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Past paper Answers

Past paper Answers 

  1. Use examples from your sport to describe “the need to achieve” personality characteristic


  • Likes a challenge/take risks
  • Not afraid of failing
  • Likes feedback
  • Sees failure as an essential aspect on the road to success
  • Is more competitive/approach behaviour/outcome behaviour/wan to win
  • Generally high achievers
  • More persistent on tasks/doesn’t give in
  • Takes responsibility/internal attributions
  • High self efficacy/is confident
  1. Use examples from your sport to describe “the need to avoid failure” personality characteristic.  


  • Does not like challenge/take easy route/avoid risks
  • Avoids competitive situations/avoidance behaviour/want to avoid shame
  • Dislikes feedback/only interested in positive feedback
  • Low self efficacy/lack confidence
  • Gives up easily/may not complete task
  • Does not take responsibility for own actions
  • Attributes success externally
  • Prone to learned helplessness
  • Attributes failure internally/externally
  1. Using a practical example, explain how a coach could encourage a performer to adopt a need to achieve rather than a need to avoid failure 
  • Raises self esteem/give success/ raise confidence/ achievable goals
  • Set performance/process goals
  • Show successful models/vicarious experiences/ role models
  • Verbal persuasion/ give encouragement/ give positive reinforcement/reminder of past performance accomplishments
  • Lower arousal levels/calm them down/ give relaxation strategies
  • Attributional retaining/attribute internally rather than externally/decrease shame linked to failure
  1. What are the possible psychological effects on a sports performer when an audience is present? 
  • Arousal/drive/anxiety increased
  • Dominant response/habit more likely to occur/learned responses automatic/motor programmes are run
  • Weaker players/ novices performance deteriorates ( incorrect dominant response)/ good performances from well learned/stronger/elite
  • Extroverts likely to perform better with an audience/ reticular-acting system  (RAS) favours extroverts when audience present/introverts likely to perform worse with audience present/ RAS does not favour introverts
  • Gross skills performance may increase/fine skills performance may decrease
  • Simple skills performance may increase/complex skills performance may decrease
  • If audience in familiar setting performance helped/ home field advantage/disadvantage/unfamiliar
  • Anxiety raised by being judged/perceived judgement of other/ evaluation apprehension
  • The nature of the audience/ significant others
  • Size/proximity of the audience/how close the crowd are to the player
  • Distractions – conflict theory
  • Hostile/partisan crowd behaviour
  • Attention narrowing/widening/cue utilization
  1. If an individual performance is inhibited by the effects of an audience, how could a coach help the performer to overcome these effects?  
  • Use of selective attention/ concentration/avoiding distractions/block out crowd
  • Mental rehearsal/practice/imagery/visualisation
  • Positive self-talk/positive thinking/negative thought stopping
  • Practice with an audience present/in training
  • Learn skills thoroughly/develop motor programmes
  • Decrease importance of event/reduce perceived accountability
  • Increase self confidence/self efficacy/social support/ encouragement from others
  1. Define the term aggression as used in sports psychology. Use social learning theory to explain how aggressive behaviour in sport is learned.  
  • Intent to harm/ injure outside the rules of the game/ illegal/violent
  • Learn behaviour from significant others/ role models
  • Watching/ observing others who are aggressive likely to be copied/ vicarious processes
  • Reinforcement of aggressive behaviour will increase chance of copying
  • Copying more likely if same sex/ attitude/ age/ ability
  • Live/ realistic models more likely to be copied.
  1. Give four cognitive strategies a performer might use to eliminate aggressive tendencies in sport? 
  • Count to ten/mantra/concentrate on repeating words/phrases
  • Imagery/imagine calm/control/quiet place
  • Mental rehearsal of activity/ imagining ones own actual movement
  • Forgetting/distancing from aggressive cures/walking away/ removing yourself from situation/ thought stopping
  • Displace feelings/ play harder/ take it out on someone/ something else
  • Take up an activity, which will release tension/ aggression/ take an interest/ be motivated by non aggression
  • Reasoning with ones- self that aggression is wrong/ remembering consequences/ recognising implications of aggression/ knowing he punishments/ self talk/ positive thinking
  1. What are the main qualities of a leader 
  • Can communicate effectively
  • Is driven/highly motivated/ enthusiastic/ reliable/ determined
  • Can motivate/ influence others/ charisma/ has presence/ is respected
  • Has a clear vision/mission/goals/ ambitious/ good decision- maker
  • Empathy/ understanding needs of others
  • Good knowledge of the sport/ activity/ experienced
  • Good practitioners/ good at the sport themselves/ show right attitude
  1. Explain the different circumstances that would demand a task orientated style by a leader.  
  • when discipline and control is needed/ hostile groups
  • If lack of time
  • For large groups
  • In early stage/ cognitive stage of learning/ beginner
  • For team players who generally prefer training and instruction style
  • Males prefer autocratic style
  • If in a dangerous situation
  • (Fiedler) task style better in situations that are extremely favourable and extremely unfavourable/ extremes of favourableness
  • When task is clear and unambiguous
  • If leaders personality is task orientated/ autocratic/ authoritarian
  1. Explain the different circumstances that would demand a social orientated style by a leader.  
  • when a group members can/ wish to participate in decision making/ those who prefer democratic approach
  • For more advanced performers who have knowledge to contribute
  • To motivate group members/ ownership/ feel valued
  • If demands of situation is social ( friendly match)
  • When task demands greater interpersonal communication
  • If leader and group members are well known to each other
  • Females prefer democratic/ social approach
  • Task structure is not dangerous
  • For small number/ individuals
  • (fiedler) In situations that are moderately favourable
  • If leaders personality lends itself to democratic/ social approach
  1. Use practical examples to describe the components of a positive attitude towards training and performance. What influences a positive attitude to training and performance? 

Components of a positive attitude

  • Cognitive – cognitive element/ a belief that training/ playing well is worth while
  • Affective element – emotional aspect ensures enjoyment/ positive feelings towards training/ likes training.
  • Behavioural element – behaviour towards training shows commitment/ persistence/ high level of effort/ attends training

Influences for a positive attitude

  • Socialisation/ how you are brought up/ adopting norms from you culture/ religion/ expected behaviour
  • Past experiences/ past success/ winning/ perceived high ability/ previous enjoyment/ fulfilment
  • Significant others/ peers/ friends/ family/ role models/ elite athletes you look up to/ coaches/ teachers
  • Media/ portrayal of others with positive attitudes.
  1. Mental preparation is an important aspect of sport, One of these aspects is commitment, identify three other aspects 
  • Confidence/ self confidence/ self efficacy/ competitive orientation/ state/ trait sports confidence
  • Concentration/ attentional control/ cue utilisation
  • Control/ emotional control/ control of arousal/ anxiety/ reaching and maintaining peak flow/ anxiety management/ cognitive/ somatic anxiety management/ motivation
  1. The setting of goals is an important element of commitment. What are the psychological effects on the sports performer of setting goals?  
  • To give confidence/ raise self efficacy
  • To raise/ lower/ control/ optimise arousal and give drive/ motivation/ decrease anxiety/ helps you to cope
  • Gives a focus for efforts/ a target to aim for/ directs attention
  • A steeping stone to success/ enables success
  • To regulate amount of effort for a particular task/ don’t waste energy
  • Develop strategies to reach goals.
  1. Giving practical examples, explain what is meant by product, performance and process goals to improve performance. What factors should be taken into consideration when these goals are set? 
  • Product goals associated with outcome/ end result/ beating other e.g. to win the league
  • Performance concerned with improving own performance/ comparison of self with previous attempt e.g. time achieved for 100m compared with previous time
  • Process technique/ tactics/ how a movement is performed e.g. finger/ wrist movement in cricket bowling

Factors to take into consideration when setting goals.

  • Specific/ clear goals
  • Measurable/ assessment possible/ evaluated
  • Agreed/ shared goals/ have common ownership/ purpose
  • Realistic/ within reach/ not to easy/ not too difficult/ relevant/ challenging/ achievable
  • Time phased/ goals spilt up into short medium – long term/ incremental/ step by step
  • Exciting/ motivating/ stimulating/ should be enjoyable
  • Recorded / monitoring of progress
  1. What is meant by self efficacy? By using examples from sport show how a coach could assist a sports performer to raise their level of self efficacy? 
  • Self efficacy is the amount of self confidence in a specific situation/ expectation of success in a particular task

Strategies to assist in the raising of self efficacy

  • Previous accomplishments/ prior success/ previous positive outcomes
  • Vicarious experiences/ show successful role models of similar age/ ability
  • Verbal persuasion/ encouragement
  • Emotional control/ control arousal level/ calming strategies/ somatic or cognitive stress management techniques
  • Give success/ ensure task is achievable/ achievable goals.
  • Attributional retraining.
  1. What is meant by attentional control? 
  • Control of concentration/ focus ( not control attention
  • Attentional field recognised/ relevant cues need to be picked out from display for success to occur
  • Broad and narrow dimension
  • External and internal dimension
  • (Broad) attention takes into account a lot of information/ peripheral stimuli
  • (Narrow) – attention is on very few stimuli/ concentrate on small amount of stimuli/ informational cues
  • (External) – Focus is on environment stimuli/ focus directed outwards
  • (Internal) – Focus on own feelings / emotions/ thoughts
  1. How can attentional styles can affect a sports performer ability to enter the zone of optimal functioning to achieve a “peak flow” experience? 
  • Peak flow experience requires control of arousal/ emotions/ drive/ motivation
  • (ZOF) relates to the optimum arousal level for optimum performance/ the right amount of drive to succeed/ feelings and actions that are intrinsically satisfying/ feeling good and playing well.
  • Attention that is misplaced/ wrong type of attention
  • Wrong levels of arousal/emotions ( too high or too low)
  • Internal attention that is confident more likely to achieve ZOF/ too much external attention hinders entry into ZOF
  • If stress/ anxiety felt then external focus may help
  • Strategies/ try to forget the pain/ distract yourself away
  • Stressful stimuli ( looking at the environment to try and forget the pain of long distance running
  • Elite use more associative internal strategies in ZOF
  • Recreative athletes use more dissociative strategies ( the best runners deal with their own pain in competition and are in tune with their bodies
  • If attention is on enjoyment of activity more likely for ZOF / If activity is not enjoyed less likely to go into ZOF
  • Some have positive attentional traits/ have ability for both broad and narrow focus/ both broad and narrow and more likely for ZOF ( player can check positions of others but be aware of own movements
  • Some have negative attentional traits/ some are easily distracted/ too much external and internal stimuli/ ineffective attenders/ cognitive overload ( player confused/ distracted by movement of other, the crowd and their own feelings)
  • Increased/ over arousal results in less scanning of attentional field/ taken by surprise/ not expecting a response by an opponent/ missing important cues
  • Cue – utilisation can lead to ZOF
  • Concentration on cues that are the most relevant is important for ZOF to occur
  • The more distracted you are the less likely you are to reach ZOF
  1. How can the technique of imagery help sport performance 
  • Improves concentration by mental selection of cues/ escape distractions
  • Raises confidence by picturing success
  • Control arousal level/ relaxation/ through visualisation/ imagining success/ personal accomplishments
  • To replicate the feeling of success/ kinesthesis
  • To manage emotions/ imagine feeling good/ lower stress
  • Imagining cues can decrease response time/ preparation to respond
  • Different strategies can be rehearsed/ faults corrected mentally
  • Mental practice without public failure
  • Enables injured performer to be cognitively active
  1. Outline the trait and Interactionist approaches to personality and sport.


  • Born with innate/ genetically determined
  • Traits are behaviours that are pre determined rather than learned
  • Enduring/ stable/ predictable


  • Traits are triggered by environment/ situational factors
  • B = F(PE) Is the result of personality traits and the environment interacting/ combination of trait and social learning
  1. Giving examples from sport, explain the view that we develop our personalities by imitating others.  
  • Social learning theory
  • Reactions from other reinforce behaviour
  • Others must be significant to use/ we must value them/ role models whose behaviour is deemed to be acceptable
  • Others behaviour may be copied because the reinforcement comes from a third party who is significant e.g. a players behaviour is copied because a highly values coach praises the behaviour
  • Bandura’s experiment showed aggressive behaviour is imitated if model’s significant
  • Socialisation/ adopting norms and values of your culture is learned by observing others
  • Importance of parental behaviour/ personalities in shaping the personalities of the young
  • If model is deemed to be relevant – more likely to be copied e.g. boys more likely to copy male models.
  • If the model is similar to the observer then behaviour more likely to be copied
  • Friendly models more likely to be copied
  • Powerful/ authoritative more likely to copied
  • If model’s behaviour is consistent then more likely to be copied.
  1. Identify three characteristics of an effective leader in sport  
  • Good communication skills
  • Highly motivated/ enthusiastic/ ambitious
  • Clear goal/ vision/ good decision making skills/ good perceptual skills
  • Empathy/ gets on well with team mates/ can see other points of view
  • Good at sport themselves
  • Good knowledge of the sport/ self confidence
  • Charismatic/ has presence/ commands respect/ influential/ motivator
  • Flexible to situational needs/ adaptable
  1. Using Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership, explain when you might use the task style and person oriented style of leadership in sport. 
  • Model identified leadership characteristics/ styles interact with the situation/ Interactionist/ situational approach
  • The effectiveness of these styles depends upon the favourableness of the situation
  • Favourableness depends on the relationship between the leader and group members
  • Favourableness depends on the leaders perceived power/ authority/ how important the leader is seen to be
  • Task leader more effective in moderately favourable situations
  • Favourable is when relationships are good
  • Favourable is when the task is clear
  • Favourable is when the leader has authority
  • Unfavourable is when relationships are poor
  • Unfavourable is when the task is unclear
  • Unfavourable is when the leader has a weak position.
  1. Explain how you would use attribution retraining to promote mastery orientation and avoid learned helplessness.  

For mastery orientation

  • Learned helplessness is the belief that failure is inevitable/ failure has been reinforced
  • Mastery orientation is having high self confidence/ positive outlook/ need to achieve
  • Attributional retraining is changing/ helping to change the reasons to maximise motivation
  • Attribute success to internal factors/ increase confidence
  • Attribute success to stable factors/ increases belief of future success
  • Attribute success to controllable factors/ increases motivation

For learned helplessness

  • Attribute failure to external factors/ maintains confidence
  • Attribute failure to unstable factors/ increase belief of future success
  • Attribute failure to controllable factors/ maintains motivation
  • Set realistic targets/ process/ performance goals
  1. Describe the different types and sources of anxiety in sport.  
  • Often due to fear of failing/ importance of event
  • Fear of being threatened, fear of injury, fear of hostile crown/ players/ proximity of crowd
  • Fear of being embarrassed/ self esteem being harmed/ fear of pride being hurt
  • When arousal is high more likely to get anxious/ vice versa
  • Anxiety can be somatic/ body response/ heart rate raised/ blood pressure raised
  • Anxiety can be cognitive/ of the mind/ worry/ apprehension/ feeling of helplessness
  • Competitive anxiety/ anxiety caused by competition/ pressure of trying to win
  • Trait anxiety – anxiety that is in guilt/ genetically determined/ natural anxiety
  • State anxiety – anxiety arising from a specific situation/ incident/ person/ environment/ past experience/ previous failure
  • Multi – dimensional anxiety/ theory/ interaction of both cognitive and somatic/ one triggers the other
  • Perceived judgement from others/ evaluation apprehension.
  1. Using examples from sport, explain how anxiety can be managed to improve performance 
  • Mental rehearsal/ going through the actions in mind
  • Imagery/ imagining success/ doing the activity correctly/ imagine not being anxious/ a calm place
  • Meditation/ mantra
  • Positive self talk/ convincing yourself that you will succeed/ reasoning with yourself
  • Positive reinforcement by someone else/ influence of others who are significant/ behaviour modification
  • Negative thought stopping/ stop doubt/ block out negative thoughts
  • Block out distractions
  • Muscular relaxation/ gradually relaxing all the major muscle groups/ tense muscles and then relax them/ deep breathing
  • Biofeedback/ being aware of how your body feels and then dealing with the tension
  • Removal from the situation/ stimulus that is causing worry
  • Flooding/ over stimulated by stress stimulus so that you able to deal with real stressful anxious situations/ more experience of anxious situations/ more competition
  • Duplicating the real game, competition in training to get used to the stressful stimuli, recorded crowd noise/ fans in to watch training
  • Raising confidence
  • Give success/ make task easier/ goals that are achievable
  1. Explain the personality characteristics and situational factors, which would encourage a “Need to achieve” personality 


  • Innate personality characteristic/ natural traits/ enduring
  • Drive to achieve success/ high achievers
  • Outcome orientated/ approach behaviour/
  • Want a challenge/ excitement/ takes risks
  • Persistent on task/ sticks to the job in hand/ determined
  • Take responsibility for actions/ does not fear failure
  • Likes feedback/ likes evaluation/ sees failure as a step to success

Situational factors

  • Likes competitive situations
  • Challenging yet achievable e.g. 50/50
  • Needs high incentive value of success
  • Home/ Away effects/ familiarity/ hostility/ new situations/ unexpected
  • Level of danger
  • Presence of others/ encouragement/ praise from others
  1. What does social loafing mean and how is it caused.  
  • This is the loss of personal responsibility
  • Withdraw effort and motivation

Caused by:

  • Lack of accountability
  • No identifiable role/ individuals not valued
  • Lack of self confidence
  • High level of anxiety ( trait and/ or state)
  • Injury/ illness
  • Off the pitch problems/ psychological/ emotional/ social issues
  • Incorrect strategies/ tactics by coach
  • Effects of the crowd
  • Perceived/ actual low ability/ learned helplessness/ attribute to internal stable factors/ negative past experience
  • Situational stressors/ weather/ unfamiliar surroundings
  • Perception other are not trying
  1. As a coach of a sports team explain how you would limit the effects of social loafing and improve the cohesiveness of your team.  
  • Select those who are less likely to social loaf from past experience/ team players
  • Give credit for personal success/ highlight individual performance/ reward assists
  • Set/ emphasise appropriate goals
  • Clarify/ give individual responsibility/ roles
  • Punish social loafing/ non cohesive play/ drop from team
  • Co-ordination practice/ set plays
  • Encouragement/ social support/ encourage friendship/. Team building exercises
  • Reinforce/ praise/ reward teamwork and cohesive behaviour
  • Encourage group identity/ belonging
  • Good leadership ( with qualification)
  1. Identify what causes anxiety in sport 
  • Competition/ evaluation/ importance/ situational factors
  • Conflict
  • Frustration
  • Perceived low ability/ poor play/ poor officials decisions/
  • injury/ illness
  • Perceived danger
  • Trait anxiety – natural tendency fro anxiety/ genetic
  • State anxiety – Over arousal in specific situation
  • Lack of self confidence
  • Cognitive – psychological/ mental anxiety/ irritability/ worrying
  • Somatic – Physiological/ bodily reactions/ raising heart rate/ blood pressure/ adrenaline
  1. Explain what strategies you could use to manage your cognitive and somatic anxiety in sports setting. 
  • Relaxation/ Progressive relaxation techniques ( PRT)
  • Biofeedback
  • Positive thinking/ negative thought stopping/ self talk/ rational thinking/ imagery/ visualisation/ mental rehearsal
  • Selective attention
  • Setting SMARTER goals
  • Reinforce/ recognise personal success/ positive reinforcement/ past experiences
  • Practice to build motor programmes/ become more physically proficient/ over learning
  1. The effect of an audience on a sports performer can either help or hinder performance depending on a number of factors. Using examples from sport identify and explain these factors? 
  • Competition factors/ level of competition/ importance of event/ friendly v league
  • The other competitors/ the nature of the opponents / close rivals/ local derby/ co- action effects
  • Social reinforcement/ crown getting behind you/ supporting/ encouraging
  • Hostile/ away game may hinder/ home/ away effect / home field advantage
  • Evaluation apprehension/ perception that the audience are judging/ talent scout/ selector.
  • Noise of crown/ physical proximity/ size of crowd
  • Arousal level is increased/ optimal arousal / peak flow
  • Therefore dominant response more likely
  • Perception of skill/ ability level
  • If performer is well skilled this can help autonomous phase
  • If performer is a novice this can hinder/ cognitive phases
  • The nature of the task/ skill
  • If task is gross/ simple/ dynamic more likely to help
  • If task is fine/ complex more likely to hinder
  • Personality factors
  • Hype A/ High Anxiety personalities / High A Trait/ High trait anxiety/ NAF inhibits performance/ TAF
  • Type B/ Low anxiety/ NACH enhances performance / TAS
  • Extroverts seek situations with high arousal so may do better with audience/ introvert do not seek external stimulation therefore may do less well
  • Caused by reticular system/ RAS/ extroverts have low level of internal arousal/ introverts have high levels of internal arousal
  • Attentional control changes/ narrow or broad which may affect performance/ can be distracted/ can be more focuses/ distraction – conflict theory.
  1. Confidence is important to an accomplished sports performer. How would a teachers or coach raise the confidence level of a novice in sport? 
  • Performance accomplishments/ give success/ give achievable goals
  • Vicarious experiences/ show others performing well/ use of role models/ demonstrations
  • Verbal persuasion/ encouragement/ positive reinforcement/ praise/ positive feedback/ encourage satisfaction
  • Control of arousal/ calm them down/ cognitive/ somatic relaxation
  • Mental rehearsal/ mental practice/ self belief
  • Level of sport specific state confidence should be raised/ increase/ enhance trait sport confidence
  • Positive attribution/ re attribution/ attribute failure to unstable factors/ attribute success to stable factors.
  • Be non competitive with skill learning/ process/ performance goals
  1. Using examples from sport, describe what is meant by an attitude in sport.  
  • Attitude is a predisposition towards an attitude object e.g. training or participation in sport/ set of beliefs and feelings
  • Cognitive element/ a belief about training/ playing well/ participation
  • Affective element/ emotional aspect such as enjoyment/ positive feelings/ hostility/ negative feelings towards training/ playing/ well / participation
  • Behavioural element/ behaviour towards training, playing shows commitment, sticking to the task.
  1. Explain how attitude in sport can be formed? 
  • Past experience/ previous matches
  • Attribution / internal attributions to past success or failure
  • Learned helplessness / reinforced failure
  • Significant others/ reinforcement from role models, imitating and copying parents or peers or sports stars.
  • Socialisation/ cultural expectations adopting the norms of your culture
  • Media/TV
  • Religious beliefs
  • In the presence of other
  1. Identify undesirable prejudice that might be found in sport and explain how such an attitude might be changed.  
  • A prejudice such as racism ageism sexism
  • Cognitive dissonance may change attitudes/change one element of the triadic model and other elements will change to gain consonance
  • Use of significant other/ role models to persuade/ persuasive communication
  • Influence beliefs/ cognitive aspect to show how undesirable
  • Influence emotions/ affective aspect to show how undesirable
  • Influence behaviour directly/ use of praise for no prejudice behaviour/ use of punishment or negative reinforcement for prejudicial behaviour
  1. Using Psychological theories and practical examples, explain possible positive and negative effects of an audience on sports performance? 
  • (Drive theory) – arousal/ anxiety increased
  • (drive theory) dominant response most likely to occur, learned responses automatic
  • Weaker players performance deteriorates
  • Good performance from well learned/ stronger/ elite/ correct dominant responses
  • RAS personality theory - extroverts likely to perform better with an audience
  • RAS - Introverts likely to perform worse with an audience present
  • Home field theory – if audience in familiar setting performance helped. Home field advantage
  • Evaluation apprehension – anxiety raised by being judged/ perceived judgement of others
  • Proximity theory - Proximity of the audience/how close the crowd are to the payers
  • Cue utilisation – distractions/ widening of attentional focus
  • Attentional control – attention narrows for those who are used to audience / high levels of ability.
  1. Describe the strategies that may be used to combat the effects of social inhibition  
  • Use of selective attention/ concentration avoiding distractions focus on cues within play only
  • Mental rehearsal/ practise/ imagery/ visualisation
  • Positive self talk/ positive thinking / negative thought stopping
  • Practise with an audience present in training
  • Learn skills thoroughly/ develop motor programmes
  • Decrease importance of event/ reduce perceived accountability
  • Increase self confidence/ self efficacy
  • Social support/ encouragement form others, positive reinforcement
  • Knowing your zone of optimum functioning
  1. Describe and explain two main theories of personality in sport


  • Trait/genetic approach shows that we are born with our personality characteristics
  • Traits are enduring/ we express our personalities consistently
  • Type A trait shows high levels of personal anxiety/ stress
  • Type B shows low levels of personal anxiety/ stress


  • Influence of environment – Interactionist approach involved traits combining/ interacting with the environment B=F(PE) / mixture of trait and social learning theory
  • Cue – the environment trigger/ acts as a cue for the appearance of a trait
  • Hollander role) Social environment/ situation affects role related behaviours/ how we behave in a particular situation
  • Hollander trait – Core characteristics that is enduring / semi permanent
  • Traits may be dominant – If situational factors are not strong then traits dominate behaviour

Social Learning

  • Copy – Social learning stated that we learn / copy our personalities from others
  • Role models – If significant/ role model then personality characteristics more likely to be copied/ imitated
  • Early influences – Early learning from parents/ carers can affecr  the characteristics we copy
  • Fit into society – Socialisation / characteristics are copied if it enables us to adopt the norms and values of our culture / to fit in to be accepted from others into a group
  1. Identify the qualities of an effective leader in sport  
  • Charismatic/ a natural leader/ commands respect/ has personal authority
  • Goof communicator
  • Can motivate and encourage
  • Empathetic / can put themselves in the shoes of others
  • High level of knowledge
  • High level of personal skill
  • Well organised/ can structure approach effectively
  • Trusts/ believes/ respects those they lead.
  1. Explain how factors other than personality can affect the type of leadership styles adopted in a sports situation 
  • (Task) effected by the type of task/ what sport/ skill/ actions being carried out
  • (clarity of task) – If clear task then task/ autocratic style more effective
  • (complex tasks) if situation demands high levels of information processing/ decision making then democratic style best
  • (Arousal) – of task requires high arousal/ dynamism required the task/ autocratic style better
  • (Danger) if task dangerous then task/ autocratic style is best
  • (problem solving) – of tasks demand problem solving then laissez fairer best
  • (environment) – the situation/ environment affects style adopted
  • (Hostile) – if situation hostile tasks/ autocratic style maybe best
  • (Extremes) – If situation extremely favourable/ unfavourable then autocratic is best
  • (Moderate) if situation moderately favourable them democratic best
  • (Preferred style) the preferred style of the group can affect / characteristics of group
  • (Age) – Youth prefer autocratic/ adults/ elderly prefer democratic style
  • (Skill Level) – If highly skilled group members then laissez faire style better
  1. Using practical examples identify some of the causes of aggression in sport  
  • Perceived/ actual unfairness e.g. ref / Poor decisions
  • Frustration e.g. over poor performance/ losing
  • Displaced aggressions/ other influences outside of sport
  • Hostile crowd
  • High expectations/ pressure to perform/ win
  • Others aggression/ retaliation/ copying
  • To be accepted in a group / peer pressure
  • Cultural determinants / it is expected
  • Game determinants/ expected/ norms in the game
  • Personality characteristics
  • To intimidate/ dominate opponent
  • Rivalry/ local derby/ previous ill feeling
  1. using psychological theories and practical examples from sport, explain aggressive behaviour 
  • (Instinct/ nature theory) – Instinct/ natural/ innate tendencies
  • (Frustration/ aggression hypotheses) – Frustration – aggression hypotheses/ frustrating circumstances blocks your goal
  • (Catharsis) – To achieve catharsis / to feel better to release frustration
  • (Aggressive cue hypotheses) – Aggressive cur hypotheses/ signals/ cues stimuli cause aggression
  • Because cue is identified with expected/ desired behaviour
  • (Social learning/Bandura) Social learning need to copy
  • To be significant other/ role models
  • Copying more likely if similar model e.g. gender/ age / ability
  • Males more likely to be physically aggressive than females
  • Live/ realistic models more likely to be copied
  • (Socialisation) – Socialisation/ cultural and values determined by your behaviour
  • (S-R) – Conditioned response/ S-R bond that has been learned/ operant conditioning
  • (operant/ reinforcement) – You get praise/ reinforcement aggression will reoccur
  1. Describe methods that can be used to eliminate aggressive tendencies in sport.  
  • Cognitive techniques/ lower psychological arousal
  • Count to ten / mantra/ concentrate on repeating words/ Positive self talk
  • Imagery/ imagine calm/ control/ quiet place
  • Mental rehearsal of activity/ imagining ones own actual movement
  • Forgetting/ distancing from aggressive cues/ walking away removing yourself from the situation
  • Displace feelings , play harder in the game, take aggression out on someone else or something else
  • Take up an activity which can release tension/ aggression/ be motivated by non aggression
  • Reasoning with ones self that aggression is wrong/ remembering consequences/ rational thinking knowing the punishment
  • Somatic techniques/ lower somatic/ physiological arousal
  • Relaxation/ progressive relaxation techniques/ breathing exercises
  • Use biofeedback/ information on physiological arousal is recognised and dealt with
  • Yoga
  • Give role of responsibility
  1. What is meant by concentration in sports performance 
  • Control of focus
  • Attentional field/ style recognised/ realise what you need to maintain focus
  • Relevant cues need to be picked out from display ( for success to occur) cue utilisation / Selective attention
  1. Using examples from sport explain the effect of different attentional styles on performance 
  • (Nideffer) – Broad and narrow dimension
  • External and internal dimension
  • (Broad) – Attention takes into account a lot of information/ peripheral stimuli/ can enable performer to take in peripheral information
  • (Narrow) – attention is on very few stimuli/ concentrate on small amount of stimuli/ information/ cues/ can enable performer to focus on import element in the environment/ watch the ball
  • (External) – focus is on the environment stimuli/ focus directed outwards
  • (Internal) – Focus on themselves/ emotions/ thoughts


  • (External) – can enable performer to concentrate on outside factors can escape inner pain/ exhaustion
  • (Internal) – performer can concentrate on feeling good/ zone of optimal functioning
  • Information overload/ too much information can cause confusion
  • The right attention can enable to deal effectively with distractions / will not be put off
  • Effective attention will improve reactions/ reaction time
  • Effective attention can prevent negative feelings
  • Enables positive attributions
  • Good performers can draw on a range/ combination of different styles
  • Attentional style linked to type of skill/ sport.
  1. Describe the characteristics of performer who need to achieve in sport? 
  • Approach behaviour/ tendency to approach success
  • (NACH) very competitive
  • Likes a challenge
  • Likes/ seeks feedback
  • Takes risks/ high confidence
  • Not afraid to fail/ views failure as a route of success
  • Attributes success internally
  • Attributes success to stable factors
  • Attributes failures to unstable factors
  • Attribute failure to controllable factors
  1. Explain what is meant by learned helplessness in sport? 
  • Feelings/ affective response/ emotion
  • Liked to hopelessness/ being useless/ having low ability/ failing inevitable
  • Due to perceived/ actual failure/ poor past experiences
  • Failure reinforced by others
  • Avoidance behaviours/ hides from responsibility/ seeks to escape/ lack of persistence/ gives up easily/ not try from their best
  • Attribute failure to internal factors
  • Attribute failure from stables factors
  • Attribute failure to uncontrollable factors.
  1. Explain how you would help a sports performer to reattribute to avoid learned helplessness and to promote mastery orientation 
  • Attribute failure to controllable/ internal factors convince they can control part of future performances.
  • Attribute failure to unstable factors/ changeable factors/ aspects that are not permanent or enduring e.g. include effort luck, tactics
  • Use role models / significant other/ leader coaches
  • Use vicarious experiences/ to see those of similar ability succeed in the task
  • Positive reinforcement/ encouragement/ verbal persuasion / positive feedback
  • Raise self confidence/ self esteem
  • Enable success to be experiences/ give success/ enable positive outcomes/ achievable goals
  • Control arousal/ calm them
  • Use mental practice/ imagery of successful movement
  • Use goal setting that is specific
  • Measures target/ goal
  • Goals must be challenging
  1. identify the characteristic of a “need to avoid failure” personality 
  • Innate personality characteristics/ natural traits/ enduring
  • Avoidance behaviour
  • Avoids challenges/ avoids excitement/ avoids risks
  • Takes unachievable challenges
  • Avoids competition
  • Lack confidence/ self efficacy
  • Lacks persistence on task/ gives up easily
  • Avoids taking responsibility fro actions/ attributes success to external factors/ failure to internal factors
  • Dislikes/ avoids feedback/ dislikes evaluation avoids audience
  • Competition affects achievement motivation
  1. What factors affect the formation and development of cohesive team in sport 
  • Selection of those who are team players
  • Environment of compromise/ players to respect on another
  • Having a clear view of aims/ goals/ missions/ share the same goal
  • Participants to share behavioural norms/ similar outlook/ beliefs
  • Credit for personal success/ highlight individual performance effects cohesiveness
  • Overplaying team goals/ aims/ set appropriate goals
  • The use of co ordination practice/ team building exercises
  • Encouragement/ social support/ encourage friendship
  • Reinforcement/ praise cohesive/ motivates behaviour
  • Punishment/ drop non team un cohesive behaviour
  • Encouragement pf group identity/ belonging
  • Clarification/ give individual responsibility/ roles
  • A leader who encourages teamwork who leads how the team wants
  • A spilt team up into small subgroups/ combat the ringelmann effect by dividing into small groups
  • Winning/ losing
  1. Explain how subjective outcomes of a performance in sport can affect self confidence 
  • Subjective outcomes relate to how the performer rates the performance/how he or she has done
  • SC – Trait is the innate/ inbuilt/ natural tendency to be confident
  • SC State is the degree of confidence in a specific sports situation
  • If outcome perceived to be good then SC – Trait is increased
  • If outcome perceived to be poor/ a failure then SC – Trait is decreased
  • Subjective outcome affects competitive orientation/ level of competitiveness either positively or negatively
  • If outcome perceived to be good then competitiveness is increased
  • If outcome perceived to be poor than competitiveness decreases
  • Positive outcomes / SC – Trait/ competitiveness increases will raise state sport confidence/ raise self efficacy/ will make performer more confident
  • Negative outcome/ competitiveness decreases will lower state sports confidence/ will result in avoidance behaviour
  1. using examples from sport explain three main factors that make the setting of goals effective in sport 
  • Goals would be Specific – directly linked to an outcome 
  • Measurable – An objective aspect that is measured
  • Goals should be achievable – within reach/ attainable/ realistic/ get success
  • Relevant – at the right level/ challenging
  • Time phased – include short and long term objectives
  • Evaluated – use of self assessment reviewed
  • Recorded – Records kept/ written account enable accountability
  1. How are process, performance and product goals used to improve performance in sport? 


  • Concerned with technique/ style
  • Directs attention/ gives information/ targets to be more successful/ be able to progress with more effective techniques


  • Comparison with previous attempts/ judges against performances
  • Improves times/ intermediate results a stepping stone to improve outcome/ gives feeling of achieving/ satisfaction


  • Focus on end result/ to win overall/ concerned with outcome of competition
  • - Gives motivation long term goal/ can be used to aim even higher in the future/ leader to progression/ used as overall aim/ maybe just out of reach to motivate
  • Goal setting can raise self confidence 
  • Goal setting can control arousal levels
  • Goal setting can motivate/ develop strategies to reach set goals
  • Goal setting can direct attention/ focus efforts
  • Goal setting enables success to be experiences
  • Goal setting can regulate the amount of effort expended on a particular tasl/ ensures no wasted effort.
  1. Outline Wiener’s model of attribution. -  
  Internal External
  • Giving internal stable attributions means intrinsic qualities/ under your control that are not easily changeable/ fairly permanent e.g. ability 
  • - External unstable means intrinsic but changeable reasons e.g. effort
  • External stable means environment/ out of your control, reason that are unchangeable e.g. Task difficulty
  • External Unstable means environment by changeable. E.g. luck.
  1. Use Weiner’s model to explain how attribution can affect motivation in sport. 
  • If reasons for failure are internal stable – learned helplessness is the belief that failure is inevitable/ failure has been reinforced/ can be de- motivate
  • If reasons for success are internal stable mastery orientation is having self confidence/ positive outlook/ need to achieve/ high motivation
  • If losing through emphasis on unstable factors
  • If winning motivate through emphasis on internal factors
  1. Describe and explain what is meant by the zone of optimal functioning 
  • An emotional/ affective response/ enjoyment/ satisfaction/ fulfilment
  • Described as peak flow experience
  • Associated with the elite/ very good performers/ good performance/ best of their ability
  • High level of confidence/ sports confidence/ self efficacy
  • Is relaxed/ lack of stress response/ not anxious
  • Ideal/ optimum level of arousal of the performer/ high level of motivation that is under control/ high level of inner drive/ self motivation
  • Performer has maximum concentration and effort/ focussed
  • Appropriate attentional control often narrow/ internal attention/ cue utilisation is good/ right amount of cues
  • Movements are automatic/ little conscious control
  • The more experience / able to the performer higher arousal is need for ZOF
  1. Actual productivity = potential productivity – losses due to faulty processes. 

Using a team example from a sport of your choice, explain the model shown in figure 2 and identify how these faulty processes could have occurred.

  • Actual productivity how a team performer/ winning/ losing of a team depends on
  • Potential productivity is the sum of the players abilities/ how good they are/ what they are capable of achieving
  • Losses due to Faulty process – team performer/ productivity is affect by social loafing/ lack of individual motivation/ learned helplessness of individuals/ attributions of failure to internal stable factors/ Ringlemann effect/ individual performance decreases as group size increases
  • Lack of identifiable roles
  • Insufficient accountability/ individual efforts not recognised
  • Team performance affected by players not synchronising
  • Injury/ illness of players
  • Lack of team cohesion/ lack of social cohesion/ disputes
  • Insufficient incentives to work together
  • Inadequate leadership
  • Poor team tactics/ strategies
  • Too high/ too low level of competition/ anxiety of team/ goal perceived to be unachievable
  • Negative effects of an audience
  • Environmental factors/ stressors

58. How would a coach seek to increase a performer level of self-confidence or self-efficacy?

  • Ensuring success/ give achievable goals/ performance accomplishments
  • Vicarious experiences/ show someone else performing the task
  • Using a role model of similar ability/ age to motivate
  • Encouraging/ verbal persuasion/ praise/ positive feedback
  • Helping them to control their arousal levels/ emotional control/ calming them down / reducing their anxiety levels
  • By encouraging positive attributions/ perceptions thinking positively
  • Negative thought stopping
  • Attributing positively attributing failure to controllable factors
  • Attributing success to internal factors

59. What is mean by each of these four terms?

  • Extroversion
  • Introversion
  • Neuroticism
  • Stability
  • Extroversion – Affiliate to other people/ outgoing/ sociable/ lively 
  • Introversion – Shy/ reserved/ prefers isolation form others/ nervous/ unsociable
  • Neuroticism – Extreme emotions/ unreliable/ mood swings/ anxious/ unpredictable/ unstable
  • Stability = Reliable/ predictable/ balanced/ calm/ even tempered/ controlled/ logical

60. Using examples from sport, explain the Interactionist approach to personality and identify the limitations of personality profiling


  • Traits that are triggered by environmental/ situations/ B-F(PE) social environment
  • Involves a combination of trait and social learning
  • Typical responses may be affected by circumstance
  • Therefore behaviour is not predictable
  • Sportspeople personalities change in different situations.

Limitations of profiling

  • Profiling results too vague/ do not link cause and effect
  • Results cannot be generalised/ lacks external validity
  • Results lack ecological validity/ are not true to real life/ do not relate to sports performance
  • Profiling too subjective/ results differently by different people/ unreliable interpretations
  • Links between personality and sport performance/ sport choice/ task persistence to tenuous
  • Too many demand characteristics/ behaviour of performer may be altered due to profiling/ internally invalid

61. What makes an effective leader?

  • Good communication/ listener
  • Vision/ clear goals/ strong mission/ ambitious
  • Enthusiastic/ self motivated/ determined/ confident
  • Empathy/ cant see point of view of others/ high values
  • High skill level in the sport
  • Knowledgeable/ experienced
  • Charismatic/ inspirational/ motivational
  • Adaptable/ flexible depending on situation/ good decision maker

62. Explain the different circumstances in which an autocratic leadership style and a democratic leadership style would be used


  • When discipline/ control is needed/ hostile groups/ newly formed group
  • If there is a lack of time/ time to short for more democratic approach/ tasks that need completion quickly
  • For large groups when communication is difficult
  • In early cognitive stage of learning/ novices or beginners
  • For team player who generally prefer training and instruction style/ game situations
  • Males prefer autocratic style
  • If in a dangerous situation/ have control of health and safety
  • (Fiedler) Task style better in situations that re extremely favourable/ positive and extremely unfavourable/ extremes of favourableness
  • When task is clear/ unambiguous
  • If leaders personality is task orientated


  • When a group member can / wish to participate in decision making/ those who prefer democratic approach/ develop team work
  • For more advanced performers (who have knowledge to contribute)
  • If demands of situation is social (friendly match)
  • When task demands greater interpersonal communication
  • If leader and group members are well known to each other
  • Females prefer democratic
  • Task structure is not dangerous
  • For small number/ individual sports
  • (Fiedler) in situations that are moderately favourable
  • If leaders personality tends itself to be democratic.

63. Explain what is meant by cue utilisation and how it effect on performance in sport.

  • Use of relevant stimuli/ information/ signals from the environment
  • As arousal increases attention is narrowed/ perceptual narrowing
  • Then arousal decreases
  • If attention is too narrow, can miss cue/ signals
  • Narrow attention can help concentration/ right decision made/ better reaction time
  • Lowering arousal/ anxiety/ stress can help concentration
  • Enter zone of optimal functioning/ peak flow experience/ effecting performance positively
  • Low arousal can widen perceptual field
  • Widening perceptual field could lead to missed cues
  • Widening perceptual field enables use of peripheral information
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