Home > ������������� III.������������� leader attitudesLearning objective 3Explain leadership attitudes. (Text page 147)������������� ������������� A.�������

������������� III.������������� leader attitudesLearning objective 3Explain leadership attitudes. (Text page 147)������������� ������������� A.�������

������������� III.������������� leader attitudes

Learning objective 3

Explain leadership attitudes. (Text page 147)

������������� ������������� A.������������� Douglas McGregor developed Theory X and Theory Y attitude profiles, or
assumptions, about the basic nature of people.

Learning objective 4

Describe the differences between a Theory X and Theory Y manager. (Text pages 147-148)

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� A Theory X leader would likely use
a much more authoritarian style of leadership than a Theory Y leader.

������������� ������������� B.������������� McGregor identified the self-fulfilling prophecy, the relationship between a leader’s expectations and the resulting performance of subordinates.

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� If a manager’s expectations are high, productivity is likely to be high.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� If a manager’s expectations are low, productivity is likely to be poor.

Progress Check Questions (Text page 148)

    Define the terms power, authority, and leadership.Explain the different expectations of Theory X and Theory Y managers.Would you describe yourself as a Theory X or a
    Theory Y manager? Why?Define the self-fulfilling prophecy of management.

TEXT Figure 6.2

Assumptions About People

(Text page 147)

PowerPoint 6-5

Douglas McGregor’s
Leadership Theory

(Refers to text page 147)


The construction foreman is behind schedule on a building project and has been told by the president of the company to hire a few illegal immigrants to get the job caught up and avoid missing a deadline with the client. What action should the foreman take?

Because of the client’s impatience, the next few weeks on the project will be difficult. Your boss thinks that hiring illegal immigrants could save time and money. However, this is a very unsatisfactory solution. There is a growing backlash against illegal immigration in this country. Hiring undocumented workers is illegal in some cities and states. By the time this manual is read, there may even be a federal law with penalties that cut deep. Remember, it’s not your boss that will be hiring workers, it is YOU. You are the one who will face the consequences, and there is no guarantee that the owner will stand behind you if difficulties arise.

Probably your next step should be to discuss the problem with the client to find other ways to “catch the project up” without suffering any penalties. A discussion with your attorney wouldn’t be a bad idea, either.

������������� IV.������������� framework for classifying leadership studies

������������� ������������� A.������������� Leadership studies can be classified by

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� Focus refers to whether leadership is studied as a set of traits or a set of

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� Traits refer to what characteristics the leader possesses.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� Behaviors refer to what the leader does.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� Approach refers to whether leadership is studied from a universal or contingent approach.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� The universal approach assumes there is one best way to lead
regardless of the circumstances.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� The contingent approach
assumes the best approach to leadership is contingent on the situation.

������������� ������������� B.������������� Trait Theory

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� The trait theory stressed what the leader was like rather than what the leader did.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� Some traits do seem to stand out – dominance, intelligence, extroversion, and adjustment – but the differences are small.

������������� ������������� ������������� 3.������������� At best, traits may influence the
capacity to lead.

������������� ������������� C.������������� Basic Leadership Styles

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� Other studies have focused on the
basic leadership styles.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� The autocratic leader makes more decisions for the group.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� The laissez-faire leader allows people within the group to make all decisions.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� The democratic leader guides and encourages the group to make decisions.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� At first glance, the democratic style seems the most desirable, but the
evidence is unclear.

������������� ������������� D.������������� Ohio State Studies

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� The studies at Ohio State University were conducted to discover the behavior of successful leaders.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� These studies used the Leader
Behavior Description
Questionnaire (LBDQ,) a questionnaire designed to determine what a successful leader does, regardless of the type of group being led.

������������� ������������� ������������� 3.������������� Two leader behaviors appeared consistently.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� Consideration refers to the leader behavior of showing concern for individual group members and satisfying their needs.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� Initiating structure refers to the leader behavior of structuring the work of group members and directing the group toward the achievement of the group’s goals.

������������� ������������� E.������������� University of Michigan Studies

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� The Institute for Social Research of the University of Michigan conducted studies of group behavior at the
Prudential Insurance Company in Newark, New Jersey.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� They found that managers of high-producing work groups were more likely to:

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� receive general rather than close supervision from their superiors

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� like the amount of authority and responsibility they have in their job

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� spend more time in supervision

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� d.������������� give general rather than close supervision to their employees

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� e.������������� be employee-oriented rather than production-oriented

������������� ������������� ������������� 3.������������� Supervisors of low-producing work groups were production-oriented and gave close supervision.

������������� ������������� ������������� 4.������������� The Institute director, Rensis Likert, developed four styles of leadership:

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� System 1: exploitative

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� System 2: benevolent

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� System 3: consultative

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� d.������������� System 4: participative

������������� ������������� ������������� 5.������������� He concluded that System 4 was the most effective style of management.

PowerPoint 6-6

Framework for Classifying Leadership Studies

(Refers to text page 148)

bonus internet

exercise 6-2

Self-Assessment for
Leading as a Manager

An online self-assessment tool helps identify leadership strengths and weaknesses. See complete exercise on page 6.35 of this manual.

TEXT Figure 6.3

Framework for Classifying Leadership Studies

(Text page 148)

PowerPoint 6-7

Trait Theory

(Refers to text page 149)

critical thinking

exercise 6-1

Traits of Leaders

What traits are common to great leaders? See complete exercise on page 6.36 of this manual.

critical thinking

exercise 6-2

Leadership Situations

Different situations call for different leadership styles. This exercise asks students to identify specific situations. See complete exercise on page 6.37 of this manual.

TEXT Figure 6.4

Relationship Between Styles of Leadership and Group Members

(Text page 150)

PowerPoint 6-8

Ohio State Studies

(Refers to text pages 150-151)

PowerPoint 6-9

University of Michigan Studies

(Refers to text pages 151-153)


Changes in the Plastics Division (Text page 152)

Rusty Means is the general manager of the plastics division of Warner Manufacturing Company and has had great success in running his department. Rusty has an autocratic management style and the employees have responded well to his task-orientated operating style. Rusty’s direct boss has just retired and the new replacement, Wallace Thomas, wants to make changes. Thomas wants to develop a planning committee and bring employees into the decision-making process. Rusty is not sure how he will adapt to these changes, especially with the success he enjoys under the former arrangement with his general manager.

1.������������� What different styles of leadership are shown in this case?

Based on the comments, Ed Sullivan operated using a laissez-faire style in which he allowed people within the group to make all the decisions. He delegated decision-making power to Rusty Means. In turn, Rusty ran with an autocratic style of leadership where he made all the decisions for the group. Now, the newly hired general manager, Wallace Thomas, is trying to involve employees in the decision-making process using a democratic leadership style, which guides and encourages the group to make decisions.

2.������������� What style of leadership do you think Wallace will have to use with Rusty?

The management style Rusty has been using (autocratic) is in conflict with the approach Wallace would like to initiate (more democratic). This creates a difference in styles. Wallace has to decide whether he wants to impose the new autocratic style of management on Rusty or allow him to continue using the approach he has previously used. This question is a good discussion starter: is there one best leadership approach? Why or why not?

3.������������� Do you agree with Rusty? Why or why not?

Rusty has been successful using a task-orientated leadership approach. This style has been well accepted by the employees and the overall results have been positive. Rusty sees little value in changing his style of leadership. For these two individuals to operate successfully, Wallace might need to become more of a situational leader, analyzing what works in this situation. Wallace and Rusty will need to adjust their styles to some degree, analyzing the benefits and limitations of each method, and find some middle ground that allows them to work together for the good of the company and department.

4.������������� If “products are produced on schedule and of such quality that few customers complain,” why should there be any changes?

If the department is working well using Rusty’s autocratic approach, maybe a “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” mindset would be best. However, an autocratic style may be preventing employees from developing or suggesting improvements. Instead of trying to force Rusty to make major changes right away, maybe Wallace should spend some time meeting with Rusty, touring the department, asking questions, getting feedback, etc. Both Rusty and Wallace need to communicate more effectively.

������������� ������������� F.������������� The Managerial Grid

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� Robert Blake and Jane Mouton developed the Managerial Grid, a two-dimensional framework rating a leader on the basis of concern for people and concern for production.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� The identified five basic styles of

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� authority-obedience­ (9,1 position)

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� country club management (1,9 position)

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� team management (9,9 position)

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� d.������������� impoverished management (1,1 position)

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� e.������������� organization man management (5,5 position)

������������� ������������� ������������� 3.������������� The Managerial Grid is intended to help managers learn what their leadership style is and move toward a 9, 9 team management style.

������������� ������������� G.������������� Contingency Approach to Leadership

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� Research began to focus on the contingency approach to leadership, which theorizes that different situations and conditions require
different management approaches.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� An early style identified by Fred Fiedler focused on the match between the leader’s personality and the situation.

������������� ������������� ������������� 3.������������� He defined two basic leader personality traits.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� Task-motivated leaders gain
satisfaction from the performance of a task.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� Relationship-motivated leaders gain satisfaction from interpersonal relationships.

������������� ������������� ������������� 4.������������� The least preferred co-worker scale (LPC) was used to measure a person’s orientation.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� Relationship-motivated leaders were presumed to be motivated to have close interpersonal relations with others.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� Task-oriented leaders were
presumed to be motivated to
accomplish the task.

������������� ������������� ������������� 5.������������� Fiedler next developed a favorable-unfavorable continuum based on three major dimensions:

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� Leader-member relations refer to the degree others trust and respect the leader and to the leader’s friendliness.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� Task-structure is the degree to which job tasks are structured.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� Position power refers to the power and influence that go with a job.

������������� ������������� ������������� 6.������������� These dimensions are graphed in a complex eight-celled continuum.

������������� ������������� H.������������� Continuum of Leader Behaviors

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt identified three forces
involved in finding the most effective leadership style:

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� forces in the manager

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� forces in the subordinate

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� forces in the situation

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� They concluded that one style of leadership is not effective in all situations.

������������� ������������� I.������������� Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� The path-goal theory of leadership attempts to define the relationships between a leader’s
behavior and the subordinates’ performance and work activities.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� Leader behavior influences the motivation of subordinates when they see it as a step toward future satisfaction.

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� Behaviors can either increase or decrease employee expectancies.

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� In path-goal theory, there are four
basic leadership behavior types:

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� role classification leadership

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� supportive leadership

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� participative leadership

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� d.������������� autocratic leadership

������������� ������������� ������������� 3.������������� Each of these leadership behaviors results in different levels of performance and subordinate satisfaction.

������������� ������������� J.������������� Situational Leadership Theory

������������� ������������� ������������� 1.������������� According to the situational leadership theory, as the level of maturity of followers increases, structure should be reduced while
socio-emotional support should first
be increased and then gradually

������������� ������������� ������������� 2.������������� As followers progress from immaturity to maturity, the leader’s behavior should move from:

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� a.������������� high task-low relationships to →

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� b.������������� high task-high relationships to →

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� c.������������� low task-high relationships to →

������������� ������������� ������������� ������������� d.������������� low task-low relationships

TEXT Figure 6.5

The Managerial Grid

(Text page 154)

PowerPoint 6-10

The Managerial Grid

(Refers to text pages 153-154)


Career Management Box: Basics of Career Planning Objectives

A series of questions can help establish your career planning objectives. (Box in text on page 154.) An
additional exercise and discussion is available in this chapter on page 6.28.

Bonus Case 6-1

Leading in a Leaderless Company

The 21st century may be
unfriendly to leaders who try to run their companies through sheer force of will. See complete case, discussion questions, and suggested answers on page 6.39 of this manual.

TEXT Figure 6.6

Fiedler’s Classification of Situations

(Text page 155)

PowerPoint 6-11

Contingency Approach to Leadership

(Refers to text pages 154-155)

TEXT Figure 6.7

Leadership Style and Leadership Situations

(Text page 155)

TEXT Figure 6.8

Forces Affecting the Leadership Situation

(Text page 156)

TEXT Figure 6.9

Continuum of Leader

Behavior (Text page 156)

PowerPoint 6-12

Continuum of Leader

(Refers to text page 156)

PowerPoint 6-13

Path-Goal Theory of

(Refers to text pages 157-158)

TEXT Figure 6.10

Situational Leadership Theory

(Text page 158)

PowerPoint 6-14

Transactional, Transformational and Charismatic Leadership

(Refers to text pages 158-159)

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