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������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� PROGRAM

International Workshop “35th Anniversary of Hyperfine Interactions at La Plata”

Humboldt Kolleg on SOLID STATE PHYSICS

La Plata, 7- 10 November, 2005

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

9:00 to 9:45

Participants arrival

(Registration desk from 17 h)

Opening Session

Lecture 5

M. Deicher

(Konstanz)

Lecture 9

J. M. Greneche

(Le Mans)

Lecture 13

H. Petrilli

(Sao Pablo)

9:45 to 10:30

Lecture 1

K. P. Lieb

(G�ttingen)

Lecture 6

E. Baggio Saitovitch

(Rio de Janeiro)

Lecture 10

P. Boolchand

(Cincinnati)

Lecture 14

J. G. Correia

(Geneva)

10:30 to 11:00

Coffe Break

Coffe Break

Coffe Break

Coffe Break

11:00 to 11:45

Lecture 2

P. Ara�jo

(Lisboa)

Lecture 7

S. Cottenier

(Leuven)

Lecture 11

M. Forker

(Bonn)

Oral 5

Oral 6

11:45 to 12:30

Lecture 3

R. Vianden

(Bonn)

Lecture 8

M. Uhrmacher

(G�ttingen)

Lecture 12

K. Baruth Ram

(Durban)

Lecture 15

D. Pusiol

(C�rdoba)

12:30 to 14:55

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

14:55 to 15:40

Lecture 4

M. Behar

(Porto Alegre)

AvH Short Talks

Excursion /

Humboldt Meeting

AvH Short Talks

15:40 to 16:00

Oral 1

Oral 3

Oral 7

16:00 to 16:30

Coffe Break

Coffe Break

Coffe Break

16:30 to 16:50

Oral 2

Oral 4

Oral 8

16:50 to 18:00

Poster Session

Poster Session

Poster Session

18:00 to 20:00

Wellcoming

Cocktail

Snack

(from 18h, together with poster session)

Concert (18:00 – 18:30) UNLP Strings Quartet

Concluding Remarks

K.P. Lieb

Free Time

Snack

20:00 to 22:00

Conference Banquet

(20:30 h)



Program

Invited Talks

Oral Contributions

&

Posters


Monday 7

09:00 h������������� ������������� Opening Session

������������� ������������� Bibiloni,� A. G.� (La Plata, Argentina)

09:45 h������������� Lecture 1������������� “Alkali and group-IV-ion implantation in -quartz: ������ Luminescence and epitaxy”

�������������� �� ������������� ������������� Lieb K. P.� (G�ttingen, Germany)

11:00 h������������� Lecture 2������������� “Local distortions in AMnO3 perovskites studied by Perturbed Angular Correlation”

�������������������� Ara�jo, J. P.� (Lisbon, Portugal)

11:45 h� ������������� Lecture 3������������� “PAC studies with Rare Earth probes in wide band gap semiconductors”

Vianden, R.� (Bonn, Germany)

14:55 h ������� ������������� Lecture 4������������� “Influence of the excitation power density on Si nanocrystals� photoluminescence”

�������������������� ������������� Behar, M.� (Porto Alegre, Brazil)

15:40 h� ������������� Oral 1������������� “M�ssbauer spectroscopy characterization of Zr-Nb-Fe phases”

�������������������� ������������� Ramos, C.� (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

16:30 h���� � ������������� Oral 2������������� “Ndx[O2C-(CH2)3-CO2]y(H2O)z. mH2O framework structures features”

�������������������� ������������� Echeverr�a, G.� (La Plata, Argentina)

Tuesday 8

09:00 h������ ������������� Lecture 5 ������������� “Characterization of defects in semiconductors using radioactive isotopes”

������������� Deicher, M.� (Konstanz, Germany)

09:45 h���� ������������� Lecture 6 ������������� “Structural Features and Pair Breaking Field in RNi2B2C and RNiBC Compounds as Seen by Local Method”

�������������������� ������������� Baggio-Saitovitch, E.�� (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

11:00 h��� ������������� Lecture 7 ������������� “Hyperfine interactions at lanthanide impurities in iron”

����������������� � ������������� Cottenier, S.� (Leuven, Belgium)

11:45 h��� �� ������������� Lecture 8������������� “Application of Perturbed Angular Correlations to Oxides”

������������������ ������������� Uhrmacher, M.� (G�ttingen, Germany)

15:00 h������ Alexander von Humboldt� -� Short Talks

������������� (15 minutes + 5 minutes for questions)

AvH-ST1 ������������� “Magnetism through magnetic vacancies in RAg compounds: a PAC study”

Pasquevich A. F. (La Plata, Argentina)

AvH-ST2� ������������� “Free Photoconductivity measurements used to determine the defect density within the gap of intrinsic semiconductors”

Schmidt J. A.� (Santa Fe, Argentina)

15:40 h���� ������������� Oral 3 ������������� “The Ce electronic ground state in CeMn2Ge2 determined by 140Ce PAC spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations”

������������������ Mestnik-Filho, J.�� (S�o Paulo, Brazil)

16:30 h������ Oral 4������������� “Homogeneous-inhomogeneous models of AgGeSe bulk glasses”

������������������ Arcondo, B. (BuenosAires, Argentina)

Wednesday 9

09:00 h ���� ������������� Lecture 9 ������������� “Nanomagnetism in solid state physics, earth and life sciences”

���������������� ������������� Greneche J. M.� (Le Mans, France)

09:45 h����� ������������� Lecture 10 ������������� “Self-organized phases of disordered matter”

���������������� ������������� Boolchand P.� (Cincinnati, USA)

11:00 h���� ������������� ������������� Lecture 11 ������������� “Hyperfine interactions in magnetically ordered rare earth intermetallics”

������������� ������������� Forker, M.� (Bonn, Germany)

11:45 h����� ������������� Lecture 12������������� “Hyperfine Interaction Studies in Diamond”

���������������� ������������� Bharuth-Ram K.� (Durban, South Africa)

Thursday 10

09:00 h����� ������������� Lecture 13 ������������� “Hyperfine Interactions and ab-initio calculations”

���������������� ������������� Petrilli H. M.� (S�o Paulo, Brazil)

09:45 h���� ������������� Lecture 14������������� “Switching ON / OFF “after-effects” with e-- / -TDPAC”

����������������� ������������� Correia J. G.� (Geneva, Portugal)

11:00 h����� ������������� Oral� 5 ������������� “A new computer method of image analysis applied to semiconductor’s structural characterization”

����������������� ������������� Damonte L. C.� (La Plata, Argentina)

11:20 h�� �� ������������� Oral 6 ������������� “ 57Fe M�ssbauer study of -FeOOH obtained in presence of Al3+ and Ti4+ ions”

�������������������� Greneche J. M. (Le Mans, France)

11:45 h����� ������������� Lecture 15������������� “NQR: from Imaging to Explosives and Drugs Detectors”

����������������� ������������� ������������� Pusiol D. J.� (C�rdoba, Argentina)

15:00 h ���� ������������� ������������� Alexander von Humboldt - Short Talks

��������� ������� ������������� ������������� AvH-ST4 ������������� “Free volume of polyvinylsiloxane elastomers”

���������������� ������������� ������������� Alessandrini J. L.� (La Plata, Argentina)

������������� ������������� AvH-ST5 ������������� “Wetting and filling transitions in confined magnetic materials”

���������������� ������������� ������������� Albano E. � (La Plata, Argentina)

15:40 h������������� Oral 7 ������������� “Grain Rotation in 2D-Hexagonal Systems with Competing Interaction ”

��������������� ������������� Vega, D. (Bah�a Blanca, Argentina)

16:30 h�� ������������� Oral 8 ������������� “Ultra-high MoO3 mesoporous silica modified with a-TiO2 for HSD-catalysis. XAFS and HREM study”

������������������ Ramallo L�pez J. M.� (La Plata, Argentina)

Poster schedule

Posters can be mounted starting Monday morning.

All the posters will we exhibited together during the four conference days.

They will be grouped according to their selected topic (A,B,…,H).

Authors are� requested to be available at their poster/s during the times indicated at the program schedule.

Please do not forget to remove your poster/s on Thursday after the Concluding Remarks and before 20:00.



Invited Talks

Oral Contributions

Alexander von Humboldt - Short Talks

Posters

A. New materials: preparation, properties, and applications

B. Imperfections: Surfaces, Interfaces, and Defects

C. Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

D. Structural Characterizations

E. Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

F. Semiconductors, Insulators, Metals, and Superconductors

G. Gases in metallic alloys and intermetallic compounds

H. Applications to interdisciplinary sciences

Authors index

Keywords index




Invited Talks



1

Do you know who was LENIH and what seems to be now?

Bibiloni A.G. 1,2, Castiglioni. M. 1, Pasquevich A.F 1,3

1Departamento de F�sica – Facultad de Ciencias Exactas – UNLP (Argentina).

2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient�ficas y T�cnicas (Argentina).

3Comisi�n de Investigaciones Cient�ficas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

Do you know? Perhaps, perhaps not. In both cases, we would like to share with you, through this presentation, the beginnings of LENIH at the Department of Physics of UNLP. The evolution of the principal ideas involved and the main goals will be reviewed. A special attention will be devoted to the relationships between the Group’s members and the international scientific community through the years, this have been fundamental for the existence and development of applications of Hyperfine Interactions as a tool for research in Solid State Physics at La Plata. At the beginning, a random walk in Condensed Matter Physics and a solid definition of a Lab, now there are several well defined lines of research, several recognized (acredited) research projects, and a lab. In parallel, we will give a sketch of the sociopolitical situation in which the Group had to grow and consolidate: two dictatorships, a civil and an external war that took place during the first fifteen years as well as some economical difficulties which were making shadows on our future since the beginning. So, if we have a look at the actual research lines and the new projects in the field of Solid State Physics that take place at La Plata, originated around the Hyperfine Interactions field, maybe we will be able to understand the value of LENIH.

Keywords: Hyperfine interactions, solid state physics

Email: bibiloni@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

OPENING SESSION


1

Alkali and group-IV-ion implantation in -quartz: Luminescence and epitaxy*

Lieb K. P., Sahoo P. K.1, Gasiorek S.2, Dhar S.3, Keinonen J.4

II. Physikalisches Institut, Universit�t G�ttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 G�ttingen, Germany

Ion implantation is a promising route for doping quartz with luminescent impurity atoms and nanoparticles. The present work focuses on the comparison of epitaxy and cathodoluminescence (CL) after Ba, Ge, Na, Rb and Cs ion implantation as well as Rb/Ge double implantation in -quartz, under the conditions of dynamic, chemical or laser epitaxy [1-5]. The analyzing methods applied were RBS-channeling, Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and CL. In addition to the known intrinsic sub-bands in the CL-spectra, due to defects in the silica matrix after ion and/or electron irradiation, intense blue or violet bands were found, which are correlated with the implanted ion species and follow their thermal behaviour. The quantum efficiency of the various ions and processsing treatments concerning the blue/violet CL emission will be discussed. The case of double Rb/Ge implantation appears as a very promising route to combine high CL output and full epitaxy [4]. For up to 1015 Ge-ions/cm2 and air annealing, the luminescent Ge nanoparticles are substitutional and crystalline. Fig. 1 compares the relative CL efficiencies for various ions and thermal treatments.

* Supported by Academy of Finland, DAAD, and DFG.

1 Now at KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium, 2 Now at Laser-Laboratorium G�ttingen, D-37077 G�ttingen, Germany, 3 Presently at Physics Dept., University of Maryland, College Park, USA, 4 Permanent address: University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

[1] S. Dhar, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1341(2004); J. Appl. Phys. 97, 014910 (2005).

[2] P. K. Sahoo, et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. B216, 324 (2004); J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1392

(2004).

[3] S. Gąsiorek, et al., J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4705 (2004); J. Non-Crist. Solids, submitted.

[4] P. K. Sahoo, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 021105 (2005).

[5] P. K. Sahoo, et al., Appl. Surf. Sci., in press; Nucl. Instr. Meth. B, in press.

Keywords: quartz, epitaxy, ion implantation, luminescence

Email: plieb@gwdg.de

INV 01


1

INV 02


1

Local distortions in AMnO3 perovskites studied by Perturbed Angular Correlation

Ara�jo J. P.1, Lopes A. M. L.2, Amaral V. S.2, Correia J. G.3

1Dep. Physics & IFIMUP, Porto University, Portugal; 2Dep. Physics & CICECO, Aveiro University, Portugal 3 ITN, Portugal & CERN, Switzerland

The mixed valence manganite system has received considerable attention due to its colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) properties and richness of local phenomena, owing to the strong interplay of charge, lattice, orbital and spin degrees of freedom. The macroscopic crystal structure of these systems derives from the cubic perovskite AMnO3, where the A site is occupied by a trivalent rare-earth (La, Pr, Nd..). The un-doped compounds typically show antiferromagnetic insulator behavior with cooperative distortion of MnO6 octahedral due to static Jahn-Teller (JT) effect of the Mn3+ ion. These distortions always reduce the cubic symmetry of the ideal perovskite with a corresponding reduction of the Mn-O-Mn bond angle from 180�.

Oxygen excess or the presence of divalent ions at A-sites (Ca, Sr, Ba) reduce the static JT-distortion by the creation of Mn4+ ions, favoring the ferromagnetic interaction and colossal magnetoresistance effect. In these materials, the tuning of the magnetic and electric properties relies on the control of doping (ratio Mn4+/Mn3+), which strongly influences the Mn-O-Mn bond angles and Mn-O distances. Generaly, one of three crystallographic structures can stabilize, namely orthorhombic strongly Jahn-Teller distorted (O*), orthorhombic weakly Jahn-Teller distorted (O’) and rhombohedric (R) [1].

In this work PAC spectroscopy via the 111mCd111Cd probe was used to study the AMnO3 local environments at the A site (A= La, Pr, Ca and Cd). For different AMnO3 systems the PAC signal at room temperature allowed the determination of the Electrical field Gradient (EFG) parameters in the different crystallographic phases measured by x-ray diffraction.

Electrical field Gradient calculations, using the simple point charge model, were performed to visualize EFG parameters behavior as a function the deformation of the oxygen octahedra i.e, as a function of Mn-O-Mn bond angles and Mn-O bond lengths. These results were compared to the experimental ones to enlighten some non-intuitive results such as the EFG asymmetry parameter increasing with the decrease of the orthorhombic distortion in the (Pr1-xCax)MnO3 system [2] or the higher Vzz in the (more symmetric) rhombohedric phase compared to the orthorhombic one, found in the LaMnO3+ system [3,4].

[1] F. Prado et al., J. Solid State Chem. 146, 418 (1999).

[2] A.M.L. Lopes et al., J. of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 272, E1667 (2004).

[3] A.M.L. Lopes et al., J. of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 272, E1671 (2004).

[4] A.M.L. Lopes et al., J. Submitted to Physical Review Letters (cond-mat/0408150).

Keywords: perturbed angular correlations, hyperfine fields, manganites, local distortions, point charge model

Email: jearaujo@fc.up.pt

INV 05


1

PAC studies with Rare Earth probes in wide band gap semiconductors

Nedelec R., Penner J.,Vianden R.

Helmholtz-Institut� f�r Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn University, Germany

The group III Nitrides as well as ZnO as wide band gap semiconductors have recently been subject to an enormous scientific research activity. The main efforts are devoted to the development of processes capable of producing a material quality that is adequate for advanced opto-electronic devices in the short wavelength region. However, due to their large band gap, these materials are not only suitable for blue and ultraviolet LED�s and laser diodes but also for high temperature and high power semiconductor devices. For the local doping of such planar devices, ion implantation is the most commonly used technique. Unfortunately, together with its advantages as a clean, controllable and reproducible technique comes its main problem, which is the lattice damage caused by the ions. In order to achieve proper electrical activation of implanted dopants this damage has to be eliminated by an appropriate annealing procedure.

The PAC technique is excellently suited to provide information about the lattice vicinity of an implanted impurity. Therefore, in the past years the Rare Earth PAC probe 172Lu(172Yb) has been employed for the first time in wide band gap semiconductors. Results on the annealing of the implantation damage, the incorporation of the implanted ions and the temperature dependence of the observed EFG in AlN, InN and GaN will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: Wide band gap semiconductors, rare earth, implantation, PAC

Email: vianden@iskp.uni-bonn.de

INV 03


1

Influence of the excitation power density on Si nanocrystals photoluminescence

Behar M.1, Boudinov H.1, Amaral L.1, Ribeiro E.2, Moreira E. C.3, Sias U. S.1,4

1Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, (15051), (91501-970) Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil, 2Laborat�rio Nacional de Luz S�ncrotron, (6192), (13084-971) Campinas-SP, Brazil, 3Centro Universit�rio Franciscano, (97010-032) Santa Maria-RS, Brazil, 4Centro Federal de Educa��o Tecnol�gica (CEFET-RS), (96015-360) Pelotas-RS, Brazil

In this contribution we present a study on the influence of the excitation power density on the photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals (NC) embedded in a SiO2 matrix. With this aim we have implanted Si+ ions at 170 keV in a 480 nm - thick SiO2 layer with a fluence of 1.0 x 1017 ions/cm2. The samples were implanted at temperatures ranging between room temperature (RT) and 800 oC and further annealed at 1150 oC under N2 atmosphere in order to grow the Si precipitates. PL measurements were performed at RT using the 488 nm line of an Ar-ion laser as excitation source. The power density on the samples was varied in a range between 0.002 and 150 W/cm2. In addition, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) measurements were carried out in order to determine the NC size distribution of the annealed samples. We have observed that the hot implanted samples have a broad NC size distribution with larger grains. Consequently, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra show a strong dependence on the excitation power. As the laser power density decreases from 15 to 0.15 W/cm2 the PL spectra changes significantly from one peak line shape centered at 780 nm to a bimodal shape with the appearance of a second peak centered at 980 nm. In addition, with decreasing excitation power (from 0.15 to 0.015 W/cm2) two features are observed: an increase of the long wavelength part of the PL spectrum and a redshift of ~ 35 nm. Further decrease in the power density does not produce additional spectra modification indicating that the linear excitation regime was achieved. The present results point out that whenever a broad NC size distribution with large grains is obtained, special attention should be paid to the excitation power density in order to avoid non linear effects.

Keywords: Si nanocrystals, photoluminescence, laser excitation power density, ion implantation

Email: behar@if.ufrgs.br

INV 04


1

Characterization of defects in semiconductors using radioactive isotopes

Deicher M.1 and the ISOLDE Collaboration2

1 Technische Physik, Universit�t des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbr�cken, Germany;

2 CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland

Radioactive atoms have been used in solid state physics and in material science for many decades [1]. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, -NMR, and emission channeling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at facilities like ISOLDE/CERN [2] has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics [3].

Progress in semiconductor technology requires a thorough understanding and control of defects responsible for the properties of semiconducting materials, both of intrinsic defects, such as vacancies, self-interstitials, or anti-sites, and of extrinsic defects, such as dopants and impurity atoms. Like stable isotopes, radioactive isotopes used as dopants influence the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors according to their chemical nature. Experimental and theoretical tools are needed for identifying the properties of defects, the diffusion mechanisms being responsible for the mobility of defects and the strengths of the mutual interactions between dopant atoms and intrinsic as well as extrinsic defects. Depending on the material and the smallest structural size used in a device, the electrical and optical properties can be already significantly altered by a defect which is present at a concentration as low as 1012 cm-3.

Spectroscopic techniques like deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect gain a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Due to their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical behavior of a specific defect or dopant can be unambiguously identified.

This contribution will highlight a few examples to illustrate the potential of radioactive isotopes for solving various problems connected to defects in semiconductor physics.

[1] G. Schatz and A. Weidinger, Nuclear Condensed Matter Physics (Wiley, Chichester, 1995).

[2] http://isolde.web.cern.ch/ISOLDE/

[3] Th. Wichert and M. Deicher, Nuclear Physics A 693, 327 (2001).

Keywords: semiconductors, defects, ISOLDE

Email: manfred.deicher@tech-phys.uni-sb.de

INV 05



1

Structural Features and Pair Breaking Field in RNi2B2C and RNiBC Compounds as Seen by Local Method

Saitovitch E.

Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas F�sicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

M�ssbauer studies of RNi2B2C and RNiBC compounds doped with 1 at% 57Fe, for the heavy rare earths, reveal the structural features determined by the Ni-B tetrahedral and the magnetic behavior reflecting the coupling of successive R planes, where the moments are ferromagnetically aligned. In this talk we will extend our studies to Dy0.8R�0.2Ni2B2C (R�= Y, La, Lu ) and Lu1-xLaxNi2B2C ( x  0.1 ) series of compounds to establish more clear correlation between structural, magnetic and superconducting behavior in the RNiBC and RNi2B2C families of compounds.

*Results recently published in PRB 71,024508 (2005) and PRB 71,024508 (2005)

Keywords: heavy rare earth, superconductors, magnetism, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: esaitovitch@yahoo.com.br

INV 06


1

Hyperfine interactions at lanthanide impurities in iron

Cottenier S.1, Torumba D.1, Rots M.1

1Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U.Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

In this talk, the present status of an ongoing study on hyperfine fields and electric-field gradients at substitutional lanthanide impurities in bcc-Fe will be reported. Those hyperfine interactions are calculated from first principles with various degrees of sophistication. First the common 'local density approximation' (LDA) is applied, which is expected to fail (and is indeed found to do so) due to the strong electron correlation in the lanthanide 4f shell. In order to take this correlation into account, the LDA+U method is applied. The drawback of this method is the multitude of different solutions is returns, with no clear clue how to select the 'right' solution. A naive and a more sophisticated method to make this selection will be discussed, the latter based on using information from the free ion density matrix of the lanthanides (obtained by a separate code).

It will be shown how this study has both experimental and theoretical consequences. Experimental, because it points out limitations in our experimental knowledge on the hyperfine interactions of these lanthanide impurities, and because it shows how knowledge of the accurate values can lead to new physical conclusions. Theoretical, because this situation is a beautiful playground to examine how the LDA+U method should be applied in order to lead to meaningful conclusions.

Keywords: lanthanides, bcc Fe host, ab initio calculations, LDA+U method

Email: stefaan.cottenier@fys.kuleuven.be

INV 07


1

Application of Perturbed Angular Correlations to Oxides

Uhrmacher M.1, Lieb K. P.1

1Universit�t G�ttingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Germany and Sonderforschungsbereich SFB 602

Probing the local structure of a solid by Perturbed Angular Correlations essentially depends on the knowledge of the site where the probe is placed. Nearly all elements can be oxidized and develop oxides, often with different oxygen contents and in different crystalline phases. Applying the classical PAC-probes 111In/111Cd or 181Hf/181Ta, they are usually found on unperturbed cation lattice sites surrounded by oxygen atoms. A special role falls to the binary or ternary oxides, where In- and Hf-cations are part of the compound. In consequence, a big amount of PAC-experiments used this playground to test the correlation between the crystallographic geometry and the EFG parameters in oxide-families of similar structure. Today this large body of experimental data on EFGs in different oxide crystal-classes allows for comparison with theoretical predictions.

In general, the melting point of oxides is very high, and the PAC experiments may span a huge temperature range from Tm = 10 K up to 1700 K. Usually, oxides are in equilibrium with the atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen uptake and non-stoichiometry may be the consequence, as well as phase transitions - all these phenomena are typical topics for PAC-experiments. As an example, two temperature regions are known, where 111In/111Cd probes show dynamic hyperfine-interactions, which occur when the EFG changes direction or strength during the lifetime of the probe. At low temperatures the electron capture “after-effect” is observed, caused by a low availability of charge carriers in semiconducting or isolating oxides. At very high temperatures intrinsic defects or mobile atoms in ternary oxides move so fast, that undamped EFGs arise.

Realizing the big impact of STM and AFM to the surface science, a probing technique for the next neighbours inside a sample (like PAC) seems to be attractive in the growing field of nanotechnology. But numerous discussions in the past asked whether the inserted PAC-probes are really spies - only observing - or if they actually change the neighbourhood, that they are supposed to analyse. Already old PCM-calculations gave hints to distortions of the lattice by the probe atoms, and today the ab-initio calculations with the Density-Functional Theory clearly depend upon them. In addition, in rare cases a direct and independent experimental evidence of a modified lattice position exists from emission- channelling experiments, as for 111In/111Cd probes in Cr2O3. Nevertheless, any hope for PAC-results in oxidic nano-systems crucially depends on new ideas, how the probes can be placed in the materials in a controlled, reproducible manner.

Keywords: PAC, oxide, dynamical hyperfine interaction, lattice distortion

Email: muhrmac@gwdg.de

INV 08


1

Nanomagnetism in solid state physics, earth and life sciences

Greneche J. M.1

1Laboratoire de Physique de l�Etat Condens�, UMR CNRS 6087, Universit� du Maine, 72085 Le Mans, Cedex 9, France.

After reviewing the characteristics of magnetic nanostructures, we discuss the magnetic properties and the different existing models and their dependence as a function of the nanoparticle size or both the grain size and the thickness of the grain boundaries. On the basis of examples in solid state physics, earth and life sciences, we show how the magnetic properties can be understood in conjunction of both the structural and microstructural properties. By combining X-ray diffraction, local probe spectroscopic techniques (NMR, zero-field and in-field 57Fe M�ssbauer spectrometry), and magnetic measurements, one can describe the nanostructured powders while numeric simulation is able to bring relevant information which can be correlated with. The presentation aims to discuss such approaches, on the basis of Fe-containing systems, for which zero-field and in-field M�ssbauer spectrometry bring quite relevant information. The systems consist of Fe nanostructured powders, ferric fluoride nanostructured powders, both prepared by high energy ball milling, maghemite nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel, and nanocrystalline alloys resulting from a subsequent annealing of the melt-spun amorphous precursor.

Keywords: nanostructure, grain boundary, magnetic interactions, anisotropy, in-field M�ssbauer spectrometry, interface

Email: greneche@univ-lemans.fr

INV 09


1

Self-organized phases of disordered matter

Boolchand P.1

1University of Cincinnati, USA

Alloys of the group VI (S, Se) with group IV (Si, Ge) and/or group V (P,As) elements, possessing a mean coordination number (r) in the range 2 < r < 3, represent some of the best inorganic glass formers in nature. Glass transitions (Tgs) in these alloys exhibit striking trends [1] as a function of r. For example, in binary GexSe1-x glasses, r = 2(1 + x), at low connectivity (r < 2.40, floppy phase) glass transitions are found to be narrow (~ 20�C wide) and hysteretic in character (large non-reversing enthalpy, ΔHnr), with the ΔHnr term steadily aging at T < Tg. At intermediate connectivity (2.40 < r < 2.52, intermediate phase), the molecular density is nearly constant, the ΔHnr term nearly vanishes (~ 0) and glass transitions become nearly thermally reversing in character and display no aging of the ΔHnr term examined over years. At high connectivity ( r > 2.52, Stressed Rigid phase), glass transitions become progressively wider ( > 25� C ) and asymmetric with the ΔHnr term aging again. Here, floppy, intermediate and stressed-rigid phases represent the three generic elastic phases of disordered networks as illustrated for the case of ternary GexPxSe1-2x glasses in Fig.1. The exceptional structure of Intermediate phases was first noted [2] in 129I Mossbauer emission spectroscopy using traces of 129mTe parent in binary GexSe1-x glasses, where one found a non-monotonic variation of I-site distribution in that phase (0.20 < x < 0.25). The result is the direct consequence of the rigid but stress-free nature of intermediate phases for which independent corroboration has now emerged from Raman pressure measurements [3]. Intermediate phases consist of isostatic local and medium range structures in which the avoidance of redundant bonds lowers strain, and free energy, and leads to a self-organized state [4] of disordered matter.

[1] P.Boolchand, D.G.Georgiev, B.Goodman. J. of Optoelectronics and Adv. Materials,3,703 (2001). http://www.ececs.uc.edu/~pboolcha/journals.htm

[2] W.J. Bresser, P. Suranyi and P. Boolchand. Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2493 (1986). http://www.ececs.uc.edu/~pboolcha/journals.htm

[3] F. Wang, S. Mamedov, P.Boolchand, B. Goodman and M. Chandrasekhar, Phys. Rev. B 71, 174201 (2005). http://www.ececs.uc.edu/~pboolcha/journals.htm

[4] P. Boolchand, G. Lucovsky, J.C. Phillips, M.F. Thorpe, Phil. Mag (in press). cond-mat/0502312, (2005). http://www.ececs.uc.edu/~pboolcha/journals.htm

Keywords: intermediate phases, M�ssbauer spectroscopy, rigidity percolation, temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry

Email: punit.boolchand@uc.edu

INV 10


1

INV 11


1

Hyperfine interactions in magnetically ordered rare-earth intermetallics

Forker M.1

1Helmholtz-Institut f�r Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn University, Germany

Measurements of magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions (hfi) are a useful tool for the investigation of magnetically ordered compounds. Electron spin polarizations, unquenched orbital angular moments and magnetic dipole moments can give rise to magnetic hyperfine fields Bhf at nuclei in magnetic compounds. These hyperfine fields provide information on the exchange interactions leading to spontaneous magnetic order, on the order of magnetic phase transitions, on spin wave excitations, on relaxation processes and other parameters characterising a magnetic system. They can be determined by measuring their interaction with known nuclear magnetic moments using techniques such as perturbed angular correlations (PAC), NMR, M�ssbauer spectroscopy, and �SR. Additional information, e.g. on the orientation of the magnetic moments or on magneto-elastic distortions, can frequently be obtained from the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction (QI) between the quadrupole moment of the nuclear probe and an electric field gradient (EFG) which arises if the charge distribution surrounding the probe site has non-cubic symmetry.

The magnetic systems investigated by hyperfine spectroscopic techniques range from the pure 3d and 4f elemental ferromagnets to ordered and disordered intermetallics, inorganic compounds, amorphous alloys, nanocrystalline materials, etc. Much of the experimental and theoretical hyperfine interaction work has been focused on magnetic systems involving the rare earth (R) elements Ce to Tm. As these elements differ in the number of well-shielded 4f-electrons, they have rather similar chemical properties. The 4f-spins, which play a decisive role in the exchange interactions, and the orbital contributions to the 4f-magnetic moments, however, vary strongly with the number of 4f-electrons. Consequently, one finds a large number of isostructural series of R compounds that - for different R constituents - differ only slightly in the crystallographic, but strongly in the magnetic properties and thus offer very favourable conditions for the separation of the magnetic from other solid-state parameters.

There are numerous hyperfine interaction studies of intermetallic compounds of rare earth with other elements. Intermetallic compounds of the rare earths with 3d-transition elements have attracted much interest because of the coexistence and interaction of highly localized (4f) and itinerant (3d) electrons. Hyperfine interaction studies of intermetallic compounds of rare earth and sp-elements have frequently been aiming at information on the mechanism of the indirect exchange, which couples the spins of the localized non-overlapping 4f-electrons.

In this contribution, characteristic perturbed angular correlation studies of magnetically ordered rare earth intermetallics are presented. The information on the magnetic properties extracted from such studies is illustrated with measurements on RCo2, RNi2, RFe2Hx, R2In and RAl2.

Keywords: Magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions, perturbed angular correlations

Email: forker@iskp.uni-bonn.de


1

INV 12


1

Hyperfine Interaction Studies in Diamond

Bharuth-Ram K.

School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa

Some of the physical and chemical properties of diamond (bandgap of 5.4 eV, thermal conductivity greater than 2000 W/mK, high p- and n-type carrier mobilities, extreme hardness) make it a particularly suited material for applications in robust electronic devices capable of operating over a wide frequency bandwidth, with high thermal throughput, and at high operational temperatures. Considerable research endeavour in the past two decades has therefore been directed at the synthesis of high quality diamond and on the incorporation of n- and p-type dopants at electrically active sites in the lattice. The large formation energies in diamond of most dopants and the metastable nature of the diamond structure preclude thermal diffusion as a means of incorporating these dopant atoms in the diamond lattice. Ion implantation offers precise control of implantation species, dose and profile, and is an attractive alternative This has resulted in several ion implantation studies in which different implantation conditions and annealing sequences for a range of ions have been investigated. Electron emission channeling measurements show that appreciable fractions of implanted atoms at near substitutional sites can be achieved with low fluence implantation and annealing at temperatures ≥ 1000 K [1-4]. Perturbed angular correlation/distribution (PAC/PAD) and M�ssbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements [5-10], however, show that considerable lattice damage remain even after annealing at temperatures up to 1600 K. This presentation will review the use of hyperfine interactions to probe the sites implanted ions in diamond. The review will include 19F-TDPAD and 111In- and 181Hf-PAC studies on natural IIa diamonds, and 57Co source-based and recoil implanted 57Fe-M�ssbauer studies on natural and synthetic HTHP and CVD diamonds, as well as recent MS measurements following implantation of radioactive 57Mn*.

[1] K Bharuth-Ram, et al., J. Aplied Physics 78, 5180 (1995).

[2] H. Hofs�ss, et al., Mater.� Res. Soc. Proc. 442, 675 (1997).

[3] K. Bharuth-Ram, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 190, 835 (2002).

[4] K. Bharuth-Ram, U. Wahl and J.G. Correia, Nucl. Instrum. Meth.B206, 941 (2003).

[5] K Bharuth-Ram, S H Connell, et al., Hyp. Int. 34, 189 (1987).

[6] S H Connell, K Bharuth-Ram, et al., Hyp. Int. 36, 185 (1987).

[7] K Bharuth-Ram, et al., Phy. Rev. B 58, 8955 (1998).

[8] K. Bharuth-Ram, et al., Phy. Rev. B 64, 195207 (2001).

[9] K. Bharuth-Ram, et al., Hyp.Int. 156/157, 129 (2004).

[10] G. Weyer, H.P. Gunnlaugsson, M. Dietrich, K. Bharuth-Ram, Eur. Phys. J.: App.Phys. 27, 317 (2004).

Email: kbr@tlabs.ac.za

INV 12


1

Hyperfine Interactions and ab-initio calculations

Petrilli H. M.1

1Universidade de S�o Paulo, Instituto de F�sica, DFMT, Brazil

Here we will, first, review some contributions given by ab initio electronic structure calculations to the understanding of Hyperfine Interactions. The term ab initio is used in the standard context of the also called first principles methods inside the framework of the Density Functional Theory - DFT .We essentially focus on two different aspects of this subject: a) applications to Nuclear Physics and b) applications to Condensed Matter Physics. The Nuclear physics quantity we deal with here is the Nuclear Quadrupole Moment. The contributions to Condensed Matter Physics are related to structural characterizations on the atomic scale. We also discuss the “state of the art” on theoretical calculations of Hyperfine Quantities and make a brief critical review on the subject.

In a second part, we illustrate the power achieved by these tools with some recent examples of calculation of Hyperfine Quantities in organic systems with technological interest.

Keywords: ab initio calculations, hyperfine quantities, EFG, hyperfine field

Email: hmpetril@macbeth.if.usp.br

INV 13


1

Switching ON / OFF “after-effects” with e-- / -TDPAC

Correia J. G.2, Silva M. R.2, Nedelec R.3, Vianden R.3, Soares J. C.2

1Instituto Tecnol�gico e Nuclear, Portugal; 2Centro de F�sica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal; 3Institut f�r Strahlen- und Kernphysik Universit�t Bonn, Germany

“After-effects” on time dependent perturbed angular correlations, TDPAC, experiments account for transient electric field gradient, EFG, phenomena, which are observable during few tens of ns, within the measurement time window. In the present work, semiconductor doped p- and n- type GaN, as well as several insulators LiNbO3, LiTaO3, sapphire and SrTiO3 samples were implanted with 181Hf at the ISK-Bonn, to be measured with and e-- PAC at ISOLDE-CERN. Measurements have been done after annealing, to recover implantation defects, at several temperatures from 10K up to 500K. Both methods use the same cascade on 181Ta but, while for  PAC the measurement starts after emission of the 133keV  ray, in e-- PAC the measurement starts after emission of the L conversion electron from the same transition. For the p- / n- GaN, TaNbO3 and sapphire samples, while the  PAC spectra do not show significant changes allover the temperature range, the e-- PAC experiments show huge differences. For LiNbO3 and SrTiO3 samples both  and e-- PAC do not show relevant temperature dependent effects. One extra example of 111mCd implanted SrTiO3 will be shown where the  and e-- PAC spectra show again dramatic differences with temperature. For the 181Hf implanted GaN a complete fitting of the phenomena is attempted and will be discussed.

Thus, true After-effects occur which, in the present set of experiments, are only observable with e-- PAC, since they are triggered by the emission of the conversion electron. The recombination of the probe element ionized states will be fast or slow depending on the material and on the probe relationship with the host. New ideas for studying materials problems, by the comparative use of the e-- and  TDPAC techniques are drafted, particularly at ISOLDE where several elements/PAC probes are available.

Keywords: after-effects, e-- PAC, GaN, optoelectronics, carrier diffusion

Email: guilherme.correia@cern.ch

INV 14


1

NQR: from Imaging to Explosives and Drugs Detectors

Pusiol D. J.1,2, Cerioni L. C.1, Forgu�z J.2, Os�n T. M.1,2

1Facultad de Matem�tica, Astronom�a y F�sica, Universidad Nacional de C�rdoba, C�rdoba, Argentina; 2 SpinLock SRL, C. de Arenal 1020, C�rdoba, Argentina

Plastic explosives and other forbidden substances can not be easily detected by means of conventional inspection techniques, as those based on conventional X-ray scanners or those using more sophisticated means. Those techniques look for a trace of remaining materials which can be "contaminating" the external surface of the object containing them. Otherwise, NQR screeners have the additional advantages of being fully automatic, i.e., it does not depend on the operator's ability to interpret images of relatively low contrast, and it does not use ionizing radiation.

The NQR signals of nitrogen nuclei in RDX and other explosives have already been observed with enough sensitivity to form the basis of a detector which may be used in order to examine travel bags as well as closed postal parcels, personal carriers, etc. Each chemical compound of the explosive substance bears one or more unique resonance frequencies which distinguish such compound from the others in nature. The resonance frequency value, which may be measured with high precision in a NQR experiment, is a characteristic magnitude of the molecule bearing the resonant nucleus -as if it were a "fingerprint". There exist in nature many different quadrupole nuclei; those commonly present in explosives are nitrogen, chlorine, potassium, sodium, etc. As an example, it is possible to inspect the presence of different explosives or alkaloids by setting the detector to the characteristic frequency of the molecule, which must be well known previously.

During the last ten years, several NQR imaging techniques have been developed for one- and two-dimensional imaging of rigid solids containing quadrupole nuclei with an effective strong quadrupole interaction. Rotating-frame procedures (NQRI) have been demonstrated to be the most effective NQR imaging techniques. NQRI conserves the spectroscopic information during the spatial encoding procedure.

We have developed volumetric sensors of different geometries which however share the same basic idea: to introduce into a probe coil the object to be inspected, generally a piece of luggage, and to irradiate the sample with different pulse sequences "in resonance" with the characteristic frequency of the quadrupolar substance by means of a NQR pulse spectrometer. It is to be remarked that in this case the excitation-detection process is accomplished via the electromagnetic field generated within the interior volume of the probe coil, where the luggage or object to be inspected is placed. In addition, surface sensors have been developed for several applications, as detection of land mines, dangerous substances hidden in shoes, clothes or ingested by animals or human beings. Such sensors comprise antennas, which may take the form of coils of differing geometries (planar, solenoidal, spiral, with ferrite nuclei, etc.).

In this case, the irradiation-detection process is produced by the electromagnetic field generated at the external volume of the coils. In this paper we discuss the evolution of different NQR imaging techniques, in particular those procedures involving spatial encoding technique which allows the conservation of the spectroscopic information. In addition we present some practical devices designed for surface and volumetric detection of prohibited substance.

Keywords: quadrupole resonance, imaging, explosive detection

Email: dpusiol@spinlock.com.ar

INV 15


Oral contributions



1

M�ssbauer spectroscopy characterization of Zr-Nb-Fe phases

Ramos C. P.1, Granovsky M. S.2, Saragovi C.3

1CONICET-CNEA, Argentina; 2CNEA, Dpto. de Materiales, Argentina; 3 CNEA, Dpto. de F�sica, Argentina

The aim of this work was the characterization of the ternary phases and of those coming from the corresponding binary systems in the Zr-Nb-Fe diagram by means of M�ssbauer spectroscopy. This is part of a complete study involving a tentative isothermal section at 900�C of the center of the Zr-Nb-Fe diagram which will be published elsewhere. In this kind of works M�ssbauer spectroscopy is not a commonly used technique, however our results and previous studies [1-3] demonstrates that it gives very useful information, sometimes not provided by other techniques.

Zr-Nb-Fe alloys with Nb contents between 5 and 50 at. % and Fe contents between 10 at. % and 60 at.% were analyzed both, as cast and after a heat treatment at 900� C during 4 months.

M�ssbauer characterization of the phases was complemented by optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis.

From the obtained results it can be inferred that Fe in both of the Laves phases present in this system (Zr(FeNb)2 and (ZrNb)Fe2) sees different environments producing quadrupole splitting and hyperfine field distributions respectively. Two types of body centered cubic β phases (Zr-rich and Nb-rich) were found having noticeable differences in their M�ssbauer parameters. Furthermore it was shown that the ternary Fe (NbZr)2 compound would show magnetic character at low temperatures.

Concentration dependence of the hyperfine parameters and their relations with the lattice parameters contributed to the structural characterization of the phases.

[1] C. Ramos, C. Saragovi, M. Granovsky, D. Arias, Hyp. Interact. 122, 201 (1999).

[2] C. Ramos, C. Saragovi, M. Granovsky, D. Arias, Hyp. Interact. 139/140, 363 (2002).

[3] C. Ramos, C. Saragovi, M. Granovsky, D. Arias, J. Nuc. Mat. 312, 266 (2003).

Keywords: M�ssbauer spectroscopy, Zr-based alloys, Laves phases, ternary systems

Email: ciramos@cnea.gov.ar

O 01


1

Ndx[O2C-(CH2)3-CO2]y(H2O)z. mH2O framework structures features

Brusau E. V.1, Narda G. E.1, Pozzi C. G.2, Echeverr�a G.2,3, Ellena J. A.4, Punte G.2

1Area de Qu�mica General e Inorg�nica “Dr. G. F. Puelles”, Facultad de Qu�mica, Bioqu�mica y Farmacia, UNSL, Argentina; 2LANADI e IFLP, Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Cs. Exactas, UNLP;3 Facultad de Ingenier�a, UNLP, Argentin;.4Instituto de F�sica S�o Carlos, Universidade de S�o Paulo, SP, Brazil.

An intense activity is developed at present to obtain open hybrid frameworks because of their many applications; mainly those ones related to the likelihood of inducing incremental modulation of their pores sizes. Besides, 3D hybrid solids may build-in inorganic networks of different dimensionalities, opening the possibility of designing materials with optical or magnetic properties when suitable metals are included. Here, we will present an investigation on the influence of the synthesis conditions on the structural properties and thermal stability of Nd(III) glutarates hydrates. It has been claimed in the literature that the hydrothermal route (or at least temperatures above ambient) are necessary to produce hybrid frameworks involving aliphatic dicarboxylates. We present two different hydrates prepared from solutions at room temperature. One of the frameworks observed shows pores similar to that ones found by other authors [1], some small differences observed (reflected in unit cell parameters changes) can be attributed to variations in the number of guest water molecules within them. The other, presents a novel framework structure where metal cations coordinate with an additional water molecule. The conformation of the labile glutarate anions is modified by this extra water causing enlargement of pores size in which higher hydration water molecules are accommodated.

Both, the IR and Raman spectra of these hydrates reflect the complexity of their crystal structures, particularly the interactions involving the water molecules located in different positions in the framework, as well as both binding modes found for the OCO groups. The thermal studies are in agreement with the structural findings and the anhydrous compounds are stable up to ca. 723 K.

[1] T. Glowiak, Dao-Cong-Ngoan, and J. Legendziewicz, Acta Crystallogr. C42, 1494 (1986).

Keywords: framework structures, hybrid materials, rare earth glutarates

Email: geche@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

O 02


1

The Ce electronic ground state in CeMn2Ge2 determined by 140Ce PAC spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations

Pereira L. F. D.1, Mestnik-Filho J.1, Lalic M. V.2, Carbonari A. W.1

1Instituto de Pesquisas Energ�ticas e Nucleares,Brazil; 2Instituto de F�sica da Universidade Federal de Sergipe,Brazil

In a previous work we explored the properties of the nuclear transitions of the 140Ce radioactive isotope in order to measure the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the nuclei of cerium atoms in the CeMn2Ge2 compound with perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy [1]. The results were then analysed with the aid of first principles electronic structure calculations on the CeMn2Ge2 compound where the Ce 4f state was treated as de-localised [2]. After comparison with the experiment taken at low temperatures, T~10 K, a good agreement was attained between the calculated and measured Ce total magnetic moment known to be smaller than the detection limit of neutron diffraction measurements. On the other hand, the agreement between the correspondent values of the Ce magnetic hyperfine field was poor.

In the present work we extended the calculations in order to improve for the correlation effects on the Ce 4f states. It was found that a better agreement exists for the value of the magnetic hyperfine field in which the Ce electronic 4f ground state in this material is Jz = 1/2. This ground state is consistent with the splitting of the Ce J multiplet at an environment with tetragonal symmetry as well as with the results of neutron diffraction experiments.

The electronic structure calculations were performed within the scheme of the density functional theory. The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalised gradient approximation with the addition of a Hubbard like potential (GGA+U) in order to improve on the simulations of the correlation effects in the Ce 4f shell. Spin-orbit effects were treated fully relativistically in the core states and scalar-relativistically in the valence states. The WIEN2k computer program package was utilised for these calculations [3].

[1] A.W.Carbonari, J.Mestnik-Filho, R.N.Saxena, and M.V.Lalic, Phys.Rev. B 69, 144425 (2004).

[2] M.V. Lalic, J. Mestnik-Filho, A.W. Carbonari, and R.N. Saxena, J.Phys.: Condes. Matter 16, 6685 (2004).

[3] P.Blaha, K.Schwarz, G.K.H.Madsen, D.Kvasnicka, J.Luitz. Wien2k, An Augmented Plane Wave + Local Orbitals Program for Calculationg Crystal Properties. (Karlheinz Schwarz, Techn. Universit�t Wien, Austria), 2001. ISBN 3-9501031-1-2.

Keywords: magnetic hyperfine field, Ce compunds

Email: jmestnik@ipen.br

O 03


1

Homogeneous-inhomogeneous models of AgGeSe bulk glasses

Arcondo B.1, Ure�a M. A.1, Piarristeguy A.1, Pradel A.2, Fontana M.1

1LSA, Facultad de Ingenier�a, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2LPMC (UMR 5617), Montpellier Cedex, France

Ge-Se system presents an extensive glass forming composition range even when different metals (Ag, Sb, Bi) are added. In spite that the addition of Ag (up to 30 at. %) to Ge-Se does not affect substantially the glass forming tendency, it impacts significantly on the transport properties. (Ge0.25Se0.75)(100-x)Agx is a fast ionic conductor with x8 at.% whereas it is a semiconductor for x<8 at.%. This behaviour, also reported in other chalcogenide systems containing Ag [1,2] challenges the researchers to find out the relation between transport and structure. One of the structural models proposed to explain this behavior is based on an intrinsically inhomogeneous structure where zones rich in metals coexist with zones of the host material.[3] Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is performed on amorphous (Ge0.25Se0.75)(100-x)Agx bulk samples (Fig. 1). These results appear to sustain this model. However previous structural studies oppose it [4].

M�ssbauer spectrometry on powdered samples (0x25) containing 0.5at% of 57Fe is performed at T300K. Several Fe sites are observed in all the glasses spectra corresponding to low spin Fe2+ in octahedral coordination, high spin Fe2+ in distorted octahedral environments plus sites associated to highly covalent Fe bonding. The relative abundance of these environments, already present in the crystalline phases of the equilibrium phases diagram, changes continuously as Ag concentration varies denoting that the change in the transport behavior obeys to a percolation phenomenon. Nevertheless, room temperature measurements do not let us to conclude whether the glasses are homogeneous or not.

The low temperature results are discussed with the aim to throw light on the controversy about the homogeneity-inhomogeneity of the studied bulk glasses.

[1] E. Bychkov, V. Tsegelnik, Yu. Vlasov, A. Pradel, M. Ribes: J. Non-Cryst.Solids, 208 (1996) p. 1

[2] E. Bychkov, D.L. Price, C.J. Benmore, A.C. Hannon: Solid State Ionics Vol. 154-155 (2002) p. 349

[3] G.N. Greaves: Solid State Ionics Vol. 105 (1998) p. 243

[4] A. Piarristeguy, M. Fontana and B. Arcondo; Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 332 (2003) 1-10.

Keywords: chalcogenide glasses, M�ssbauer spectroscopy, fast ionic conductors

Email: barcond@fi.uba.ar

O 04


1

A new computer method of image analysis applied to semiconductor’s structural characterization

Damonte L. C.1, Cuesta-Frau D.2, Hern�ndez-Fenollosa M. A.1, Mic�-Tormos P.2

1Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Cam� de Vera s/n, 46071, Valencia, SPAIN; 2DISCA Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Alcoi Campus, Plaza Ferr�ndiz i Carbonell, 2, 03801 Alcoi, SPAIN

In the last few years, nano-structured semiconductors have attracted the attention of basic and applied investigations due to their peculiar optical and electronic properties. Different techniques have been applied to obtain well structured films such pulser laser deposition (PLD), electrochemical deposition (ED) or microwave activated aqueous solution (MW) among others. For certain applications well-packed films covering completely the substrate surface, good adherence and a specific growing crystal structure are desirable. Usually, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to characterize the needed structural in order to optimize the growing conditions of the films. Traditionally, the quantification of these characteristic have been performed manually, which is time-consuming and subjective in contrast to computer analysis.

In this paper we present a method to analyze microscopic images of semiconductors in order to, in a non-supervised way, obtain the main characteristics of the sample under test: growing regions, grain sizes, dendrite morphology and homogenization.

The images acquired are first pre-processed in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and therefore the detection rate. Images are filtered by a weighted-median filter, and contrast is enhanced using histogram equalization. Then, images are thresholded using a binarization algorithm in such a way growing regions will be segmented. This segmentation is based on the different grey levels due to different sample height of the growing areas. Next, resulting image is further processed to eliminate the resulting holes and spots of the previous stage, and this image will be used to compute the percentage of such growing areas. Finally, using pattern recognition techniques (contour following and raster to vector transformation), particles are extracted to obtain their characteristics.

Keywords: SEM, image processing, filtering, semiconductors

Email: damonte@fisica.unlp.edu.ar, ldamont@upvnet.upv.es

O 05


1

57Fe M�ssbauer study of -FeOOH obtained in presence of Al3+ and Ti4+ ions

Barrero C. A.1, Garc�a K. E.1, Morales A. L.1, Greneche J. M.2

1Grupo de Estado S�lido, Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia; 2Laboratoire de Physique de l’Etat Condens�, Universit� du Maine, France

This paper deals with the influence of Al3+ and Ti4+ ions on the formation of akaganeite when prepared by hydrolysis of FeCl3 solutions. Samples were codenamed as MeAkX, in which Me represents the metallic cation (Al3+ and Ti4+) and X the mole percentage calculated as X = [Ydopp/YFe)] x 100, where Ydopp and YFe are the amount in moles of the metallic cation and Fe respectively. Values for X of 0, 1, 5, 10 and 30% were used. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using Rietveld refinement and 300 K and 77 K M�ssbauer spectrometry (MS). Akaganeite is the only phase being formed independent upon the type and concentration of the metallic cations.

No significant variation in the hyperfine and crystallographic parameters on the akaganeite prepared in the presence of Al3+ ions were observed. These results suggest that Al3+ has probably entered into the akaganeite’s crystallographic structure, but in a rather small amount. Indeed, we should expect appreciable reduction in the unit cell parameters, because of the smaller ionic radius of Al3+ in comparison to that of Fe3+, and also a decrease in the magnetic hyperfine fields because of the diamagnetic character of the Al3+ ions. A first possible explanation to this low Al for Fe substitution is perhaps that Al3+ requires higher pH values than that in present aqueous media with chloride content (greater than 2) to be co-precipitated with iron in the solutions. A second possible explanation lies in the fact that the hydrolysis constant for Al3+ is higher than that for Fe3+ in the hydrolysis reaction. On the other hand, Ti4+ drastically affects the physical properties of akageneite: its presence favours the decrease of the particle size, the reduction of the unit cell parameters and the presence of a quadrupolar doublet in the 77 K M�ssbauer spectrum. These results can be related to the fact that Ti4+ exhibits a negative hydrolysis constant in comparison to the positive one of Fe3+ [1].

Now, because the ionic radius of Ti4+ is slightly larger than that of Fe3+, an expansion of the lattice parameters is expected. However, our results show that, on the contrary, there is a drastic decrease of the unit cell parameters. These observations may suggest that the akaganeite formed in the presence of Ti should be very defective. Due to the very low particle size of the samples, it is expected important variations in the unit cell. On the other hand, one must think how to compensate the extra charge which could be done either by introducing more chloride content, more OH- groups, the absorption of negative ions, more Fe3+ vacancies or a combination of these different features. The quadrupolar doublet observed in the 77 K M�ssbauer spectra, could be due to the presence of small akaganeite particles. This means that Ti might favor the formation of� akaganeite with a very broad range of particle sizes.

[1] T. Ishikawa, R. Katoh, A. Yasukawa, K. Kandori, T. Nakayama, and F. Yuse, Corros. Sci. 43, 1727 (2001).

Keywords: akaganeite, aluminium, titanium, M�ssbauer spectrometry

Email: greneche@univ-lemans.fr

O 06


1

Grain Rotation in 2D-Hexagonal Systems with Competing Interactions

Pignol R. J.1, G�mez L. R.2, Bast W.2, Vega D. A.2

1Departamento de Matem�tica - Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. L. N. Al�m 1253 - 8000 Bah�a Blanca- Argentina, 2Departamento de F�sica - Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. L. N. Al�m 1253 - 8000 Bah�a Blanca- Argentina

We look at a grain rotation mechanism in a bidimentional pattern forming system exhibiting an hexagonal phase. This mechanism is believed to be relevant in the coarsening process of a variety of physical systems with short and long range competing interactions. We focus on the Cahn-Hilliard model with thermal fluctuations. The grain rotation process is uncovered from the dynamical evolution of a misoriented circular grain surrounded by an otherwise perfect crystal.

Keywords: grain rotation, Cahn-Hilliard, competing interactions, hexagonal systems

Email: dvega@criba.edu.ar

O 07


1

Ultra-high MoO3 dispersion on SBA-16 mesoporous silica modified with a-TiO2 for HSD-catalysis. XAFS and HREM study

Andrini L.1, Ramallo-L�pez J. M.1, Klimova T.2, Dominguez J. M.3, Wang X.4, Rodriguez J. A.4, Requejo F. G.1

1Dto. F�sica, FCE, UNLP, and IFLP-INIFTA (CONICET), Argentina; 2Dto. Ing. Qu�mica, UNAM, M�xico D.F., M�xico; 3IMP, M�xico, D.F., Mexico; 4Chemistry Dept., BNL, USA.

Mesoporous hybrid materials constitute a very exciting field in materials chemistry [1]. Potential applications, in catalysis in particular, are promising due to their high surface area and their narrow pore size distribution as well as the diversity of functional groups which they can contain. The a-TiO2 (anatase) has been successfully applied as a support for hydrotreating due to its high intrinsic activity and capacity to generate a favourable morphology of MoS2 phases, metal support interactions as well as reducibility or sulfidability [2].

In the present work, SBA-type supports were used to extend MoO3 dispersion in order to have nanometric domains for studying their HDS activity. These materials were studies by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM). A series of Ti-modified SBA-16 supports and the respective Mo catalysts were prepared, and their catalytic properties evaluated in the 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) HDS reaction. The pre-edge region of XANES Ti K-edge spectra and HREM indicate the presence of nanosized crystallites of a-TiO2, while XANES and EXAFS Mo K-edge spectra indicate the higher dispersion of MoO3 for Ti-modified SBA-16 supports.

[1] R. Richer and L. Mercier, Chem. Commun., 1998, 1775.

[2] G. Murali Dhar, M. S. Rana, S. K. Maity, B. N. Srinivas, T. S. R. Prasada Rao, “Chemistry of Diesel Fuels” (C. Song, S. Hsu and I. Mochida, Eds.), Chap.8, Taylor & Francis, London, 2000.

Keywords: SBA-16, mesoporous silica, XAFS, HDS catalysis, HREM

Email: requejo@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

O 08


Alexander von Humboldt Short Talks



1

Magnetism through magnetic vacancies in RAg compounds: a PAC study.

Pasquevich A.F.1,2, Fern�ndez van Raap M.B. 1,3, Forker M. 4

1Departamento de F�sica – Facultad de Ciencias Exactas – UNLP (Argentina).

2Comisi�n de Investigaciones Cient�ficas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina).

3Consejo de Investigaciones Cient�ficas y T�cnicas (Argentina).

4“Helmholtz” Institut f�r Strahlen und Kernphysik - Bonn (Germany)

Heavy rare earth (R=Gd, Ho, Tb, Er and Dy) RAg equiatomic compounds crystallize in the CsCl-type structure and orders antiferromagnetically at low temperatures. When the probe 111In is introduced by diffusion locates at the Ag site.� In this situation the Electric Field Gradient at the probe site is null as well as the magnetic hyperfine field providing unperturbed angular correlation, both above and below Ne�l temperature. However,�� the antiferromagnetic symmetry can� be broken by replacing some R atoms by Y and then a magnetic hyperfine field is detected by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique. RAg and R0.8AgY0.2 were studied between 10 and 300 K.� The aim of the study was to characterize the magnetic hyperfine fields appearing in the compounds due to the introduced magnetic vacancies. The samples were additionally characterized by X-ray diffraction and a.c susceptibility measurements.

Keywords: magnetic hyperfine field , PAC spectroscopy , rare earth magnetism

Email: pasquevi@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

AvH 01


1

Photoconductivity measurements used to determine the defect density within the gap of intrinsic semiconductors

Schmidt J. A.1, Longeaud C. L.2, Koropecki R. R.1, Arce R.1

1INTEC (CONICET-UNL),Guemes 3450, S3000GLN Santa Fe, Argentina, 2 LGEP (CNRS-SUPELEC-Universit� Paris VI et XI), 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

In this work we explore and discus the information that different photoconductivity experiments can provide on the density of states (DOS) within the gap of defective semiconductors. First, we provide an overview of the techniques of modulated photoconductivity (MPC), steady-state photocarrier grating (SSPG) and steady-state photoconductivity (SSPC). In the MPC technique the sample is illuminated by a steady flux of light slightly modulated at a pulsation . The modulus of the resulting ac current, as well as the phase shift of this current referred to the excitation, are recorded and used to extract information on the DOS. In previous publications we have shown that two regimes have to be considered, the “high frequency” (HF-MPC) and the “low frequency” (LF-MPC) regimes, which provide complementary information on the DOS [1,2]. The basis of the SSPG experiment consists on illuminating the sample with two coherent laser beams of different intensity. If the two beams have the same polarization, a light grating develops between the two electrodes, while if they have perpendicular polarizations the illumination intensity is uniform. As we have shown in a previous publication, by comparing the photocurrents under these two illumination conditions information on the DOS can eventually be extracted [3]. The SSPC is one of the most widely studied properties of semiconductors. A good deal of theoretical work has been devoted to explain the dependence of the photoconductivity upon temperature or light flux, with the aim to derive defect parameters of the material. Experimentally, for different semiconductors a power-law dependence of the photoconductivity on the light flux has been observed, . In a recent publication we provided an analytical expression for , and under certain approximations we have shown that a very simple formula relating the DOS at the electron quasi-Fermi level to measurable quantities can be obtained [4].

As an example of the application of these photoconductivity techniques to an experimental situation, in this work we apply these methods to extract the DOS within the gap of a GaAs:Cr crystalline sample. We discuss the interpretation of the experiments with the help of some numerical calculations that simulate the experimental results. Finally, we show that part of the DOS distribution – together with an estimation of the electrons capture cross-sections of these states and of the electrons extended states mobility – can be obtained from the comparison of the results of these techniques.

[1] C. Longeaud and J. P. Kleider, Phys. Rev. B 45, 11672 (1992).

[2] R.R. Koropecki, J. A. Schmidt, and R. Arce, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 8965 (2002).

[3] J. A. Schmidt and C. Longeaud, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125208 (2005).

[4] J. A. Schmidt, C. Longeaud, and J. P. Kleider, Thin Solid Films (in press).

Keywords: semiconductors, defect states, photoconductivity, GaAs

Email: jschmidt@intec.unl.edu.ar

AvH 02


1

Free volume of polyvinylsiloxane elastomers

Azarri M. J.1, Cortizo M. S.1, Roth L.2, Villar M.2, Damonte L. C.3, Alessandrini J. L.1, 3

1INIFTA, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Argentina; 2PLAPIQUI, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina; 3 Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Argentina

Synthetic polymers like polysiloxanes are used nowadays as components of impression material in dental applications though the condensation or addition reactions of two polymeric components. The prepolymers are crosslinked upon mixing with the catalyst at room temperature via the hydrosilylation reaction between vinyl groups (C=C) and hydrosilyl groups (Si-H). These so-called polyvinylsiloxanes (PVS) are preferred because of their higher capacity of reproduction of the details of the oral cavity. The PVS have deplaced from the market the elastomers obtained from condensation reactions because of the poor mechanical response produced by the presence of bubbles and micropores and the corresponding dimensional contraction. Since the lifetime (3) and the intensity (I3) due to the pick-off process of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) are respectively correlated with the average size and contents of free volume present in the amorphous region of polymers [1], positron annihilation lifetime measurements of three commercial PVS based elastomers were conducted to study their free volume structure.

Sample

3 [ns]

I3 [%]

R [�]

Vf,rel

Zh

3.56

19.1

3.95

0.37

3M

3.50

26.4

3.95

0.52

DMG

3.81

22.8

4.15

0.52

Zh-C

3.55

19.3

3.95

0.38

PDMS

3.8

44

4.15

1.00

The prepolymers were isolated from each of the two base pastes provided by the manufacturers, characterised by IR spectroscopy. The molecular weights of each polymer component were determined by size exclusion chromatography. Samples were identified by their source laboratory as: Zhermack (Zh, 488/58.5 Kg/mol), 3M (50.7/59.0 Kg/mol) and DMG (71.9/73.1 kG/mol).

Table 1 collects PALS values of 3, I3, the radius R of the holes (in �) according to the Tao-Eldrup model and the free volume (~ I3.R3) relative to uncrosslinked bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A condensation (Zh-C) polysiloxane elastomer was included for comparison.

The free volume was also studied through dynamical mechanical measurements of the elastic and loss modulus of the cured samples as a function of temperature and frequency. The results were analysed according to the WLF equation. Assuming a glass transition temperature identical to that of PDMS (Tg ~ 153 K), the free volume parameters fTg are 0.031 (Zh), 0.033 (DMG) while at room temperature, fT = 0.049 and 0.075, respectively. These figure correlates positively with the PALS free volume parameters.

[1] J.E. Kluin, Z.Yu, S. Vleeshouwers, J.D. McGervey, A.M. Jaamieson, R. Simha, and K. Sommer, Macromolecules 26 (1993) 1853

Keywords: free volume, PALS, elastomers, polyvinylsiloxane

Email: alessan@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

AvH 03


1

Wetting and filling transitions in confined magnetic materials.

Albano E.

INIFTA, Fac. Cs. Exacta, UNLP – CONICET,� Suc. 4, C.C. 16., (1900) La Plata, Argentina

The behavior of phase transitions and critical phenomena taking place in confined geometries may be quite different than in the bulk. In this talk I will discuss the influence of confinement on the wetting (filling) transition of the Ising ferromagnet in a slit (corner) geometry. In both cases the influence of competitive (surface) magnetic fields on the dynamics (out of equilibrium) as well as on the equilibrium behavior will be discussed. Furthermore, the wetting transition upon irreversible growth of a magnetic material will be discussed.�

Email: ealbano@iniftaunlp.edu.ar

AvH 04


Posters



1

Poster A

New materials: preparation, properties, and applications


1


1

PAC characterization of Gd and Y doped nanostructured zirconia solid solutions

Caracoche M. C.1, Mart�nez J. A.1, Pasquevich A. F.1, Djurado E.2 and Boulc�h F.2

1UNLP and CICPBA, Argentina; 2INPG/CNRS, Cedex, France

One means to obtain metastable tetragonal or cubic zirconia phases is the addition of aliovalent dopants. As stabilized tetragonal zirconias are often used as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells due to their high ionic conductivity, thermal structural changes in these materials become relevant and deserve a deep investigation.

Two nanometric tetragonal zirconia powders doped with 2.5 mol % Y2O3 and 2 mol % Gd2O3 were prepared by the spray pyrolysis method and calcined at 600�C. The powders, together with the corresponding nanocrystalline ceramics derived from them by isostatic pressing at 300 MPa and sintering at 1500�C for 2h, have been characterized at nanoscopic level using the Perturbed Angular Correlations method between RT and 900�C.

The precursor powders behave similarly, showing the often reported thermal transformation between the disordered defective t�-phase and the ordered regular t-form. At high temperatures, in turn, the appearance of a new interaction and the activation of the oxygen vacancies movement within the defective Zr surroundings are detected. Regarding the Y and Gd doped compacts, preliminary results indicate a quite different thermal behavior.

Keywords: doped zirconias, nanometric, tetragonal, SOFCs

Email: cristina@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-A 01


1

Influence of the thermal treatment in the phase formation and magnetic behaviour in metal transition doped TiO2

Cabrera A. F.1, Rodr�guez Torres C. E.1, Errico L.A.1, S�nchez F. H.1

1Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, I.F.L.P, Argentina

There has been much attention paid to diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) in the last decade, but the origin of the ferromagnetism in doped semiconductors remains as an issue of discussion. Some authors claim that the ferromagnetism depends on the oxygen deficiency while others do not exclude the possibility of magnetic atom segregation, essentially in thin-film systems. For these reasons, it is important to clarify the origin of magnetism in DMS. In this work other possible route of DMS preparation is explored as well as the possibility to obtain new materials with high Curie temperature. Based on recent theoretical results that predict magnetism in transition metal doped rutile TiO2, mixtures of 5 % Fe, Ni, Co or Mn and TiO2 were prepared, which were thermally treated at 673, 773K and 973K for 12 h in air. Samples were characterized by M�ssbauer Effect spectroscopy (Fe doped TiO2), X-ray diffraction (XRD), AC- susceptibility and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD patterns show diffraction lines belonging to rutile, anatase and the transition metals employed as dopants. After a thermal treatment at 973K, ilmenite (MTiO3) was detected in Ni, Mn and Co doped samples, while hematite and rutile were observed in the Fe one. The AC-susceptibility measurements display a behaviour corresponding to mixtures of two phases one paramagnetic and one antiferromagnetic (MTiO3). An hysteretic behaviour was observed in all samples.

Keywords: semiconductors, magnetism, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: cabrera@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-A 02


1

Poster B

Imperfections: Surfaces, Interfaces, and Defects


1


1

Positron traps in electron irradiated ZnO semiconductor

Damonte L. C., Fenollosa M. H., Mar� B. , Navarro F. J.

Dpt. F�sica Aplicada, Universitat Polit�cnica de Val�ncia, Cam� de Vera s/n, 46071-Valencia, SPAIN.

Due to its attractive optical and electrical properties, ZnO is becoming the usual alternative to GaN in applications on UV optoelectronic. Intrinsic and induced point defects in ZnO lead to the generation of bounded states with important effects on the material properties. A complete knowledge of point defect structure is needed to understand its optical behaviour.

We have applied positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), a highly sensitive technique to probe point defects, on electron irradiated ZnO single crystals. The samples, commercially provided, were exposed to different 10 MeV electrons fluences giving rise to irradiation doses between 60 and 240 Gy. After irradiation, samples were annealed in air atmosphere from 100 to 1000�C in order to follow the evolution of radiation defects and their effect on the positron parameters.

The average positron lifetime shows a non-monotonically behaviour with increases radiation dose, although its variation indicates that the generated defects act as effective positron traps. First steps of annealing seem to have no effect on positron characteristic, although further annealing induced new attractive centres for positrons.

The above features are compared with photoluminescence (PL) results which also indicate changes in the PL spectra with electron irradiation and heat treatments.

The possible origin, nature and state of charge of the radiation induced defects and their thermal evolution are tentative explain based on the recombination of electron induced with native defects.

Keywords: positron annihilation, ZnO, defects, semiconductors

Email: damonte@fisica.unlp.edu.ar, ldamont@upvnet.upv.es

P-B 01


1


1

Poster C

Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena



1

PAC investigation in the Zr-rich region of the PZT phase diagram

Alonso R. E.1, Ayala A. P.2, L�pez Garc�a A. R.1, Eiras J. A.3

1Departamento de F�sica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calles 115 y 49,CC 67, 1900, La Plata, Argentina; 2Departamento de F�sica, Universidade Federal do Cear�, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Cear�, Brazil; 3Departamento de F�sica, Universidade Federal do S�o Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-670 S�o Carlos, S�o Paulo, Brazil

Lead titanate zirconate or PZT (PbZr1-xTixO3) is one of the most intensively studied ferroelectric materials mainly due to its technological applications. Along time, PZT was subject of many experimental and theoretical research efforts. This system presents an interesting concentration-temperature (x-T) phase diagram and its physical properties can be associated to the several structural modifications found in it. The x-T phase diagram determined by in the early times by Jaffe et al. presents a variety of phase transitions among ferroelectric, antiferroelectric and paraelectric phases. In that diagram, two regions are remarkable. One of them is the well-known as Morphotropic Phase Boundary (MPB), where PZT exhibits outstanding ferroelectric properties. The recent discovery of a monoclinic phase close to MPB has provided a new light on these properties and several works has been published up to now. The other interesting region is the Zr-rich PZT, that up to x = 0.06 involves four phases. Two of them are antiferroelectric, with orthorhombic and tetragonal symmetries and two are ferroelectric with trigonal symmetries.

Previous results using TDPAC spectroscopy show that above 10% PZT, the probe occupy two highly distributed sites, whereas PbZrO3 is characterized by a single site with a very well defined hyperfine interaction. The aim of this work is to investigate the Zr-rich region of the PZT phase diagram in order to correlate the hyperfine parameters with the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition observed around 5%.

Email: alonso@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-C 01


1

Study of the phase transitions in SrTixHf1-xO3 by TDPAC spectrocopy

Alonso R. E., Fallabella M., L�pez Garc�a A. R.

Departamento de F�sica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calles 115 y 49, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.

In order to study how the Ti replacement by Hf affects the crystalline and electronic structures of the pure perovskite SrHfO3, the hyperfine characterization of SrTixHf1-xO3 for x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 is presented for the first time. The hyperfine electric quadrupole interaction at Ta probes was determined by Perturbed Angular Correlation spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by mixing high purity oxides or carbonates of the selected cations in stoichiometric proportions, and then using the high temperature solid state reaction procedure. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique at room temperature. No lines corresponding to the initial pure components were observed. The samples were then irradiated with thermal neutrons to produce the probe 181Hf/181Ta. The impurity concentration is 1:106 and no radiation damage was detected. In every sample the spin precession curves were measured from room temperature to 1000 C, with 50 C steps. To fit the data the conventional perturbation factor describing a static, axially asymmetric and disorder electric field gradient model was used. From this numerical analysis, the quadrupole frequency Q, the asymmetry parameter  and the line width  were obtained as a function of temperature and composition.

Email: alonso@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-C 02


1

Evolution of the EFG during the  to cubic phase transition in ScSZ

Taylor M. A.1, Caracoche M. C.1,2, Kilo M.3, Borchardt G.3

1Department of Physics, FCE, University of La Plata; IFLP-CONICET, La Plata Argentine; 2CICPBA, Argentine; 3 TU Clausthal, Institut f�r Metallurgie, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany

Cubic stabilized zirconia is widely used as a solid electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen sensors because of its high ionic conductivity at elevated temperatures. Zirconia can be stabilized in its cubic form by doping it with lower valent oxides, e.g. CaO, Y2O3, or Sc2O3 (leading to CSZ, YSZ, or ScSZ ceramics). Among these systems, scandia-doped zirconia exhibits the highest conductivity known. However, the Sc2O3-ZrO2 phase diagram is more complex than those of other pseudo-binary M2O3-ZrO2 systems and the presence of rhombohedral phases is reported in the concentration range where the highest oxygen conductivity is observed (10-12 mol% Sc2O3). The low-conductivity rhombohedral -phase is stable at temperatures below 500 and 600�C [1,2].

ScSZ single crystals were prepared by skull-melting [3] starting from Sc2O3 and ZrO2 powders of >99.99% purity by Prof. Assmus at the University of Frankfurt radio frequency 3.7 MHz, input power 16.5 kW).

XRD experiments performed in powders obtained after milling the crystals (Co, wavelength = 1.789007 �, time per position = 5s, step = 0.02�,) indicate that the major phase is the - rhombohedral one, with less than 5% of cubic phase. Neutron scattering experiments performed by Kaiser-Bischoff et al [4] indicated that the single crystals have a rhombohedral superstructure with tetragonal local symmetry.

In order to understand the local thermal changes produced across the phase transition, PAC experiments using two CsF-detector set-up (2=0.75ns) supplied with an electric furnace which permitted heating the sample in-situ were performed. The 181Hf activity was implanted in the samples at the ISKP- Uni-Bonn.

[1] R. Ruh, H.J. Garrett, R.F. Domagala, V.A. Patel, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 60, 399 (1977).

[2] T. Ishii, Solid State Ionics 78, 333 (1995).

[3] H. Roemer, K.-D. Luther, W. Assmus, Cryst. Res. Technol. 29, 787� (1994).

[4] I. Kaiser-Bischoff, H. Boysen, F. Frey, private communication.

Keywords: zirconia, phase transitions

Email: taylor@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-C 03


1

Ab-initio studies of hyperfine interactions of ZrO2 and HfO2 polymorphs doped with Ta

Caravaca M. A.1 , Casali R. A.2

1Facultad de Ingenier�a, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Av. Las Heras 727, 3400 Resistencia- Argentina, 2Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Av. Libertad 5600, 3500 Corrientes- Argentina

In recent years, hafnium and zirconium dioxides have drawn the attention as possible substitute of SiO2 in gate dielectrics of sub-micrometric MOSFET transistors. There are several PAC experiments in thin films and nano powders grown with the sol-gel technique with suggested models of local environments and conditions of stability. Quadrupolar frequencies and asymmetry parameters map of HfO2 and ZrO2 polymorphs doped with Ta in substitutional site to Hf can be calculated to assess the pure and with intrinsic defects phases present in the samples. Then correlate the interactions present in the samples with the route of formation. The purpose of this work is to contribute with some theoretical models to clarify the possible local environments. The calculated hyperfine interactions in neutral and +1 charged states of Ta of the monoclinic phase are in agreement with one of the sites measured with PAC at a wide range of temperatures. The intermediate pressure Pbca phase increase the asymmetry parameter with respect to the monoclinic phase, and the high pressure phase increase the quadrupolar interaction. The cubic phase gives negligible hyperfine interactions. However, the tetragonal P42nmc phase in both charged states gives much lower Vzz, contrary to expected. Therefore, we explored the incorporation of a near neighbor oxygen vacancy in several charged states in the monoclinic, cubic and tetragonal phases. We found that the TaV0 and TaV+1 pairs in tetragonal gives Vzz and  in agreement with the reported values of pure tetragonal. However TaV+2 gives much lower value. This finding suggest that a vacancy could remain attached to Ta even at high temperatures.

Email: mac@ing.unne.edu.ar

P-C 04


1

PAC study of martensitic transformations in RCu compounds.

Fern�ndez van Raap M.B. 1,2,� Pasquevich A.F. 1,3, Forker M. 4

1Departamento de F�sica – Facultad de Ciencias Exactas – UNLP (Argentina).

2Consejo de Investigaciones Cient�ficas y T�cnicas (Argentina).

3Comisi�n de Investigaciones Cient�ficas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina).

4Helmholtz-Institut f�r Strahlen und Kernphysik - Bonn (Germany)

Equiatomic intermetallic compounds RCu (R= Y, Gd and Tb) adopt a CsCl-type crystallographic structure at room temperature. A martensitic structural transformation toward a FeB orthorhombic structure takes place at 250, 140 and 117 K respectively. It is believed that the transformation is driven by a lattice deformation which partially removes the degeneracy of the d sub bands of the R element causing an electronic repopulation and lowering the crystal field energy.� Here, these transformations were investigated by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique, studying the temperature dependence between 300 and 10 K.� The probe 111In was introduced by diffusion.� Lowering the temperature a partial transformation occurs. For instance, in the case of TbCu, 40 % of the orthorhombic phase appears. This fraction is retained up to�� room temperature. At this temperature the hyperfine parameters correspond to pure quadrupole interactions of FeB structure. Below 36 K appears a magnetic hyperfine field which superimposed to the former interactions results in a strong attenuation of the spectra. The samples were additionally characterized by XRD and a.c susceptibility measurements

Keywords: martensitic transformations, magnetic hyperfine field , PAC spectroscopy , rare earth magnetism.

Email: raap@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-C 05


1


1

Poster D

Structural Characterizations



1

Electric-field gradients at 181Ta and 111Cd impurity sites in bixbyites

Errico, L.A.1, Renter�a, M.1, Bibiloni, A.G.2, Freitag, K.3

1Departamento de F�sica-IFLP(CONICET), Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina; 2Departamento de F�sica-CONICET, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina; 3Helmholtz-Institut f�r Strahlen- und Kernphysik (ISKP), Universit�t Bonn,Bonn, Germany

Perturbed-Angular Correlations (PAC) and other hyperfine interaction measurements are widely used experimental techniques that provide information on the interaction of a probe-nucleus with the surrounding electronic charge distribution [1]. An interpretation of such measurements can lead to a detailed knowledge of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of solids (see, e.g., Ref. 2). The measured quantities, the quadrupole coupling constant Q and the asymmetry parameter  characterize the electric-field gradient tensor (EFG). Due to the r-3 dependence of the EFG, the EFG "felt" by a nucleus reflects sensitively the non-spherical electronic charge distribution around the nucleus. Therefore, the EFG is one of the most important clues for the understanding of the electronic structure in solids and the nature of the chemical bonding.

Among the binary oxides, those that crystallize in the bixbyite structure were the subject of several PAC investigations using 111Cd and 181Ta as probe (see, e.g., Ref. 3 and references therein). In this work we report TDPAC experiments on 181Ta-implanted Eu2O3 and Ho2O3 polycristalline samples in order to complete the systematic study of the EFG at 181Ta atoms located at defect-free cation sites in the bixbyite structure. These results, as well as previous characterizations of the EFG at 181Ta sites in oxides with the bixbyite structure, were compared to those obtained in experiments using 111Cd as probe, to point-charge model (PCM) predictions and ab initio calculations results for the EFG tensor at impurity sites in binary oxides. These studies, in combination with the experimental ones, provide quantitative information about electronic processes and the structural relaxations induced by the presence of impurity probes in the host lattices, information that cannot be obtained (or is crudely estimated) by simple models such as the PCM, and confirm the existence of non-ionic contributions to the EFG in these systems.

[1] G. Schatz and A. Weidinger, in: Nuclear Condensed Matter Physics - Nuclear Methods and Applications, ed. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 1996, p.63.

[2] Proc. of the 12th International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions, Park City, Utah 2001, ed. by W.E. Evenson, H. Jaeger, and M.O. Zacate, Hyp. Interactions.

[3] L.A. Errico, M. Renter�a, A.F. Pasquevich, A.G. Bibiloni, and K. Freitag, Eur. Phys. J. B 22 , 149 (2001).

Keywords: electric-field gradient, ionic model, ab initio, PAC spectroscopy, structural relaxations, oxide, FP-LAPW

Email: errico@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 01


1

Electric field gradients at 181Ta sites in HfOx

Darriba G. N.1,2, Rodr�guez A. M.1,2, Saitovitch H.3, Silva P. R. J.3, Pasquevich A.F.1,4.

1Departamento de F�sica – Facultad de Ciencias Exactas – UNLP (Argentina).

2Consejo de Investigaciones Cient�ficas y T�cnicas (Argentina).

3Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas F�sica- Rio de Janeiro –Brasil.

4Comisi�n de Investigaciones Cient�ficas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires.

In the present work we report preliminary results about characterization and properties of the order-disorder transition in HfOx solid solutions via the determination of the Electric Field Gradient (EFG) at 181Ta radioactive probes. Oxygen solution into the metal was achieved by arc melting stoichiometric amounts of metallic Hf and HfO2 in argon atmosphere. Samples of HfOx with x = 0.1 and x = 0.2 were prepared. Two types of samples were used for the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments by doping alternatively with 181Ta, by neutron irradiation, the metallic Hf or the hafnium oxide. The PAC results on both samples were identical, disappearing both the hyperfine signal of the metal and the oxide showing a complete diffusion of the probes independently of the way of doping. The PAC signal of the HfOx solid solution consisted in a wide distribution of EFG’s probably due to the oxygen disorder. This scheme held even after long thermal treatments at high temperature (several days at 1273K). Moderate temperature (600K) treatments cooling samples at a very low rate, were also made. The experimental results are confronted with those arising from simple computer simulations.

Keywords: electric-field gradient , phase transitions, order - disorder

Email: darriba@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 02


1

HCP FCC transformation induced by mechanical milling

in a Fe-19 wt%Mn alloy

Cabrera A. F.1, Cotes S. M.1, Desimoni J.1

1Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas,UNLP. IFLP-CONICET C.C.N�67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

In the FeMn system the FCC phase ( or austenite) has been studied in several works because it became an interesting basic problem and because of its importance from the practical point of view, due to its various applications (Hadfield steels, shape memory alloys, spin valves, etc.). It is well known that the stable phases of this system at room temperature are α-Fe(Mn) (BCC structure) and α-Mn(Fe) (cubic structure), while  is a high temperature phase. For the composition of interest, Fe-19%Mn, the traditional method of quenching from high temperatures (1000C) does not retain the FCC structure at room temperature because during this quick cooling the martensitic transformation  takes place. In this work, we explore the effectiveness of ball milling as a potential way to produce the FCC phase starting from an HCP ( or martensite) in an Fe-19 wt % Mn alloy.

Sample evolution as a function of the milling time was monitored by means of M�ssbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature and at lower temperatures, by X-ray diffraction and by AC susceptibility. X-ray diffraction and M�ssbauer spectroscopy results show that after 6 hours of milling the alloy transforms almost completely from HCP to FCC, although the presence of α-Fe(Mn) is also observed. The FCC phase displays two distinct types of magnetic behavior according to the M�ssbauer spectra. The magnetic relaxation observed in the low temperature spectra and the behaviour of the AC-susceptibility vs. temperature will be discussed in relation with the induced chemical disorder.

Keywords: FCC, HCP, Fe-Mn, mechanical milling

Email: cotes@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 03


1

M�ssbauer study of the metaestable  and  phases in the Fe-Mn-Si system

Mart�nez J.1, Cotes S. M.1, Desimoni J.1

1Departamento de F�sica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CONICET, C. C. No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

The Fe-Mn-Si systems hold a large attention of researchers in the last 25 years [1,2] because of the presence of the so-called shape memory effect along with good thermomechanical properties, and a relative cheap preparation cost on industrial scale. These characteristics make this kind of alloys attractive for practical uses. Anyhow, it was experimentally observed that some properties (i.e. resistance to corrosion) can be improved by a small addition of one or more components, like Cr and Ni [3]. The shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloys is governed by the martensitic transformation , where  (FCC) and  (HCP) are metaestable phases of the system. A quenching from about 1000C is needed in order to retain these phases around room temperature. To produce a thermodynamic description of the phases in multicomponent systems capable of predicting alloys with better properties, complete information about physical properties of  and  are needed even for the basic system Fe-Mn-Si.

In the present work we are interested in the acquisition of new experimental data on  and  phases in the Fe-Mn-Si system which can be useful to assess the thermodynamic description [4] of both phases. We use M�ssbauer spectroscopy in retrodispersion geometry with the electron conversion technique (CEMS) and study alloys in the concentration range from 15 to 30 wt % Mn and from 0 to 12 % wt % Si. The alloys were prepared by melting from pure elements in an arc furnace under Ar atmosphere followed by thermal and surface treatments, in order to obtain the phases of interest. Hyperfine parameters and phase fractions were obtained as a function of the Mn and Si. A discussion about the effect of the components on the magnetic states of both phases,  and  , is also performed.

[1] A. Sato, E. Chishima, K. Soma, and T. Mori, Acta Metall. 30, 1177 (1982).

[2] M.Murakami, H. Suzuki, Y. Nakamura, Trans.ISIJ 27, p.B-87 (1987).

[3] K. Ishida and T, Nishizawa, Trans. JIM 15, 225 (1974).

[4] S. Cotes, A. Fern�ndez Guillermet, and� M. Sade, Mat. Sci & Eng. A 273-275, 503 (1999).

Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si, martensitic transformation, shape memory effect, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: jmartinez@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 04


1

Hyperfine Interaction Measurements on PZT Perovskite

Guarany C. A.1, de Araujo E. B.1, Silva P. R. J.2, Saitovitch H.2

1Dept. F�sica-Qu�mica/UNESP - Cx. Postal 31; 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP; Brasil, 2Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas F�sicas - Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150; 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Brasil

The solid solution of PbZr1-xTixO3, known as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), was probably one of the most studied ferroelectric materials, especially due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. The highest piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT are found for compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the tetragonal and rhombohedral regions of the composition-temperature phase diagram. Up to 1999, the MPB was interpreted as the coexistence of the rhombohedral (FR) and tetragonal (FT) ferroelectric phases, at room temperature. However, the experimental and theoretical results concerning the coexistence of these phases in the MPB region (0.46  x  0.49) were considered controversial for several years. Recently, specifically in last three years, a great deal of attention was again devoted to the PZT because the observations of a non-predicted monoclinic phase near the MPB on original phase diagram. This monoclinic phase was initially studied by high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and more recently studied by different techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and theoretical electromechanical studies. Some of these studies concerning the monoclinic phase in PZT system lead to a new phase diagram around MPB. Thus, the monoclinic structure can be considered as a “bridge” between the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases in PZT phase diagram. However, the boundaries that define limits between rhombohedral-monoclinic-tetragonal phases remain unclear. The comprehension of the monoclinic phase in systems like PZT and PMN-PT around MPB is complicated and requires systematic studies to be correctly understood. This work is devoted to the preparation and study of the structural properties of the ferroelectric PZT (Zr/Ti= 52/48;53/47). On this purpose, PZT is being doped with  0.10 at.% of neutron irradiated Hafnium isotope-probe [180Hf(n,)181Hf181Ta] in order to apply Time Differential Angular Correlation (TDAC) spectroscopy, which allows a microscopic study of the charge distribution surrounding the isotope-probe. The measured parameters allow to deduce the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor and assymetry parameter () at the isotope-probe site(s). The experiments were performed in the 20 K-1000 K temperature range.

Email: henrique@cbpf.br

P-D 05


1

Characterization of ball-milled CuO nanoparticles

Bianchi A. E.1,2, Stewart S. J.1, Punte G.1,2, Vi�a R.1, Plivelic T. S.3, Torriani I. L.3,4

1LANADI / 2IFLP -Fac. de Ciencias Exactas- UNLP-Argentina. 3Laborat�rio Nacional de Luz S�ncrotron (LNLS).4Instituto de F�sica (IFGW)-UNICAMP-Campinas-SP-Brazil

X-ray Diffraction (DRX) and small angle x-ray dispersion (SAXS) were used to investigate the effect of controlled high energetic ball milling (HEBM) on the average volume weighted crystallite size, <D>V, and weighted average microstrain,<ε>, of CuO nanoparticles prepared by solid state reaction. The starting material, S0, consists of nanocrystals of monoclinic CuO [1]. Its unit cell parameters and volume, Vc , values present some differences with that ones of crystalline coarse powders, the more noticeable are:  angle reduction and Vc growth. The obtained crystallites of <D>V  20nm are almost strain free, as determined by XRD data Rietveld analysis. Samples produced by HEBM S0 during different periods of time tm = 15 (S1), 30(S2), 60 (S3) and 120 minutes (S4) show an initial decrease of <D>V (15nm) and increase in <ε> values. These changes are accompanied by extra  reduction and Vc enlargement. Variations in the analyzed parameters values for samples S1- S3 are within experimental error. S4 exhibits a <D>V value larger than that of S0 and about one order of magnitude larger than S1-3 and <ε>,  and Vc values similar to those ones of S0. The analysis of its DRX pattern indicates a contribution from a poorly crystalline phase. All SAXS curves, but S4, could be fitted with and exponential law I(q) = Kq-, 3  α  4, for a range of q of approximately one decade, which can be assigned either to crystallites polydispersity or to surface roughness. The departure of S4 from that behaviour may be due to the presence of the second phase.

Present results, along with that ones coming from similar studies performed on CuO nanostructures, obtained from HEBM commercial CuO [2], suggest: a) HEBM induces grain refinement and Vc, <ε> and α values increase; b) there exists a minimum grain size to be reached, when that size is attained the competing refinement and welding processes will induce, as a first step, fluctuations in <D>V correlated with fluctuations in <ε>, α and Vc; c) nanocrystalline CuO seems to stand a maximum <ε> value, when it is reached added mechanical work would favor grain boundary junctions motion and welding, thus inducing <D>V increment. A similar behavior has been found in metallic nanosystems where nanograins growth has been explained, from computer simulations, as the response to external strain [3].

[1] S. �sbrink and L. J. Norrby, Acta Crystallogr. B 26, 8 (1970).

[2] A.E. Bianchi et al., LNLS Activity Report 2002, 43 (2003).

[3] V. Yamakov et al., Acta Mater. 49, 2713 (2001).

Keywords: ball milling, CuO, nanoparticles, surface roughness

Email: bianchi@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 06


1

Ball milled Mn-doped iron silicides synthetized from Fe-Mn premixtures

Desimoni J.1, Cotes S. M.1, Taylor M. A.1, Runco J.1

1Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas-UNLP, IFLP-CONICET ,

C. C.N� 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentine.

The Fe-Si system is complex because, depending on the experimental conditions of synthesis, several stable and metastable phases can be produced. Non-equilibrium processing techniques like mechanical alloying allow the formation of compounds and metastable phases which are not accessible by conventional techniques. In particular, semiconducting -FeSi2 disilicide have attracted the attention in the last years due to its technological potential in the field of optoelectronic and as a suitable material for thermoelectric conversion [1]. The doping with Mn poses intriguing fundamental issues related to the occurrence of metastable phases arising from the structural differences between iron and manganese silicides and related to the occupancy of the two non-equivalent Fe sites in the -FeSi2 structure [2], as well.

In the present work, a study of the sequence of phase formation in powders of stoichiometric Fe1-xMnxSi2 (0.00<x<0.12) mixtures is carried on at room temperature. Samples are prepared by mechanical alloying at room temperature in Ar atmosphere using a horizontal mill. The milling procedure is performed in two steps in order to avoid the formation of Mn silicides. In the first milling step we produce the Fe-Mn premixture, and in the second step Si is milled together with the Fe-Mn powder.

The sample evolution is followed by means of M�ssbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Diffractograms are characterized by broad lines, which can be attributed to stables and metaestables silicides but a contribution from -Fe(Mn) is also detected. M�ssbauer spectra are characterized by two broad central lines and a sexted associated with -Fe(Mn).

[1] W.-S Cho, S.W. Choi, and K. Park, Materials Science and Eng. B 66, 116 (199).

[2] P. Y. Dusausoy, J. Protas, R. Wandjii, and R. Roques, Acta Crystallogr. B 27, 1209 (1971).

Keywords: Fe-silicide, Mn-silicide, ball milling, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: cotes@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 07


1

FP-PLAW study of structural and electronic properties of Tin oxides

Errico L. A.

Departamento de F�sica-IFLP (CONICET), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

Two tin oxide compounds, SnO and SnO2, are known to crystallize under ambient conditions. Tin oxides films are of particular importance due to its applications in solar cells, gas-sensing element sensors, and electronic components. For these reasons, several theoretical and experimental studies have intensively developed (see, e.g., refs. [1-4] and refs. therein). Very recently, the interest in SnO2 was renewed due to the discovery of high-temperature ferromagnetism in Sn1-xCoxO2- films [5]. In order to study within an ab initio framework the effect of impurities in SnO and SnO2 and to simulate the films it is essential to determine first the structural and electronic properties of the bulk material, in order to discriminate between effect induced by the impurity or the films surfaces and those originated in the host material.

In the present work we study the electronic structure of pure bulk SnO and SnO2 based on first-principles solid-state calculations, using the Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented-Plane-Waves (FP-LAPW) method. In particular, we focused our attention on the determination of the internal atomic coordinates and the dependence of the electronic properties on them. The internal coordinates were determined by force minimization. The obtained� results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by x-ray diffraction [6, 7] and LMTO [4] calculations reported in the literature. Using these parameters we determined the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor. The results for the EFG tensor are compared with those obtained in M�ssbauer experiments [2] and in cluster calculations [3].���

[1] M.S. Moreno, A.G. Bibiloni, C.P. Massolo, J. Desimoni, and M. Renter�a, Phys.Rev. B 40, 2546 (1989).

[2] M.S. Moreno, J. Desimoni, A.G. Bibiloni, M. Renter�a, C.P. Massolo, and K. Freitag, Phys.Rev. B 43, 10086 (1991).

[3] J. Terra and D. Guenzburger, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8584 (1991).

[4] E. Peltzer y Blanc�, A. Svane, N.E. Christensen, C.O. Rodr�guez, O.M. Cappannini, and M.S. Moreno, Phys.Rev. B 48, 712 (1993).

[5] S. B. Ogale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 77205 (2003).

[6] A. Bolzan, C. Fong, B. Kennedy, and C. Howard, Acta Cryst. B 53, 373 (1997); R. Hazen and L. Finger, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 42, 143 (1981).

[7] F. Izumi, J. Solid State Chem. 38, 381 (1981).

Keywords: tin oxides, SnO, SnO2, FP-LAPW, ab initio, EFG, LMTO, M�ssbauer

Email: errico@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 08


1

Magnetic and structural properties of pure hematite submitted to mechanical milling in air and ethanol

S�nchez L. C.1, Arboleda J. D.1, Saragovi C.2, Zysler R.3 and Barrero C. A.1

1Universidad de Antioquia,Colombia; 2Comisi�n Nacional de Energ�a At�mica, Argentina; 3Centro At�mico Bariloche, Argentina.

We have studied the effects of the milling time and environmental conditions upon the structural and magnetic properties of pure hematites (Merck, 99.9 % purity). The mechanical milling was carried out in a planetary ball mill Fritsch Pulverisstte 5 by using Cr-based stainless steel jars of 250 mL with balls of 12 mm diameter made of the same material. Different milling times were considered (0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours) and the average sample-balls weight ratio was 1:20. The powders were milled in air and ethanol (10 mL) both at atmospheric pressure. Each sample was milled at 390 rpm for intervals of one hour and break periods of thirty minutes up to complete the desired milling time. The products were characterized by 57Fe M�ssbauer transmission spectrometry and X-ray diffraction using Rietveld refinement. All fittings involved the presence of at least one hyperfine field distribution accounting for line broadenings. Figure 1a shows a typical M�ssbauer spectrum corresponding to the hematite milled during three hours in air. Best fitting was obtained by introducing four sextets and one doublet. One sextet accounts for the presence of a minor amount of a spinel phase. Two sextets were assigned to hematite, one of them to the precursor sample, and the other to a nanoestructured hematite. The forth sextet were assigned to iron, coming from the vials and the balls. The doublet suggests the presence of superparamagnetic hematites. Figure 1b shows the fitted XRD pattern of the same sample. Two hematite components, one spinel phase and one iron phase were employed. One of the hematite components preserves the structural parameters of the precursor hematite whereas those parameters for the other hematite component were fitted. Rietveld refinement parameters include phase distribution, cell parameters, mean grain size, microstrain and volume fractions. The XRD patterns of the others samples were fitted in a similar way. In the case of the samples prepared in ethanol/air environment, no spinel and iron phases were detected at any milling time. Figure 1c shows the average grain size of all samples at the different milling times in the two environments. In ethanol/air the average grain size double the grain size of the hematites in air at all milling times. In this paper we discuss the effect of the environmental conditions upon the properties of the final products.

Figure 1: (a) Room temperature M�ssbauer sprectum for the hematite milled during 3 hours. (b) Corresponding XRD pattern including its Rietveld refinement. (c) Average grain sizes of hematites milled at different times in air (), and in ethanol/air ().

Keywords: hematite, M�ssbauer spectroscopy, planetary ball milling, X-ray diffraction

Email: lsanchez@fisica.udea.edu.co

P-D 09


1

XAFS, SAXS and HREM characterization of Pd nanoparticles capped with n-alkyl thiol molecules

Ramallo-L�pez J. M.1, Giovanetti L.1, Craievich A. F.2, Almazo-Mar�n M.3, Jose-Yacaman M.4, Vicent�n F.5, Requejo F. G.1

1Dto. F�sica, FCE, UNLP and IFLP-INIFTA (CONICET), Argentina; 2Institute of Physics, USP, Sao Paulo,Brazil; 3Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, M�xico, D.F., Mexico; 4Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, USA ; 5LNLS, Campinas, Brazil.

In the present work, we discuss the analysis of small Pd nanoparticles (NP) in the range of 1 to 1.5 nm using X-ray absorption techniques (XAFS), Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Particles were grown using colloidal methods. Size and size-distribution of NP are well established by using SAXS and HREM studies. Sulfur-palladium interaction effects on structure and electronics of the resulting nanoestructured entities are described in terms of XANES and EXAFS characterization. We found a complete sulfurized palladium phase in all capped NP but slight differences according to the different length of thiols employed in the synthesis process.

Keywords: Palladium nanoparticles, XAFS, SAXS, HREM

Email: requejo@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-D 10


1

Poster E

Magnetism and Magnetic Materials



1

Ferromagnetic oxides, a novel kind of magnetism?

Duhalde S.1, Vignolo M. F.1, Golmar F.1, Chiliotte C. E.2, Rodr�guez Torres C. E.3, Errico L. A.3, Cabrera A. F.3, Renter�a M.3, S�nchez F. H.3, Weissmann M.4

1Lab. de Ablaci�n L�ser, Depto. de F�sica, Fac. de Ingenier�a, UBA, Argentina; 2Lab. de Bajas Temperaturas, FCEyN, UBA, Argentina; 3Depto. de F�sica-IFLP(CONICET), Fac. Cs.Exactas, UNLP, Argentina; 4Depto. de F�sica, CNEA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Dilute magnetic impurities in semiconductors (DMS) produce novel materials that may be ferromagnetic at room temperature (RT) and are therefore appealing for spintronics [1]. While most of the DMS have a Curie temperature (TC) much lower than RT, Co-doped TiO2 thin films were reported to be ferromagnetic even above 400 K [2]. These results have motivated intensive studies on the structural and electronic properties of Co-doped TiO2. However, many questions remain open regarding the underlying microscopic mechanism of long-range magnetic order. Carrier-induced interaction between the magnetic atoms was first suggested as the important ingredient underlying ferromagnetism [3]. Subsequent reports have raised concerns about the intrinsic nature of ferromagnetism in these materials, due to possibility of ferromagnetic metal clustering [2]. It has been also suggested that the interaction impurities-oxygen vacancies is crucial for the existence of high Tc ferromagnetism in Co-doped TiO2 [4].

We present here the structural and magnetic characterization of a set of pulsed laser deposited thin films with nominal composition Ti0.9R0.1O2- (R = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu), in order to study the role of dopants in the origin and significance of ferromagnetism in these systems. Room temperature ferromagnetism were found in the cases of Fe, Co, Ni and even Cu impurities, but not in the case of Mn doping.

For the interpretation of the experimental results we performed ab initio calculations on doped TiO2, with and without oxygen vacancies. We found that magnetic moments appear for Mn, Fe, and Co, but not for Ni and Cu when no oxygen vacancies are considered. The magnetic ordering results antiferromagnetic for Mn and also for Fe in some geometrical distributions but ferromagnetic for Co. When oxygen vacancies are introduced our results show that the energetically preferred vacancy location is that of nearest neighbor to the impurity. Their presence decreases the energy required to introduce the impurities in the host lattice and reciprocally, the presence of impurities is related to a higher vacancy concentration. The pairs impurity-nearest neighbor oxygen vacancy seem to be the energetically preferred structures and to produce the highest local magnetic moments. Ni and even Cu impurities acquire magnetic moments in this environment. These results support the idea that oxygen vacancies play an important role in the origin of magnetism in doped TiO2. The results for Cu impurities indicates that magnetic ions are not essential to obtain ferromagnetism and also that is not due to impurity clustering, since none Cu nor Cu-cluster is magnetic.

[1] H. Ohno et al., Nature 408 944 (2000).

[2] Matsumoto et al, Science 291, 854 (2001).

[3] H. Munekata et al, Phys.Rev.Lett. 63, 1849 (1989).

[4] R. Suryanarayanan et al., Solid State Comm. 133, 439 (2005).

Keywords: DMS, ab initio, ferromagnetism, oxygen vacancies, metallic impurities, spintronics, oxide, FP-LAPW

Email: errico@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 01


1

Nanocrystallization kinetic of Fe90Zr7B3 studied by M�ssbauer isothermal scans

Pasquevich G.A.1,2, Mendoza Z�lis P.1,2, Fern�ndez van Raap M.B.1,2, S�nchez F.H.1,2, Veiga A.L.2,Mart�nez N.2

1Instituto de F�sica La Plata; 2Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina

The experimental determination of the crystallization kinetics of the Fe90Zr7B3 alloy is attempted using a new device [1] which allows the scanning of M�ssbauer transmission at selected constant Doppler velocities. The alloy, as produced by melt spinning, is in a paramagnetic amorphous state and transforms to a nanocrystalline state consistent of -Fe ferromagnetic nanocrystals embedded in a remnant amorphous matrix. The optimum magnetic properties (ultra soft) are obtained submitting the as produced alloy to isothermal annealing� at 923 K during one� hour [2]. Here, we study the nanocrystallization kinetics through in situ measurements of M�ssbauer transmission simultaneously at three single velocities. The mentioned velocities correspond to: the paramagnetic amorphous absorption line (associated to the as produced amorphous state), the -Fe external absorption line and a background velocity to be taking into� account in the normalization. The isothermal treatments were carried out at 773 K and 923 K.� This range is not easily accessible� for conventional� M�ssbauer spectroscopy because the transformation is too fast.� Crystallization kinetics using conventional M�ssbauer spectroscopy at annealing temperature of 726 K where the transformation reaches 80 % after 16 hours of annealing is also shown for comparison.

[1] A.L.Veiga et al., to be published.

[2] Makino A, Hatanai T, Naitoh Y, Bitoh T, Inoue A, and Masumoto T, IEEE Trans Mag. 33, 3793(1997).

Keywords: M�ssbauer isothermal scans , Fe90Zr7B3 , kinetics

Email: gpasquev@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 02


1

Magnetic ZnFe2O4 nanoferrites studied by X-ray absorption and M�ssbauer Spectroscopies

Stewart S. J.1, Figueroa S. J. A.1,2, Ramallo-L�pez J. M.1,2, Sturla M.1, Sives F.1, Marchetti S. G.3, Bengoa J. F.3, Garc�a F.4, Requejo F. G.1,2

1IFLP-Dto. de F�sica, FCE, UNLP, Argentina; 2INIFTA, UNLP, Argentina;

3 CINDECA, FCE, UNLP, Argentina; 4LNLS, Campinas, Brazil

The cation site occupancy and, thus, the physical properties of spinel ferrites MFe2O4 can be modified by reducing their characteristic lengths down to a nanometric scale. Particularly, when the normal spinel ZnFe2O4 is in a nanostructured state, the altered cation distribution amongst the octahedral (B) and tetrahedral (A) interstitial sites of its structure changes its long-range magnetic ordering from antiferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic one.

To study the magnetic behaviour of zinc nanoferrites having different particle sizes and degree of inversion, we have synthesized ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles (5 to 13 nm) by hydrothermal methods and mechanical treatments. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) at the Zn and Fe K edges, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe K edge, 57Fe M�ssbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The Fe K XANES results indicate that the pre-edge peak intensity increases with the grain size as a consequence that more Fe ions occupies sites of a lower symmetry (A). Further, the Zn K EXAFS analysis shows that the B occupancy by Zn ions increases with the grain size. On the other hand, the observed characteristic features of the XMCD spectra reflect the magnetic character of the compound. The M�ssbauer results show that all the samples behave as a superparamagnet at room temperature. At 4.2 K the M�ssbauer spectra are composed by two magnetic components, which corresponds to Fe3+ ions occupying both A and B sites. All these results provide consistent evidence of the high degree of inversion achieved by this method, which modifies the long range ordering and causes an important increment of the magnetic response of the material (Ms 70 emu/g).

Keywords: nanoferrites, M�ssbauer spectroscopy, zinc ferrite, XANES, XMCD

Email: stewart@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 03


1

Growth kinetics of ferrite needles in compacted graphite cast iron austemperized at 400�C

Dur�n G. A.1, Perez T.2, Gregorutti R. W.3, Mercader R. C.1, Desimoni J.1

1Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP-CONICET, C.C. N67 , 1900 La Plata, Argentina, 2Departamento de Materiales y Corrosi�n, CINI-FUDETEC, 2804 Campana, Buenos Aires, Argentina,

3 Laboratorio de Entrenamiento Multidisciplinario para la Investigaci�n Tecnol�gica. Calle 52 e/ 121 y 122, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.

Compacted graphite cast irons are iron-based alloys with a C concentration higher than 2 wt.% and with Mn and Si as additives. To achieve the optimum mechanical properties they are subjected to an isothermal annealing, named austempering, in the temperature range 250-450�C. The kinetics of the ensuing transformations can be divided in three stages; in Stage I the transformation austenite  ferrite + high carbon austenite takes place. During Stage II the austenite fraction remains constant while drastically decreases during Stage III. Aiming at the elucidation of the mechanism of transformation, whether diffusive or displasive which currently is controversial, we present here a direct measure of the enlargement during Stage I of the ferrite needles grown at 400�C using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). These results are compared with indirectly previous ones obtained using M�ssbauer spectroscopy and with calculations preformed using the Zener theory that accounts for a diffusive growth process. The C diffusivity and the ferrite/ austenite equilibrium C concentration were also considered. The result of the calculations satisfactory reproduces the SEM results.

Keywords: iron alloys, cast irons, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: desimoni@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 04


1

From Fe3Si towards Fe3Ge in Finemet like nanocrystalline alloys: M�ssbauer Spectroscopy

Moya J. A., Cremaschi V. J., Sirkin H.

Laboratorio de S�lidos Amorfos, Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ingenier�a, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, CONICET

Nanocrystalline Finemet type ribbons with different Si/Ge ratio [Fe73.5Si13.5-xGexNb3B9Cu1 (x = 6, 8, 10 y 13.5)] were studied by means of M�ssbauer Spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. The trend to form the non stoichiometric DO3 Fe3Si structure in Finemet alloys (x= 0) is confirmed as Si is substituted by Ge. Results also indicate that the crystallization temperature decreases and the crystalline fraction increases when Si is gradually replaced by Ge. We found a quasi linear relationship between the hyperfine magnetic field and the Ge content of the nanocrystals.

Keywords: FINEMET, nanocrystalline, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: jmoya@fi.uba.ar

P-E 05


1

Structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Mn-Cu alloys

Mizrahi M.1, Cabrera A. F.1, Stewart S. J.1, Desimoni J.1

1Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas UNLP, IFLP-CONICET,

La Plata, Argentina

Mechanical milling has been widely used to synthesize new materials such as supersaturated solid solutions, amorphous and metaestable phases, as well as to induce phase transitions and alloy pure metallic elements. Materials obtained in this way present a high degree of structural disorder and nanometric crystallite sizes that significantly influence their physical properties.

In this work we report on the characterization by M�ssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and AC susceptibility of mechanically milled samples of composition (Fe79Mn21)1-xCux (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 y 0.3).

The samples were prepared in a horizontal ball mill at 30 Hz from the elemental constituents (Fe, Mn and Cu). The X-ray results indicate that the main formed phase has FCC symmetry. The M�ssbauer spectra with rather broad linewidths suggest the existence of different iron environments. A kink near 245 K is observed in the AC susceptibility, which shifts to lower temperatures with the Cu content. These results associated with magnetization measurements as function of temperature and applied field provides evidence for a highly disordered magnetic system.

Keywords: M�ssbauer spectroscopy, mechanical alloying

Email: mizrahi@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 06


1

Advances in constant-velocity M�ssbauer instrumentation

Veiga A.1, Mart�nez N.1,3, Mendoza Z�lis P.1,2, Pasquevich G. A.1,2, S�nchez F. H.1,2

1Departamento de F�sica-FCE-UNLP, 2IFLP-CONICET, 3CICPBA

A prototype of a programmable constant-velocity scaler is presented. This microcontroller-based instrument allows the acquisition of partial M�ssbauer spectra in selected energy regions using standard SCA, drivers and transducers. No additional multichannel scaler is required. It can be fully operated by a remote application, thus data acquisition can be automated. The instrument consists of a programmable counter and a constant-velocity reference. The reference waveform generator is amplitude modulated with 13 bit resolution, and is programmable in a wide range of frequencies and waveforms in order to optimize the performance of the transducer. The counter is compatible with most standard SCA, and is configured as a rate-meter that provides counts per selectable time slice at the programmed velocity.

As a direct estimation of the performance, a partial M�ssbauer spectrum of a natural iron foil was repeatedly taken. Positive energies were recorded in 512 channels ranging from 0 to 10 mm/s, accumulating 20 seconds per channel. A line width of 0.20 mm/s was achieved in all cases, what is equivalent to the line width of the spectrum taken with the same transducer, servo amplifier and SCA, using a constant-acceleration technique with a Nucleus MCS-II multi channel scaler. Long term stability proved to be satisfactory and overall efficiency reached 80%.

This constant-velocity technique has been recently applied in different experiments. We show two non conventional applications of this technique: the determination of Fe hyperfine field temperature dependence in the FeSn2 compound, and the study of the Iron magnetic moments dynamics in the nanocomposite Fe90Zr7B3 submitted to an AC magnetic field.

Keywords: M�ssbauer, constant-velocity, instrumentation, termal scans, magnetic dynamics

Email: veiga@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 07


1

Magnetism and disorder in bcc AlCuFe intermetallics

Meyer M.1, Mendoza Z�lis L.1, S�nchez F. H.1

1IFLP -Departamento de F�sica, UNLP, Argentina.

The magnetic properties of granular alloys and heterogeneous structures built by ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic components attract much attention due both to the fundamental interest in their rich phenomenology and to their potential technological applications. In bcc binary Al-Fe [1] and ternary Al-Cu-Fe [2] intermetallics the Fe magnetic moment and consequently the magnetic structure depends strongly on the Fe atoms near coordination. Milling of such compounds produces a high density of antiphase boundaries and a high concentration of antisite defects that modifies the Fe atomic coordination giving rise to a rich variety of complex magnetic structures. Similar results can be obtained by milling the elemental components.

We present here a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of a series of mechanically alloyed AlCuFe intermetallics. They were characterized by X ray diffraction, M�ssbauer spectroscopy, differential calorimetry, ac susceptibility and vibrating sample magnetometry. The thermal reordering process was carefully followed by diffraction studies at variable temperature. A model of magnetic clusters originated in composition variation across the samples was used to correlate the observed changes in magnetic behaviour with their composition and degree of order.

[1] L. Mendoza Z�lis and M. Meyer, Hyp. Int. 130, 71 (2000).

[2] J.A. De Toro, M.A. Lopez de la Torre and J.M. Riveiro, Phys. Rev. B 64, 224421 (1999).

Keywords: ball milling, nanosize, spin glass, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: meyer@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 08


1

Investigation of the magnetic hyperfine field at Gd and In sites in GdTIn (T=Ni, Pd, Cu) compounds

Lapolli A. L.1, Carbonari A. W.1, Saxena R. N.1, Mestnik-Filho J.1

1Instituto de Pesquisas Energ�ticas e Nucleares, IPEN, Brazil

The RTIn (R = rare earth metal, T = transition metal) family of compounds that crystallize in the ZrNiAl-prototype structure has been very little investigated so far. The structure of such compounds is formed by magnetic R-T layers alternated with non-magnetic T-In layers. The magnetic R atoms form a triangular structure, which is a deformed Kagom� lattice. One feature of such a triangular arrangement of magnetic atoms is the frustration of the magnetic interactions when an antiferromagnetic order is present. In this family, GdNiIn and GdPdIn order ferromagnetically below 96 K [1] and 102 K [2], respectively, while GdCuIn presents antiferromagnetic order below 20K[3]. The origin of the coupling mechanism between Gd moments responsible for such a difference in the magnetic behavior of these compounds is not fully understood yet.

In the present work, we investigate the local magnetism by measuring the magnetic hyperfine field (mhf) on both Gd and In sites using the perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) technique. The polycrystalline samples were prepared by repeatedly melting the constituent elements in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere purified with a hot titanium getterer. Carrier free 111In nuclei were introduced into the sample by thermal diffusion. Another sample was prepared in a similar way but with radioactive 140La nuclei obtained by neutron irradiation of lanthanum metal substituting about 0.1% of Gd atoms melted along with the constituent elements. Samples were annealed under an atmosphere of ultrapure Ar for 48 h at 800 �C. The PAC results for 111Cd show well-defined quadrupole frequencies above the respective magnetic transition temperature in each compound. Below the ordering temperature the measurements showed a combined interaction at the In site and a pure magnetic interaction at the Gd sites. The results are compared with those previously obtained by 155Gd M�ssbauer effect measurements [3].

[1] Yu.B. Tyvanchuk et al, J. Magn Magn. Materials 277, 368(2004).

[2] M. Balanda, A. Szytula, M. Guillot, J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 247, 345(2002).

[3] J. W. C. deVries, R. C. Thiel, K. H. J. Buschow J. Less-common metals 111, 313(1985).

Keywords: magnetic hyperfine field, quadrupole interaction, rare earth magnetism, PAC spectroscopy

Email: Carbonar@ipen.br

P-E 09


1

Spin and temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field of 111Cd in the rare earth-aluminium Laves phases RAl2

De la Presa P.1, Forker M.1, Cavalcante J. T.2, Ayala A. P.3

1Bonn University, Germany; 2CBPF, Brazil; 3Cear� Federal University, Brazil

Perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the hyperfine interaction of the probe nucleus 111Cd in ferromagnetically ordered rare earth (R) Laves phases RAl2 for the rare earth constituents R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. As 111Cd resides on the non-cubic Al site of the C15 structure, the probe nuclei are subject to a combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interaction. Furthermore, depending on the direction of the easy magnetization, there may be two magnetically non-equivalent Al-sites in the C15 structure of RAl2. As a consequence, one finds rather complex PAC spectra. An example is given in figure 1. The analysis of these spectra provides information on symmetry and strength of the electric field gradient and on the absolute value and the orientation of the magnetic hyperfine field Bhf at the probe site.

In compounds with two non-equivalent Al sites (R = Sm, Tb, Ho, Er), the magnetic hyperfine field was found to be strongly anisotropic. The anisotropy largely exceeds the anisotropic dipolar fields, suggesting a contribution of the anisotropic 4f-electron density to magnetic hyperfine field at the closed-shell probe nucleus.

The magnetic hyperfine field at a closed shell probe such as 111Cd samples the spin polarization of the s-conduction electrons at the probe site which is induced by the exchange with the localized 4f-electrons. The RKKY theory of indirect 4f-4f exchange predicts Bhf   (g-1)J where  is the effective exchange parameter and (g-1)J the R spin projection. The variation of the saturation value of Bhf(0) across the R series therefore provides information on R dependence of the exchange interaction. The spin dependence of Bhf(0) in RAl2 reflects a substantial decrease of the exchange interaction from the light (Pr, Nd, Sm) and the heavy (Gd,Tb,..Er) R-compounds.

The temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field, established for all R constituents, was found to deviate from the prediction of the molecular field model for localized 4f-spins which can be attributed to the interaction between the crystal electric field (CEF) and the charge distribution of the 4f-shell of the R ions. In a number of cases, the parameters of the parameters B4, B6 of the CEF interaction have been determined from the temperature dependence of Bhf by including the Hamiltonian of CEF interaction into the molecular field model.

A critical increase of the line width of the magnetic interaction close to the phase transition indicates a spatial variation of the exchange interaction with a spread of the Curie temperature of about 2-5 K.

Keywords: magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions, perturbed angular correlations, C15 Laves phases

Email: forker@iskp.uni-bonn.de

P-E 10


1

Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Nd4.5Fe72Co2Cr3Al1B17,5 ribbons

Pampillo L. G.1, Saccone F. D.1, Sirkin H.1

1Laboratorio de S�lidos Amorfos, Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ingenier�a, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

Magnetic properties of B-rich nanocomposite Nd-Fe-B alloys exhibit "exchange-spring" behaviour. The characteristics of these alloys are: a marked remanence enhancement and MR/MS ratio higher than 0.5 (this value is predicted by the Stoner-Wolfarth model). When using recrystallisation of amorphous precursors optimal coupling between hard and soft magnetic phases is required in order to achieve good magnetic performance. For this reason, crystallisation kinetics studies and structural characterisation are frequently performed.

In this work, Nd4.5Fe72Co2Cr3Al1B17,5 ribbons were made using the melt-spinning technique, after quenching the alloy onto a Cu wheel at a tangential velocity of 45 m/s. As-quenched ribbons were amorphous, as shown by X-ray diffraction.

Crystallisation kinetics was studied employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction and M�ssbauer spectroscopy of samples annealed isothermally under vacuum at 605, 635, 650 and 685 �C. DSC scans, performed up to 725 �C, showed a complex two-step crystallisation process: a first crystallisation peak at around

T= 570 �C exhibiting the precipitation of -Fe and t-Fe3B phases and a second diffusive stage ending in a second exothermic peak.

Hysteresis curves of isothermal annealed samples showed magnetic hardening, with coercive fields above 1 kOe and an optimised MR/MS ratio of around 0.6. This ratio was found to decrease to 0.37 in the sample annealed at 685 �C.

M�ssbauer effect spectroscopy allowed us to determine that the reason for this diminution is the formation of a -(Fe, Co) solid solution (with hyperfine parameters BHF = 35.5 T and = -0,11 mm/s) associated with the diffusive process in the second crystallisation stage.

Keywords: exchange-spring, Nd-Fe-B alloys, crystallisation kinetics

Email: lpampillo@fi.uba.ar

P-E 11


1

Ab-initio determination of magnetic structures on fcc-FeX

(X=C, N) arrangements

Peltzer y Blanc� E. L.1, Desimoni J.2, Christensen N. E.3, Richter M.4

1Grupo de Estudio de Materiales y Dispositivos Electr�nicos (GEMyDE) Facultad de Ingenier�a, UNLP, IFLYSIB-CONICET C.C. N�565, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. 2Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP. IFLP-CONICET C.C.N�67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Bld. 520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. 4 Leibnitz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden Dresden e.V. P.O.Box 270016 D-01171, Germany

Impurities like C or N introduced in the matrix of iron in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure produce very important changes in the physical properties, in particular as a result of changes in the electron distribution around Fe atoms. While fcc-Fe phase does not present magnetic characteristics, fcc-Fe phase with the impurities of C or N change this behavior and show up certain magnetism. We demonstrate in this work that the magnetic phase of this compounds is the more stable. M�ssbauer spectroscopy [1-4] has successfully contributed in the determinations of the hyperfine parameters and the interstitial atom distribution in austenite. Several models for the arrangement of the solute atoms in the fcc-Fe lattice are found in the literature [2-3]. These models are based on two sublattices, an fcc sublattice for the Fe atoms and one for the mixture of solute atoms and vacant octahedral interstices, that differ in the probability of occupation of the interstices [2-3]. Structures of the type Fe8X and Fe4X, with the solute atoms at the centre of the cube of the fcc lattice, have been considered. A systematic comparison of the hyperfine parameters obtained by M�ssbauer spectroscopy on austenite [1-4] and FLAPW [5] calculations has not yet been attempted. The magnetic properties of interstitial solutions are still a matter of discussion.

We present here ab-initio calculations using different schemes of calculations. FPLAW and the Full Potential Local Orbitals[6] (FPLO). We report preliminary calculations of isomer shifts () and electric field gradient (EFG) obtained by FLAPW assuming a Fe8X-type structure for the austenite. We discuss the results of the calculations and compare them with M�ssbauer data [1-4].

[1] L. Vergara, J. Desimoni, A. Fern�ndez Guillermet, and G. J. Zarragoicoechea, Hyp. Int. 156, 531 (2004).

[2] O. N. C. Uwakweh, J. P. Bauer, and J. M. Genin, Metall. Trans. A21, 589 (1990).

[3] K. Oda, H. Fujimura, and H. Ino, J. Phys. Cond. Matter. 6, 679(1994).

[4] K. Laneri, J. Desimoni, G. J. Zarragoicoechea, and A. Fern�ndez Guillermet, Phys. Rev.B 66, 134201 (2002).

[5] P.Blaha, K.Schwarz and J.Luitz, 1997 WIEN97: a Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Waves Package for Calculating Crystal Properties Vienna University of Technology. Getreidemarkt 9/158. A-1060 Vienna, Austria.

[6] K.Koepernik and H.Eschrig, Phys.Rev.B 59, 1743(1999).

Keywords: ab initio calculations, hyperfine properties, Fe-C/N compounds, austenites

Email: eitelpyb@ing.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 12


1

Growth and characterization of magnetite thin films

Osorio J.1, Uribe J.D.1, Pearson J.2, Hoffmann A.2, Girat� D.1, Morales A.L.1, Gancedo J.R.3

1Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia; 2Argonne National Laboratory, USA; 3Instituto de Qu�mica-F�sica Rocasolano, Espa�a

We have grown magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films on (001)-Si single crystal substrate by RF magnetron sputtering process in Ar/O2 atmosphere at substrate temperature around 500�C.

Magnetic hysteresis measurements at 300 and 110 K show a magnetic value around 5 memu at 3 KOe in the curves, the coercive fields Hc were approximately 220 Oe and 790 Oe, respectively, after the films have been cooled in a field of 200 Oe from 300 K to 5 K. Magnetization measured along the direction of the (100) plane was done at a constant field of 200 Oe, while the temperature of the Fe3O4 film is decreased, a sharp decrease in magnetization is observed at 123 K, related to the Verwey transition.

Conversion Electron M�ssbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) spectra (Figure 1) show the presence only of the stoichiometric Fe3O4 phase, the values for the hyperfine fields and isomer shifts of the A and B sites are consistent with bulk Fe3O4. The small-angle x-ray diffraction pattern of thin films also corresponds to Fe3O4. Granular formations are evident in all films, the average grain sizes and the roughness was determined from the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images and XRD data.

Keywords: magnetite, CEMS, iron oxides, thin films

Email: josorio@fisica.udea.edu.co

P-E 13


1

Magnetic behaviour of SnO2 doped with Fe by mecanosynthesis

Rodr�guez Torres C. E.1, Cabrera A. F., S�nchez F. H.

1Dpto de F�sica-IFLP, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP, Argentina-CONICET

Ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic oxides is one of the most interesting new problems in magnetism. Many research groups have focused on doping TiO2[1] and ZnO[2] with transition metals. Recently, Co-, Fe-, and Mn-doped SnO2 have been explored and interesting results were reported, especially in the case of the Co doped system where a giant magnetic moment was found (7.5 B/at. per Co at room temperature) [3].

In this work we present a magnetic and structural characterization by x-ray diffraction (XRD), M�ssbauer effect spectroscopy (ME), ac-susceptibility and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) of SnO2 doped with 10 at.% of Fe prepared by mechanical alloying. XRD indicates a good dissolution of Fe in the SnO2 structure. ME shows that Fe atoms behave paramagnetically (or superparamagnetically), 40 % of them in the Fe+3 state and 60% in the Fe+2 one). The ac-susceptibility measurements present a behaviour consistent with a system of magnetically coupled single domain particles (interacting superparamagnet), or even a cluster glass system. The magnetization results display the typical shape of the superparagnetic regime (in agreement with ME and ac-susceptibility) but a weak hysteresis has been observed.

[1] Y. Matsumoto et al., Science 291, 854 (2001).

[2] P. Sharma, et. al., Nature Materials 24, 673 (2003).

[3] S.B. Ongale et. al. Phys. Rev. Let. 91, 077205 (2003).

Keywords: magnetism, mechanical alloying, diluted magnetic semiconductors, M�ssbauer spectroscopy

Email: torres@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 14


1

Experimental design and quantitative analysis of m�ssbauer scans. Present and future applications.

S�nchez F.H. ., Pasquevich G.A., Mendoza Z�lis P., Veiga A., Mart�nez N., Fern�ndez van Raap M.B.

Departamento de F�sica-FCE-UNLP and IFLP-CONICET, Casilla de Correos 67 (1900) La Plata, Argentina

Soon after the discovery of the M�ssbauer effect, thermal scans performed at a fixed Doppler energy (usually zero energy) were explored in order to rapidly obtain information on magnetic ordering and other characteristic temperatures[1-3]. Nonetheless, to our knowledge, no attempts to formalize this methodology as a fully quantitative analytical tool were carried out until very recently. In this contribution, we present experiments which were chosen to demonstrate the usefulness of fixed energy scans, when are performed at especially chosen Doppler velocities and appropriately combined with M�ssbauer spectroscopy. They include the study� of the temperature dependence at Fe sites of the hyperfine magnetic field in FeSn2 and Fe3Si, of the quadrupole splitting in FeSi, and the study of the kinetics of the nano-crystallization process in an amorphous finemet-precursor alloy, employing the 14.4 keV transition of 57Fe.

The experimental setup is presented. For data analysis, expressions of the thermal dependence of M�ssbauer-Lamb factors, second order Doppler shift, hyperfine fields, etc., were explicitly included in the integral expression of the M�ssbauer absorption. The integral expression was needed in order to describe appropriately the variation with temperature of saturation effects due to overlapping of gamma ray absorption cross sections.

In the final part, a couple of new on going experiments is presented. One is devoted to the study of magnetic dynamic properties at a specific Fe site by recording the M�ssbauer absorption at constant temperature and at a fixed Doppler energy (associated with that Fe site) while cycling an external magnetic field at various frequencies between 1 and 1000 Hz. The other is an “intelligent” following up of a M�ssbauer resonance line as a function of an external parameter, such as temperature, field, etc..

[1] U. Gonser, C.J. Meechan, A.H. Muir, H. Wiedersich, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2373 (1963).

[2] H.-J. Wagner, U. Gonser, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 31–34, 1343(1983).

[3] C.L. Chein, Phys.Rev.B 18, 1003 (1978).

[4] P. Mendoza Z�lis, G.A. Pasquevich, F.H. S�nchez, N. Mart�nez, A. Veiga, Phys. Lett. A 298, 55 (2002).

Email: sanchez@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-E 15


1


Poster F

Semiconductors, Insulators, Metals,

and Superconductors


1


1

FP-LAPW study of Cd-doped SnO

Errico L. A.1, Bibiloni A. G.2, Petrilli H. M.3, Renter�a M.1

1Departamento de F�sica-IFLP (CONICET), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; 2 Departamento de F�sica-CONICET, Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; 3DFMT, Instituto de F�sica, Universidade de S�o Paulo, Brazil

The study of the interaction of the atomic nucleus with extranuclear fields has proven to be quite useful in many contexts. Nuclear resonance and spectroscopic techniques, such as Nuclear-Quadrupole Resonance (NQR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), M�ssbauer spectroscopy (MS), and Time-Differential Perturbed-Angular Correlations (PAC), have been extensively applied to study materials from the point of view of solid-state physics and chemistry in order to elucidate the microscopic environment and the nature of chemical bonding of constituent or impurity atoms (probes) in solids in a large variety of compounds.

Besides MS, PAC is probably the most common hyperfine interaction method using radioactive nuclei [1]. By means of this technique, it is possible to measure, the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor at a precise lattice site. All the information that the EFG tensor can provide about the system under study could be obtained by confrontation of the experiment with an accurate prediction of the EFG, such as ab initio ones. Since the EFG is very sensitive to the anisotropic charge distribution close to the probe-nucleus, for its accurate calculation the entire electronic configuration of the host, perturbed by the presence of the impurity, has to be determined. In this sense, in 1999 we began a systematic study, in the framework of the Density Functional Theroy (DFT), of electronic and structural properties at impurities in oxides, starting with Cd in TiO2 and SnO2 [2-4].

In this work we report a DFT study, using the Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Waves method, of the EFG at Cd impurities located at the cation site in the semiconductor SnO. In order to simulate the diluted Cd-impurity in the SnO host and to calculate the electronic structure of the system we used the supercell approach, studying the relaxation introduced by the impurity in the lattice. Our prediction for the EFG tensor are compared to experimental PAC results [5], to point-charge model predictions and to results obtained with the PAW method.

[1] See, e.g., E.N. Kaufmann and R.J. Vianden, Rev.Mod.Phys. 51, 161 (1979).

[2] L.A. Errico, G. Fabricius, M. Renter�a, P. de la Presa, and M. Forker, Phys.Rev.Lett. 89, 55503 (2002).

[3] L.A. Errico, G. Fabricius, and M. Renter�a, Phys.Rev. B 67, 144104 (2003).

[4] L.A. Errico, G. Fabricius, and M. Renter�a, Hyperfine Interact. 136/137, 749 (2001).

[5] M.Renter�a, A.G. Bibiloni, M.S. Moreno, J. Desimoni, R.C. Mercader, A. Bartos, M. Uhrmacher, and K.P. Lieb, J.Phys. - Cond. Matt. 3, 3625 (1991).

Keywords: SnO, Cd impurity, relaxations, FP-LAPW, ab initio, DFT, EFG, PAC, oxide, PAW

Email: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-F 01


1

Temperature independent resistivity of non-magnetic (s-p) and magnetic rare- earth impurities diluted in a paramagnetic transtition metal host: a two-band model

Ramunni V. P.1, Troper A.2,3

1 Centro At�mico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, CP: 1650, San Mart�n, Prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2 Inst. de F�sica, Univ. do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua S�o Francisco Xavier, 524, Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013, Brazil, 3 Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas F�sicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Rio de Janeiro, 22290-180, Brazil

In this work, we study the temperature independent resistivity of s-p impurities and magnetic heavy rare earth impurities (Gd, Tb, Dy) diluted in transition hosts. The T-matrix formulation is used in an hybridized two-band system. We consider that only the s-electrons are responsible for the conduction while the d-electrons perform the screening of the charge difference induced by the impurities. We take into account the translational symmetry breaking and therefore a non local charge potential is obtained, which can be self-consistently calculated via an extended Friedel sum rule. The effect of volume differences between impurity and host elements is also considered in the calculation. Our theoretical results show that the resistivity of s-p impurities diluted in 4d transition hosts are lower than in 5d ones. In the case of ``magnetic'' impurities we calculate the spin disorder resistivity, obtaining a charge potential renormalized De Gennes - Friedel spin disorder resistivity. One sees that the very small spin dependent contribution as compared to the pure charge contribution justifies our perturbative approach up to J2 (exchange integral). In addition, within our picture, we are able to separate the d-d impurity induced scattering effects from s-d impurity induced ones.

Keywords: magnetic impurities, transition metal hosts, residual and spin disorder resistivity

Email: vpram@cnea.gov.ar

P-F 02


1

Structural and electronic properties of dilute oxide semiconductors: experimental and ab initio study of Ta-doped Al2O3 single crystals

Renter�a M.1, Darriba G. N.1, Errico L. A.1, Mu�oz E. L.1, Runco J.1, Eversheim P. D.2

1Departamento de F�sica - IFLP (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina; 2Helmholtz-Institut f�r Strahlen-und� Kernphysik, Universit�t Bonn, Bonn, Germany

In the last 3 years, electronic structure ab initio methods in the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been intensively applied to describe interesting properties in nonmagnetic [1] and magnetic [2] dilute impurities in oxide semiconductors, the last appealing for spintronics [3]. The Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Waves (FP-LAPW) method, focusing at the electric-field gradient tensor (EFG) in doped systems, was first applied succesfully to the (N,P,As,Sb)-doped CdTe semiconductor [4] and at an impurity site in Cd-doped TiO2 oxide [5]. Being the electric-field gradient (EFG) a magnitude strongly dependent of the asphericity of the electronic density near the probe-nucleus, its determination enables to check the approximations made beyond the DFT and to study interesting electronic and structural properties in these systems [5].

In this work we report Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) experiments on 181Hf/181Ta-implanted corundum -Al2O3 single crystals. The magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation (with respect to the crystalline axes) of the EFG were determined measuring the spin-rotation curves as a function of different orientations of the single crystals relative to the laboratory system. The experiments were carried out as a� function of� temperature and of diverse thermal treatments, giving rise to two hypefine interactions instead of the single interaction expected for probe atoms localized at defect-free Al sites. These results are analyzed in terms of self-consistent electronic structure FP-LAPW calculations in the dilute (1:4) Al2O3:Ta system and compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments using 111In/111Cd tracers and for both probes (181Ta and 111Cd) in isomorphous polycrystalline -Fe2O3. This combined study enables the determination of lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and its displacement in the [001] axis and of the charge state of a deep impurity donor level (Ta 5d) located in the band gap of the semiconductor.

[1] C.Verdozzi et al., Phys.Rev.Lett. 80, 5615 (1998); A. Settels et al.,� Phys.Rev.Lett. 83, 4369 (1999); C. Stampfl et al., Phys.Rev. B 61, R7846 (2000).

[2] M. S. Park et al., Phys.Rev. B 65, 161201 (2002); Z. Yang et al.,� Phys.Rev. B 67, 060402(R) (2003); W. T. Geng and K. S. Kim, Phys.Rev. B 68, 125203 (2003; L.A. Errico, M. Renter�a, and M. Weissmann, Phys.Rev. B, (2005), in press.

[3] H. Ohno, Science 281, 951 (1998); T. Dietl et al., Science 287, 1019 (2000).

[4] S. Lany, P. Blaha, J. Hamann, V. Ostheimer, H. Wolf, and T. Wichert, Phys.Rev. B 62, R2259 (2000).

[5] L.A. Errico, G. Fabricius, M. Renter�a, P. de la Presa, and M. Forker, Phys.Rev.Lett. 89, 55503 (2002);� L.A. Errico, G. Fabricius, and M. Renter�a, Phys.Rev. B 67, 144104 (2003).

Keywords: Al2O3, single crystal, FP-LAPW, PAC, 181Hf, 181Ta, 111In, 111Cd, impurity donor level, oxide

Email: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-F 03


1

Implantation of PAC probe nuclei with heavy ion nuclear reactions using Tandem Pelletron.

Cabrera-Pasca G. A.1, Saxena R. N.2, Carbonari A. W.2, Rao M. N.1, Oliveira J. R. B.1, Rizzutto M. A.1

1Instituto de F�sica da USP, S�o Paulo, Brasil, 2Instituto de Pesquisas Energ�ticas e Nucleares, IPEN, S�o Paulo, Brasil

The ion implantation process used to introduce radioactive probe nuclei into samples to be measured by PAC spectroscopy can be realized in different ways. The present work reports the utilization of ion beams from a 8 UD Pelletron Tandem Accelerator to produce and implant radioactive probe nuclei into samples for PAC measurements. Direct implantation of 111In nuclei in the samples was achieved through nuclear reactions 108Pd(6Li,3n)111In or 108Pd(7Li,4n)111In. In order to test the method of implantation we have used Pd-based Heusler alloys as samples. We also show that the manner in which the probe is introduced can give different results as a function of annealing temperature that provokes disorder in these alloys.

The Heusler alloys Pd2MnZ, with Z = Sn, Sb, In, Ge have cubic L21 structure and order ferromagnetically with a magnetic moments of about 4B located on Mn. The samples were prepared by arc-melting the stoichiometric amounts of the constituent elements (99.99% purity) in argon atmosphere purified with a hot titanium getterer. After annealing at 800 �C during 24 hours in the argon atmosphere the samples were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction. All the samples were found to be single phase and in the correct L21 structure. As Pd is a constituent element of the samples in the present experiment, the samples themselves served as the target during irradiation and practically all the recoiled 111In nuclei stopped in the sample. The results of the measurements carried out at different temperatures below the ordering temperature showed two distinct hyperfine fields for the Pd2MnSn and Pd2MnSb alloys and no interaction for the Pd2MnIn. By comparing the results with ab-initio calculations [1], the experimental values of mhf were assigned to probes substituting Mn and Sn or Sb atoms in Pd2MnSn and Pd2MnSb alloys respectively. The population of the Z sites was found to be higher in both cases. After additional annealing, the site occupation showed a significant increase in the fraction of probes at Mn sites. In the antiferromagnetic Pd2MnIn alloy where the mhf at In sites is non-existent from symmetry considerations it was possible to observe a magnetic interaction due to mhf at Mn site.

[1] A.W. Carbonari and H. Haas, Hyperfine Interactions 133, 71 (2001).

Email: Carbonar@ipen.br

P-F 04


1

Poster G

Gases in metallic alloys and intermetallic compounds



1

Hydrogen storage properties of the Mg/Fe system.

Meyer M.1, Baum L.1, Mendoza Z�lis L.1, Principi G.1

1IFLP-Departamento de F�sica, UNLP, Argentina

Magnesium hydride is a very attractive material for solid state hydrogen storage because of its low cost, easy handling and high storage capacity (near 7.5 % mass). However, previous to practical use in mobile applications, its absortion/desortion kinetics must be improved. Mechanical milling has been used to reduce the grain size to nanometric scale, achieving abs/desorption times of some minutes at temperatures close to 300�C, but at lower temperatures, the sluggish kinetics remains a problem to be solved for technological applications. Furthermore, it has been observed that the addition of small quantities of transition metals and/or their oxides have an important catalytic effect in the sorption kinetic. Although this effect is well documented very little is known about the precise mechanisms involved in the sorption rate improvement.

On the other hand complex hydrides formed by magnesium and transition metals have attracted much attention for hydrogen and/or thermal energy storage applications due to their high H capacity: up to 5.8 wt% in Mg2FeH6 and 4.7 wt% in Mg2CoH5 [1]. These hydrides have a high dissociation enthalpy and are difficult to synthesize due to the lack of stable binary Mg-Fe or Mg-Co compounds. Particularly Mg2FeH6 has been obtained by several routes, including mechanical alloying, with varying degree of efficiency and under different temperature and pressure conditions.

We present a study of the sorption properties of several samples in the MgH2/Fe system prepared by mechanical alloying in H2 atmosphere starting from mixtures of Mg or MgH2 with Fe o Fe2O3. In some cases the formation kinetics was followed from the pressure drop in the milling chamber. The samples were characterized by X ray diffraction, M�ssbauer spectroscopy and differential calorimetry at different stages in the preparation process and after several abs/desorption cycles. The sorption properties of some samples were measured using a volumetric apparatus.

Some differences were found in the desorption kinetics that can be correlated with the resulting microstucture. The formation of Mg2FeH6 by reactive milling was observed in Fe rich Mg/Fe samples always preceded by the formation of MgH2. All these results will be discussed in terms of possible mechanisms for the formation of this compound under different conditions, including those present in the operation of Fe catalyzed Mg hydride.

[1] B. Bogdanovic, A. Reiser, K. Schlichte, B. Spliethoff , and B. Tesche, Journal of Alloy and Compounds 345, 77 (2002).

[2] F.C.Gennari, F.J. Castro,� and J.J. Andrade Gamboa, Journal of Alloy and Compounds 339, 261 (2002).

Keywords: ball milling, hydrogen storage, catalyst

Email: meyer@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-G 01


1

Autocatalytic effect in the mechanically induced hydriding of refractory metals

M.A. Bab.1,2, L.A. Baum.1, L. Mendoza-Z�lis.1

1Departamento de F�sica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina; 2Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoqu�micas Te�ricas y Aplicadas, Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Sucursal 4 CC, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

Mechanical milling of powders in a gaseous ambient is an efficient tool to induce some gas-solid reactions. By this route, several nanocrystalline metallic oxides, nitrides and hydrides have been obtained at room temperature and moderated pressures. The mechanical impacts produce fresh free surfaces and increase the grain boundaries thus promoting the gas chemisorption and further reactions. Previous studies on the nitriding of refractory metals (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) have shown that the kinetic constant scales with the milling intensity which in turn depends on the third power of the milling frequency[1].

We present here a study of the mechanically induced hydriding of Ti, Zr and Hf powders. Pure elemental powders were milled in an oscillatory mill with one steel ball under hydrogen gas at constant volume. From the pressure drop during the milling process the hydriding kinetics was determined. The final formation of nanocrystalline cubic -MH2, together with a varying fraction of tetragonal -MH2, was verified by X ray diffraction. The observed kinetics was considerably faster than that observed in the nitriding of the same metals. This may be due to the high diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in these metals and the fragilization produced by the hydride formation. The almost linear dependence of the kinetic constant with milling intensity was confirmed for Ti and - up to a critical frequency value- for Zr and Hf. At higher milling frequencies (intensities) a sudden increase in the reacted fraction of these metals was observed, typical of a self sustained regime. The amplitude of the jump in the transformed fraction increases with milling frequency and after this jump the reaction proceeds normally until it is completed.

This critical behaviour will be discussed in terms of the reaction rate, the degree of transformation and the -phase content previous to the jump. As metal hydrides are presently considered as excellent candidates for hydrogen storage once the charge and discharge rates at moderate temperatures were improved, the observed autocatalytic� process may have interesting consequences in the field of alternative energy technologies.

[1] M.A. Bab and L. Mendoza-Z�lis, Scripta Materialia 50, 99 (2003).

Email: mendoza@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-G 02


1

Poster H

Applications to interdisciplinary sciences



1

New determination of the nuclear-quadrupole moment of the NMR probe 99Tc ground-state

Errico L.A., Darriba G.N., Renter�a M.

Departamento de F�sica-IFLP (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina

The experimental study of hyperfine interactions is often used as a powerful tool to characterize different atomic sites in a given material and to obtain information about electronic, magnetic and structural properties of solids [1]. In the case of pure electric-quadrupole interactions, the measured quantities are the quadrupole coupling constant Q = eQV33/h and the asymmetry parameter  = (V11-V22)/V33, where Vii (i = 1, 2, 3) are the components of the diagonalized electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor with the convention |V33|>|V22|>|V11|. The EFG is measured via its interaction with the nuclear-quadrupole moment Q of a suitable probe-atom (generally an impurity in the system under study) by different techniques, such as M�ssbauer Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic and Nuclear-Quadrupole Resonance (NMR and NQR) or Perturbed-Angular Correlations (PAC). Since the EFG tensor is directly related to the asphericity of the electronic density in the vicinity of the probe nucleus, the determination of the quadrupole coupling constant Q allows the investigation of electronic and structural properties in the solid, provided Q is known. Although Q is a purely nuclear quantitity, the quadrupole moments for some isotopes are only known with limited accuracy and their determination is still an active field of research.

One of the possible methods to determine Q is to use information of experimental quadrupole coupling constants and accurate theoretical EFG calculations. In this work we present a new determination of the nuclear-quadrupole moment� of the ground state (I = 9/2+) of 99Tc. This nuclear state is used as nuclear probe in NMR spectroscopy. This determination was obtained by comparing experimentally determined nuclear-quadrupole frequencies with the EFG calculated at Tc sites in metallic Tc using the ab initio “Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented-Plane-Waves” method [2]� in the framework of the Density Functional Theory. The obtained result for the quadrupole moment, |Q(99Tc, 9/2+)| = 0.141 b, has an indetermination ten times smaller than those previously reported in the literature [Q(99Tc, 9/2+) = +0,3434 b [3]; Q(99Tc, 9/2+) = +0,2810 b [4]]. These determinations are compared with predictions of the nuclear shell model. The sign of the 99Tc quadrupole moment is also discussed.

[1] See, e.g,, Proc. of the 13th International Conference on Hyperfine Interactions, Bonn, Germany, 2004, Hyp. Interact., 2004, in press.

[2] S.H. Wei and H. Krakauer, Phys.Rev.Lett. 55, 1200 (1985).

[3] K. Kessler and R. Trees, Phys.Rev. 92, 303 (1953).

[4] R. Kidd, J. Mag. Resonance 45, 88 (1981).

Keywords: 99Tc, nuclear-quadrupole moment, FP-LAPW, ab initio, EFG, NMR

Email: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

P-H 01


1

Electron localization and structural distortions in oxides

Massa N. E.1, Piamonteze C.2, Tolentino H. C. N.3, De la Cruz F. P.1, Salva H.4, Alonso J. A.5, Mart�nez-Lope M. J.5, Casais M. T.5

1LANAIS EFO-CEQUINOR, UNLP, Argentina;2PBD-LBNL,USA; 3LAB.CRISTALOGRAPHIE, CNRS, France; 4CAB, Argentina; 5ICCM, Madrid, Spain

We report on electron-phonon interactions as a main common property of simple oxides deduced from infrared measurements, and search, using X-ray absorption techniques, a local structure counterpart associated to it. We found that temperature dependent electron localization is determinant in explaining the conductivity in RNiO3 (R= rare earth) and in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 and their metal-insulator phase transitions. This is also associated to a lower symmetry lattice distortion in the insulating phase. The mechanism established from comparison of the experimental conductivity obtained from reflectivity spectra with that from Reik’s theory [1] suggests small polaron hopping as the principle for electron displacement in an oxygen high polarizable lattice. We also comment on our results on the temperature dependent consequence of Jahn-Teller and GdFeO3 lattice distortions in the insulator YVO3 and how, in double perovskites, the electron-phonon interaction in moderate antisite replacements plays a significant role in explaining low field magnetorresistance in addition to the contribution to connectivity and lattice defects distributed at random in a sample.

[1] H. G. Reik, in Polarons in Ionic Crystals and Polar Semiconductors, edited by J. Devreese (North-Holland, Amsterdam), 1972. Also, H. G. Reik and D. Heese, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 28, 581 (1967).

Keywords: perovskite oxides, infrared, EXAFS, small polarons, optical conductivity

Email: nem@dalton.quimica.unlp.edu.ar

P-H 02


1

Studies of adsorption isotherms of fractal networks of activated carbons

Bonetto R. D.1, Alvarez A. G.1, Ladaga J. L.2

1CINDECA, Argentine; 2Faculty of Engineering, Buenos Aires University, Argentine

In this work, adsorption isotherms of fractal pore networks of activated carbons were studied. From the log-log graph of such isotherms, a characteristic behaviour which differs from�� that corresponding to fractal surfaces was observed: at low pressures the straight line has a bigger slope than that corresponding to high pressures.

Due to the fact that there is not an appropriate theory in order to explain this behaviour, power laws to describe these isotherms are proposed. From the exponents of such power laws, a common parameter to both branches was obtained and this parameter could be correlated to the behaviour of the pore fractal dimension measured by small-angle x-ray scattering. Such parameter was used in a semi-empiric model proposed for the calculation of the crossover corresponding to the change of slope, by showing good fits between the chosen model and the experimental values.

The objective of this paper was to show the first example where the same parameter was obtained in both scales from the adsorption isotherms and the coincidence between the experimental crossover and the proposed semi-empiric value corresponding to the slope change.

Keywords: activated carbon, fractal networks, adsorption isotherms, surfaces properties

Email: alvarez@nahuel.biol.unlp.edu.ar

P-H 03


1

Hematite to Magnetite reduction followed by M�ssbauer Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

Gavir�a J. P.1, Boh� A.1,2, Pasquevich A. F.3, Pasquevich D. M.1

1Centro At�mico Bariloche-CNEA, CONICET, Argentina ; 2CRUB-Univ. Nac. del Comahue, ARG; 3CICPBA, Depto. de F�sica, Fac. Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Argentina

The direct reduction of iron oxides by hydrogen, H2/H2O mixtures, carbon monoxide, or CO/CO2 mixtures is one of the more frequently studied topics in extractive metallurgy. These reactions are very important in the industry because they occur in the blast furnace to obtain metallic iron.

In this work, a study on the dynamics of transformation from hematite (-Fe2O3) to magnetite (Fe3O4) was carried out. The procedure consisted of a thermal treatment under a 5% H2-95% Ar flow at a range of temperatures of 260-360 �C. The phases evolution at a given temperature, as a function of the thermal treatment time, was followed by using room-temperature M�ssbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). In the range of temperatures and times studied the only iron oxide that was formed was magnetite.

In order to optimize equipment requirements for the quantification of the reaction products it was done a calibration curve. This allows to estimate the conversion degree (measured as the percentage of magnetite produced) with a short-run XRD pattern. This curve was obtained analysing several samples by MS to obtain the amount of hematite and magnetite, and by XRD to obtain the area ratio of two characteristic peaks. The characteristic peaks for each phase were 2=30.1 for magnetite (2,2,0) and 2=33.2 for hematite (1,0,4). The patterns were taken from 2=20� to 2=50�.

Figure 1 shows the curves of conversion degree () vs reaction time at each temperature. From this, an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol was obtained. This result is in good agreement with others authors [1] and demonstrated that the procedure described above lets to follow the reduction of hematite.

Furthermore, below 320 �C it would be possible to determine the kinetic parameters studying this reaction under mixed or chemical control.

[1] K. Piotrowski and K. Mondal, Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, in press (2004).

[2] J. D. Betancur and J. Restrepo, Hyperfine Interactions. 148/149, 163 (2003).

Keywords: hematite, reduction, M�ssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction

Email: gaviriaj@cab.cnea.gov.ar

P-H 04


Authors index



1


1

A

Albano E., 48

Alessandrini J. L., 47

Almazo-Mar�n M., 78

Alonso J. A., 110

Alonso R. E., 61, 62

Alvarez A. G., 111

Amaral L., 21

Amaral V. S., 19

Andrini L., 42

Ara�jo J. P., 19

Arboleda J. D., 77

Arce R., 46

Arcondo B., 38

Ayala A. P., 61, 90

Azarri M. J., 47

B

Bab M., 106

Barrero C. A., 40, 77

Baum L., 105, 106

Behar M., 21

Bengoa J. F., 83

Bharuth-Ram K., 10, 29

Bianchi A. E., 74

Bibiloni A. G., 17, 69, 99

Boh� A., 112

Bonetto R. D., 111

Boolchand P., 10, 27

Borchardt G., 63

Boudinov H., 21

Boulc�h F., 53

Brusau E. V., 36

C

Cabrera A. F., 54, 71, 81, 86, 94

Cabrera-Pasca G. A., 102

Caracoche M. C., 53, 63

Caravaca M. A., 64

Carbonari A. W., 37, 89, 102

Casais M. T., 110

Casali R. A., 64

Castiglioni M., 17

Cavalcante J. T., 90

Cerioni L. C., 32

Ch

Chiliotte C. E., 81

Christensen N. E., 92

C

Correia J. G., 19, 31

Cortizo M. S., 47

Cotes S. M., 71, 72, 75

Cottenier S., 24

Craievich A. F., 78

Cremaschi V. J., 85

Cuesta-Frau D., 39

D

Damonte L. C., 39, 47, 57

Darriba G. N., 70, 101, 109

de Araujo E. B., 73

De la Cruz F. P., 110

De la Presa P., 90

Deicher M., 22

Desimoni J., 71, 72, 75, 84, 86, 92

Dhar S., 18

Djurado E., 53

Dominguez J. M., 42

Duhalde S., 81

Dur�n G. A., 84

E

Echeverr�a G., 36

Eiras J. A., 61

Ellena J. A., 36

Errico L. A., 54, 69, 76, 81, 99, 101, 109

Eversheim P. D., 101

F

Fallabella M., 62

Fenollosa M. H., 57

Fern�ndez van Raap M. B., 45, 65, 82, 95

Figueroa S. J. A., 83

Fontana M., 38

Forgu�z J., 32

Forker M., 28, 45, 65, 90

Freitag, K., 69

G

Gancedo J. R., 93

Garc�a F., 83

Garc�a K. E., 40

Gasiorek S., 18

Gavir�a J. P., 112

Giovanetti L., 78

Girat� D., 93

Golmar F., 81

G�mez L. R., 41

Granovsky M. S., 35

Gregorutti R. W., 84

Greneche J. M., 26, 40

Guarany C. A., 73

H

Hern�ndez-Fenollosa M. A., 39

Hoffmann A., 93

J

Jose-Yacaman M., 78

K

Keinonen J., 18

Kilo M., 63

Klimova T., 42

Koropecki R. R., 46

L

Ladaga J. L., 111

Lalic M. V., 37

Lapolli A. L., 89

Lieb K. P., 18, 25

Longeaud C. L., 46

Lopes A. M. L., 19

L�pez Garc�a A. R., 61, 62

M

Marchetti S. G., 83

Mar� B., 57

Mart�nez J., 72

Mart�nez J. A., 53

Mart�nez N., 82, 87, 95

Mart�nez-Lope M. J., 110

Massa N. E., 110

Mendoza Z�lis L., 88, 105, 106

Mendoza Z�lis P., 82, 87, 95

Mercader R. C., 84

Mestnik-Filho J., 37, 89

Meyer M., 88, 105

Mic�-Tormos P., 39

Mizrahi M., 86

Morales A. L., 40, 93

Moreira E. C., 21

Moya J. A., 85

Mu�oz E. L., 101

N

Narda G. E., 36

Navarro F. J., 57

Nedelec R., 20, 31

O

Oliveira J. R. B., 102

Os�n T. M., 32

Osorio J., 93

P

Pampillo L. G., 91

Pasquevich A. F., 17, 45, 53, 65, 70, 112

Pasquevich D. M., 112

Pasquevich G. A., 82, 87, 95

Pearson J., 93

Peltzer y Blanc� E. L., 92

Penner J., 20

Pereira L. F. D., 37

Perez T., 84

Petrilli H. M., 30, 99

Piamonteze C., 110

Piarristeguy A., 38

Pignol R. J., 41

Plivelic T. S., 74

Pozzi C. G., 36

Pradel A., 38

Principi G., 105

Punte G., 36, 74

Pusiol D. J., 32

R

Ramallo-L�pez J. M., 42, 78, 83

Ramos C. P., 35

Ramunni V. P., 100

Rao M. N., 102

Renter�a M., 69, 81, 99, 101, 109

Requejo F. G., 42, 78, 83

Ribeiro E., 21

Richter M., 92

Rizzutto M. A., 102

Rodriguez A. M., 70

Rodriguez J. A., 42

Rodr�guez Torres C. E., 54, 81, 94

Roth L., 47

Rots M., 24

Runco J., 75, 101

S

Saccone F. D., 91

Sahoo P. K., 18

Saitovitch E., 23

Saitovitch H., 70, 73

Salva H., 110

S�nchez F. H., 54, 81, 82, 87, 88, 94, 95

S�nchez L. C., 77

Saragovi C., 35, 77

Saxena R. N., 89, 102

Schmidt J. A., 46

Sias U. S., 21

Silva M. R., 31

Silva P. R. J., 70, 73

Sirkin H., 85, 91

Sives F., 83

Soares J. C., 31

Stewart S. J., 74, 83, 86

Sturla M., 83

T

Taylor M. A., 63, 75

Tolentino H. C. N., 110

Torriani I. L., 74

Torumba D., 24

Troper A., 100

U

Uhrmacher M., 25

Ure�a M. A., 38

Uribe J. D., 93

V

Vega D. A., 41

Veiga A., 82, 87, 95

Vianden R., 20, 31

Vicent�n F., 78

Vignolo M. F., 81

Villar M., 47

Vi�a R., 74

W

Wang X., 42

Weissmann M., 81

Z

Zysler R., 77


1



Keywords index



1


1

1

111Cd, 101

111In, 101

181Hf, 101

181Ta, 101

9

99Tc, 109

A

ab initio, 69, 76, 81, 99, 109

ab initio calculations, 24, 30, 92

activated carbon, 111

adsorption isotherms, 111

after-effects, 31

akaganeite, 40

Al2O3, 101

aluminium, 40

anisotropy, 26

austenites, 92

B

ball milling, 74, 75, 88, 105

bcc Fe host, 24

C

C15 Laves phases, 90

Cahn-Hilliard, 41

carrier diffusion, 31

cast irons, 84

catalyst, 105

Cd impurity, 99

Ce compunds, 37

CEMS, 93

chalcogenide glasses, 38

competing interactions, 41

constant-velocity, 87

crystallisation kinetics, 91

CuO, 74

D

defect states, 46

defects, 22, 57

DFT, 99

diluted magnetic semiconductors, 94

DMS, 81

doped zirconias, 53

dynamical hyperfine interaction, 25

E

EFG, 30, 76, 99, 109

elastomers, 47

electric-field gradient, 69, 70

epitaxy, 18

EXAFS, 110

exchange-spring, 91

explosive detection, 32

e-- PAC, 31

F

FCC, 71

Fe90Zr7B3, 82

Fe-C/N compounds, 92

Fe-Mn, 71

Fe-Mn-Si, 72

ferromagnetism, 81

Fe-silicide, 75

filtering, 39

FINEMET, 85

FP-LAPW, 69, 76, 81, 99, 101, 109

fractal networks, 111

framework structures, 36

free volume, 47

G

GaAs, 46

GaN, 31

grain boundary, 26

grain rotation, 41

H

HCP, 71

HDS catalysis, 42

heavy rare earth, 23

hematite, 77, 112

hexagonal systems, 41

HREM, 42, 78

hybrid materials, 36

hydrogen storage, 105

hyperfine field, 30

hyperfine fields, 19

Hyperfine interactions, 17

hyperfine properties, 92

hyperfine quantities, 30

I

image processing, 39

imaging, 32

implantation, 20

impurity donor level, 101

in-field M�ssbauer spectrometry, 26

infrared, 110

instrumentation, 87

interface, 26

intermediate phases, 27

ion implantation, 18, 21

ionic model, 69

iron alloys, 84

iron oxides, 93

ISOLDE, 22

K

kinetics, 82

L

lanthanides, 24

laser excitation power density, 21

lattice distortion, 25

Laves phases, 35

LDA+U method, 24

LMTO, 76

local distortions, 19

luminescence, 18

M

magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions, 28, 90

magnetic dynamics, 87

magnetic hyperfine field, 37, 45, 65, 89

magnetic impurities, 100

magnetic interactions, 26

magnetism, 23, 54, 94

magnetite, 93

manganites, 19

martensitic transformation, 72

martensitic transformations, 65

mechanical alloying, 86, 94

mechanical milling, 71

mesoporous silica, 42

metallic impurities, 81

Mn-silicide, 75

M�ssbauer, 76, 87

M�ssbauer isothermal scans, 82

M�ssbauer spectrometry, 40

M�ssbauer spectroscopy, 23, 27, 35, 38, 54, 72, 75, 77, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 94, 112

N

nanocrystalline, 85

nanoferrites, 83

nanometric, 53

nanoparticles, 74

nanosize, 88

nanostructure, 26

Nd-Fe-B alloys, 91

NMR, 109

nuclear-quadrupole moment, 109

O

optical conductivity, 110

optoelectronics, 31

order - disorder, 70

oxide, 25, 69, 81, 99, 101

oxygen vacancies, 81

P

PAC, 20, 25, 99, 101

PAC spectroscopy, 45, 65, 69, 89

Palladium nanoparticles, 78

PALS, 47

PAW, 99

perovskite oxides, 110

perturbed angular correlations, 19, 28, 90

phase transitions, 63, 70

photoconductivity, 46

photoluminescence, 21

planetary ball milling, 77

point charge model, 19

polyvinylsiloxane, 47

positron annihilation, 57

Q

quadrupole interaction, 89

quadrupole resonance, 32

quartz, 18

R

rare earth, 20

rare earth glutarates, 36

rare earth magnetism, 45, 65, 89

reduction, 112

relaxations, 99

residual and spin disorder resistivity, 100

rigidity percolation, 27

S

SAXS, 78

SBA-16, 42

SEM, 39

semiconductors, 22, 39, 54, 57

shape memory effect, 72

Si nanocrystals, 21

single crystal, 101

small polarons, 110

SnO, 76, 99

SnO2, 76

SOFCs, 53

Solid state physics, 17

spin glass, 88

spintronics, 81

structural relaxations, 69

superconductors, 23

surface roughness, 74

surfaces properties, 111

T

temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry, 27

termal scans, 87

ternary systems, 35

tetragonal, 53

thin films, 93

tin oxides, 76

titanium, 40

transition metal hosts, 100

W

wide band gap semiconductors, 20

X

XAFS, 42, 78

XANES, 83

XMCD, 83

X-ray diffraction, 77, 112

Z

zinc ferrite, 83

zirconia, 63

ZnO, 57

Zr-based alloys, 35


1



1

������������� 35th Anniversay of Hyperfine Interactions at La Plata

International Workshop

7-10 November, 2005

������������� La Plata, Argentina











1

������������� 35th Anniversay of Hyperfine Interactions at La Plata

International Workshop

7-10 November, 2005

������������� La Plata, Argentina

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