du changement et du d��veloppe- ment et le besoin de respecter l'identit�� culturelle de la col- lectivit��.
2. Les interventions contemporaines sur les constructions, les ensembles et les ��tablissements vernaculaires doivent respec- ter leurs valeurs culturelles et leur caract��re traditionnel. 3. Le patrimoine vernaculaire s'exprime rarement par des constructions isol��es et il est mieux conserv�� par le maintien et la pr��servation d'ensembles et d'��tablissements repr��senta- tifs, r��gion par r��gion.
4. Le patrimoine bâti vernaculaire fait partie int��grante du pay- sage culturel et cette relation doit donc ��tre prise en compte dans la pr��paration des projets de conservation.
5. Le patrimoine vernaculaire ne comprend pas seulement les formes et les mat��riaux des bâtiments, structures et des lieux, mais ��galement la mani��re dont ces ��l��ments sont utilis��s et perçus ainsi que les traditions et les liens intangibles qui leur sont reli��s.
ORIENTATIONS PRATIQUES
1. Recherche et documentation
Toute intervention physique sur une structure vernaculaire de- vrait ��tre men��e avec prudence et pr��c��d��e d'une analyse com- pl��te de sa forme et de sa structure. Ce document devrait ��tre conserv�� dans des archives accessibles au public.
2. Emplacement, paysage et groupes de bâtiments
Les interventions sur les structures vernaculaires devraient ��tre men��es dans le respect et le maintien de l'int��grit�� de l'emplace- ment, de la relation avec les paysages physiques et culturels et de l'agencement d'une structure par rapport aux autres.
3. Syst��mes de construction traditionnels
Le maintien des syst��mes de construction traditionnels et du sa- voir-faire li�� au patrimoine vernaculaire est capital pour
l'archi-
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tecture vernaculaire et essentiel pour la r��fection et la restaura- tion de ces structures. C'est par l'��ducation et la formation que ce savoir-faire devrait ��tre conserv��, enregistr�� et transmis aux nouvelles g��n��rations d'artisans et de bâtisseurs.
CARTA DEL PATRIMONIO VERNÁCULO CONSTRUIDO
4. Remplacement des mat��riaux et des ��l��ments architecturaux
Les transformations qui satisfont l��gitimement aux exigences modernes devraient ��tre r��alis��es avec des mat��riaux qui assu- rent la coh��rence de l'expression, de l'aspect, de la texture et de la forme de l'ensemble de la construction et la coh��sion des dif- f��rents mat��riaux entre eux.
5. Adaptation
L'adaptation et la r��utilisation des constructions vernaculaires devraient ��tre effectu��es dans le respect de l'int��grit�� de la struc- ture, de son caract��re et de sa forme tout en ��tant compatibles avec des standards de vie acceptables. La p��rennit�� des modes de construction vernaculaire peut ��tre assur��e par l'��laboration par la collectivit�� d'un code d'��thique qui peut servir aux inter- ventions.
6. Changements et restauration d'��poque
Les modifications apport��es dans le temps aux bâtiments doi- vent ��tre appr��ci��es et comprises comme des ��l��ments impor- tants de l'architecture vernaculaire. La conformit�� de tous les ��l��ments d'un bâtiment �� une m��me p��riode ne sera pas, en g��- n��ral, l'objectif des interventions sur les structures vernacu- laires.
7. Formation
Afin de conserver les valeurs culturelles de l'architecture ver- naculaire, les gouvernements, les autorit��s comp��tentes, les groupes et les organismes devraient mettre l'accent sur :
a) des programmes ��ducatifs susceptibles de transmettre les
principes du patrimoine vernaculaire aux conservateurs; b) des programmes de formation pour aider les collectivit��s �� pr��server les syst��mes de construction, les mat��riaux et le savoir-faire traditionnels;
c) des programmes d'information qui accroissent la sensibilisa- tion du public et des jeunes en particulier dans le domaine de l'architecture vernaculaire;
d) des r��seaux inter-r��gionaux d'architecture vernaculaire pour
��changer des expertises et des exp��riences.
CIAV:
Madrid, 30 janvier 1996
J��rusalem, 28 mars 1996
Mikkeli, 26 f��vrier 1998
Saint-Domingue, 26 août 1998 ICOMOS:
Stockholm, 13 septembre 1998 Guadalajara, 22 octobre 1999
INTRODUCCIÓN
El Patrimonio Tradicional ocupa un privilegiado lugar en el afecto y cariño de todos los pueblos. Aparece como un carac- terRstico y atractivo resultado de la sociedad. Se muestra apa- rentemente irregular y sin embargo ordenado. Es utilitario y al mismo tiempo posee inter��s y belleza. Es un lugar de vida con- tempor��nea y a su vez, una remembranza de la historia de la so- ciedad. Es tanto el trabajo del hombre como creaci��n del tiem- po. Ser��a muy digno papra la memoria de la humanidad si se tu- viera cuidado en conservar esa tradicional armon��a que consti- tuye la referencia de su propia existencia.
El Patrimonio Tradicional o Vern��culo construido es la expre- si��n fundamental de la identidad de una comunidad, de sus rela- ciones con el territorio y al mismo tiempo, la expresi��n de la di- versidad cultural del mundo.
El Patrimonio Vern��culo construido constituye el modo natu- ral y tradicional en que las comunidades han producido su pro- pio h��bitat. Forma parte de un proceso continuo, que incluye cambios necesarios y una continua adaptac��...n como respuesta a los requerimientos sociales y ambientales. La continuidad de esa tradici��n se ve amenazada en todo el mundo por las fuerzas de la homogeneizaci��n cultural y arquitect��nica. C��mo esas fuerzas pueden ser controladas es el problema fundamental que debe ser resuelto por las distintas comunidades, as�� como por los gobiernos, planificadores y por grupos multidisciplinarios de especialistas.
Debido a esa homogeneizaci��n de la cultura y a la globaliza- ci��n socio-econ��mica, las estructuras vern��culas son, en todo el mundo, extremadamente vulnerables y se enfrentan a serios pro- blemas de obsolescencia, equilibrio interno e integraci��n.
Es necesario, por tanto, como ampliaci��n a la Carta de Vene- cia, establecer principios para el cuidado y protecci��n de nues-
tro Patrimonio Vern��culo.
CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES
1. Los ejemplos de lo vern��culo pueden ser reconocidos por: Un modo de construir emanado de la propia comunidad. Un reconocible car��cter local o regional ligado al territorio. Coherencia de estilo, forma y apariencia, as�� como el uso de tipos arquitect��nicos tradicionalmente establecidos. Sabidur��a tradicional en el diseño y en la construcci��n, que es trasmitida de manera informal.
Una respuesta directa a los requerimientos funcionales, so- ciales y ambientales.
- La aplicaci��n de sistemas, oficios y t��cnicas tradicionales
de construcci��n.
2. El ��xito en la apreciaci��n y protecci��n del patrimonio vern��- culo depende del soporte de la comunidad, de la continuidad de uso y su mantenimiento.
3. Gobiernos y autoridades deben reconocer el derecho de todas
las comunidades a mantener su modo de vida tradicional y a protegerlo a trav��s de todos los medios posibles, tanto legales como administrativos y financieros y legarlo a las generacio- nes futuras.
PRINCIPIOS DE CONSERVACIÓN
1. La conservaci��n del Patrimonio Vern��culo construido debe ser llevada a cabo por grupos multidisciplinarios de expertos, que reconozcan la inevitabilidad de los cambios, as�� como la necesidad del respeto a la identidad cultural establecida de una comunidad.
2. Las intervenciones contempor��neas en edificios, conjuntos y asentamientos vern��culos deben respetar sus valores cultura- les y su car��cter tradicional.
3. Lo tradicional se encuentra s��lo en ocasiones representado por estructuras singulares. Es mejor apreciado y conservado por el mantenimiento y preservaci��n de los conjuntos y asen- tamientos de car��cter representativo en cada una de las ��reas. 4. El Patrimonio Vern��culo construido forma parte integral del paisaje cultural y esta relaci��n ha de ser, como tal, tenida en consideraci��n en el transcurso de los programas de conserva- ci��n y desarrollo.
5. El Patrimonio Vern��culo no s��lo obedece a los elementos materiales, edificios, estructuras y espacios, sino tambi��n al modo en que es usado e interpretado por la comunidad, as�� co- mo a las tradiciones y expresiones intangibles asociadas al mismo.
LÍNEAS DE ACCIÓN
1. Investigaci��n y documentaci��n
Cualquier intervenci��n material en una estructura vern��cula de- be ser precedida de un completo an��lisis de su forma y organi- zaci��n, antes de comenzar los trabajos. Esta documentaci��n de- be localizarse en un archivo de acceso p��blico.
2. Asentamientos y paisaje
La intervenci��n en las estructuras vern��culas debe ser imple- mentada siempre y cuando respete y mantenga la integridad de los conjuntos de edificios y asentamientos, as�� como su relaci��n con el paisaje y otras estructuras.
3. Sistemas tradicionales de construcci��n
La continuidad de los sistemas tradicionales de construcci��n, as�� como de los oficios y t��cnicas asociados con el Patrimonio Ver-
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n��culo, son fundamentales como expresi��n del mismo y esen- ciales para la restauraci��n de dichas estructuras. Tales t��cnicas deben ser conservadas y legadas a las futuras generaciones, me- diante la educaci��n y formaci��n de artesanos y constructores.
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CONSERVATION
IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
4. Sustituci��n de partes o elementos
Las intervenciones que respondan leg��timamente a las deman- das del uso contempor��neo deben llevarse a cabo mediante la introducci��n de t��cnicas y materiales que mantengan un equili- brio de expesi��n, apariencia, textura y forma con la estructura original.
AUSTRALIA
5. Adaptaci��n
La adaptaci��n y reutilizaci��n de las estructuras vern��culas debe ser llevada a cabo de modo que respete la integridad de su con- figuraci��n, siempre que sea compatible con los niveles de habi- tabilidad deseados.
Cuando se ha conservado la continua utilizaci��n de las formas vern��culas, un c��digo ��tico puede servir a la comunidad como pauta de actuaci��n.
6. Cambios y periodo de intervenci��n
Los cambios a lo largo del tiempo deben ser considerados como parte integrante del Patrimonio Vern��culo. Por tanto, la vincula- ci��n de todas las partes de un edificio a un solo periodo hist��ri- co no ser�� normalmente el objetivo de los trabajos sobre arqui- tectura vern��cula.
7. Educaci��n y difusi��n
��
Para conservar los valores del legado tradicional gobiernos, au- toridades, grupos y organizaciones deben poner ��nfasis en lo si- guiente:
a) Programas educativos para conservadores, sobre los princi-
pios del patrimonio tradicional.
b) Programas de especializaci��n para asistir a las comunidades en el mantenimiento de los sistemas tradicionales de cons- trucci��n, as�� como de los oficios correspondientes.
c) Programas de informaci��n que promuevan la conciencia co- lectiva de la cultura aut��ctona, en especial a las nuevas gene- raciones.
d) Promoci��n de redes regionales de arquitectura vern��cula pa-
ra el intercambio de experiencias y especialistas.
Miles Lewis
had only recently become cheap. In more traditional building the sides of the posts would have been grooved to receive the ends of the horizontal wattles.
An Australian Hybrid: The Gardiner house, French Island
Australia does not have any one distinctive version of the ver- nacular, for the climate varies from the cool temperate to the tropical, the distances are vast -- comparable with the distance from Oslo to Damascus the population is sparse, the sources include the architecture of the first settlers from British isles, the transitory structures of the Aboriginal inhabitants, and the im- portations of migrant groups from the Chinese to the Germans. The Gardiner house exemplifies some of these characteristics. It was built in the mid-19th century at what was then an isolated and inaccessible location, French Island in Westernport Bay, in the south-east of Australia. John and William Gardiner were squatters on the island - that is, settlers with no real legal tenure, but tolerated on public land so long as they paid a licence fee. It can be no earlier than the date of the Gardiners' squatting li- cence, 1847, but need not be much later, and it most probably pre-dates their application to purchase the site in January 1854.
The first section has a machine sawn frame which may have been imported nearly 3,000 kilometres from Western Australia. The top and bottom plates were neatly drilled to create rounded mortice holes for the uprights, and midway between each was a single drilled hole which allowed a light sapling to be sprung
in vertically. Other such saplings were nailed to either side of each upright, and within each panel the horizontal basketwork was woven in and out between and braced by the saplings. This was plastered with a daub consisting essentially of the locally avail- able soil. This construction makes extensive use of nails, which
At an early date the building was extended, in similar wattle and daub construction, but more crudely built out of local split and adzed timber with a split paling roof. An analysis of the daub has revealed seeds of various introduced European plants, which is consistent with our belief that this is the later section. When the building was investigated some years ago, the original struc- ture had collapsed and only the later addition stood. It was diffi- cult to believe that the collapsed portion was the original; that it could be such a sophisticated structure of milled timber; and still less that it had been prefabricated. At that time prefabrication in wattle and daub was unheard of, though other examples have since been found.
--

This building exemplifies a number of things:
- the use in Australia of wattle and daub, a traditional European
technology
the adaptation of this technology to a sophisticated system of prefabrication
the transport of building components over considerable dis- tances
the ad hoc adaptation of this system to local materials and more primitive techniques
the extensive use of industrialised components, that is nails, in vernacular building.
CLAV
Madrid, 30 de enero de 1996
Jerusalem, 28 demarzo de 1996
Mikkeli, 26 de febrero de 1998
Santo Domingo, 26 de agosto de 1998 ICOMOS
Stockholm, 10 de septembre de 1998 Guadalajara, 22 de Octubre 1999
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CANADA
Marc de Caraffe
Hawthorne Cottage and Maison Trestler
Hawthorne Cottage
This picturesque cottage orn�� was built in 1830 by John Lea- mon, a local merchant. According to family tradition, in the win- ter of 1833-34 the building was moved over eight kilometres to its present location in the fishing port of Brigus, Newfoundland. The structure was later expanded to include a two storey addi- tion at the rear, which was completed ca. 1920. The most famous occupant of the house was Arctic explorer Captain Bob Bartlett (1875-1946), the skipper of Peary's ship on his voyage to the North Pole.¹
Set within an enclosed garden, Hawthorne Cottage is a charm- ing one-and-a-half storey frame structure laid on an elevated stone foundation and crowned by a low hipped roof. Historical records indicate that frames for buildings were shipped to New- foundland from neighbouring provinces. The building provides a good example of the modest suburban residences that were erected on the east coast of Canada during the first half of the 19th century. In this case, the balance between simplicity and va- riety is achieved by the main building and its addition, which to- gether form simple, unadorned masses arranged in an irregular plan, a traditional feature of the cottage orn��.³
In the interior of Hawthorne Cottage, each floor is divided down the centre by a hall. Rooms where visitors were greeted -- the par- lour and the dining room are situated on the ground level. To en- sure privacy, the bedrooms are on the first floor. Departing from Newfoundland fashion, the stairs are parallel with the front wall instead of being located on the axis of the hall. The central chim- ney, located in the hallway, is derived from a tradition two cen- turies old, of servicing the ground floor rooms by a central hearth. The veranda, which surrounds the building on three sides, was constructed in 1863. It is distinguished by a handsome bellcast roof and by rough fretwork, which was probably machine cut. An important feature of houses designed according to the Pic- turesque Movement in Canada, the veranda offered a harmo- nious transition between the elegance of the garden and the warmth of the domestic interior.
The relocation of the cottage belongs within the building tra- dition of Newfoundland. Moving buildings was usually done in winter, as icy surfaces eased the hauling. To move a structure re- quired runners made of green cut logs, long ropes and participa- tion of all able bodies in the village for pulling. This tradition has been dramatically represented by modern Canadian artist David Blackwood.
Hawthorne Cottage
the east wing in 1806. The building and its location provide a good illustration of the construction and settlement patterns of early French Canada.4
As the waterways constituted the main access routes of France's colony in North America, the land was subdivided in narrow lots fronting on rivers. Settlers would first construct a temporary shelter and then proceed to clear the surrounding land. The shelter would later be replaced by a house made of square timber. Once a farmer was comfortably settled, he would build a stone addition to the timber house. The addition became the main house; the timber structure a summer kitchen. The timber build- ing would eventually be replaced by a stone structure, resulting in a large rectangular residence made of whitewashed fieldstone.
Troestler bought a square timber house in 1786 in Dorion, near Montr��al, and 12 years later, he started to build his stone residence, which also served as a trading post. In its final form, the two-storey house measured 41.2 m by 11.9 m. The walls, made of local Potsdam sandstone, are one metre thick. The gabled roof, covered with cedar shingles, has a sharp 45 degree angle. To build his house, Troestler made use of contemporary French-Canadian construction techniques. With its main floor directly on the ground, its low walls and massive roof, and its central chimneys, the house possesses characteristics common to 18th century buildings of the St. Lawrence valley. Some in- novations which first appeared in the 19th century can also be seen: the sharp angle and the overhang of the roof, the numerous openings on the two façades and the symmetrical disposition of the chimneys.
Maison Trestler
BUONG MCDOW
BULONE SECON

HOON CUBANON
SECTIONAL
Schow pe
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20
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£
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Drawings of Hawthorne Cottage
Maison Trestler
This residence was built for a German soldier, Johan Joseph Troestler, who became a prosperous trader in the St. Lawrence valley after his retirement from the British army. According to three dated stones found in different parts of the house, the cen- tral section was constructed in 1798, the west wing in 1805 and
18
WALL SCON
EMPSEY
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HAWTHORNE COTTAGE
HOME CLENDON MEST GUÐNINCH
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A distinguishing feature of the interior is found in the large vaulted room, which was used to store trading goods. This room measures 10.97 m by 6.31 m and is 11.88 m high. For security against fire and theft, the doors were made of iron. In urban ar- eas, vaults are usually found in basements of commercial resi- dences. The Trestler house is a rare example of a residence with a vaulted room on the ground floor.
In the first half of the 20th century, the Trestler house was bought by Gustave-Henri Rainville. He remodelled it in the Quebec revival style, then a fashionable interpretation of tradi- tional local architecture, by installing several double dormers on the roof and by opening a central door on the north side. Rainville also did some remodelling in the interior, setting up false beams on ceilings in an attempt to embellish it.
19
Page 12

SLEVATION BUD
#1
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COUP
LONGITUDINALB. PAXTIELLE 197
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Drawings of Maison Trestler (Universit�� de Montr��al)
Ponds de ľudnagement
ELISATION NORD
SERVATION FORST
طلي خيط
BOOK WOL
Paris 1
Pari
Part 3
ELEVATION 137
فية. كما
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ཝཱ ཏ ཙྪཾ ཐཱ॰ ཏ, མཁ, ནིཊྛིཏྟིཡཱ, པཐཱནོ
inians Beutler ��verent de Montr��at
Erick Chaves
Cuatro Casas
COSTA RICA
Casona de la Hacienda Santa Rosa
Casona hist��rica declarada Patrimonio Nacional, debido a que ahi se desarroll�� ��la Batalla de Santa Rosa" contra los invasores o "filibusteros" en año 1856, en defensa de la Soberan��a Nacio- nal. Es una t��pica casona de hacienda, -estilo colonial español- en el medio de las sabanas dedicadas a la ganader��a. Construida en Adobes y bahareque español - estructura de caña - sobre hor- cones de madera como soporte principal, formando una canasta y rellenada con una mezcla de barro con pasto y luego enlucida con cal. Cubierta de teja de barro -- con algunas tejas de vidrio- para dejar pasar claridad al interior. Ubicada en el Parque Na- cional Santa Rosa, Provincia de Guanacaste, al norte del pa��s y cerca de la frontera con Nicaragua.
Casa de la Hacienda Santa Rosa
Chilean Pestier
Pada de l'antangement
Casa de Hacienda en San Joaqu��n de Flores
Es con el cultivo de Caf�� y su exportaci��n, aproximadamente en el año 1850 que proliferan este tipo de casonas amplias en el me- dio de los cafetales, en la Provincia de Heredia, que se encuen- tra en la Meseta Central, altiplano montañoso que se caracteriza por su clima fresco y el cultivo extensivo de Caf��. Con una fuer- te expresi��n urbana, por su cubierta texturada por los tejados de barro, hace gala de su estilo colonial español, de sus gruesas pa- redes de adobes y su gran patio central.
RAM
Casa de Hacienda en San Joaqu��n de Flores
+79lakaan Treacher
Villescens de Venezial
Funda de ladragsm��
¿Me Pranchas
Notes
1 Dana Johnson, "Hawthorne Cottage, Irishtown Road, Brigus, New- foundland", Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office, Building Report 92-84, Ottawa, Ontario.
2 Gerald L. Pocius, "Architecture on Newfoundland's Southern Shore: Di- versity and the Emergence of New World Forms", Bulletin, Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada, Volume 8, No. 2 (June 1983), p. 14.
3 Janet Wright, Architecture of the Picturesque in Canada, Studies in Archaeology, Architecture and History, Parks Canada (Ottawa: Min- ister of Supply and Services Canada, 1984), p. 28.
4 Marc de Caraffe et Nathalie Clerk, "La maison Trestler, 85, rue de la Commune, Dorion, Qu��bec", rapport au feuilleton, Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, 1981.
5 Marc de Caraffe et Nathalie Clerk, "La maison Girardin, 600, avenue
Royale, Beauport, Qu��bec��, Ibid., 1982.
20
Casa Florencia
SERVICIO SANITARIO
COCINA
DORMITORIO
SALA T.V.
DORMITORIO)
COMEDOR
DORMITORIO
SALA
DORMITORIO
DORMITORIO
CORREDOR
i
X
ELEVACION PRINCIPAL
DETALLE DE VENTANA
PLANTA
as
t
cal.
CORTE A-A
DETALLE DE MENSULA
Bra
CASA "FLORENCIA".
DETALLE DE PUERTA
Sen Foo, Calle Blawos.
Escala
San Jose, Costa Rica.
ABPA machames.
LOCALIZADOR
SAN FRANCISCO (CALLE BLANCOS)
LOCALIZACION
UBICACION (PLANTA DE TECHOR)
21
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Page 13

��
Casa Florencia
Ubicada en San Francisco de calle Blancos, Provincia de San Jo- s��, expresa ya la ajustada forma de vivir urbana, con una delica- da influencia del Victoriano en madera, exalta su fina ornamen- taci��n a base de elementos torneados e industrializados, que se producen con la introducci��n de equipo para aserr��o de madera, a partir de mediados del siglo pasado y dominan su volumetr��a la inclinada cubiera met��lica con su caracteristico hastial, por- tando su nombre "Florencia".
PLEKTA
Casa en Cartago
بالله الطيز
T4
CU
ÉLEVACIÓN PANCIPAL
OF TALLE DE PUERTA
برای اسا السلام
DETALIÆ DE YENĽAKA
Casa en Cartago
Influencia Victorina, en el Centro de Cartago, primera Capital de Costa Rica, constru��da en bahareque franc��s-estructura de madera con una malla met��lica muy fina - sirviendo de soporte a una mezcla de cal y canto (arena con cal), a doble forro, de tal manera que quedaban las paredes huecas. Este sistema cons- tructivo se hace com��n a partir del ingresos de metales al pa��s, tra��dos de Francia, Inglaterra y B��lgica, en el ��ltimo tercio del Siglo pasado y a principios del presente, muy probablemente posterior al terremoto de Cartago en 1910, que derrib�� la moyo- r��a de edificios de la ciudad, que estaban constru��dos en adobes de tierra y que motiv�� a las autoridades a proscribir la construc- ci��n en tierra.
Casa en Cartago
Ir��n Mill��n Cuet��ra
CUBA
Vivienda Calle 35 y Villa Elena, Cienfuegos
Cienfuegos, ��La Perla del Sur�� fundada por colonos franceses en 1819, posee, entre otras, una zona residencial cuyos par��me- tros f��sicos resultan singulares en su trama urbana; tanto por sus caracter��sticas morfol��gicas, el hecho de poseer un ��nico acce- so vial y un di��logo constante con el mar que es quien rige, en ��iltima instancia, la configuraci��n de esa p��ninsula denominada Punta Gorda en el pasado siglo y reconocida en el presente co- mo La Punta.
De car��cter reservado para disfrute y esparcimiento en tem- porada de verano, su privilegiada posici��n en la porci��n m��s sur de la ciudad, se vio cualificada por la construcci��n en 1917 del simb��lico Palacio de Acisclo del Valle, el restaurante Covadon- ga en 1920 y en 1958, la ejecuci��n del Hotel Jagua.
Predomina en este asentamiento la funci��n dom��stica en sus 20 edificaciones, las que se sit��an al centro del lote rodeadas de jardines y patios que miran al oeste y hacia la l��nea de costa que delimita el contorno de la ciudad.
En las viviendas de madera se aprecia la influencia norteame- ricana del sistema constructivo conocido como Balloon Frame, que tipific�� este tipo de construcci��n industrial de viviendas de madera, a la manera de muchos de sus hom��logos ejecutadas al sur de Estados Unidos; pero en nuestro caso, prevalecen los ele- mentos vern��culos que tanto distinguen nuestra arquitectura cu- bana.
Predomina tambi��n en estos inmuebles la distribuci��n de plantas compactas, con techos que desaguan hacia el exterior y portales que bordean el frente y laterales; aunque tambi��n en- contramos la tradicional planta en L, con patio lateral cuyas cu- biertas declinan hacia el mismo para permitir la recolecci��n de las aguas pluviales.
Las cubiertas, en su gran mayor��a son de tejas; ya sean fran- cesas o españolas; sin que se desde el uso de planchas acanala- das de zinc ondulado.
Estructuralmente abundan los elementos de madera en forma
de columnas o parales, recubiertos de madera machihembradas o a tope, donde se usan cubiertas de viguetas, soleras o cumbre- ras que sostienen la tablaz��n y los materiales de terminaci��n.
En su gran mayor��a las viviendas son de dos niveles y se des- tacan por su prestancia y distinci��n.
Los ambientes interiores derrochan elegancia por el uso y va- riedad de sus pavimentos de mosaicos; y son de destacar los pi- sos de madera en plantas bajas y entrepisos.
Los soportes verticales de portales y galer��as generan la utili- zaci��n del "pie derecho" o columna de madera, variable por su secci��n cuadrada, ochavada o circular.
La carpinter��a exterior de estos inmuebles se compone de puertas y ventanas de tableros del tipo español y, en los de ma- yor nivel constructivo aparece el uso de persianer��a francesa, lu- cetas de colores y tableros rehundidos m��s trabajados. Todos en- marcados por jambas que rematan los vanos de carpinter��a y aristas de las construcciones.
Vista General de Punta Gorda, Cienfuegos
La tradici��n popular de la herrer��a cienfueguera se proyecta en las ventanas a trav��s de sencillos y funcionales barrotes met��li- cos, con escasa; pero elegante decoraci��n en remates y centros. Los elementos decorativos de estas edificaciones se ubican generalmente en sus fachadas y laterales. Sobresalen las baran- das de celos��as de madera que forman verdaderos cierres cala- dos que brindan una elegancia transparencia y las cl��sicas ba- randas de hierro con pasamanos de madera, que nos llevan a pa- trones constructivos del siglo XIX cubano.
Tambi��n llama la atenci��n el uso de cartelas de diferentes mo- tivos en forma de arcos ojivales, de medio punto, rebajados, o secciones de ��stos, cual encajes entretejidos de madera que sua- vizan el meridiano caribeño hacia el portal, galer��as y fachadas. Lambrequines met��licos o de madera y cubiertas a varias aguas que se rematan por pin��culos centrales, a modo de para- rrayos, completan el repertorio formal de este valioso conjunto que armoniza agradablemente patrones decorativos de aqu�� y all��, en un ambiente urbano culturalmente caracterizado, deve- nido hoy en un interesante y "sui g��neris" conjunto, s��mbolo de esta hermosa ciudad marinera.
Vivienda Calle 35
Villa Elena, Cienfuegos
Vivienda Calle 35
22
223
23
Page 14

GOLFO DE
MEXICO
24
CIDAD
DE LA HABANA
ESTRECHO DE LA
FLORIDA
CIENFUEGOS
SANTIAGO DE
MAR CANDE
CUBA
ELEVACION NORTE
ELEVACION OESTE
PASO DE
LOS VIENTOS
CASTA
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CLOKET
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GALERIA
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COMEDOR
DORMITORIO
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25
Page 15

Søren Vadstrup
Stone buildings in Greenland 1830-1915
Greenland before 1830
DENMARK
The rough and not especially green coasts of Greenland have been populated since the stone age, 5000 years ago. But when the outlawed Icelandic farmer Erik the Red went to the south- western part of this nearby island to live there a thousand years ago, he found the country deserted of other people, so he and many other immigrating Icelanders could build their farms and villages where they liked. It was Erik the Red who named the country "Greenland", because, as he said, a pretty name is nec- essary to tempt other people to go there. Branded marketing is definitely not a new phenomenon.
This happened around 1000 AD, but by about 1450 this so- called Norse population of farmers and fishermen, living in quite big turf and stone-houses, seems to have left the country again, due to an extreme worsening of the climate and perhaps also to a struggle with a new inuit immigration. This partly no- madic hunters' culture was totally adapted to the climate and the other conditions in the country. Their houses, for instance, were built of driftwood, turf and stone, and heated with train oil and by means of the inmates themselves.
In 1721 a Danish-Norwegian attempt was made to find, rescue and re-Christianise these lost ancestors. An official expedition with a clergyman, tradespeople and military personnel went to the west coast of Greenland to mission and set up trade -- and al- so to defend the time-honoured Danish supremacy against the Dutch and Spanish whalers. These sailors exploited the local population - who turned out not to be descendants of the Norse population, but kayak-hunting inuits.
The Danish remedy against the foreign intruders in Greenland was to establish small trade-posts and bases along the west coast. With this end in view, they introduced a Norwegian build- ing technique of loghouses, boarded half timber houses and turf and stone houses. For practical reasons, loghouses and boarded half timber houses were primarily used, because they could be fully prefabricated in Denmark, shipped to Greenland and set up quickly on the spot by the crew, before the ship left again.
The local inuit population continued to build and live in their cheap, practical and comfortable turf and stone houses, but the Danish settlers regarded these houses as damp, dirty, and un- healthy. They refused to live in them. But for storehouses, fish oil plants, staples and workshops, the stone materials were re- garded as a cheap and suitable material. However, it was only relatively late, after a hundred years of presence in the country, that the Danish settlers and their Greenlandic descendants learned to build "real" stone houses. And they learned it both from the Norsemen, who had disappeared long ago, and from the still existing local inuit building tradition.
So in a period of 85 years between 1830 and 1915, when Greenland was suffering an economic crisis because of the dis- appearance of the big whales and their profitable oil extraction from the coasts, about 130 stone houses, small and large, were erected in various locations along the coasts. But after this short
period, this building tradition, which would seem natural in a country "paved" with rocks and stones, died out again with a few exceptions.
The background for the expansion in 1830
The majority of the Danish settlements on the west coast of Greenland, still existing as the main towns in the country, were established during the years 1728-1775. The purpose was partly to Christianise the population, partly to sell and buy products. From 1775 to 1800 the Danish State concentrated a lot of efforts and economy on whaling, particularly in the North Greenland Inspectorate. Train oil was a major economic factor at that time, as it was used for house heating, street lights in the big European towns, for medicine, soap, lubricants etc. etc., so this business was expected to be very profitable. Despite enormous invest- ments with 12 new settlements, with expensive log-houses, ves- sels, and posted whalers, it was a complete fiasco. In some places they only caught one single whale during these 25 years.
But what the Royal Greenland Trade and Whale Company did realize was that it was much easier and cheaper to buy the high- ly coveted blubber of seals, which the inuits were hunting and landing anyway, and utilise this for train oil by heating and pressing the blubber in local "oil-plants".
This, however, necessitated that the houses and settlements were moved from the isolated whaling stations to new trading stations, placed where most of the population lived. This could be done relatively easily in North Greenland, where the whalers' houses were loghouses, constructed of wood, but in Southern Greenland they had to think of something else, as there were no unused wooden houses, and no money. After the whaling failure, the coffers were empty.
Stone buildings in South Greenland from 1830-1915
In 1830 the Royal Greenland Trading Company decided to es- tablish three new trade-posts in three different places in South Greenland, where the population was especially dense: Nanorta- lik (moved from a previous place), Sydprøven (the South Trial; today: Alluisup Paa) and Nordprøven (The North Trial; today: Narssaq).
The small new settlements needed a dwelling house for the posted "tradesman", a store house, a shop, and a small house for the bought blubber, sometimes also a bakery, a house for "burn- ing" and "pressing" blubber to oil and a house for possible win- tering crews.
At the beginning it was regarded as necessary to ship prefab- ricated wooden dwelling houses from Denmark as usual. This was done to Nanortalik and the South Trial, but presently it was clear that it was possible to build suitable houses, entirely made of local stone. A contributory factor to this was also that the
Vanobalck 20.880 fören Vorsting
Because of its enormous size compared with Denmark, Greenland was from the beginning divided into two parts, with two separate adminis- trations: The Northern Inspectorate and the Southern Inspectorate. It is interesting that the construction techniques of the locally built stone houses, erected from 1830 to 1915 in the northern and the southern parts of the country, are entirely different, with hardly any parallels.
a. In the South Greenland stone houses from the period between 1830 to 1925 the roof is carried by 60 cm-thick stone walls. The roof construc- tion is secured to the stone walls by two dovetail-locked wooden an- chors, fastened to the lengthwise head beam, under the rafters. In this construction, there are many parallels to the medieval Norse stone house, which can be studied from many ruins in South Greenland.
b. In the North Greenland stone houses from the period between 1830 to 1915 the roof is carried entirely by an interior wood construction with hardly any connection to the massive stone walls. In this construction, there are many parallels to the traditional inuit turf and stone house, which in 1830 was still used and inhabited by the local inuit population. Like in these, there is no carrying capacity on the outer walls. Drawings: Søren Vadstrup.
Stenmure
fugede og
kalkede
Ujaqqanik qarmak-
kat, akorni milissuk-
kat
kalkimillu qaavi qalipatat
Tjærede brædder
på klink
Sallilikkat usserisat iperittakkat
Træmurankre
Qarmani qisuit aalajangerutit
<It would be natural to find a lot of stone houses in a country like Green-
land, paved with rocks and stones, but that is not the case. Only from a relatively short period, from 1830 to 1915, it is possible to find stone houses constructed of local, natural stones.
Drawing of four of the seven stone buildings in Nanortalik in South Greenland with the delayed, prefabricated wooden dwelling house from 1832 in the background. From the left the bakery from 1840, the winter house for the ship crews, built in 1848, a goat stable from 1840 and the cooper's shop, built in 1848. Before the ships were equipped with ma- rine engines, and also later, it often happened that they could not return to Denmark in the autumn/winter because of drifting icebergs. For this purpose special houses for the crews to stay in during the winter were built. The only way of transporting the valuable seal blubber or train oil was in wooden barrels. Therefore every larger trade post had a cooper and a cooper's shop to make these indispensable wooden barrels. Draw- ing: Søren Vadstrup.
Sm.
Sven Vachsoup del.
2000
Traditional inuit turf house, here constructed with load-bearing ceiling- posts and purlines. Other types have a wooden construction inside along the turf walls, which has given inspiration to the construction of the North Greenland stone buildings. After measurements from 1828/29 by
W.A. Graah.
26
27
Page 16

Company chose to use native-born Greenlanders as local "tradesmen".
We know in detail how the decision to build the first stone houses was reached. On the one hand the fact that the wooden houses for the three new settlements were delayed for two years, and on the other hand that the big grass plain at the North Trial (Narssaq) had been used as settlements for the Norse farmers in the Middle Ages and was therefore full of ruins from their big stone houses, "with lots of good building stones" as the carpen- ters Hans Jacob Hansen and Christen Jensen Lund afterwards recounted, was decisive for the construction of the first stone house. Work was much easier than expected, so the house could therefore be finished and inhabited in the same year.
The Chief Inspector for the South-Greenland Inspectorate, who visited the house in 1831, was so pleased with the result that without hesitation he rewarded the master carpenter Hans Jacob Hansen with "8 pounds of coffee and 4 pounds of sugar��. The other carpenter, Christen Jensen Lund, received the same reward the year after for constructing two new stone houses at the new settlement, the South Trial. After that house after house was erected at the three places without any further reward than the exquisite stone buildings themselves.
The construction
The use of natural square-shaped stones, and the so-called "box- wall-construction", consisting of two independent drystone- walls with mortar and stone fill-in between, represents precise- ly the same building technique as the still standing and impres- sive remains of the medieval church of Hvalsey -- a construction the builders had a good opportunity to study while they were "stealing" the stones from the nearby ruins. So not only the Norse settlers' building technique, but also many of their stones were reused.
Probably as a "new" thing in 1830, they chose to cover the stonewalls with lime plaster and afterwards lime-wash the sur- face in white, yellow or red colors. No attempt was made to smooth down the surface; it was left to expose the uneven and rustic character of the stonewalls.
Inside the dwelling houses it was necessary to cover the stone walls with a vertical wooden paneling to insulate the cold walls, and of course wooden floors and ceilings were also needed. In the other stone houses, workshops, store houses etc., the stone walls were rough or covered with plaster on the inside.
The extreme weather and wind conditions in Greenland, espe- cially on the unprotected coasts at the foot of high mountains, demand an especially secure anchoring of the wooden roof con- struction to the stone walls. Therefore the two carpenters in- vented special dovetail-locked wooden anchors, built in the stone masonry, which proved to solve this special problem.
That this constructive precaution is absolutely necessary, was shown as late as in 1978 in Nanortalik, when the roof of a stone house from 1839 blew off in a storm, because the wooden an- chors had been unthinkingly attached to the gables and rafters and not to the lengthwise head beam under the rafters, therefore only securing the gable itself.
Apart from the first stone houses, we know from accounts that windows and doors as well as hinges, door handles and other iron furniture were ordered from and manufactured by crafts- men in Denmark and shipped to Greenland.
The triangle gables are always constructed of wood with three
different facings: clapboards, boards with beadings and one-on- two planking. Again the surface is painted in strong colors. An outside staircase at the gable leads to a room in the loft -- often a shop or a store room.
Today the roofs of the stone houses are covered with shingles, but were previously boarded with clinker-boards and treated with wooden tar.
The development
From 1830 to 1850 the stone building tradition was limited to the southern part of South Greenland, more precisely to the Ju- lianes-Haab District, where no fewer than nine new trade posts were established, all supplied with two or more new stone hous- es. At the same time in the main town of the District, Juliane- haab, three new stone houses and in the three first Trial settle- ments from 1830 about nine new stone houses were built, thus altogether 30 stone houses during these first 20 years.
After 1850 the stone building traditions spread north to the rest of the South-Greenland Inspectorate, especially to the main towns of Frederikshaab (Pamiut), Godthaab (Nuuk
now the capital of Greenland), Sukkertoppen (Maniitsoq) and Holsteins- borg (Sisimiut).
The most productive period was between 1850 and 1870 when 37 stone buildings were erected in South Greenland. Among these are 9 store houses, 6 dwelling houses, 6 shops, 5 train oil plants, 2 workshops, 4 schools, 4 small chapels, 1 church and 1 hospital.
Especially in the Sukkertoppen District the stone houses be- came a characteristic feature, with their bright, luminous white, yellow or red lime colors - both the publicly built houses, of which there were 20 in all, as well as a lot of the privately built stone houses.
Among the total amount of about 100 stone houses in South Greenland there were 23 store houses, mostly for seal train, 12 workshops, 12 dwelling houses, 4 houses for ship crews in the winter, 13 shops, 5 train oil plants, 4 houses for storing gun- powder, 5 schools, 15 small chapels, 1 larger church, 5 hospitals and 1 archive building. Some of the houses had more than one
purpose.
In 1901 the Danish State wanted to speed up the general de- velopment in Greenland, especially education, health-care plus trade and economic life. This required a lot of new buildings: schools, hospitals, shops, bakeries, breweries, workshops -- and of course dwelling houses for the teachers, doctors, tradesmen etc. It was most rational to use prefabricated wooden buildings from Denmark, so gradually the stone building tradition died out. The last stone house in this manner was a church built in
1915 in the small town of Atammik.
Status
Time has been very hard on the old historic stone houses in Greenland. At least 60 of the originally approximately 100 stone buildings have been demolished during the last 50 years. 25 are still standing and reasonably well kept, and about 15 are still vis- ible ruins.
The loss of these 60-75 stone buildings is not due to bad build- ing techniques. On the contrary, these houses were extremely well built, representing good and thorough craftsmanship. In-
Upernavik
Uummannag
Aasiat
Sisimiut Manitsoq
Nuuk (capital) Paamiut
Narssaq
Qaqortog
Nanortalik
Qaqorty
Saarlog Alzuit-sup pa
Nanortalik
North Green Lant Inspectorate
Ilulissat
Polar
•Czycze
South Greenland Inspectorate
-Narssaq
Map of Greenland, showing the Julianehaab District with the three new "Trial-trade-posts" established in 1830-32, which became the "starting point" for the stone building tradition in South Greenland.
stead the huge development pressure in the town centers and the limited harbor spaces have led to the destruction of many old stone houses, as they are too small, inconvenient and expensive to maintain for modern use. Very few decision-makers under- stand the special qualities and significance of these buildings for the cultural history and architectural environment of the town which has been entrusted to their care. Especially the main town Julianehaab, today Qaqortoq, has lost 17 of the original 24 stone buildings, among them one of the biggest and finest of them all, the impressive and forceful "White Store House" in the very middle of the town.
Only where modern development for one reason or another has not made an impact, some intact building ensembles have been left. This is the case in the three ��first�� settlements, where
the stone building tradition started: Nanortalik, Alluisup Paa and Narssaq.
In Sukkertoppen, today Maniitsoq, the authorities gave prior- ity to the needs of modern development and moved the four old- est houses, among them two stone houses, to a new area, when a fish plant needed the space for expansion. Also in Maniitsoq, the principal work of the stone building era in Greenland, the out- standing "old church", fortunately has survived, though regret- tably not as a church, but "only" as a library.
It is now very important to be aware of and to appreciate this unique and exceptional historic and architectural treasure, in or- der to secure and safeguard the last remains.
Hans Jacob Hansen's first stone house from 1830 in "The North Trial" (Now: Narssaq). Inside the dwelling house there is a small corridor leading to the kitchen and two rooms. Outside the ladder leads to a small shop at the loft, where the various wares and merchandises were sold. Measurement and reconstruction: Søren Vadstrup.
Trappe til butik på Loftet
Nordgave
Vestside
0
��
Spåntag
��
5m
køkken
Gang
Ildsted
Stue
Stue
Stueplan
9.40m = 15 Alen
6,25 m = 10 Aland
Tidl. Vdliggerbolig af sten i Narssaq, opf 1830. Rekonstruktion efter opmåling i 1981,
Shren Varstons
28
29
Page 17

formid
køkken
Gang
Tegpre
A
Span
11,2 m =
17½ Alen
Sydside
Tag: Spån
Mare: Sten, hvidkaltet
Sokkel: Mrid
Østgavi
Stue
Stue
stue
17,3= 11½ Alen
146
135th.jspær
stead of turf and stone, the walls here are constructed entirely of solid stone, and even with the same slanting walls as if they were made of turf. Despite the fact that the stone walls can easily car- ry any roof-weight without sinking one inch, the roof is still car- ried by an interior construction of wood, just like some of the tra- ditional Greenlandic turf-houses.
The roofs of the stone houses are of course not flat but 40-45 degrees, in many cases covered with gray slate, which, in con- nection with the often "uncovered" rustic stone walls, creates a very solid and impressive "all stone look". The few windows are placed very deeply in the walls and are therefore dark looking, which also gives these houses a specially rough and unap- proachable architectural expression.
In North Greenland the stone houses are mostly used as store houses for train, or train oil plants, workshops or shops.
The sizes can be quite big. The largest stone house in Green- land, a train-oil plant situated in Umanaq, is 14 x 30,5 metres.
General status
10 still existing stone buildings in North Greenland, plus about 5 more or less in ruins, 25 still existing stone houses in South Greenland, and about 15 more in ruins: That is the status for the original 130 stone houses from the Greenlandic stone building era between 1830 and 1915.
It is now very important to take care of the last remains of this exceptional initiative, created by local builders over 100 years ago, on their own terms and with the use of the natural materials and technology of the country. They are unique examples of in- alienable values and bearers of identity in a society like Green- land-in fact, in any society.
Vindfang tilfajet
•1860
Plan

? A
3
MÅL 1:100
Tværsnit
TIDL. UDSTEDSBESTYRER BOLIG i QASSIMIUT, Qaqortok kommune, B-80 Opført 1852-53 af P.H.Motzfeldt. Indrettet til butiki 1929, til pakhus i 1939, nedrevet 1965 REKONSTRUKTION efter opmåling fra 1959 samt fotografier og beskrivelser.
Juni 1986 Solen vorsting
One of the largest and finest stone dwelling houses in Greenland torn down in 1974 was the tradesman's house in Qassimiut, built in 1852-53. The tradesman and master builder was P.H. Motzfeld, an ancestor of the present prime minister of Greenland, Jonathan Motzfeld, who was born in Qas- simiut. Measurement and reconstruction: Søren Vadstrup.
Special dovetail-locked wooden anchors, securing the lengthwise head beam under the rafters to the stone walls, and thus preventing the wood- en roof construction from blowing off in the very windy climate. Drawing: Søren Vadstrup.
Sources
This article is based on a research project on the built cultural heritage in Greenland, carried out by the author between 1976 and 1996, primarily covering building investigations, building measurements, archive material and other written sources.
Some provisional articles and one book have so far been pub- lished in Danish and Greenlandic.
Stone buildings in North Greenland from 1830-1915
In the North Greenland Inspectorate, which had its own admin- istration situated in Godhavn (Today: Qeqertarssuaq), the ex- pansion of new small trade posts after 1830 led to the re-use of the wooden houses from the abandoned whaling stations from 1775-1800. But here also creative craftsmen built a number of new stone houses for shops, workshops, store houses and train oil plants. As there were no medieval Norse ruins to be inspired by, they copied the construction of the traditional inuit houses.
As mentioned above, the traditional inuit dwelling house was constructed of driftwood, turf and stone. The turf material can-
not be load-bearing, as it will constantly shrink and sink, so the nearly flat roof of laths, covered with turf and made weather- proof with seal-skins, is carried by a rather flimsy interior con- struction of driftwood. Here there were various types, either with the carrying capacity in the middle with ceiling posts and purlines as a wood-construction inside along the turf walls.
A special detail is the low entrance without a door, but with a kind of open "cold-lock��. The roof also had a ventilation hole which could be opened when draught air was needed. Turf hous- es were quite dark. Apart from small holes, closed with a thin membrane of intestine which could give some light, no glass- windows were used before about 1890.
Because of the slight dimensions and the humid conditions, and probably also due to a lack of interest, none of these tradi- tional turf houses have survived in Greenland until today. Some of the local museums have made new copies, but with modern materials, just to show what they looked like.
The construction of the North Greenlandic stone house
Only about 10 still existing stone houses, out of the originally 15 erected in North Greenland from 1830-1915, show authentic ev- idence of this old construction, made by local builders. But in-
The train-oil plant in Nanortalik, where the roof blew off in a storm in 1978, due to a faulty construction of the wooden anchors. Photo: Søren Vadstrup.
30
Page 18

483
650
65x20
TH
vestgral
skrt.
90
Beng
myt paptag
Angle #1///
Sydside
Gesturampe
Botonsampe
Z
3 4
Smu +
Betourampe
77,
D
/520
Plan
BØDKERVÆRKSTED 10₤��24 Aten
og · SPÆKHUS ¿ SYDPRØVEN opf. 1830 amb 1881 Opmåling 1981 Soren Vadstrug
The first stone house in Alluitsup Paa (��The South Trial") was this train house from 1830, enlarged in 1881 with a small coopers' shop. The house still exists, but the coopers' shop was closed down long ago. Mea- surement: Søren Vadstrup.
The old smithy in Qaqortoq (Julianehaab), built in 1871, enlarged in 1940 and used today as the local museum. Photo: Søren Vadstrup.
32
5,0 m = 8 Aten
stige til loftet
langside
3 Alew

5,0 m = 8 Alen
6,28 m = 10 Alen
Stenmurene har oprindeligt været gulkalkede - senere hvidkalkede
Plan
Reconstruction of the original appearance of the two twin stone houses
in Atammik, built within seven years and app. 2 meters distance in 1890 and 1897.
The oldest, to the left, was originally the train house with a small shop in the loft.
The younger, to the right, was a store house for the Danish goods to be sold in the shop. It was quite common to keep the wares to be bought and sold in two different store houses, to prevent mixing. In the 1920s the two stone houses were joined together.
Sydside
I
Stueplan
Butik
Disk
7,75 m
5,12 m
195
Østgavl
Mate
MEL
:
sien. spåntag
Sten
: 5,12 �� 7,75 = 8x 123 Alen
1
2
3
5 m
This very fine dwelling house of stone at the small trade post Saarloq was built in 1853. In 1928 the tradesman built a new wooden house and the old one was changed into a shop, and at the same time the small wooden stock room was added to the north side and the chimney was torn down. In 1970 the whole house was torn down although it could have been reused for a lot of purposes. Now, the first view of the village is spoiled by an ugly and charmless wooden house from 1970. Drawing by Søren Vadstrup after old measurements from 1970.
Map of "The old harbour" in Nanortalik with all the seven surviving stone houses in black. Apart from the four most western stone houses as mentioned above, there are, from the west, a big store house, built in 1852, the train oil plant from 1839 and the doctor's house from about 1900.
Q
Til Stalde
1840
O
Bathurs
72

0
��
00
TIAL O
Lanebolin
F21900
Hauru
STENHUSE I NANORTALIK
1987
B
33
Page 19

$
E
9
10 TL-
The principal work of the stone building area in Greenland is undoubtedly the big church in Maniitsoq (formerly Sukkertoppen). The church has been converted into a library.
Mad, Husets bagalda order ceENETI tilbygninger, der ikke er omgbrek, Butikken vises i Leu weleemning base azi amade for at være den oprindeliga.
Opmall 1927 Tegnet i, Februar 1966:
Tris Redden
The old shop in Upernavik, erected in 1864. An example of the North Greenlandic stone building tradition, where the bearing construction, despite the extremely solid outer walls of stone, consists of an interior wood construction. The loft is used as a store room, although due to the rather large span of the beams there were limits as to the weight they could carry. Inside the shop the few windows create quite a dark atmo- sphere, so kerosene lamps are necessary all day. The typical shelves and drawer furniture are fortunately still kept in the house, although they are out of use at the moment. Measurement: Architect Jens Friis-Pedersen, 1928.
34
£:30 1
888
This old stone train house in Uummannaq in North Greenland - now a store house -- is an important part of the unique built environment in the city center as it forms one of the "walls" in a little central square.
Jakob Danielsin
Cross-section showing the interior of a traditional inuit turf house, drawn by the Greenlandic painter Jacob Danielsen (1888-1938) in 1900. This house, he writes, was old-fashioned without any wood inside, but large, good skins hung on the walls as hangings and there were thick reindeer skins on the settle so that the house was comfortable. The blub- ber lamp could easily and quickly warm it up.
The former train oil plant and train house in Uummannaq is, with its 14 x 30,5 metres, the largest stone house in North Greenland.
Some of the old Greenlandic stone houses are situated in abandoned settlements, where they suffer from oblivion and neglect. Big holes in the roof and stone walls portend an approaching death. Here two stone houses in the abandoned settlement of Narssalik, in the fore- ground the store house and shop from 1895, and behind the train house, erected in 1871.
Kart
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Page 20

FINLAND
Kirsti Kovanen
Conservation of the built vernacular heritage in rural and urban areas
The Finns are said to originally have been settlers and they love to foster this myth even nowadays. The idea derives from the time when vast areas of the country were inhabited by families that practised swidden culture. The uninhabited forest was slow- ly conquered from the 14th to the 18th centuries. Later, in the 19th century, the slash and burn cultivation was practiced even on a larger scale by the descendants of the first settlers. During this period many traditional farming methods and building types were developed. A typical view of the rural landscape is still one farm yard in the middle of its fields, surrounded by forest. The farm yard is the basic unit of a rural settlement. The patterns of the settlements owe much to several land divisions that have been implemented during the past three centuries.
The earliest land division was an open field system of the southern and southwestern parts of the country, elsewhere the land was divided in larger units. The "big deal" - a general par- celling - was executed throughout the land, starting in the south- ern parts in the 18th century and continuing until the 20th centu- ry. From 1848 on a new general division system, the "new deal��, was introduced (uusjako). This parcelling is still being executed in the northern parts of the country. After these operations the early settlements also lost their first dense pattern. In some places the earlier pattern can be traced using the old division maps and modern maps, and sometimes seen in the landscape as ditches or fencing.
The rural village is traditionally roughly divided into cate- gories characterised by the location or pattern of the settlement. A row village (rivikylä) is typical of the western and other flat parts of the country. A hill village (mäkikylä) built on the slopes of a ridge or hill is typical of the eastern and central parts of the country. In a road village (raittikylä) the houses are built close to each other and to line the roads. This type can be found through- out the country. In a group village (ryhmäkylä) even 20 houses could form a dense and irregular pattern.
The basic unit is a house that consists of several separate buildings. The buildings have developed in the traditions con- nected with the soft wood techniques -- horizontal log and light timber frame techniques. The traditional building materials are still available within a short distance. The buildings are covered with pitched roofs. The basic building techniques and yard forms which were originally created and developed in the rural buildings, were later adopted by all buildings, public and pri- vate, rural and urban. The influences from outside spread in rings, from the towns and municipal centres to the rural places. Fishing villages on the shoreline of the gulfs of Finland and Ostrobothnia are characterised by the barren and stony shore- line, piers and log buildings built of wood, the lay-out of the fields and yards that are common also in the inland country, and the land division in a comb pattern to form long and narrow lots to allow every house the immediate approach to the shoreline. The biggest of these villages built their own gathering halls and churches. The fishing village is the best preserved of all types, with only some of the social features lost in recent decades.
The most "urban" village type is the municipal centre that was actually born in the 1860s when the land trade was freed and the local administration established. The new village centre was built around the church by the new settlers, house by house to line the roads leading to the church. The buildings were execut- ed in the same pattern as the rural types, the techniques being the common carving and sawing techniques, but the houses received the most modern wallpapers and weatherboarding and were equipped with modern technical installations.
Since the 17th century those towns we now call wooden towns were built on a gridiron plan. Many of them grew slowly and re- mained small for centuries. The common sign of a town, a town hall, was built much later and the surrounding wall is still miss- ing. Only the regular plan and the right to trade distinguished the early towns from the villages of the countryside.
A picturesque and popular type of vernacular settlements in the late 20th century is a workers' housing area, which grew ad- jacent to a town around the turn of the 20th century. These areas did not originally have a strict plan, building regulations or building trade like the neighbouring towns. Sometimes the workers literally built whole areas themselves, as is the case in the sawmill workers' areas. The workers were allowed to take as much material free from the sawmill as they could carry. They adopted building types and horizontal log techniques from the small houses of the agricultural countryside, but soon they were taken over by more modern light timber constructions. These communities are still characterised by simple lot division, hous- es built by the first generation of settlers, open lots and mature vegetation.
All vernacular settlements developed slowly in our terms and reached their peak in the traditional way of building during the 1930s, when the numbers of buildings of a yard and the numbers of yard groups in a village were highest. It was possible to find almost urban villages consisting of hundreds of buildings, inner roads, and a social system. The first signs of modernity might have already come to the village, in the form of an early white functionalistic merchant's house or co-operative's shop.
How the settlements have met the development
Since the 1960s the countryside has been suffering from a severe structural change due to integration and rapid urbanisation and a decline process, the end of which cannot be seen. Especially in the peripheral areas of the country and of the regions, abandoned houses form a prominent part of the building stock and the rur- al landscape, as the population rate is still falling in these areas. During the after-war period not only many traditional buildings but also building types were lost and the high diversity of the agricultural landscapes was ruined. The traditional settlements have often lost their most vulnerable elements, such as fences and ornamental vegetation. The open fields are neglected or turned into forestation areas. New buildings have been built, but
only seldom has local tradition been given a priority in the se- lection of materials and techniques. Also the building types have become universal. Problems of redundancy and of impoverish- ment of nature's diversity have developed because of the rapid diminishing of the fields and of the flora and fauna of the pas- ture land. In the village areas the direction of the development is the same, though the speed of decline is not as fast as in the re- al countryside. Remedies have been sought for the illnesses of the rural areas. Housing and tourism seem to be able to offer some solutions. Many villages are also counting on their cultur- al heritage and on their value as cultural heritage, judged by the many grass-root level projects in the country. At least some vil- lages want to keep their heritage and everyday life.
In an active rural village the main buildings are kept in up-to- date condition, the many store houses are left, the yard is em- bellished with plants and fences, the landscape has been cleared from bushes and decorated with fencing and spots of meadows. Much of the work has been done in a traditional ��talkoo�� organ- isation, with voluntary work among the villagers, which sup- ports the preservation of the social values in the village, or by man power services.
Planning was introduced in the 1950s in the densely populat- ed areas, e.g. municipal centres and some bigger villages. Be- cause of the modern town planning principles of the open town, we only have fragments left today of the municipal centre vil- lages preserved in their pre-war form.
A handful of wooden town areas have been saved as examples of this type of settlement thanks to subsidised loans and grants and town planning regulations. Many of the earlier workers' housing areas have been integrated into the towns as fashionable suburban areas. Now these areas are inhabited by the third gen- eration after the builders. The present inhabitants' ties to the area are loose or do not exist.
Establishing conservation ideas
The long research tradition in ethnology and other related sci- ences has provided us with the framework of the knowledge on vernacular building. To take up one example: the basic units of the villages, the yards, used to be divided into two categories, the irregular or open yard (prevailing in the eastern and central parts of the country), and the more or less regularised yard (prevailing in the southern and western parts of the country). The recent study of Prof. Niilo Valonen's research documentation and man- uscripts has led to a much more developed classification: the two main categories - the closed yard and the open yard -- are each divided into several subtypes.
Oral tradition of the vernacular has continuously been col- lected since the late 19th century. The files have become volumi- nous and are used in research work. The work for opening the files to a wider public use began in the 1990s. The use of the large files for conservation has started and resulted in a growing number of studies on building traditions.
Since the beginning of the architects' training -- during the Na- tional Romantic era one of the teaching methods has been the production of measured drawings of existing buildings. Though the classical vocabulary of architecture was popular at the very beginning, vernacular buildings have eagerly been measured by many generations of architectural students. This heritage has proved to be an immense source for the studies and it has opened many eyes to the beauty of the vernacular. In the 1990s the vil-
lages of the sea coast were documented and drawn by students. Some years ago when the eastern border was reopened the re- searchers could return to the places that had been documented at the beginning of the 20th century.
Since the 1970s inventories of the built cultural heritage in- clude single buildings, areas and groups of buildings. Urban set- tlements are well covered in various inventories, but a survey covering vernacular settlements is missing.
Since the 1980s the vernacular has been one part of the re- search on architecture - the distinction between popular and ver- nacular is not very clear in Finnish- and many results on the vil- lagescape and landscape have been published. Also the prob- lems of planning and building in a village have been approached in the studies.
In the mid-1990s it was noted in the plant inventories that our plant diversity was severely diminishing due to changes in agri- culture. Several projects were established to promote the safe- guarding of the traditional endangered biotopes. The projects have resulted in a national inventory, the legislation for their preservation and the authorities' possibility to fund their main- tenance. They have not yet proved to be competitive with the modern methods and form one drop in the main stream of inte- grating agriculture. The loss of the open landscape – due to the integration process is a bigger worry than the loss of small pieces of traditional pastureland.
The administration supports the conservation of vernacular settlements by providing the general framework for preservation legislation, planning and building laws, nature conservation law and subsidising. The preservation legislation of 1985 gives pos- sibilities to protect single buildings, groups of buildings and ar- eas or landscape areas. The practice of protecting groups of buildings and larger landscape areas has not been implemented due to a lack of arguments for these types of monuments. The planning and building law and the state subsidies to rural areas
Table of Procedure
SHARE THE RESPONSIBILITIES
with local actors (people who stay, live or work in the area)
DETECT THE THREATS AND PROBLEMS especially short term judgement and temporary fashion
THE STANDPOINT
is that there is only one past and many possible futures
THE AIMS
would create and reinforce
the historic continuity,
local identity and
high quality of the landscape
THE TOOLS
provide people with knowledge, total conception and wise judgement
THE GOAL
all the opportunities for living and people's traditional crafts are secured
The table is based on Johanna Forsius-Nummela, The rural landscape and its cultural and historical values.
36
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