Home > 1THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS: THE CASE OF THE SECOND VICE PRE

1THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS: THE CASE OF THE SECOND VICE PRE

1

THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS: THE CASE OF THE SECOND VICE PRESIDENT’S OFFICE - ZANZIBAR

KIBIBI MWINYI HASSAN

THIS DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OF THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA

2011


1

CERTIFICATION

The undersigned certifies that, he has read and hereby recommends for acceptance by the Open University of Tanzania a dissertation titled “The Impacts of Training and Development on the Performance of Administrative Staff in the Public Sector Organizations: The case of the Second Vice President’s Office - Zanzibar”, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the awards of the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) of the Open University of Tanzania.

…………………………………………………................................

Dr. Cleo A. Ngirwa, Phd

(Supervisor)

Date……………………………………....

COPYRIGHT

No part of this dissertation may be transmitted or reproduced in any form and by any means, electronic or mechanical thereto, including photocopying, recording or storing it in any retrieval system and for any purpose without the express permission of the author or Open University of Tanzania in that behalf.

DECLARATTION

I, Kibibi Mwinyi Hassan, do hereby declare that a research titled “The Impacts of Training and Development on the Performance of Administrative Staff in the Public Sector Organizations: The case of the Second Vice President’s Office - Zanzibar”, is my own work, that has not been submitted for any degree or examination in any other University, and that all sources used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by the author in complete references.

Signature..........................................................................

Date.........................................................

DEDICATION

This study is dedicated to my beloved mother Mrs. Mwatima Khamis and my young brother Mr. Mzee Mwinyi whose care and love I would never fail to remember throughout my life.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Above all I would like to thank, Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful, for his Compassion and Mercy.

I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and appreciation to Dr. Ngirwa my instructor and research supervisor for his advice and guidance as well as his continuous reinforcement in connection with this research work. Sincere and special thanks should also go to Mr. Adam Khamis Haji the Agricultural Officer for his considerable assistance in statistical result analysis.

Plenty of thanks and words of acknowledgement should also go to my colleagues who helped me in one way or the other during the completion of this study.

This endeavor would not have been feasible without the sacrifices, patience, understanding and encouragement of my dearest husband Mr. Daud and my children namely Saumu; Warda and Yunus.

Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the 2nd VPO and the former Director Mr. Mchenga for providing me with financial support, which enabled me to complete this Master Degree.

ABSTRACT

Staff training and development has been identified by various scholars to be very crucial to an organization. Organizations are therefore encouraged to train and develop their staff in order to enhance their performance. The Second Vice President’s Office is among the organizations which provide training and develop their staff to ensure that their staff has the requisite knowledge and skills, to meet the new challenges. While the organization is keeping on training their staff, it is necessary to assess the outcome of these trainings. This study was therefore conducted to determine the impact of training and development provided by 2nd VPO on employee performance. The study assessed the training and development process and see whether has improved staff performance. Data was collected using questionnaires to the selected employees and to the Director of Administration and Human Resource. The data was analyzed using Microsoft word 2003- integrated package on a personal computer and the SPSS software. The result indicated that the 2nd VPO has a training program in place, but it is poorly planned, not systematic and not coordinated. However, all interviewed employees were aware of the existence of training and development program in this organization. The low budget allocation was found to hamper the implementation of training program. However, the training itself had a positive impact on the performance of the staff and the organization. Therefore, it is recommended that, the 2nd VPO should have a well planned, systematic and coordinated training and development program through the establishment of specific training section. There should also be adequate budget allocation to finance the implementation of training and development program in the office.�

TABLE OF CONTENT

CERTIFICATION

COPYRIGHT

DECLARATTION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview of the Second Vice President’s Office

1.2 Background to the problem

1.3 Statement of the problem

1.4 Research Objectives

1.4.1 The Specific objectives

1.4.2 Research Questions

1.5 Significance of the study

1.6 Scope of the study

1.7 Organization of the Report

CHAPTERTWO…………………………………………………………………….9

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Theoretical literature review

2.2.1 Concept of Training

2.2.2 Concept of Development

2.2.3 Difference between Training and Development

2.2.4 Administrative staff

2.2.5 The relationship between Staff Training and Performance

2.2.5.1 Knowledge

2.2.5.2 Innovation

2.2.5.3� Satisfaction

2.2.5.4� Career Orientation

2.2.5.5� Goal Orientation

2.2.6 Purpose of the Staff Training and Development Program

2.2.7 Training and Development Process

2.2.7.1 Training Needs Assessment

2.2.7.2 Training objectives and plan

2.2.7.3 Identify the Trainees

2.2.7.4 Training and Development Methods

2.2.7.5 Training Techniques

2.2.7.5 Evaluation of Training and Development

2.2.7.6 Methods of Evaluation

2.2.8 Problems Facing Training and development

2.2.8.1 Poor Data Bank

2.2.8.2 Poor choice of trainers

2.2.8.3 Shortage of fund

2.2.8.4 Shortage of Training Institutions and Programs

2.2.8.5 Poor top management support

2.2.8.6 Poor employee participation

2.2.8.7 Employee poor return to the Dramatization

2.2.8.8 Poor evaluation of the training programs

2.2.8.9 Shortage of HRM Experts

2.3 Empirical Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Area of study

3.4 Study Population

3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

3.5.1 Sampling techniques

3.6 Methods of Data Collection

3.6.1 The questionnaire

3.6.2 The interview

3.6.3 Documentary review method

3.7 Reliability and Validity of Instruments

3.8 Analysis of Data

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Sample information

4.3 Training and Development Process in the 2nd VPO

4.3.1 Age distribution

4.3.2 Highest educational Level

4.3.3 Years of work in the 2nd VPO

4.3.4 Respondents’ awareness of the training and development activities

4.3.5 Assessment of the nature of the training process in the 2nd VPO

4.3.6 Participation in training in the 2nd VPO

4.3.7 Selection of the trainees

4.4 Impacts of Training and Development activities on the administrative staff’s performance in the 2nd VPO

4.5 Impacts of Training and Development activities of the 2nd VPO

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary of Findings

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations

5.4.1 Planned, systematic and coordinated training and development program

5.4.2 Identify Training Need assessment

5.4.3 Establish the training objective in accordance with the organizational goal

5.4.4 Create more opportunities for training and development of their employee

5.4.5 Areas for Further Research

REFERENCES

LIST OF APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Frequency Distribution of Respondents Demographic Information

Table 4.2: Awareness of the training activities in the 2nd VPO

Table 4.3: Nature of the training and development activities

Table 4.4: Frequency that respondent participate in the training in the 2nd VPO

Table 4.5: Times that Respondent participation in training in the 2nd VPO

Table 4.6: Selection for training

Table 4.7: Training program and administrative staff performance

Table 4.8: Did the Training program impart new skills

Table 4.9: Are you satisfied with the training and development activities in the 2nd VPO?

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

HRM������������� ������������� Human Resource Management

RGoZ������������� ������������� Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar

TASAF������������� Tanzania Social Action Fund

URT ������������� ������������� United Republic of Tanzania

2nd VPO������������� Second Vice President’s Office

ZEC������������� ������������� Zanzibar Electoral Commission



1

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview of the Second Vice President’s Office

The Second Vice President’s Office (2nd VPO) Zanzibar which was previously known as Chief Minister’s Office (CMO) is Government Central Ministries established under the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar Constitution of 1984 section 2 (39) (1 – 3) for the purpose of assisting the President and overall function of Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.

Administratively, the office comprises eight (8) departments, namely; the Department of Coordination of Government Affairs, Department of Disaster Management, Department of Planning, Policy and Research, Private Office of the 2nd Vice President, Department of Government Printing Press, Head Office Pemba and Department of Administration and Human Resources. It also coordinates the activities of the House of Representatives, Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC) and those of the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF). In view of its broad functions, the 2nd VPO has two appointed Ministers (namely; the Second Vice President and the Minister of State in the Second Vice President’s Office.

The vision of the 2nd VPO is to be the center for enabling environment for ensuring sustenance of peace, political stability, national Unity, integrity and social cohesion for National Development. The Mission is to supervise and coordinate government affairs, minimize disaster, risk of loss of life and properties and ensure people live in decent life by enabling them to participate in the poverty reduction program.

The main objectives functions of the 2nd VPO are:-

    To prepare quarterly report on the implementation of ruling party manifesto.To compile and evaluate the government implementation reports focusing on national goals and policies. To coordinate Union Government Matters by strengthening the links between United Republic of Tanzania and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar on non Union Affairs.To coordinate matters on disaster management and mitigation.Counselors of conflict resolution.To issue research permits. To provide required services for the 2nd VPO and residences.To coordinate the Tanzania Social Action Funds activities (TASAF) and other development projects in Zanzibar.

The selection of the 2nd VPO is based on its position in the Zanzibar Government compared to other Ministries. The office has the constitutional roles of supervising, coordinating and advising all Ministries and Organs of the Government of Zanzibar. The office has the responsibilities of monitoring and evaluating implementation of Government policies, goals and objectives in collaboration with other organs of the Government and also has the responsibilities of receiving and handling grievances between people and Government institutions.

Due to the reason above, the organization will require employees with specialist skills so as to ensure efficiency and effective delivery of services. Therefore, it is very important for 2nd VPO to train and constantly update knowledge and skills of its employees so as to change their attitudes towards work, to keep abreast with the rapidly change ng trends in management and technology. The aim of the study is therefore to verify whether the scheme of training and development program is properly followed, and its impact on worker performance and effectiveness to the organization.

1.2 Background to the problem

Staff training and development has been identified by various scholars to be very crucial to an organization and its effectiveness. In the light of the above, organizations are therefore encouraged to train and develop their staff to the maximum of their ability in order to enhance their effectiveness. Employee training and development are typically associated with the improving of the performance, knowledge and skills of employees in their present job position. Armstrong (2001) sets out three specific training objectives to the employees. The first objective is to develop the competences of employees and improve their performance. Second objective is to help people grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resources can be met from within the organization, and the third one is to reduce the learning duration for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfer or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible.

It is very important therefore for the organization to offer systematic training and career development programs for their employees. Training has been recognized to help employees in their current jobs and help meet current performance requirements by focusing on specific skills required for the current need. Its benefits may extend throughout a person’s career and help develop that person for future responsibilities.

Training is very crucial to any public sector organization to improve the performance and competence of its employees. According to Ngirwa (2009), if an organization wants to remain competitive it has no choice but to train their employees. The amount, quality and quantity of employee training carried out vary extremely from organization to organization. Cole (2002), identified factors which influence the quantity and quality of employee training and development activities like; the degree of change in the external environment, the degree of internal change, the availability of suitable skills within the existing staffs and the extent to which management see training as a motivating factor in work. Therefore, the study wills examine how the training and development program is being provided to the administrative staff cadres and how it affects their performance of work.

1.3 Statement of the problem

It has been recognized that training and development programs improve knowledge, skills and the capacity of an individual for doing a particular job. Most of the public sector organizations in Zanzibar have special units or sections which provide staff training and development so as to cope with the constantly changing demands of the

work environment. The Second Vice President Office is among the organizations which organize training and development activities to their employees in almost every year.�

However, there has been a concern that training and development activities in this office is not well planned, not systematically implemented and not coordinated in a specific department or unit. The interaction with some of the employees indicated that little attention is being paid by the Management on the planning and implementation of training program. Due to this problem, most of the employee goes for higher education or a short-term, courses through their own arrangement. Thereafter, they only request the permit to go for the training from the employer. As a result many staffs in 2nd Vice President’s Office were not able to go for further studies. This may lead to the lack of competence and hence low staff performance.� There can be a also a problem of low staff retention in the Office.� This study therefore is set to examine the process of training and development activities, how is carried out, its role and how this affect the individual staff performance in the public sector organization basically in the 2nd Vice President’s Office.

1.4 Research Objectives

The overall objective of the study is to find out the impact of training and development function on the administrative staff performance in the 2nd VPO.

1.4.1 The Specific objectives

The specific objectives are:-

    To assess the existing training and development process used in the 2nd VPO. To find out whether staff training and development activities have any positive impact on the performance of the administrative staff. To assess impacts of training and development activities on the organizational performance.To propose suitable training and development procedures for the 2nd VPO.

1.4.2 Research Questions

This study focus in the following questions:-

    How is the program of training and development being organized in the 2nd Vice President’s OfficeWhat are the positive impacts of training and development activities on the performance of administrative staff? What are the impacts of training and development activities on the organizational performance?What are the training and development procedures suitable for the 2nd VPO?

1.5 Significance of the study

Despite the fact that the impact of staff training and development on the organization performance is widely researched and documented areas in various organization: to the author’s, however, there has been no study conducted to assess the impact of training and development function on the administrative staff

performance in the 2nd VPO. Therefore the decision to conduct this study is justified. In addition, it is expected that the study will inform the Management 2nd Vice President’s Office and other public sector organizations in Zanzibar the importance of training and developing their staff. The study also came-out with the ideal training process and types of training needed for employees with regards to their position, department, units and sections.� Finally, the results of the study highlighted areas for the future researches in this field; they may be used for future citation and referencing.

1.6 Scope of the study

This study on impact of training and development function of the administrative staff at 2nd VPO based on the survey data collected June 2010 and October 2010 at the 2nd VPO (Unguja). The sample respondents were drawn from seven departments/commission that are under the Vice 2nd President’s Office.

1.7 Organization of the Report

The report is divided into five chapters:

Chapter One: Introduction: The study was divided into sub-sections, sets an overview of the 2nd VPO, the background information to the research problem, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, significant of the study and scope of the study.

Chapter Two: Literature Review: Include a brief main purpose of literature review, which had a great help towards identification of the theories and ideas that explored such as data subsequently relate to the study.�

Chapter Three: Research Methodologies: The study were divided into sub-sections, and specify the design, methodology (area of study, population, sampling techniques and data collection methods) and analysis of this study.

Chapter Four: The study findings: It was divided into subsections, examines the overall findings towards the process and impact of training and development on the staff performance and the 2nd VPO and lay out the researcher’s analysis on the organization’s responses to the impact and role of such training on its employees in terms of performance.

Chapter Five: Conclusion and Recommendations: Finally presents a summary of findings, major observations and set recommendations on how to enhance the staff performance and organizational effectiveness through training and development, in the 2nd VPO and the public sectors organization in general, limitations of the study and suggestion for further research.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews both theoretical and empirical literature related to the study. It comprises theories related to the training of employees at working place. It defines some of the basic concepts used in staff development and training, training objectives, types and methods of training and problems facing training and development of employees. It further discuses findings of related researches and the knowledge gap to be covered by this study.

2.2 Theoretical literature review

2.2.1 Concept of Training

One most important area of the Human Resource Management function is training and development for the effective use of human resources. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an individual for doing a particular job. In the present situation training is increasingly viewed as a means of not only fostering the growth of the individual employee but as an integrated part of organizational growth. Ngirwa (2009), defined training as a learning process in which employees acquire knowledge, skills, experience and attitudes that they need in order to perform their job better for the achievements of their organizational goals. It is the bridge between job requirements and employee present specifications. This means that changing what employee knows how they work, or their attitudes towards their jobs and organization.

Training is a systematic process of increasing the knowledge and skills of the staff for doing a specified job by providing a learning experience. Armstrong, (2008), defined training as the planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning events, programs and instructions, which enable individuals to achieve the levels of knowledge, skill and competence needed to carry out their work effectively. It means that training helps the staff or trainee acquire new skills, technical knowledge and problem-solving ability, thereby increasing the performance of the staff. It also tries to improve skills and add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to mould him to be fit for a higher job involving higher responsibilities. Thus Employee training is the planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning events, activities and programs which results in the participants achieving the levels of knowledge, skills, competencies and abilities to carry out their work effectively (Gordon 1992).

Armstrong (1996), expressed an understanding of training by emphasizing that training should be developed and operated within an organization by appreciating learning theories and approaches if the training is to be well understood. Sherman et al (1996), added that, the success of a training program will depend more on the organization’s ability to identify their needs and care with which it prepares the program so that if the trainees do not learn what they are supposed to learn, the training has not been successful. They also indicated that training experts believe that if trainees do not learn, it is probably only because some important learning

principle had been overlooked. What they are saying is that the success or failure of a training program is frequently related to the recognition and application of basic psychological principles of learning. It can also mean that even though the organization might have done all that is necessary to ensure a successful training program, the wrong candidate might have been selected for the training program.

Barrington and Stimpson (2002), clarified that there should be clear objectives of training of employee. Thus, training is needed so as to introduce a new process; improves the efficiency of the staff; provides training for unskilled workers to make them more valuable to the firm; decrease supervision needed; improves the opportunities for internal promotions as specific skills, communication and behavior; decrease the chances of accidents.

2.2.2 Concept of Development

According to Armstrong (2006), development is an unfolding process that enables people to progress from a present state of understanding and capability to a future state in which higher-level skills, knowledge and competencies are required. It takes the form of learning activities that prepare people to exercise wider or increased responsibilities. It does not concentrate on improving performance in the present job. Harrison (2000) defined development as a learning experience of any kind whereby individuals or groups acquire knowledge, skills, values and behaviors. It is more career than job oriented and is concerned with the longer-term development and potential of the individual. Development covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those which bring about growth of the personality; helps individual in the progress towards maturity and actualization of their potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but better man and women. It refers to the future – oriented training and on personnel growth of the employee.

As the job and career progress, employees need new skills and abilities. Therefore, employee development helps that person to improve ability to handle a variety of assignments; improves performance at all levels in their present jobs; helps to sustain good performance of the staff throughout their carrier exploring their full potential; answer the availability of required number’s of personnel with the needed skills so as to meet the present and anticipated future needs of the organization and also to provide the opportunities for the staff to fulfill their career aspiration, and to answer that the managerial resources of the organization are utilized optimally. According to Itika (2008) development sees the employees as adaptable resources with a variety of skills and places within the organization and it is also concerned with giving the individual the right mix of skills, experiences and contacts to enable them to achieve their full potential.

2.2.3 Difference between Training and Development

The difference between training and development is that, training is the acquisition of knowledge and skills for present tasks, which help individuals, contribute to the organization in their current positions. To be successful, training must result in a change in behavior, such as the use of new knowledge and skills on the job. Where as development, provides the employee with knowledge and skills that are intended to be used in the future. Hence the purpose of career development is to prepare employees to meet future agency needs, thereby ensuring the organization’s survival.

Training was used to give employees the job-specific skills, experience, and knowledge they need to do their jobs or improve their job performance (Mayiams, 2002).

Training is much more limited in terms of scope and overall impact on an organization. The content of training programs can lose relevance quickly; it is typically a one-time event, whereas development refers to the broadest view of knowledge and skills acquisition, development is an ongoing and topical. Training is a short-term process; individual staff learns technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Whereas development, is a long - term educational and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.

According to Pynes (2008), both training and development programs seek to change the skills, knowledge, or attitudes of employees. Programs may be focused on improving an individual’s level of self-awareness, increasing an individual’s competency in one or more areas of expertise, or increasing an individual’s motivation to perform his or her job well.

2.2.4 Administrative staff

According to Ngirwa (2009), the administrative staff are those employees who provide indirect service to the mainstream work flow of the organization. They include a wide range of expert and support services. These are bursar’s services, personnel assistant, planning officers, internal audit, secretarial services, public relations department, human resource management, etc.

In this study the administrative staffs in the 2nd VPO are those who support the supervisors and coordinators in facilitating the effective and efficient performance of the organization. These include; bursar’s, accountants, personnel assistant, planning officers, internal auditors, secretaries, public relations and human resource personnel.

2.2.5 The relationship between Staff Training and Performance

Performance means how the staff is able to effectively manage and present their tasks to reflect their quality and good service preferred by their organizations (Olaniyan and Lukas, 2008). Therefore, there is a direct relationship between staff training, development and staff performance. If the staff would be more trained or more developed, they would be more satisfied with the job, more committed with the job and the performance of staff would also be increased. When employee performance increases, it will lead to the organization effectiveness (Champathes, 2006). However, sometimes employees feel that trainings do not provide them with sufficient skills or knowledge. The improper trainings can result conflicts between employees and their organizations and this would impact on the organization performance and effectiveness (Sahinidis, et al., 2002).

Employee performance may be related to several factors within the organization like the overall job satisfaction, knowledge, and management. Ngirwa (2009), indicated the specific factors that can address problems related to performance in the organization as follows:-

2.2.5.1 Knowledge

Training programs increase an employee's job knowledge. An increase in job knowledge means that the employee will feel more comfortable doing his job and will perform at a high level.

2.2.5.2 Innovation

Training employees about the organization, where each employee fits in the organization and how the organization fits into its overall industry creates innovation. In other words, employees who have a knowledge framework, delivered through training, are creative in solving problems, both in the short and long term.

2.2.5.3 Satisfaction

Job satisfaction can come from feeling comfortable within the organization, job proficiency and even from the knowledge that an employee can work hard and get promoted. Training programs can contribute to all of these factors and lead to more satisfied employees who perform at exceptional levels.

2.2.5.4 Career Orientation

When training programs are offered as a method to progress in one's career, they also have an effect on how an employee performs. Employees who know they have a future with the organization are more likely to be high performers.

2.2.5.5 Goal Orientation

Effective training targets the gap between what is expected and what is currently being done. This human performance orientation, especially if delivered through training, makes an employee aware of her goals and how she will reach them.

2.2.6 Purpose of the Staff Training and Development Program

The purpose of training is mainly to improve knowledge and skills, and to change attitudes or behavior. It is one of the most important potential motivators which can lead to many possible benefits for both individuals and the organization. According to Adams (2002), training makes employees feel that they are part of the organization’s family. Training creates the sense of belonging in all employees. It creates the professional development and enhances the employee’s skills. It also makes knowledgeable workforce with fewer mistakes. McNamara (2010), added that training increasing job satisfaction and employee morality, enhancing the employee motivation, improving the efficiencies in processes and financial gain, raising the ability to obtain new technologies, developing the innovation in strategies and products and reducing employee turnover are other important benefits of training.

Noe (2002), also mentioned other benefits of training such as better prepared employee to achieve the organizational goals, more productive staff that are able to meet the challenges of change in the organization during learning and work on new programs. He believes that with training activities, while the organization will be

more successful at attracting and retaining employees, it already has a pool of employees who are prepared to replace the ones leaving.

2.2.7 Training and Development Process

According to Armstrong (2006), training and development program should be systematic in that it is specifically designed, planned and implemented to meet defined needs. Thus a good training and development program should involve the following fundamental steps: determining training needs assessment, developing training objectives and plan, developing training methods, identifying the trainees and finally, evaluating the effectiveness of training development program.

2.2.7.1 Training Needs Assessment

Training needs can be assessed by analyzing the major human resources areas: the organization as whole, the job characteristic and the needs of the individuals. This analysis will provide answers to the following questions: Where is training needed; what specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive and who need to be trained. According to Pynes (2008), a need can be defined simply as the difference between what is currently being done and what needs to be done. It is impossible to design and implement a training program without carrying out the analysis as this will result in providing the solution to a problem that is not related to a training deficiency.

Training needs should be based on organization’s need, type of work to be done and skills necessary to complete the work. Kapinga (2008), makes a point that, the organization should begin by assessing the current status of the organization how it does, what it does best and the ability of your employees to do these tasks.

This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of training program can be evaluated. Secondly, organization should consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop solid training program will fail. Next, organization should determine exactly where training is needed. He also pointed out that, the Human Resource person will help to identify the areas that may be important from training and skill inventory and can also help to determine the skills possessed by the employees in general. This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development. Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization’s performance standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancy between actual and anticipated skill levels identifies a training need.

Pynes (2008), emphasizes that organizations can determine training needs through a variety of techniques. One of them is through job analysis which will be performed prior to the needs assessment. The job analysis should identify the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (like motivation and drive) that incumbents need to effectively perform their jobs. He further added that, Surveys and interviews with incumbents and supervisors; performance evaluations that identify performance deficiencies; criticisms or complaints from clients, staff, or personnel in agencies working with your employees; changes in regulations or operating procedures; and requests for additional training by incumbents can all provide clue as to what training is needed.

2.2.7.2 Training objectives and plan

Once the need has been determined, it is easier for the training objectives to be established. Training objectives are statements that specify the desired employee knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that employees will possess at the end of training. The objectives provide the standard for measuring what has been accomplished and for determining the level of accomplishment. In other words a training program cannot be designed until what that program is to accomplish is known. For training objectives to be useful, they should be stated as specifically as possible (Pynes 2004).

In addition to that training objectives should however be attainable and measurable. It should also be clear to both supervisor and the employee because they can be used to evaluate their success. If the objectives are not met, failure gives the HR feedback on the program and the participants. A training program will be successful if the objectives are achieved. Hence, it is advisable when developing the training objectives it should be in a collaborative process incorporating input from management, supervisors, workers, and trainers to ensure that the objectives are reasonable and realistic (Ngiwra 2009).

2.2.7.3 Identify the Trainees

The question of who should be trained is crucial, training of employee is expensive, and therefore it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Further, training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience. Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program.

Identification of the trainees involves identification of job categories where the training needs have been identified which is performed by the training analyst and the identification of the actual names of the employees who attend the training which is performed by a supervisor using guidelines that govern the selection of the employee for training from Human Resource department (Ngirwa, 2009). These are basic education, years of service, etc.

2.2.7.4 Training and Development Methods

The program of training and development helps the employee to adjust to rapid changes in job requirements and keeps them updated to new technologies and methods. Generally there are two broad types of training and development methods available to the public sector organizations: On-the-job and Off-the-job training methods. What method should be used for the organization is determined by the

individual circumstances and other factors like, ‘who’, ‘what’ and why of your training and development program.

On-the-Job methods refer to the methods that are applied in the work place, while the staff is actually working so as to acquire specific skill. This method is required to improve the staff that had inadequate academic qualification for his job performance. It is also regarded as training within the organization policy. There are three common techniques that are used by the organization to train employees these are: orientation, job instruction, job rotation and coaching.

Off-the-Job methods are used away from work places. Some skills and knowledge are difficult to teach at the worksite, so off-site training will be necessary. Staffs receive training away from their posts or workstation. The method also permits the use of a greater variety of training techniques, these includes: lectures, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, special study, films, television, conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training.

2.2.7.5 Training Techniques

The organization can determine which techniques to use depending on the needs and objectives of the training in the organization. Among the most commonly used techniques in many organizations are as follows:-

    Orientation

This is given to newly appointed staff immediately after being employed. It protects new employee from making costly mistakes, it helps to understand the general objectives, mission, scope, programs, problems and policy, structure and key members of the organization. Orientation method is also important for the newly employed officers to enable them gain self – confidence and perform better to meet the desired expectation. The periods may vary from few days to few weeks depending on the situation.

    Job rotation

This method involves moving employees to various positions in the organization so as to expand their knowledge and abilities. The method is excellent for broadening an individual’s exposure to the organizational operations and for turning a specialist into generalist, increase the individual experiences, allows the staff to absorb new information and stimulate new ideas.

    Coaching

Coaching is often provided by specialists from inside or outside the organization who concentrate on specific areas of skills or behaviors, for example leadership. It is also something that can happen in the workplace. As a HR manager or head of the section�� you should be prepared and able to act as a coach when necessary to see that learning takes place.

    Lectures courses and Seminars

According to Khanka (2007), lectures are the most commonly used direct method of training. This technique involves both practical and theoretical teaching process, which could be done within or outside an organization. It is a traditional technique of training employees. Staff attends formal lecture courses and seminars to acquire specific knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities. Lecture courses and seminars benefit from today’s technology and are often offered in a distance-learning format. Feedback and participation can be improved when discussion is permitted along with lecture process. It is relative economic method.

    Workshop/conferences

According to Saakshi (2005), the conferences method was used to help employees develop problem-solving skills. It is a series of educational and work sessions. Small groups of people meet together over a short period of time to concentrate on a defined area of concern. These workshops include skills that can be applied immediately in the workplace.

    Audiovisual Methods

Films, television and video are often used for training in a variety of contexts. Videos can be used to demonstrate particular tasks, such as the procedures to follow when apprehending a suspect or extinguishing a chemical fire. Videos are often used in orientation sessions to present background information on the agency-history, purpose, and goals. This use eliminates the need for trainers or supervisors to repeat themselves for all new employees and ensures that the same information is presented every time.

    Conferences

In this method, the trainer delivers a lecture on the particular subject, which is followed by queries and discussions. The conference leader must have the necessary skills to lead the discussion in a meaningful way without losing sight of the topic or theme. This method is used to help employees develop problem-solving skills.

2.2.7.5 Evaluation of Training and Development

Evaluation is defined as the process of determining the value and effectiveness of a learning program. Evaluation of the training program is necessary to determine whether the training accomplished its objectives. Unfortunately, this is often neglected especially in public sector organizations (Bramley, 1995; Sims, 1998). Evaluation improves training program by providing feedback to the trainers, participants and employers and it assesses employee skill levels. Evaluations can be used to measure changes in knowledge, levels of skills, attitudes and behavior, and levels of effectiveness at both the individual and agency level (Pynes 2008).

Evaluation of learning can be done through assessment and validation tools to provide the data for the evaluation. Assessment is the measurement of the practical results of the training in the work environment; while validation determines if the objectives of the training goal were met. Training must be evaluated in terms of how much the participants learned; how well they use their new skills on the job (did

their behavior change?) and whether the training program achieved its desired results (reduced turnover, increased customer services etc.).

2.2.7.6 Methods of Evaluation

According to Kirkpatrick (2006), training programs can be evaluated into four main levels. The first level is measuring the participants’ reactions to the training program. He refers to this step as a measure of customer satisfaction. The second level of evaluation measures whether learning has occurred as a result of attending the training. Did the participants acquire the skills or knowledge embodied in the objectives? The third level of evaluation measures the extent to which on-the-job behavioral change has occurred due to the participants’ have attended the training program. Another technique with this level of evaluation would be to employ performance evaluations designed to measure the new competencies. The fourth level of evaluation attempts to measure the final results that occurred because employees attended the training. Ideally, training is linked to improved organizational performance. At this level, evaluation is concerned with determining what impact the training has had on the agency. Satisfactory final results can include such things as fewer grievances filed against supervisors, greater employee productivity, a reduction in the number of client complaints, a decrease in workplace accidents, larger amounts raised through fundraising, improved board relations, and less discrimination in the workplace. A final step, organizations must determine whether the benefits of the training outweigh its direct and indirect costs.

2.2.8 Problems Facing Training and development

Cole (2002), identify some factors influences the quantity and quality of training and development activities in the organizations, these includes; the degree of change in the external environment, the degree of internal change, the availability of suitable skills within the existing work-force and the extent to which management see training as a motivating factor in work. Employees training and development is poorly performed in many organizations (Ngirwa 2009). He sighted some areas, which are problematic as follows:-

2.2.8.1 Poor Data Bank

There has been shortage of knowledge on the total number of employees in organizations, number of employees per job category and organizational units, age profile, qualification profiles, employee’s seniority list organized according to job categories, list of available training programs etc. There are just a few of the major items of typical human resources data bank, many of which have decision making implications on the management of training programs.

2.2.8.2 Poor choice of trainers

The human resource department is supposed to choose the trainers intelligently.� However with liberalization, many people have established training and Consultancy firms which may not posses the competent staff to carry out trainings. Such firms hire people and are even prepared to bribe so that they can win the training jobs.� As

a result the trained employees end up with no positive impact when they return to their organizations.

2.2.8.3 Shortage of fund

Training and development is not cheap. Organization has to pay to get their staff trained.�� Many organizations cannot train their employees because they do not have sufficient fund to meet costs of the programs.

2.2.8.4 Shortage of Training Institutions and Programs

Most of the developing countries have�� a shortage of suitable training institutions and relevant training programs. Therefore the organization fails to train their staff.

2.2.8.5 Poor top management support

The top management support is essential for the success of the programs. But there are some organizations, whose top managements do not adhere and take training and development seriously. As a result implementation becomes poorly supervised and its resources become divided to other businesses.

2.2.8.6 Poor employee participation

Some times there are organizations which do not clearly advertise training opportunities and programs. There are others who intimidate permanent employees by telling them that they will be replaced and their position taken by other staff if they join training and development programs. As a result some employees opt not to go for training for fear of loosing their positions and status.

2.2.8.7 Employee poor return to the Dramatization

There has been a tendency for some employee to attend training not for the reasons of bringing back more expertise to his/her organization but to fulfill his/ her own interest of getting allowances and be away from the job. This has been discouraging the employers when they see no change for the trained employees.

2.2.8.8 Poor evaluation of the training programs

Unfortunately, training efforts are poorly evaluated in many Tanzanian organizations despite that training costs plenty of money. The impact of training programs and even the utilization of the employee return are the things that motivate the management to prudently invest in it.

2.2.8.9 Shortage of HRM Experts

There is a significant shortage of training experts in many organizations in Tanzania. This could be one of the main reasons why the staff’s training and development function is not effectively managed.

2.3 Empirical Literature Review

Training and development in the public sector organization has been approved by various researchers as a very important function in improving work performance of the employees and eventually to the organization as a whole. A study conducted in Scotland, UK, on 150 organizations to investigate the main issues of the current Human Resource performance, revealed that 89% of the organizations surveyed ranked employee training and development as the most important in the

performance management (Soltan, et al., 2004). The study suggest that, the HR personnel widely regarded the process of the performance appraisal as one of the main instruments for identifying training and development needs at the individual level.

A study conducted by Fey et al., (2000), on the effect of training and development on the employee performance, suggested that, there is a strong positive relationship between both management development and employee training and development program, and organization performance in Russian team - based subsidiaries of Western corporations. This implies that, both management and employee development were significantly related with firm performance. He further suggests that, a focus on employee development, including employments security, is likely to be shared by employees in terms of high level of organizational commitment. Investments in employee training and development may also be important for Western firms striving to achieve a competitive advantage through high quality products and services, features that were not paid much attention to during earlier planned economy.

Other study by the Kapsalis countries, Canada, the united States, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Poland, Germany and Sweden, in determining� the lessons which can be learned from the combined experiences of different countries, revealed that about 66% of Canadian and United States employees who received job-related training from their employer reported in the study that they were using their acquired skill at work to a great extent and hence improved employee work performance and the organization as a whole.

In Tanzania, a study was conducted by Sharma and Upneja (2005) to investigate the factors influencing financial performance in the small hotels at Arusha. The findings of this study suggested that inadequate employee training and development programs was among the factors responsible for low profitability in the hotels thus providing evidence to HR professionals on the importance of this component in the business� sector.

Although there exists various positive literature and empirical studies on employee training and development, but most of them are for the private sector and companies which are profit oriented. Hence, I can argue that more research is needed for better understanding on how employee training and development program affect performance of employee and improve organizational effectiveness for the benefits of the public sector organizations. Therefore, this study attempts to address the gaps in the literature by exploring the employee training and development of the public sector which is 2nd VPO and also attempt to highlight some of the issues which impact its value to both employees and the organization.

.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the methodology that was employed in the study; it highlights on the research design, area of the study, the population of the study, sample size and sampling techniques, the methods used in data collection and data analysis. Finally it gives the reliability and validity of those instruments.

3.2 Research Design

A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It is a program that guided the investigator in the process of collecting data, analyzing and interpreting observations. This study used a ‘case study’ method to collect information. A case study is an in-depth exploration of one particular case (situation or subject) for the purpose of gaining in-depth understanding of issues being investigated. A ‘case study’ method is a very popular form of qualitative analysis and involves a careful and complete observation of an institution, or even the entire community, it studies in depth rather than breadth. Under this method the approach happens to be qualitative and not quantitative (Kothari 2004).

According to Sekaran (2007) Case studies involve in-depth, contextual analysis of matter relating to similar situations in other organizations.� Case studies are regarded as problem solving, are therefore not frequently resorted to in organizations because finding the same type of problem in another comparable setting is difficult due to unwillingness of the companies to reveal their problems. However this study happened to use both; a qualitative research design and a quantitative research design. Qualitative research design is a design used to find out how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution, where as quantitative design is based on the measurement of quantity or amount (Kothari 2004). Hence quantitative research design in this study was used in calculating simple percentage and number of respondents.

3.3 Area of study

The study was conducted at the 2nd VPO head office Zanzibar, from June 2010 to October 2010.�

3.4 Study Population

The targeted population for this study was the staff of an administrative cadre in the 2nd VPO head office and a Director of Administration and Human Resources. This is because these are targeted stakeholders of the staff training and development in particular.

3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

The study used twenty five (25) respondents and a director of Administration and Human Resources. The sample size of 25 was small for the kind of study intended but commitment and financial resource constraints made it imperative to restrict the sample to that size. A Director of Administration and Human Resources was involved in the sample because he is responsible for training and developing staff, and the overall supervisor of all human resource activities in the organization. The administrative staff was involved because they were the ones who participated or are expected to participate in the training and development program.

3.5.1 Sampling techniques

Purposive sampling techniques and stratified sampling techniques were used for selecting the respondents. That is the researcher chooses a staff that hold appropriate characteristics relevant to the research topic and the respondents were randomly selected.

3.6 Methods of Data Collection

The study used more than one method of data collection so as to avoid bias and unreliability of data. The methods used were questionnaire, interview and documentary review method.

3.6.1 The questionnaire

A questionnaire is a set of questions that is full of traits and clues in order that the respondents can tick the appropriate clue of his/her opinion or write short answers. This was also prepared following the problem, literature review and conceptual frame work of the study. The questionnaires were distributed to 25 respondents, and all were completed and returned to the researcher. The questionnaire sample is attached on appendix 1.

3.6.2 The interview

This was used as a tool to collect views from the respondents on the impact or performance for trained staff as well as the traits for training as articulated in the conceptual frame work of this study. The researcher prepared semi- structured interview questions for the Director of Administration and Human Resource as attached in appendix 2.

3.6.3 Documentary review method

Through this method, the researcher prepared a documentary checklist so as to collect rich data in the field; the documents which were reviewed were training reports and other related documents that were found at the working stations/organization.

3.7 Reliability and Validity of Instruments

Reliability aimed at the point that even if the research were repeated they would end up with similar results. Validity refers to the extent to which the concept one wishes to measure is actually being measured by a particular scale or index. According to Kothari (2004), validity aims at establishing the results which are linked with the condition. Therefore to ensure reliability and validity, this study used methods such as interviews, and administration of the questionnaire. Then the questionnaire was pre-tested, to guarantee a common understating of questions among respondents.�

3.8 Analysis of Data

The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data. The qualitative data from interviews and secondary documents were analyzed using content analysis and logical analysis techniques. Whereas the quantitative data was analyzed using Microsoft word 2003- integrated package on a personal computer and the SPSS software. The technique for quantitative data analysis was the frequency distribution and percentages, which were used to determine the proportion of respondents choosing the various responses.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the data which have been collected and analyzed using tables for its interpretation and discussion in relation to the research questions and interviews conducted.

4.2 Sample information

A total of 25 questionnaires were distributed to the administrative staff working in the 2nd VPO head office Zanzibar and interview questionnaire was for the Director of Administration and Human Resource. All questionnaires were filled and returned back to the researcher. Therefore, 25 questionnaires served as data for analysis to present the findings and draw conclusion. The aim of the study is to determine impacts of training and development program on the performance of the administrative staff in the 2nd VPO. The presentation and discussion of the findings are done in the order that the reader will understand the results at a glance.

4.3 Training and Development Process in the 2nd VPO

The first objective of this study was to assess the existing training and development process and methods applied in the 2nd VPO. To achieve this objective the researcher wanted to find out how is the training and development program being organized in the 2nd VPO.

This question was therefore assessed using responses from questionnaires administered to the sample of the administrative staff and interview questions from the Director of Administration and HR as follows:-

4.3.1 Age distribution

The researcher needed to know the age distribution of the respondents so as to categorize their staff because the 2nd VPO employs a large number of administrative and support staff compared to the coordinators (core staff). The age of the respondents ranged between 26 and 55 years. That is; 10 employees corresponding to 40% of the respondents were within the age group of 36 – 45 years, while 9 respondents who were between the age of� 26 – 35 years� represented 36% of the respondents, and the remaining 6 who were between 45 - 55 years represented 36% of the total respondents. The results reveal that, staff working in the administrative carder in the 2nd VPO are still young, fresh and can pursue training and development activities so as to improve their performance of work and can make reasonable positive changes in the 2nd VPO. Table 4.1 below presents the age distribution of the respondents.

4.3.2 Highest educational Level

The researcher needed to know the educational level of the respondents so as to determine what method and techniques of training and development program may be most appropriate for the administrative staff. From table 4.1 below the educational background of the respondents is from Ordinary level to Degree holder. A total of 13 employees which is equals to 52% of the respondents have Ordinary

certificate. This group forms the majority of the respondents. Number of staff holding certificates of different fields are 5 which represent 20% of the respondents. Three (3) respondents representing 12% were holding ‘A’ Level Certificates, and a similar number of respondents are degree holders. The remaining 2 staff representing 8% of the respondents is diploma holders.

The data indicated that, majority of the administrative staff do not have professional qualifications.� This implies that the educational level for the administrative staff in the 2nd VPO is not enough to meet the needs and objectives of the Second Vice President’s Office. Therefore the administrative staff needs to attend training and development programs at different levels in order to develop their skills so as to improve their performance.

4.3.3 Years of work in the 2nd VPO

Working experience in the 2nd VPO was also taken into account. The researcher needed to know for how long the respondent has been working in the 2nd VPO so as to enable the researcher to put their responses into proper perspective. Table 4.1 below presents the findings on years of experience in the 2nd VPO. The data indicated that, out of 25 respondents representing 10% and 14 respondents representing 56% have been working in this organization between 11 and 20 years, while 6 respondents representing 24% have been working between 21-27 years. The minimum range for work experience was 1-10 years for5 respondents representing 20%. This implies that majority of the administrative staff have been working in the 2nd VPO for 20 years, since it was established. This reveals that the 2nd VPO has a blend of experienced and young staff that requires constant training and development to update their skills so as to perform well in their job.

Table 4.1: Frequency Distribution of Respondents Demographic Information

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Age

20-25

26-35

9

36.0

36-45

10

40.0

46 – 55

6

24.0

Total

25

100.0

Highest Educational Level

Ordinary level education

13

52

Advanced level education

3

12

Certificates

5

20

Diploma

2

8

First degree

3

12

Total

25

100

Work Experience in the 2ndVPO

1-10

5

20

11-20

14

56

21-27

6

24

Total

25

100

Source: Field data of May, 2010

4.3.4 Respondents’ awareness of the training and development activities

Training and development is very crucial to any public sector organization in order to improve the performance and competence of its employees. Most of the public sector organizations in Zanzibar including 2nd VPO train and develop their staff every year. The researcher needed to understand from the respondents if they are aware of the training and development activities in the 2nd VPO. The respondents were asked if they are aware of the training activities in the in the 2nd VPO. Table 4.2 below indicated that, 21 respondents representing 84% replied yes, they are aware of the training activities and 4 respondents representing 16% replied no, they are not aware. The findings imply that most administrative staff are aware that the training and development activities exist and are implemented in the 2nd VPO. This reveals that training and development activities are well publicized. This is a necessary primary factor in the development of an effective program.

Table 4.2: Awareness of the training activities in the 2nd VPO�

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

21

84

No

4

16

Total

25

100

Source: Field data of May, 2010���� ����

4.3.5 Assessment of the nature of the training process in the 2nd VPO

The researcher needed to know if the training and development program in the 2nd VPO is planned and systematic. When the Director of Administration and Human Resource was asked whether the training and development activities in the 2nd VPO were planned and systematic, he/she said no. Training and development activities in the 2nd VPO is not planned and not systematic. This is because there is no specific training and development unit or department and also they do not have sufficient funds to meet the costs of training due to the low budgets provisions for the office expenditures that are always below the requests.

A director was further asked how the does the 2nd VPO facilitate training and development activities to their administrative staff. The director replied that, the 2nd VPO facilitation of training and development for their administrative staff depends mainly with the availability of funds from the allocated budget.

This implies that funds for training of the staff are a problem facing the Administration Department in the 2nd VPO even though it is common knowledge that training and career development are the major factors influencing the success of an organization. The question as to whether the training and development program is planned and systematic was also asked to the respondents.

The findings indicated that, 15 employees which equals to 60% of the respondents answered that it is unplanned and not systematic, while 6 respondents corresponding to 24% said that it was planned and systematic. The remaining 4 respondents which equals to 16% of the total are not sure. Table 4.3 below presents the data. Therefore, the answers from the respondents together with that of the Director of Administration and Human Resource revealed that, training activities in the 2nd VPO does not follow a known and standard process and procedures. So, it is concluded that training and development program in the 2nd VPO might be unplanned and not systematic. Therefore, there will be no effective training and development function to impact performance of the administrative staff.

Table 4.3: Nature of the training and development activities

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Planned and systematic

6

24

Unplanned and not systematic

15

60

Not sure

4

16

Total

25

100

Source: Field data of May, 2010

4.3.6 Participation in training in the 2nd VPO

The importance of training and development for the administrative staff program is well known. The respondents were asked if they had participated in any training since they have been working in the 2nd VPO. The data revealed that the majority of the sample group has attended training. That is; 21 respondents representing 84% had participate in training, and 4 respondents representing 16% have not participated in any type of training since they were employed in the 2nd VPO.� Table 4.4 below presents the results.

Table 4.4: Frequency that respondent participate in the training in the 2nd VPO

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

21

84

No

4

16

Total

25

100

Source: Field data of May, 2010

Furthermore, Table 4.5 below indicated that out of 21 respondents, who have participated in the training and development program, 10 respondents representing 47.6% have participated once, 4 respondents representing 33.4% have participated twice, and 7 respondents representing 19% have participated several times. A very interesting revelation is that 16 % of the administrative staff had never participated any type of training even though they have been working in the 2nd VPO for 20 years. The findings indicated that that training in the 2nd VPO is practiced, hence the 2nd VPO benefited on the impact of training in terms of improving morale of their administrative staff, improved quality and efficiency. This will facilitate change management. Therefore, it is significant that 21 out of the 25 respondents have participated in the training. Table 4.5 below presents the times that respondent attends training since you are working with the 2nd VPO.

Table 4.5: Times that Respondent participation in training in the 2nd VPO

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Only once

10

47.6

Twice

4

19.0

Several times

7

33.4

Total

21

100

Source: Field data of May, 2010

4.3.7 Selection of the trainees

It has been observed that training of employee is expensive. Therefore it is important to carefully select the staff according to the need of the organization.� Literatures tell us that selecting participants through a careful process of training needs identification is therefore the proper process of initiating training. The study wanted to know the criteria that the 2nd VPO use when selecting the administrative staff to go for training and development activities. Table 4.6 presents a summary from the respondents on how they were selected for training. The answers are from those 21 respondents who participated in training. A total of 15 respondents representing 71.4% identified and applied for the courses they want to study themselves and then requested the management to release them to go for those studies. Those who were selected basing on the organization demand were 6 respondents representing 28.6%.

The interview with the Director of Administration and Human Resource indicates there is no specific training program, so there are no guidelines for selection of staff who has to be trained.� Thus training of the administrative staff depends with the availability of applications and funds to support training program and this goes together with the demand of the organization.

Table 4.6: Selection for training

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Employee request the course themselves

15

71.4

Demands of organization

6

28.6

Total

21

100.0

Source: Field data of May, 2010

Therefore the answers from the respondents together with that of the director of Administration and Human Resource revealed that the training program is not systematic. This implies that there is no formal plan to insist administrative staff to participate in training and development for the benefits of the organization as a result the administrative staff use their efforts to find what have interested to study and this will lead to less effective training function and poor performance of the organization.

4.4 Impacts of Training and Development activities on the administrative staff’s performance in the 2nd VPO

The second research question was about the impacts of training and development activities on administrative staff performance. The literature tells us that employees will not perform well at work no matter how hard they try and regardless of how much they want to until they know what they are supposed to do and how they are

supposed to do it.� It is knowledge and skills acquired for the job that makes staff effective and efficient. Therefore, training is the means by which skills and knowledge are impacted to employees to improve performance and change their attitudes or behavior. This question was therefore assessed using responses from questionnaires administered to the sample of the administrative staffs as follows:-

a) Has training and development helped improve your performance of work?

Table 4.7 below shows that, 21 respondents representing 100% said yes, their performance has increased and there were no respondents who said no. This is significant because the purpose of training and development is to improve individual administrative staff and organizational performance most of the respondents prove that training have a positive impact on their performance of work.

Table 4.7: Training program and administrative staff performance

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

21

84

No

0

0

Total

21

100.0

Source: Field data of May, 2010

b) Has the training and development activities in the 2nd VPO imparted you with new skills and technical knowledge for performance?

Table 4.8 below indicated that, 21 respondents representing 100% said yes, training equipped them with new skills and there were no respondents who said no.

Table 4.8: Did the Training program impart new skills

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

21

84

No

0

0

Total

21

100.0

Source: Field data of May, 2010

This implies that the training and development activities equipped the administrative staff with new skills and technical knowledge of doing work. Compared to the untrained administrative staff, the trained staff is able to perform their job better. Those who have attended training can perform various activities with confidence. The trained staff for example can take the minutes of the meetings properly, they can use computers in manipulating the accounts, and they are good planners. In other words training has helped them to improve the quality of work. This is significant because the purpose of training at 2nd VPO is to increase skills and knowledge so as to improve performance at the workplace. So the results justify the theoretical background.

c) Are you satisfied with the training and development activities in the 2nd VPO?

The literature tell us that, job satisfaction can come from feeling comfortable within the organization, job proficiency and even from the knowledge that an employee can work hard and get promoted. Trained and developed staff becomes more confident and motivated and lead to more satisfied employees who perform at exceptional

levels. Hence, the respondents were asked if they were satisfied with the training and development activities in the 2nd VPO. The data indicated that; 10 respondents representing 40% were satisfied with the training activities and 15 respondents representing 60% were not satisfied with the training activities. Table 4.9 below summarizes the data.

This implied that, majority of the administrative staff in the 2nd VPO were not satisfied with the way training activities are implemented. It might be because it is unplanned and not systematic. Thus the researcher concluded that the whole process of training program have to be reviewed.

Table 4.9: Are you satisfied with the training and development activities in the 2nd VPO?

Variables

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

10

40

No

15

60

Total

25

100

Source: Field data of May, 2010

4.5 Impacts of Training and Development activities of the 2nd VPO

The third research question was about the impacts of training and development activities for the 2nd VPO. Training and development are the major influence on the success of an organization. It is a tool for enhancing job-related performance and organizational effectiveness. Like any public sector organization, the 2nd VPO also

needs well-adjusted, trained and experienced administrative staff to perform its activities. Nowadays the nature of work in the 2nd VPO has become more complex; it requires skilled and competent administrative staff. Therefore training of staff is inevitable.

The researcher needed to know if there is any improvement in the 2nd VPO after training their administrative staff. Through the interview with the director of Administration and Human Resource, said that the 2nd VPO has improved compared to the previous years. Currently the 2nd VPO is becoming better with the trained staff. If you compare with untrained administrative staff, the trained administrative staff are more effective and efficient in their work. They are competent and can perform their job without supervision, and they are up dated with new technologies related to their job. There is a difference in their work performance. The results therefore justified the theoretical back ground that there is a positive impact of training and development activities on the performance of the staff. This implies that, training program improve administrative staff performance at work. Hence there is a positive impact on the performance of the administrative staff after being trained. The technical knowledge and new skills acquired for the job makes the staff to be effective and efficient.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses on the results obtained from chapter four. It also concludes and gives the recommendations to improve the Training and development program for administrative staff’s performance and organizational effectiveness and limitation of the study.

5.2 Summary of Findings

The research findings are based on the two research questions which are analyzed separately as follows:

The first research question was about the process and procedures of training and development program in the 2nd VPO. Data collected and analyzed indicated that, the staff’s working in the administrative carder in the 2nd VPO are still young, they have served the organization from 1 to 27 years. Out of these 21 respondents are aware that there is a training and development program and only 4 respondents have never participated in any type of training since they were employed in the 2nd VPO. Out of 21 respondents who participated in the training programs, only 6 respondents were selected through the demand of the 2nd VPO and 15 respondents took the initiative to find the training course themselves. This makes a conclusion that the process and procedures for training and development of the administrative staff are not properly followed.

The second question was about the impact of the training and development on the administrative staff performance in the 2nd VPO. The data collected indicated that, 21 respondents who participated in training reported that training activities had imparted new skills and knowledge, hence improved their performance of work. And there were no body who said no impart. This can be concluded that, there is a positive impact of training and development activities on administrative staff performance in the 2nd VPO. However, 15 out of 21 respondents were not satisfied with the training activities in the 2nd VPO. Therefore the whole program should be reviewed.

The third question was about the impact of training and development on the 2nd VPO effectiveness. The interview with the Director of Administration and Human Resource indicated that there is a positive effect of training and development on the performance of the organization. There is a different in the staff operate where the trained staff are more effective and efficient than untrained ones. Therefore, the results justified the theoretical back ground that there is a considerable positive impact of training and development program on the performance of the staff.

5.3 Conclusion

This study was aimed at examining training and development on employee performance and the study supports a strong positive relationship between them. From the findings, this study came up with the following conclusion: Training and development program is continuous practice in the 2nd VPO and the staff was able to learn and update their knowledge and skills every year. However, the program is not

planned and not systematic and is not coordinated in one unit. Also it does not follow appropriate training and development process. The study also concluded that there were a positive impacts of training and development on employee performance and organization effectives, but the factors such as low budget hinder training and development activities to be carried out systematically

Finally, the whole study concluded that, the training and development program is highly effective program among other HR functions which should be planned and implemented by organization so as to run a cycle of increasing skills in employees in order to increase performance, which in turn increase their collective performance and thus further result on organization growth.

5.4 Recommendations

Staff training and development has been identified to be very crucial for the staff and for the organization and its effectiveness. There fore in order to meet the requirements the 2nd VPO must observe the following:-

5.4.1 Planned, systematic and coordinated training and development program

The 2nd VPO should establish specific training section in order to ensure that program is carefully planned, coordinated and put into practice proper training and development process and procedures as required. The Departments of Administration and Human Resource Management should be responsible of designing and managing the training programs.

5.4.2 Identify Training Need assessment

The importance of needs assessment is to diagnose the current problems and future challenges that should be met through training and development. Therefore the 2nd VPO should determine the Training Needs suitable for the achievements of organizational goals. This should be done by HR personnel in cooperation with the directors of other departments.

5.4.3 Establish the training objective in accordance with the organizational goal

The 2nd VPO should clearly state the results for each employee, what change in employee knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors.� It must also clarify what is to change and by how much. The training goals should be specific, tangible, verifiable, timely and measurable and the objectives should be clear to both directors and employee because they can be used to evaluate their success.

5.4.4 Create more opportunities for training and development of their employee

Employees especially those of the bottom levels like messengers, correspondence officers, store keepers and even drivers should be encouraged to go for training and development program (in service training). This will brighten up their ideas and will enable them to know more about the recent changes in technologies.

5.4.5 Areas for Further Research

This study directly focuses on the training and development and its influence on employee performance. However, the plan and implementation are not properly studied therefore this it is suggested that further studies should be conducted to explore how training and development program can be strategically designed and aligned with the organizational goals to meet the desired performance.

REFERENCES

Abbas Q. and Yaqoob S (2009). Effect of Leadership Development on Employee Performance in Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, Volume 47, No. ������������� 2, pp. 269-292.

Abiodun, E.J. (1999). Human Resources Management, An overview. Concept Publication, Shomolu, Lagos.

Adams, P.E. (2002). Benefits of Employee Training Program: Employee Training Plan. Business Plan Builder. Retrieved on July, 21st 2011 on http/www.morebusiness.com/running_your_business/management/d1023665813.brc.

Armstrong, M. (1996). A Handbook on Personnel Management Practice, 6th ed. London: Kogan Page.

Armstrong, M. (2001). A Handbook on Personnel Management Practice, 8th ed. London: Kogan Page.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook on Personnel Management Practice, 10th ed. London: Kogan Page.

Armstrong, M. (2008). A Handbook on Personnel Management Practice, 10th ed. London: Kogan Page.

Barrington, K. and P. Stimpson. (2002), Business studies, 2nd Edition Muray Publishers, London.

Champathes, M. R. (2006). Coaching for performance improvement: The coach model. Development and Learning in Organizations, Volume 20, No. 2, pp.17-1

Cole, G. A. (2002), Personnel and Human Resource Management, 5th ed. Continuum London: York Publishers.

Fey, C., Bj�rkman, I. and Pavlovskaya, A. (2000). The effect of HRM practices on firm performance in Russia. International Journal of Human Resource Management, ������������� 11(1), 1-18.

Gordon, McBealh. (1992). The Handbook on Manpower Planning, 1st ed. UK: Blackwell ������������� Publishers.

Itika J.S. (2008). Human Resource Training and Development, lecture notes. Mzumbe University, Tanzania.

Kapinga, T. (2008). Training Needs Assessment and Program Desgn, lecture Notes ICD 534.

Khanka, S. S. (2008). Human Resource Management (text and cases) New Delhi, Assam.

Kirkipayrick, D.L (2006). Improving employee Performance through Appraisal and coaching. American Management Association Publication.

Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research and Methodology (Methods and Techniques), Second Revised Edition, New Age International (p) Limited Publisher, New Delhi, India.

Noe, R. (2002). Employee Training and Development. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

McNamara, C. (2010). Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits. http://managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/reasons.htmHYPERLINK "http://managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/reasons.htmHYPERLINK "http://managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/reasons.htm".". 21/07/2011�

Mayiams C. (2002) “Effective Management” A multi-media Approach, DPS Associates. Quebecor World.

Ministry of Education and Culture (1995) “Education and Training Policy”, Ministry of Education and Culture Publication, Dar es Salaam

Ngirwa, C.A. (2009). Human Resource management in African Work Organizations, Vol. I. National Printing Co. Ltd, Dar es Saalam.

Olaniyan, D. A. and Lucas. B. O. (2008). Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for Organizational Effectiveness. http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm. 13/9/2010

Paynes, E. Joan (2004). Human Resource Management for Public and Non – profit Organization, 2nd edition.

Paynes, E. Joan (2008). Human Resource Management for Public and Non – profit Organization, 3nd edition.

Saakshi N.C. Jain. (2005). Personnel Management and Human Resources (1st ed.), New Delhi. A.I.T.B.S. Publisher.

Sahinidis, A. G. and Bouris, J. (2008). Employee Perceived Training Effectiveness Relationship to Employee Attitudes. Journal of European Industrial Training. ������������� 2008, 32(1): 63-76.

Sekaran, U (2007). Research Methods for Business, A skill Building Approach, Glorious Printer, India.

Sharma, A. and Upneja, A. (2005). Factors influencing financial performance of small hotels in Tanzania. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Vol. 17, No. 6, 2005 pp 504-515.

Sherman, A.W and H. J. Churden. (1984), Managing of Human Resources, 7th Edition, South Western Publishing Co., Cincinnati.

Velada R. and A. Caetano (2007). Training Transfer: the Mediating role of perception of learning. Journal of European Industrial training, Volume 31, No. 4 pp 283-296.

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1:�

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE DIRECTOR OF ADMINISTRATION AND HUMAN RESOURCE

Fill the blank and tick the appropriate answer.

    How does the training and development program being carried out in this office? (Please explain the procedures of training the staff in this office).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Does the office have a planned training and development program for the staffs?������������� Yes/No

    Does the training and development improve the performance of the staff? ������������� Yes/No

If yes how?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    Does the organization benefited with the staff training and development program? Yes/No

If yes how?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

    What are the internal and external factors hinder training and development program in your office?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

    Any other comments

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Appendix 2:

THE QUESTIONNAIRES FOR THE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFFS

Please tick where appropriate

SECTION A: RESPONDENT BACKGROUND

    How old are you?
    20-25������������� ������������� (…….)26-35������������� ������������� (…….)36-45������������� ������������� (…….)45-55������������� ������������� (…….)Above 55������������� ������������� (…….)
    Highest Educational Level:
    Primary������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)Secondary (‘A’ Level)������������� (…….)Certificates ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….) Diploma������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)Graduate ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)
    For how long have you been working in the 2nd VPO?
    1-10 years ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)11-20 years������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)21-30 years ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)More then 30 years������������� ������������� (…….)

SECTION B:������������� RESPONDENT TRAINING INFORMATION

    Are you aware of training program in this office? ������������� YES/NOHave you attend any training since you are working with the 2nd VPO?������������� ������������� ������������� YES/NOIf yes, how many times you have attended training?
    Once ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)Twice ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)Several times ������������� ������������� (…….)Never ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)
    How are you selected?
    Employee request the course them selves������������� (…..)Demand of the organization������������� ������������� ������������� (…..)
    Do you think training program in this office is planned and systematic?
    Planned and Systematic������������� ������������� (……)Not planned and systematic������������� ������������� (……)Not sure������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� (…….)
    Are you satisfied with the training program in this office?
    Yes������������� ������������� (……...)No������������� ������������� (………)
    Is the training helping you to perform job better than before?
    YES������������� ������������� (…..)NO������������� ������������� (……)
    If No, Why?� ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How do you compare between the trained and untrained staff?
    Trained staffs are more effective and efficient compared to untrained staffs. (……)There is no different between trained and untrained staff. (……)
    Do you require further training and development so as to increase performance?� ������������� ������������� YES/NO

������������� ������������� ������������� �������������

Recent Documents:

Set Home | Add to Favorites

All Rights Reserved Powered by Free Document Search and Download

Copyright © 2011
This site does not host pdf,doc,ppt,xls,rtf,txt files all document are the property of their respective owners. complaint#downhi.com
TOP